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Dxo\lk clhdf

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lksfs
lkygf

cd[tf dxh{g
g];+ !!#@

;jf{lwsf/
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M Dxo\lk clhdf
M Gx" lx;' k'rM, on
M g];+ !!#@
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ISBN

: 978-9937-8013-6-2

d'b|0f

M

lqe'jg ljZjljBfno

dfgljsL tyf ;fdflhs zf:q ;+sfo

g]kfnefiff s]Gb|Lo ljefu
do\h' cd[tfoft cfkfn+ cfkf le+tg' f
g]kfnefiff s]Gb|Lo ljefu g]jfMhfltof efiff, ;flxTo, ;+:s[lt
;DjlGw pRr cWoog h'Ou' lqe'jg ljZjljBfnocGtu{tof 5u" s]Gb|Lo
ljefu vM . Yj ljefuof cfHh' :gftsf]Q/ sIff ;+rfng ofo\u' hs
dh";] g]jfMhfltof Dx;Lsf h'ofRj+u' efiff, ;flxTo, ;+:s[lt cflbof
;+/If0f ;+Dj4{g ofo\u' g+ vM . Yjx] sy+ ljefu+ yMu' kf7\oqmdof g+ lgdf{0f
ofo\u' Hof ofMu' b' . yHofu' x] ;Gbe{o\ g]kfnefiff s]Gb|Lo ljefuo\
ljBfyL{ cd[tf dxh{gkfv]+ g]jfM hghLjggfk+ clts+ :jfk" b'u' Dxo\lk
clhdfof af/] cWoog ofgfM Dxo\lk clhdf gf+u' u|Gy Rjo\u' Hof u'u'
ofgflbn . Yj g]kfnefiff s]Gb|Lo ljefuof lg+lt+ n;tfof vF vM . Yj
;km"of Gxfkf+u' Bfo\ Dxo\lk clhdfof P]ltxfl;s kl/ro sy+ Dxo\lk
clhdfof cjl:yt yfo\, zAbof Ao"TklQ, cy{of k|frLgtf, b]uMof ef}lts
:j?k cflb laofbLu' b';f lgu"u' Bfo\ zfQm af}4 tyf d]du] ' ;Dk|bfo b'g]
Dxo\lk clhdfof yfo\ dxQf, :j+uu" ' Bfo\ Dxo\lk clhdfof ;f+:s[lts
kIfsy+ Dxo\lk clhdfof bFob\ ;+ Gofo\sLu' hfqfof kl/ro laofbLu' b' .
cy] x] Ko+uu" ' Bfo\ Dxo\lk BMof k'hf k/Dk/f GXoAjofbLu' b' .
y'sy+ g]jfMhfltof lg+lt+ clts+ dxTj+hfMu' ;f+:s[lts wfld{s
ljifo h'ofRj+uo' ft ;km"of ?k laofM cGwsf/of ue{o\ ;'nfRj+u' emLu' ;+:s[ltoft
u'u' lktxo\u' Hof do\h' cd[tf+ ofgflbn, Yj clts+ ljefuof lg+lt+ cem ;d:t
g]jfMhfltof lg+lt+ x] n;tfof vF vM . g]kfnefiff s]Gb|Lo ljefu+ do\h' cd[tf+
Yj Dxo\lk clhdf ;km" ljefuoft b]5fMu' u'? blIf0ff tfo\su" ' b' . cfzf b',
cd[tf y]+ HoMDx hf]z hfFu/ b'Dx do\hk' fv]+ xfg+ xfg+ yHofMu' zf]wd"ns ;km"
lkygLltlg Yjx] jo\sMoft le+tg' f . gfk+ Ogfk g+ . ;'efo\ .
k|d
] zflGt t'nfw/
k|dv
'
g]kfnefiff s]Gb|Lo ljefu

