Scientific calculator Ruler

Instructions
• •
o

Use black ink orball-point pen (hlacklblue). Fill in the boxes at the top of this page with your names and the date. Answer all questions (there-are 20 questions and 1 challenge/bonus questions). Answer the questions in the spaces provided - there may be mare space than you need.

IiI calculations you should-show all the steps in your working, giving yOUTanswer ~t each stage.

J.

Information
The total mark for this paper is 76 (+ 11 challenge I bonus marks). The marks for each question are shown in brackets - use this as a guide as to how much time to spend On each question. Questions labelled with an asterisk (*) before the number of the question, are ones where the quality of your written communication will be assessed - you should take particular care with spelling, punctuation and gramnwr,-as well as the clarity of expression, on these questions. Questions with an asterisk (*) after the number of the q_uestion are challenge questions. They are more searching and deeper and it is intended to challenge your knowledge and understanding of physics. They are bonus questions and you should attempt them only if you have time. The list of data, formulae and relationships i~ provided separately. You may use a scientific calculator. •


o

Advice

o

Read each question carefully before you start to answer it. Keep an eye on the time. Try to answer every question. Always check your answers.


s

I

Turn over

-2Questions 1 - 10: Choose the right answer from choices A, B, C or D.

i)

Which of the following provides evidence that light has a wave nature?

o
~

A The emission of light from an energy-level transition in a hydrogen atom. B The diffraction of light passing through a nan-ow opening. C The absorption of ultra-violet radiation in the photoelectric effect: D The reflection of light from a mirror .

o
o

.i) Interference
@
B C D

fringes are produced on a screen by illuminating a double slit with monochromatic light. Which one of the following changes would reduce the separation of these fringes? increasing the separation of the slits increasing the distance from the screen to the slits increasing the wavelength of the light increasing.the width of an individual slit

~

The diagram shows some of the electron energy levels for a mercury atom. -1.6

0

-

-

I
A

lIe
-

ID

A

tB

-5.5

Energy / eV

1

-lOA Which of the linesAto D, drawn on the diagram, would correspond to the emission of the photon with the shortest wavelength?

o

B

o o
~

C D

Which of the following statements about infrared radiation and ultraviolet radiation is true? ~ A An ultraviolet photon has more energy than an infrared photon. B Energy can be transferred by infrared radiation but not by ultraviolet radiation. C In a vacuum, infrared radiation travels faster than ultraviolet radiation. D Ultraviolet radiation has a longer wavelength than infrared radiation.

o o o

" ./3

-3-

s)

Which electromagnetic wave phenomenon white light falls on a diffraction grating? A coherence interference polarisation refraction

is needed to explain the spectrum

produced when

®
C
D

~

The diagram shows a view from above of a double slit interference demonstration. L is a monochromatic light source with a vertical filament. B is a barrier with two narrow vertical slits and S is a screen upon which interference fringes form.

*
L

r
I

I

B

S

The intensity is I at a-point on the screen where the centre of the fringe pattern forms. What is the intensity, at the same point, when one of the slits is covered up? A

-fi
graph shows waves?

I

I 2

c
relationship

2:fi
between photon energy

I

.f)
)

Which

the

E and wavelength
D

A of

electromagnetic

A E

Et
1 A

E/

-c

E

J/
o

A

.. .14

8)

-4Which piece of evidence about the photoelectric effect cannot be explained using a wave model? A B C Increasing toe intensity of the illumination increases the rate at which electrons are ejected. Shining ultraviolet radiation onto a zinc surface ejects electrons. Shining visible light onto a potassium surface ejects electrons. There is a threshold frequency below which no electrons are ejected from a metal surface.

®
<9}
/

White light falls on a photoelectric are moving when released.

surface causing the release of photoelectrons,

many of which

The threshold frequency for this surface is 5.3 x 1014 Hz (yellow light). Which statement is correct?

A
B

If a red filter is interposed, the number of photoelectrons to zero. If a violet filter is interposed, the number of photoelectrons

released per second will decrease released per second will increase.