;'efo\ kf}
g]jfMhfltof Dx;Lsf h'ofRj+u' efiff, ;flxTo, ;+:s[lt cflb 5'+ g+
ljifo; zf]w Hof ofsfM g]jfMhfltof ;+/If0f, ;+j4{g ofo\u' cfHh' tofM
yM k'Ho df+ca'lklgu' gfd+ do\h' ph]nL 8+uf]n+ ;Tox]/f l;/kfM u'u'
:jgflbn Yj yMu' hfltk|lt uj{ ofOlk+ ;sn g]jfMto\u' lg+lt+ uj{of vF vM,
k|/] 0ffof k|lts vM . Yj ;Tox]/f l;/kfMof 5u" cfHh' g]jfMhfltof Dx;Lsf
GXoAjOu' ;f+:s[lts dxQf+hfMu' ;km" g+ k|sfzg ofo\u' vM . yHofMu'
cfHh'oft tfMnfs]u' Hofo\ do\h' cd[tfof Ujfxfln Rj5fo\axM h" .
jo\sn+ clt d]xg] t ofgfM Dxo\lk clhdf;DjlGw ofgfbLu' z]fw Hofoft
;km"of ?k aLu' Hof ofgflbn . yHofMu' b'Uo+u' ;f+:s[lts, wfld{s dxQf+hfMu'
;km"oft ;Tox]/f l;/kfM sf]if+ BM5fo\y+] h";f+ lemåM tsf hs bfF -?
!))))÷–_ laofM g+ Dxo\lk clhdf ;km" lkbg . Yj jo\sMof df+efo\kl| tof
dltgf tyf d]xg] tof k|ltkmn vM . yy] jo\sMof Dxo\lk clhdf ;k"m lkb+u'
;Tox]/f l;/kfM ;ldltof lg+lt+ clt xif{of vF vM . cfzf b', jo\sMkfv]+
;Tox]/f l;/kfM ;ldltof lg+lt+ lnkf g+ yHofu' x] Ujfxfln j en;f bO .
cGto\ ;km" lkb+u' n;tfo\ jo\sMoft le+tg' f gfk+ ;'efo\ g+ .

k|d
] zflGt t'nfw/
cWoIf
;Tox]/f l;/kfM ;ldlt
!!#@ rf}nfufM $

dGtJo

le+tg' f b]5f

do\h' cd[tf dxh{g+ RjofbLu' Dxo\lk clhdf ;km" afFnfSs :jof .
yMu' :gftsf]Q/of lglD+t RjofbLu' y]l;;oft cem kl/dfh{g ofgf jo\sn+
y'u' ;km" RjofbLu' vM . zfQmk/Dk/fof gfk+ af}4to\;+ g+ s"n b]jtfof
?ko\ dfgo\ ofgfRj+Dx Dxo\lk clhdfof af/] af+nfMu' 5'+ g+ ;km" dbofRj+u'
cj:yfo\ do\h' cd[tfof y'u' ;k'mlt+ oSsf] Ajgfldto\t 5u" :t/Lo
;fdfu|L k|fKt h'O w}u' lh+ cfzf sofu' b' . Dxo\lkof zflAbs cy{ j
k|frLgtfof gfk+ wfld{s ;lxi0f'tfof k|tLsof ?ko\ pDx clhdfof lj:t[t
ljj/0f jo\sn+ laofbLu' b' . t+nfl5of Dxo\lk BM5]Fof g+ afFnfSs
kl/ro laof r}q z'Snof qof]bzLlg;]+ k'GxL ts tMlhs Gofo\sLu' Dxo\lk
clhdfof hfqfof ljlw ljwfgof gfk+ plsofu' ;fF:s[lts dxTjof af/] g+
Rjld+ afFnfSs ljZn]if0f ofgfbLu' b' . >f]t ;fdfu|Lof ?ko\ kfb l6Kk0fL
tofM lnwF;fof wnM g+ laoftMu'ln+ y'u' ;km" cg';Gwfg ofOlkGt t;s+ x]
pkof]uL h'Ou' lh+ ljZjf; ofgfu' b' . Dxo\lk clhdf b'g] b'lk+ yLyL BMto\u'
af/] g+ kl/ro laofM Rjld+ Dxo\lk clhdfof af/] lj:t[t hfgsf/L aLu'
s'tM ofgfbLu' b' . gfk+ kl/lzi6of ?ko\ Dxo\lk :yfgo\ Rj+u' lznfn]vof
kf7 g+ laofbLu'ln+ y'u' ;km" lnkf cg';Gwfg ofOlkGt t;s+ pkof]uL h'Ou'
kSsf b' . yHofu' ultnfMu' ;km" RjofbLDx do\h' cd[tfoft oSsf] oSsf]
;'efo\ . y'ls+ d]du] ' If]qo\ g+ cg';Gwfg ofo\u' nF jo\sMoft r"nfo\df wsfM
cfzf ofgf Rjgf .