If the light is focussed onto a small patch, the-electrons released will, on average, be moving more quickly~

o
j~

It takes a little whiiefor enough photoelectrons -are released.

energy

to accumulate

on the

surface

before

any

An electron of momentum Which graph
SP,0WS

p has a_corresponding de Broglie wavelength 'A.

the relationship between 'A and p?

'A

i

\

®
A

B

\-..;
p

00

°0
0

p

C
.~

'A

'A

p

p
(Total for Questions 1- 10 = 10 marks)

.. .15

-5A Young's slits arrangement is used to view interference patterns produced by blue light and then by red light. The slit separation and the distance between the slits and the screen is the same in both cases. In the spaces-below, draw the patterns that would be observed for the blue light and red light. The central fringe has been drawn for you in the blue light diagram.

I

blue light

red light
(2 marks)

(Total for Question 11 = 2 marks)

... /6

-6-

j~

This question is about a method of finding the wavelength of light from a sodium vapour lamp. (a) Yellow light from a sodium vapour lamp falls on a pair of narrow silts, as shown in Fig.fl..i.

sodium vapour lamp

(]

screen

Fig. 1:1.1
The light passes through the slits and a pattern of regularly spaced bright and dark lines, called fringes, is obtained on the screen beyond the slits. Using the idea of superposition (I) the dark lines in the pattern explain theexistence of

L
(ii) the bright lines in the pattern.

[:2]

... 17

-7(b) Fig.l.l.2 shows the central part of the fringe pattern produced on the screen beyond the slits.

6.6mm

Fig.IJ...2
(i) Calculate the spacing, in metres, between the bright fringes. spacing (ii)

=

J:.. :.t:.~.Q.~:: 1

m [1]

The separation of the slits is 0.40 mm -and the distance from the slits to the screen is

o.som.

Show that the wavelength of the light A, is about 600 nm.

[3] (c) One of the slits is now covered up. Describe and explain how the pattern of light on the screen now-differs from that shown in Fig.lk2.

[2] (Total for Question 12 = 8 marks)

.. ./8

-8j~
This question is about using a diffraction grating. (a) A. parallel beam of light of a single wavelength is incident on a diffraction grating as shown in Fig. 13:.1. '" circular path ~ telescope

I I

parallel beam of light of a single wavelength

'l
~
\

-----1
I

\

----

straight through direction

I I

grating
/

/

Fig.1~1.1
The different orders in the interference pattern produced are observed using a small telescope which can bemoved in a circular path around the grating. (i) The diffraction grating has 500 lines per mm. Show that the line spacing for this _grating is 2.0 x 10-6 m.

[1] (ii) The wavelength of the light is 66D nm. Calculate the angle () at which the first order maximum is observed. S~

r r

e :: 1 ~ ~(..() -ClW'... ~\(;)
S )_.0
.",r ~b- '"'~

() =
(iii)

\f:t.~

degrees [2]

Explain why only three orders are visible on either side of the central maximum in this arrangement.

s

[ll

.. ./9

-9(b) The experiment is repeated using a parallel beam of white light instead of light of a single wavelength. Nothing else is changed. The central and first order maxima in the interference pattern produced with the white light are represented in Fig. 13,.2._ red blue white blue red

first order maximum

central maximum Fig. 13.2

first order maximum

The central maximum is white in colour, but the first order maxima comprise all of the colours in the visible spectrum.

(i)

Explain why the blue in the first order spectrum is nearer to the central maximum than the red.

A~~

).~?

~ e...... ::. t.\.A
So

-:'1
(ii)

?- l.

-""'1

6..... ~
[2]

Explain why the central maximum is white.

(Total for Question 13

= 9 marks)

... /10

-10-

/~

In Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, a photon incident on a metal surface must
have at least a minimum energy to release an electron from the surface. This minimum energy is called the work function of the metal. A photocell generates an electric current using the photoelectric effect.

(a) An electron current is generated within the photocell shown in Fig. 1f.1 when photons of light
of wavelength 5.0 x 10-7 m are incident on the metal surface of the photocathode. incident light

photocathode

k-

~~~

----~

Fig. It-1
(i) Show that a single photon of this light has energy of about4 x 10-19J.

h = 6.6 x 10-34Js c = 3.0 x 108_m-s:::-i
(,. (. Y

lo-

>s.t

"'$;::w-

1-0 ~ \0 W'\.<;.

"IS'

-\

I

$-0 y lo-~""\.

[2]

(ii)

The power incident on the metal surface is 0.1 W. Show that about 2.5 x 1017 photons are incident on the photocathode every second.

v~~
k.
\A ~

-:::.

1t\.E.

.IcJ
:.

... ..

e.

?

6 -\\.V

k-o

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-

2's~

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[2]

...ll I

-11(iii) The electron current produced by the photons in the photocell is 1.2 mAo Show that only 3% of the photons incident on the photocathode contribute to the current in the circuit. charge on electron = 1.6 x 10-19 C produce electrons which

I
(iv)

1·t;')( \0

l:l.

S.

-I

)(

t·foY'tQ
.....

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'-

Y

"'\.

:::

\."2._....,t\o-

A

[3]

1

Suggest and explain one reason why the number of electrons released is much smaller than the number of photons incident on the metal surface.

[2]

1

(b) The source of light is replaced by a more powerful source of light of wavelength 7.0 x 10:-7 rn,
Even though the power incident on the metal surtace from this source is 1.0 W,no current is recorded. Without calculation, explain why there is no current generated in the photocell.

-:;;')

~~
\~~~

tJ..o
e,'<.,.

""o~ ~

~~L.....

~"\_

~

[2]

(Total for Question 14 = 11 marks)

.. ./12

-11(~ *(a) In a demonstration, ultraviolet light is incident on a zinc plate and electrons are emitted. The intensity of the ultraviolet light is increased. Explain the following observations: • • the number of electrons emitted per second increases the maximum kinetic energy of an electron does not change.
(4)

.... i~~~\~~ l

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~

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.

........... :k.

k.~ ~ ~~

x CQ.

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.....................................................................................................................................

(b) The table shows the work functions of four metals. Metal Aluminium
.............

Work function /10-19 J 6.53 3.36 2.30 6.88

............
"","""'-'"

Caesium Potassium Zinc

(i)

Determine which of these metals would emit.electrons when illuminated with visible light of frequency 5.88 x ro14 Hz.
(3)

..................................................~.~.. E.~\.~ ~ .6~.~J..Y.. ..\Q~.~
-\\

x

>.~.Yr..r.¥.: ..\Q~~.~~ ..

.

.......................................................................... ? } ~Q x. ~'O ?.

.......................................... .c~~~~ =? .. ~

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-/3(ii) The graphs show how the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electrons varies with the frequency of incident light for the four metals. Maximum kinetic energy I J

y 1Hz

Use the relationship hf = ~Izl11V2 + <p to explain the relative positions of the graphs and why they are all parallel.
(3)
.........................................................

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\

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.

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.

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.............. t·····l~····k.·····~~··~4.~···················· v..~'t:~ t;~ ~~

.

(iii) A school laboratory has a photoelectric cell for student use. The metal plate in the photoelectric cell is made of caesium and it can be used with a set of filters to obtain a graph similar to the one in (ii). Explain why the metal plate is made of caesium rather than zinc. (2)