g]kfM b'g] zlQm kL7 oSj b' . zfQm kL7oft af}4dfuL{lkG;+ g+ pln
x] ;dfg?k+ softMu' b' . y'u' cy{o\ ls g]kfnof 5u" x] yfo\,, 5Dx x] BMoft
yMyMu' bz{gsy+ gfnfM sfo\u' ofgfM jofRj+u' b' . y'lsof afFnfMu' b;'of
?ko\ Dxo\lk kL7 vM .
Dxo\lk BMoft ci6dft[sf kL7t dWo] d"n kL7of ?ko\ softMu'
b' . af}4 wd{sy+ g+ Dxo\lkoft Ko+u" kL7dWo] cfTdkL7 b'g] nfMu' dxTjk"0f{
j tMw+u' kL7of ?ko\ softMu' b' . jh|ofgLlklg jh|ofg tGqo\ rqm;+j/,
of]ufDj/ tGqo\ of]ufDj/sy+ d"n kL7 of]ufDj/ 1fg8flsgL, cDj/
1fgof ?ko\ softMu' b' . y'ln dxTj+ hfMu' zfQm j af}4to\ zlQmof s]Gb|
h'ofRj+u' yfo\oft k|rf/o\ xo\u' sy+ ;km" lkygfbLTo+ul' n+ Gxfkf+ ;'efo\ aL .
y'u' yfo\ wfld{s b[li6sf]0f+ t;s+ dxTj b' . bFob\ ;+ h'Ou' g]kfMof
bsn] txfsMu' a'u+ BM hfqfof d"lt{ bo\st] lem+lgbFo\ 5sM y'u' x] Dxo\lk
å+of rf 5\onL . ug+ g+ ci6dft[sf b]jLlklgu' d"lt{ bo\st] , lsk"of
jf3e}/j bo\st] , u'ln g+ tflGqs d"lt{t b' plk+ bo\st] y'u' x] yfo\of rf
o+sfM bo\s]u' ofO . y'ln dxTjk"0f{ yfo\ h";f+ g+ Dxo\lkof af/] Dxf]
dg"to\;+ x] hs cWoog cg';Gwfg ofgfM jofRj+u'nL do\h' cd[tf
dxh{g+ Dxo\lkof ;+:s[ltoft sofM zf]w ofgfM ;km"of ?ko\ lkygfbLu'
t;s+ n;tfof vF vM . y'sy+ x] d]du] ' cWoog g+ GXofs] kmo\df wsfM
le+tg' f b]5fgfRjgf .

k|f= 8f= lq/Tg dfgGw/
pks'nklt, n'lDagL af}4 ljZj ljBfno
g];+ !!#@ rf}nfuf @

ljsf;/Tg jh|frfo{
cWoIf, g]kfn af}4 ;+:s[lt ;+/If0f s]Gb|
g];+ !!#@ rf}nfuf $

s[t1tf
le+tg' f
g]kfM jx'efiff, jx'hflt, jx'wd{ b'u' b] h";f+ uan]+ wd{of gfd+
Njfk' db'u' wfld{s ;lxi0f'tfof b] g+ vM . dg"l;a]+ BM cKjMu' y'u' b]of dWo
efu wfTy]+ wfo\u' vM;f 5u" v'Nnf ;+ux| fno vM . psL dWo] o]F b]of pQ/
nfufo\ nfMu' Dxo\lk lxGb" j af}4 wdf{jnDjLlklgu' cf:yfof s]Gb| vM .
af}4 wd{ sy+ Ko+u" kL7 cfTdkL7, k/kL7, of]lugL kL7 j u'XokL7 dWo]
cfTdkL7 sy+ softMu' b' . cfTdkL7 b'g] g+ jfsrqm d08n sy+ softMu'
b' . af}4 wd{o\ *$ l;4lk+;+ zlQm cf/fwgf ofgfM j+u' yfo\oft kL7of ?ko\
sfo\u' ofO . cy] x] zflGts/frfo{of sfo\of ?ko\ af]lw;Tj s?0ffdo gfk
:jfk" b'u' yfo\ gfk+ lxGb" jf zfQm wd{ sy+ rfd'08f, dfx]Zj/L b]jLof sy+
gfnfM softMu' t;s+ kljq j dxTjk"0f{ s]Gb| Dxo\lkof ljifono\ lhld
ljBfyL{ cd[tf dxh{g+ ;km"of ?ko\ lkygfbLu'ln+ t;s+ x] no\tfM .
y'sy+ x] g]kfMof wd{ ;+:s[ltof ljifono\ cWoog cg';Gwfg ofgf
GXoAjo] kmo\dfM w}u' sfdgf ofo] .

pkk|f= jh|dl' g jh|frfo{
kf6g ;+oQ
' m SofkDk;,
lqe'jg ljZjljBfno

g]kfnefiff s]Gb|Lo ljefuof g]kfnefiff :gftsf]Q/ tlu+ lgu"u' bF,
Rofu"u' kqof kf7\oqmd k"js
+ o] f lglt+ Dxo\lkof ;fF:s[lts cWoog ofgfu'
vM . lnR5ljsfnof clen]vo\ Dx;lk|Ë u|fd wsfM pNn]v h'ofRj+u' yfo\
o]F nfo\so" f pQ/ lbzfo\ Rj+u' wfld{s :yn Dxo\lk vM . yy] Gxfkf+ lg;]+ x]
cl:tTjo\ b'u' yfo\of af/] afFnfs cWoog h'u' db' . pls+ Dxo\lkof af/]
cg';Gwfgof cfjZostf dx;'; ofgfM y'u' yfo\of af/] zf]w ofgfu' vM . Yj
Dxo\lk clhdfof yfo\ blR5o+s h'Ou' ;fF:s[lts ultljlwoft cWoog
ofgfM qmdj4 ?ko\ GXoAjo\u' s'tM ofgfu' vM . Yj Dxo\lk clhdf ;km"
Yj x] zf]wof kl/dflh{t ?k vM .
Yj ljifoo\ cg';Gwfg ofo\t :jLs[lt laof Hof ofo\u' cj;/
laofbLu'ln+ lh+ g]kfnefiff s]Gb|Lo ljefu j ljefuLo k|dv
' do\h' k|d
] zflGt
t'nfw/k|lt cfkfn+ s[t1tf Kj+sfRjgf . YJf zf]w kq k"js
+ t] lgb]z
{ g
ofgfbLDx u'? >L jh|dl' g jh|frfo{hk' l| t cfkfn+ cfkfM ;'efo\ b]5fgf
Rjgf . y'u' Hof ofo\u' ‰jno\ lhtM UJfxfln ofgfbLDx Dxo\lk clhdfof
d"n k'hf/L >L ljsf;/Tg jh|frfo{ho' ft g+ oSj ;'efo\ laofRjgf .
zf]wof qmdo\ bQ u'lyof Yof;km" pknJw ofgfbLDx ljdn tfd|fsfoft g+
;'efo\ b]5fgf Rjgf . cn] Yf'u' cWoogof qmdo\ vg]bo\s+ dbo\s Ujfxfln
ofgfbLlk+ g]kfnefiff s]Gb|Lo ljefuof u'?lk+t g+ ;'efo\ b]5fgf Rjgf .
lhtM yLyL Ono\ xkfM laof, ltjM laofbLlk+ kf;flk+t g++ b'gu' n+lg;]+ ;'efo\ .
y'u' zf]wof afXo kl/Ifs k|f=8f= lq/Tg dfgGw/h'oft g+ cfkfn+
;'efo\ . Yj ;km" lkyg]t xfsg+ bf]x/] ofgf :jof laofbLlk+ u'?lk+kl| t cfef/
h'ofRjgf . cn] y'u' ;km"of lg+lt+ clen]v 5fkf sofM Ujfxfln ofgfbLDx
u'? hLjgs'df/ dxh{goft g+ ;'efo\ . sDKo'6/ 6fOk ofgf Ujfxfln ofgf
Ao"Dx ttf ;'zLnf dxh{goft g+ ;'efo\ . y'u' zf]woft ;km"of ?ko\ lkyg]u'
efnf sofbLDx Gx" lx;' k'rMof gfoM efh' /flhtaxfb'/ >]i7oft g+ ;'efo\ . cy]
x] y'u' ;km" k|sfzgof lglDt+ cfly{s Ujxfln ofgf Ao"Dx ;Tox]/f l;/kfM
;ldltk|lt xflb{s s[t1tf Kj+sfRjgf . ;'efo\ .
cd[tf dxh{g, a'yM, o]F .

wnM kf}
ljifo

kf}NofM

!= Dxo\lkof P]ltxfl;s Dx;Lsf
Dxo\lk yfo\of Dx;Lsf
Dx]olkof zflAbs cy{
Dxo\lk clhdfof k|frLgtf
wfld{s ;lxi0f'tfof ?ko\ Dxo\lk
kL7 :yfkgf
Dxo\lk b]uMof ef}lts :j?k
Dxo\lk BM5]o+ f kl/ro
yLyL yfo\of Dxo\lk

!–!@
!
@
#
%
%
&
!)
!@

@= Dxo\lk ;DalGw ljleGg wfld{s dt
zfQm wd{o\ Dxo\lkof yfo\
af}4 wd{o\ Dxo\lkof yfo\
Dxo\lkof d]du] ' wfld{s :yngfk :jfk"
Dxo\lkof s?0ffdogfk ;DaGw

!#–@@
!#
!^
@)
@@

#= Dxo\lk BMof ;fF:s[lts kIf
Dxo\lk clhdfof bFo\ bF;+ Gofo\sLu' vM hfqf
:jfF5f k"hf -a}zfv z'Sn k'l0f{df_

@#–#%
@#
#$

$= Dxo\lk BMof k"hf k/Dk/f
b}lgs k"hf
dfl;s k"hf
kj{ k"hf
d]du] ' k"hf

#^–$*
#^
#*
#(
$)