...........~.~.~~~~ ~.~

~

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l5 = 12 marks)

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.

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.."'.. ....",=,...,"'='''''",~_,."."_,_.,~..",....,,''''''',==,,..'''''''''''

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(Total for Question

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-15 -

J_~

(a)

In an experiment to test the ideas of Louis de Broglie, a stream of electrons was aimed at a thin film of carbon atoms. The pattern of the electrons formed on a screen after the electrons had passed through the film is illustrated in Fig./6.1.

Fig./6.1
Describe how the results-of this experiment changed our understanding of the nature of the electron.

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"

I

.
.

........................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

[3]

(b) Calculate thede Broglie wavelength of an electron travelling with speed 2.8 x 107 m s-1.

wavelength

= .A:.~.Y.JQ

-\\
m [5}

(Total for Question 16

= 5 marks)

... /16

I~

The diagram shows the lowest three energy levels of a hydrogen atom.

-1.5 ---------

-3.4 ---------

Energy I eV

-13.6 --------

(a) Excited hydrogen atoms can emit light of wavelength 6.56 x 10-7 m. (i) Calculate the frequency of this light. (2)

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....... '

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A

;:.

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-,.,-

5.-\'

.

ll) -"+ IA\.

Frequency

=,+- ..~,$::r."x....\O..'It..".\~''''''' "
this photon. (2)

.." .."..".... ,

(ii) The energy of a photon of this frequency is 3.03 x 10-19 J. By means of a calculation determine which electron transition e~s
-'f(

",3.~,<?}"x,'Q,"""?""""""""~"""" t. Cob .",t \0 -\1'( '3 e"V-\

",1·"Kf{.JI-,V, """""""""'" """"""""""""",,"""""""""""

from " .."

",=..,\f?~v.."

................=..>.,:..~~,v.'."'.., to , J

..

(b) The spectrum of light from the Sun has a dark line at a wavelength of 656 nm. In the spectrum of light received from a distant galaxy, the corresponding line appears at a wavelength of 690 nm. Explain what the observation tells us-about-this galaxy. Do not include calculations m your answer. (2)

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-18Fig. 19:.1hows a pair of metal electrodes at either end of a glass tube filled with helium and neon s gases to form a laser which emits a beam of photons. metal anode metal cathode

I

I

glass tube

/

\

__ .;:I:..._~I_-I"'- beam

helium-neon mixture

\

i

of photons

Fig.1g.1 (a) When an external power supply is connected, electrons are accelerated from the cathode to
the anode by a uniform electric field. . . . .

Fig. t'.2 shows some of the energy levels of electrons in helium and neon atoms. helium neon

-=2.00l
energy

/10::-18 J -2.25

------2.14
I

1

-2.50·~ -2.75~ -3.00J -3.25~ -3.50\ -3.46
ground state of neon

_j__
ground state of helium

-2.61

-2.92

-4.00Fig.1~L2

__

_t_/ __

-3.93

~------------.----------------,------------------------I--------f----,

..... ....119 ------ .. --~

-19(b)

(i)

Helium atoms can be raised from their ground state to the excited state at -2.14 x 10-18 J when theycoiiide with the accelerated electrons. Calculate the minimum kinetic energy of the electrons for this to happen.

2·V~ -

C-1- t\:~)

kinetic energy (ii)

=

l:.?h..X.JO

-\1j(3

J [1]

Helium atoms usually stay in their excited state long enough -tor them to collide with a neon atom in its ground state. Show that this can raise the neon-atoms to their excited state at -2.61 x 10-18 J.
I

\.~-z.~ \0

-\( -

>

/

[1]
(c) The helium-neon laser of Fig. 1&1 normally emits large numbers of identical photons in the red region of tha.spectrurn, with a wavelength of 633nm.

(i)

Calculate the energy of these photons.

h =-6.6 x 10-34 J s

". ~ ~

\t) -"J "t

-s... ~ >-0 ~
\~ -, "e>\..