pk;+xf/
zAbfjnL
kl/lZfi6
lnwF;f

Dxo\lkof zflAbs cy{

!= Dxo\lkof P]ltxfl;s Dx;Lsf

Dxl:k|Ë …Dx;Ú j …lk|ËÚ ldn] h'of vFUjM lgdf{0f h'ofRj+u' b' . …Dx;Ú
w}u' g]jfM vFUjM vM, y'lsof cy{ …DxoÚ\ h'O . …lk|ËÚof g]kfnefiffo\ 5'+ cy{ db' . efiff
j}1flgs lkG;+ …lk|ËÚ vFUjM ls/fFtsflng vM woftMu' b' . dfvf]kª[ , lvk'ª,
vf]lk|Ë, k'7lk|ª …lk|ËÚ vFUjM :jfgfMRj+u' b' . lnR5jLsflng clen]vo\ yfo\of
gf+do\ …lk|ËÚ vg]b' . Dxl:k|Ë vFUjM HonfM Dxo\lk h"ju+ ' vM . ;fdfGo sy+ yf}s
+ Gxo\
Dxo\lk w}u' Dxo\ Rj+u' kL7 wsfM wfo\u' ofM . …lk|ËÚof kL7 h"u' g+ wfO . Dxo\
gfdjfrs clws/0f sf/s j kL7of cke|;
+ kfv]+ Dxo\lk h"ju+ ' vM .
Aff}4 wd{of jh|ofgL ;Dk|bfolklg Ko+u" kL7 dWo\ 5u" kL7 vM .
Yjx] sy+ gf+ Rj+Uf' wsfM g+ wfO . Ko+u" kL7 w}u' cfTdkL7, k/kL7, of]lugL
kL7 ,u'Xo kL7 vM . Dxo\lkoft cfTdkL7 wfo\u' ofM . Dxof cy{ cfTd dh';]
z/L/ vM . emLu' zl//of sy+ x] sfo, jfs j lrQ wsfM rqmd08n
bo\sftMu' b' . y'sL g+ Dxo\lk jfs rqm d08no\ nfM .

lskf M ! Dxo\lk å+of b[Zo
Dxo\lk yfo\of Dx;Lsf

hg>'lt cg';f/ zflGts/ cfrfo{h'+ :joDe' Hof]lt:j?koft
Tjk'of wd{wft' r}To bo\sf k|lt:yf sd{ w's
+ fM zflGtk'/ bo\sn . yM
zflGtk'/o\ Rjgf lGxlGx of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/Lof lgTok"hf ofOu' h'ofRjg .
5Gx' yDx+ xf]; dbo\s yM sfo\ No"No" jgL . lgTok"hf ;DkGg h'Oj+ >L
of]ufDj/+ zflGts/oft wofM ljHoft– æ5+ ofgf jofRj+u' elQmefj+ lh clt
k|;Gg h'n . yf}l+ g;]+ lgTok"hf ofo\ Djfn . yf}l+ g;]+ 5+ ;sn k|f0fLlk+ sNof0f h'Ou'
Hof ofM . ;sn k|f0fL p4f/ ofo\of lgldQ 5+s] Rj+u' lk|o j:t' lht laO km'nf .Æ

Dxo\lk o]F nfo\so" f pQ/ lbzfo\ Rj+u' wfld{s :yn vM . yf}s
+ Gxo\
sf=d=g=kf= j8f g+ !^ of b'g] nfgf Rj+u' vM . klZrdo\ lji0f'dlt v'l;,
k"j{o\ ;fdfv'l; jhf/, pQ/o\ ;fdfv'l; kmfF6 j blIf0fo\ ksgfhf]n+
5rfMln+ 3]/] ofgftMu' yfo\ vM . ksgfhf]n+ afnfh' jg]u' nFkO' lji0f'dlt
tfF k'nG] x\of] hjo\ gfgs d7 gfk+ Rj+u' uM jf h+un x] Dxo\lk-lskf M !_
vM . Yj Gxfkf k'nf+u' j:tL :jof tfkfs Rj+u' dgf]/d :yn vM . y'u' Dxo\lk
nfufof If]qkmn @)@@ ;fnofu' gflk cg';f/ sf=d=g=kf= @) s, lsQf
g+= @& If]qkmn @(–(– @–) h'ofRj+u' v;f @)^) ;fno\ cfK6«f gf+ofu'
;+:yf+ ofMu' gflk cg';f/ cfjof @=$* x]S6/ hUuf b'u' SogftMu' vM .

yy] wof of]ufDj/+ ;To jfrf Nxfs] w's
+ f 5+u' No"g] bMgfRj+Dx
drf af]lw;Tj lht nMNxf wsfM cf1f h'of ljHoft . >L of]ufDj/ofu'
ph+ Gogf zflGts/ clts+ no\tfof yM No"g] Rj+u' a:t' w}u' YfM ofs sfo\
h'ofRjgL . zflGts/+ clts+ efUodflg tfo\sf yM sfo\oft– æ5 wGo h'n
yf}l+ g;]+ 5 k|fl0flk+ p4f/of lgldQ 5Gt lh+ >L of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/Loft
;dk{0f ofgf RjgfÆ wsfM yM sfo\oft >L of]ufDj/of r/0fo\ ;dk{0f ofu'
h'n .!

!

@

1

t/ :joDe" k"/f0fo\ Yj alnof k|;u+ wfM;f db' .

of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/L+ pDx jf]lw;Tj drfoft– æ5 g/rf]nf Tjtf
ef/tof sfdf? sfdfIfo\ oIfs'no\ /fhf zlz j /fgL dfofof sf]v+ hGd
h'of k|fl0f p4f/ ofo\u' Hof ofMÆ wsfM cf1f h'of ljHoft . cn] pDx
afnsofu' zl//oft yDx+ cfzg ofgf Rjgf laHoft . pls+ y'u' /
TgkL7oft DxM; kL7 wsfM wfo\u' h'ofj+u' vM . Yj x] DxM; kL7 lnkf
cke|;
+ h'of DxM;lk|ª, cn] Dxo\lk h'n w}u' Oltxf;sf/lklg wfk' vM .
Yjx] sy+ u'0fsfdb]jof sfo\ g/]Gb«bj] of kfno\ zflGts/frfo{of
lzio aGw'bQof kfv]+ s?0ffdo g]kfno\ xo\u' Hof h'n .
Dxo\lk clhdfof k|frLgtf
g]kfMof Oltxf;o\ k|f/lDes >f]tsy+ clen]v gfk+ Gxfkf+ vg]bD' x
h'h' dfgb]j Gofu"u' ztflAb ofDx vM . Yjx] h'h' dfgb]jof Ono\ kz'ktL
b]pkf6go\ /Tg;+3+ to\su" ' ;Djt #(( of lznfn]vo\ æDxl:k|ª u|fdÆ
pNn]v h'ofRj+u' vg]b' .2 bsn] Gxfkf+ æDxl:k|ª u|fd k|bz
] Æ wsfM pNn]v
h'ofRj+u' lnR5ljsfnof :oNnfu' k|df0f vM . yg+ lnkf æDxl:k|ªÆ vFUjM h'h'
j;Gtb]jof clen]vo\ vg]bt .3 gS;fn gf/fo0f rf}/o\ Rj+u' clen]vo\
æDxlk|ªÆ RjoftMu' b' .4 Yj lgu" clen]vof sfnfGt/ kfM ano\ æDxl:k|ªÆ
vFUjM æDxlk|ªÆ h'n . cy] x] clen]v Ajg] ano\ Yj yfo\ Gxfkf+u' Ono\ u|fd
j lnkf b«Ë h'ofRj+u' b' . lnR5ljsflng clen]v ;km"of sy+ æb«ËÆ w}u' zx/
ljz]ifof gf+ RjoftMu' b' .5 æDxl:k|ªÆ vFUjM g+ æDxlk|ªÆ h'ofj+ y]+ x] t'+
æDxlk|ªÆ vFUjMg+ æDxo\lkÆ h'of jg . y'ls+ Dxo\lk u|fd+ b«Ëof ?ko\ ljsl;t
h'ofRj+u' vg]b' .

efiffljz]if1, Oltxf;sf/lklgu' wfk"sy+ Yj æDxlk|ªÆ ls/fFtL
efiffof vFUjM vM . uy]ls vf]lk|Ë, x'l:k|ª, xf/fu'ª, lvk'ª, z'NDx'ª, nf]lk|ª,
k'7lk|ª, kmjb«ª, cflb vFUjMt ls/fFtsflng efiffof vFUjM vM . pls+ YJf
yfo\oft Dxl:k|ª gfd+ pNn]v ofgftMu'ln+ ls/Fftsfno\ x] Yj yfo\of
ljsf; h'O w's
+ u" ' vF ;Lb' .6
Yj 5u" cflbsfn+lg;]+ x] lg/Gt/ ?k+ h+unof ?k sofMRj+u' yfo\
vM . g]jfM efif+ y'lsoft 5u" æuMÆof gf+ laoftMu' b' . uy]ls :o+u' -:joDe"_
h+unoft :o+uu' M, ;'Dkfåf]F h+unoft ;'DkfuM, kf]kf{åf]F h+unoft kf]kf{uM,
cy] x] Yj Dx]lkåf]F h+unoft Dx]lkuM wfOu' vM .7 Dxo\lk yfo\of gfd+ x]
y'Dx BMof gf+ Dxo\lk clhdf h"ju+ ' vM .
Dxo\lk hf]ufDj/ clhdfof k|rLgtf af/] :joDe" k"/f0f j g]kfno\
a'u+ dnf]sZ] j/ ljHofs'u' P]ltxfl;s afv+go\ g+ Dxo\lk clhdfof vF :jfgfRj+u'
b' . :joDe"of zflGtk'/o\ l;4 h'of ljHofDx zflGts/frfo{ Dxo\lk kL7o\
lgjf; h'ofRj+u' vF afv+go\ pNn]v b' .8 slno'uo\ dg"to\;+ :joDe"
Hof]lt ?k :o+sL wsfM r}To bo\sfM TjMk'of Ao"Dx zflGts/frfo{ vM .9
y'ls+ Dxo\lk yfo\ clt k|frLg w}u' cg'dfg ofo\l5+ . pDx zflGts/frfo{
Dxo\kL jofM of]ufDj/ cf/fwgf ofOu; kfv]+ :joDe' r}To bo\s] GXof] x]
Dxo]kL of]ufDj/ bo\ w's
+ n w}u' ;Lb' .
Aff}4 b]jb]jLlklgu' d"lt{ dfn]u' ‰jno\ :oNnfu' >f]tsy+ lgu" ;km"
n'ofjMu' b' . k|l;4 u|Gyfsf/ dxfkl08t -kfn h'h' /fd kfn O=;+=!)*@–!!#)_
cEfofs/+ RjoftMu' ;fwgfdfnf j lgikGgof]ufjnL vM . Yj ;km" af}4 wd{of
lasf; r/d l;dfo\ Yo+u' Ono\ RjoftMu' vM . Yj lgu'ln+ ;km" OZnfdto\;+ af}4
wd{o\ Wj:t-g]=;+=$&)_ ofo\ GXoM afx«f+} ztfAbL /rgf h"u' vM .10
æHofk'Æ k~r, Dx]lk clhdfof kL7, oHh' no\kf}- !; (: !@, !!@@_ kf} !! .
æHofk'Æ k~r, Dx]lk clhdfof kL7, oHh' no\kf}- !; (: !@, !!@@_ kf} !! .
8
/f]hLd}o+ f >]i7, :joDe"O lrRrf bgfRj+u' h'h' k|tfk dNnof k|tfkk'/ dlGb/ j
rnM jgfM UjMt'n] To+u' Dxo\lk clhdfof dlGb/, v]nO' tf bFkf} -@%M@%,!!@%_ kf} !@! .
9
:joDe" k'/f0f cg';f/ zflGts/frfo{ åfk/ o'uofDx w}u' vF ;Lb' .
6