l() So""''if "'fA

" ">1. »«

energy (ii)

= .Q.~1:.L..-,..(..JQ .

-\~

J [3]

Draw an arrowediine on Fig. 18..2 to show the transition between the two energy levels which gives rise to these photons. [1]

(d)

All of the energy leveis- shown in Fig. 1&.2 are negative. This means that the electrons are bound and cannot escape from the attraction of the nucleus. Use the wave properties of electrons to explain why they can only have a few discrete values of energy rather than any value.

e I> oo:
"~\' ~

s\-d.. ~
~~

......, ~

.so

[3]

(Total for Question 18 - 9 marks)

... 120

-20-

j~

This question is about inelastic scattering of electrons from atoms. glass electron

cathode

I

o

.~

o
grid

.~
CD

o

collector

mercury atom '----v-a-ri+-ablevo~age+s-ui-p-p-ly-___J__-----:-1+

(c ~ ~
3V

1111----___j
not to scale

Fig.1f·1
The sealed glass tube of Fig. 19.1 contains a low pressure gas of mercury atoms. Electrons released from the cathode are accelerated towards the-grid by the variable potential difference V. There are many collisions (elastic or inelastic) between these electrons and mercury atoms. Some electrons have enough energy at the grid to reach the collector and-provide a.current in the ammeter.

cathode

collector

I

:grid
I

L-----...l-

-

6V

+ -+--------'-----,-\
+-l

I-3V

I

___j

variable voltage supply

not to scale

Fig. 17.2
Fig. 1Y:.2 shows the tube when the variable voltage Vis set to 6V.

.. .121

-21The apparatus can be used as follows to provide evidence that the first energy level of a mercury atom is 5 eV above its ground state. The voltage V between grid and cathode is steadily increased from OV to 8V. The ammeter current, showing how many electrons have enough energy to reach the collector: .. .. .. .. remains-zero until V= 3V rises steadily as V goes from 3V to 5V drops rapidly when V reaches 5V increases again as V goes from 5V to 8V.

Explain these observations by considering the change of kinetic energ¥_of-the electrons as they pass from the cathode through the grid to the collector.

L

(

~...... ~

~~

'-......_ ...."'>"- E....__ ""

~,,-

~

~! ~ \.-, ... .......,. ~ \\",,,,-, ... ... ...._ ~
~~ 40--\;\......~~ ~~
c.&\Y"'~

I
(""~~)
~\<.

i

S

I

v-

~
(Total for Question 19 = 4 marks)

e.\~ ~,,"k

~.,.~k.

\.c.

oN.J\: ~~"

.. .122

- 22.t9"*ThiS question is about modelling electron waves in long chain molecules.

A carotene molecule C4oH56 is about 2nm in length. Electrons form standing waves along the whole length of the molecule. Fig.! 0.1 (a) shows the standing wave for the lowest energy level (n = 1) wave. Fig._:to.1 (b) shows a representation of the carotene molecule.

I
2nm

Carotene molecule (schematic)

--

_ . n=1

about 2 nm long Fig.1b.1·(b)

Fig.1().1 (a) (a) (i) State the wavelength of the electron at the n wavelength (ii) On Fig.

= 1 energy =

level.

1:~

m [1]

to.1

(a) draw the wave representing an electron at the next energy level,

n = 2.

[1]

(b) The wavelength kcf the electron wave is given by A where

= _j}_ mv
h is the Planck-constant
m is the mass of electron v is the velocity of electron.

Show that the kinetic energy

Ek of a non-relativistic electron with wavelength A is given by

E _ _jj_ k _ 2m).,2·

[2]

.. .123

- 23(c) Explain, without calculation, why the kinetic energy of the electron at the n times that of an electron at the n = 1 state.

=

2 state is four

[2]

(d) 0)

Show that the energy required when an electron is promoted-from state, is about 5 x 10-20 J.

the

n =1 to the n = 2

h =6.6xlO-34Js me = 9.1 x 10-31 kg

'" = 1...:

E.~,-:: b_'- (~ \
2~

\;t,')

~~"-':-~ I ~ \ ':1.."" \.

A, )

ll.·~)< --""rS·
\0

z »«: 1-\ ')( \0'"" ~~
\0 -"2." '":5
[2]

::.
(ll)

~. Jt-"c

Using relevant calculations, explain whether or not carotene molecules can absorb visible light by promoting eleetrons from the n = 1 level.

[3]

(Total for Question 20*
r •

= 11 marks)

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