2

3

4
5

Wfgjh| jh|frfo{, lnR5ljsflng clen]v -sLlt{k/' M g]kfn / Plzofln
cg';Gwfg s]Gb«, lqe'jg ljZjljBfno, !)%$_ kf} %! .
Wfgjh| jh|frfo{of cg';f/ Yj clen]vof lnlk hob]j låltoof
clen]vgfk Hjnf wsfM RjoftMu' b' . yf}s
+ Gx] y'u' /fli6«o ;+uf| xno; b' .
Kf"jj{ t\ , kf} %^% .
Kf"jj{ t\, kf} @!* .
#

7

10

Benoytosh Bhattacharya, The Indian Buddhist Iconography, (West
Bengal: Shastri Villa, Naihati, West Bengal, Rathayatra,1985) p. 385.

$

wfld{s ;lxi0f'tfof ?ko\ Dxo\lk
g]kfn wfld{s ;lxi0f'tf b'u' b]z vM . yg d]du] ' b]zo\ y]+ yg
wd{of gfdo\ lx+;f h"u' db' . y'lsof x] 5u" bl; sy+ Dxo\lk b]uM g+ vM .
Dxo\lk BMoft af}4 wdf{anDjL to\;+ of]ufDj/ wsfM dfg] ofgf j}Rj+u' b' .
cy] x] zfQm, lxGb' j af}4 wdf{anDjL to\;+ zlQm kL7 sy+ g+ k"hf ofo\u'
ofgf Rjg . BM x] 5Dx wsfM efMlkof k"hf ofM;f+ kl/efiff wfM;f erf kfM .
zfQm, af}4 j lxGb'lkG;+ zlQm ;fwgf ofo\u' yfo\oft kL7 wfO . Yj Dxo\lk
zl//of :j+u" rqm dWo\ 5u" rqm vM . *$ l;4 k'?iflk;+ ;fwgf ofgf 1fg
k|fKt ofo\u' yfo\oft af}4 to\;+ kL7 wsfM wfO .
lxGb' wd{o\ dft[zlQmsy+ ;Ktdft[sf, ci6dft[sf, gjb'uf{ j
bzdxfljBfof ?ko\ kL7oft softMu' b' . Yj kL7oft u'lnl;of+ dfx]Zj/L,
u'lnl;of+ rfd'08f sy+ sof Rj+u' b' . Dxo\lk clhdfoft df]xgLano\
b'uf{÷eujtLof -dxfsfnL_ ?ko\ k"hf ofO;f ;f]GtLano\ dxfnIdL wsfM
k'Hofgf Rj+u' vg]b' . . wfld{s ;lxi0f'tfof sf/0f+ zfQm, z}j, j}i0fj j af}4
wdf{jnDjL lklgu' cf:yfof s]Gb« h'ofRj+u' b' . af}4 wdf{jnDjLlklgu'
cf:yfof s]Gb« h'ul' n+ ;+:s[t efif+ of]ufDj/ wsfM gfdfs/0f h'ofRj+u' vg]b' .

tMu' vM . dft[sf kL7 o]oF \ hs dv;] on j Vjko\ g++] nfo\sn
" L hs dh';]
tftfkfs g+ b' . o]oF f dft[sfkL7 Joj:yf zlQm cf/fwgf ofo\t dNnsfno\
k|ltli7t h"u' vM . u'Dx h'ho' f Ono\ wsfM cg';Gwfgof ljifo x] ltlg .
t/ dfnfM :jo\ano\ /fHo l;dfof ljjfb j d]du] ' Njfk' Jojl:yt ofo\t
j o]bF o] f ;'/Iffof b[li6+ u'0fsfdb]j+ ljlwk"js
{ kL7 :yfkgf oft w}u'
12
cg'dfg ofo\km' . j]bgfy /]UdLof sy+ dft[sf kL7of df}lns lgdf{0f 5u"
x] k|sf/of vg]b' .
!= bSj+ b]uM ufno\ bo\sf tMu' .
@= bSj+ b]uno\ d"nb]jL gfk+ ;'ofg+ d"lt{ ;fsf/ db' .
#= cfkfM b]uM klZrdfled'v .
$= bSj+ b]uMof d"nBMof No"gR] j+u' efu lqe"hfsf/ kvfM j hjvj+ lrhfu'
kvfMb' .
%= bSj+ b]uMt d"nj:tL :jof tfkfs v';L l;yo\ b' .
^= BMlklg gf+ g]jfM efo\of x] tof tMu' b' .
&= bSj+ b]uno\ e}/jln+u tMu' h'O .

kL7 :yfkgf
g]kfno\ kL7 :yfkgf af/] yLyL ;km"tL RjoftMu' ljåfglklgu' dt
sy+ u'0fsfdb]jof Ono\ h"u' w}u' wf/0ff :ki6 h" . uy] – g]=;+= !)& of
h'h' u'0fsfdb]j+ sflGtk'/ bo\su" ' vF efiff j+zfjnL pNn]v b' .11
lem+lgu"u' ztflJbkfv] /fHo ofMDx u'0fsfdb]j+ sf7df8f}+ /fHo
:yfkgf ofgf /fHoof 5rfv]/+ ;+/Ifsof ?ko\ ci6dft[sf yfkgf ofgf

11

Wfgjh| jh|frfo{, Uf]fkfn/fh j+zfjnLsf] P]ltxfl;s ljj]rgf -sLlt{k/' M g]kfn
/ Plzofln cg';Gwfg s]Gb«, lqe'jg ljZjljBfno !)%$_ kf} & .
%

cy] GXoygf tMu' h";f+ Go+sg+ e}/jln+u dh';] u0f/Ifs sy+ e}/j,
dxf+sfn, u0f]z, xf/tL g+ toftMu' b' . yy] kL7 lgdf{0f ofMano\ :j+u' rqm
bo\sftMu' b' . psL k|To]s rqmo\ Rofu" kL7 toftMu' b' . bsn] b'go] f lrQ
rqm, by'of jfs rqm j bsn] lkg] sfo rqm ofgf toftMu' b' . sfo, jfs
j lrQ lemu" zl//oft a'4 wd{of bz{g sy+ softMu' vM .

12

j]bgfy /]UdL, æg]kfndf ci6dft[sfÆ, k|1f, -o]F Mg]kfn /fli6«o k|1f k|lti7fg !;@:$),!!)#_
kf} @& .
^

Dxo\lk b]uMof ef}lts :j?k
o]F nfo\so" f pQ/ lbzfo\
yf}s
+ Gxo\ sf=d=g=kf= j8f g+= !^ of
b'g] nfgfRj+u' wfld{s :ynof ?ko\
lasf; h'ofRj+u' yfo\ vM æDxo\lkÆ .
klZrdo\ lji0f'dlt v'l;, k"j{o\
;fdfv'l; jhf/, pQ/o\ ;fdfv'l;
kmfF6 j blIf0fo\ ksgfhf]n ofgfM
Ko+u" lbzfo\ 5rfln+ 3]/] ofgftMu' b' .
yy] Dxo\lk clhdfof-lskf M @_ yfo\
yxfF jg]u' k"j{ j klZrd lbzfo\
lskf M @ Dxo\lk clhdf b]uM
:jfxfg] b' . Dxo\lk clhdfof b]uM
pQ/ lbzfo\ t+ bo\sf tMu' b' . k]uf]8f z}nLof lgtFhfMu' Gx"u' b]uM b' . Yj
b]uM lj=;+= @)%% o\ lgdf{0f h'u' vM . yg BMof yfo\ b'g] lnkftf+ e'gf tMu'
-lj=;+= @)%*o\_ b' . BMof yfo\ ;'/Iffof b[li6+ /]lnË vfkf 5'gfM tMu' b' .
b]uM b'g] pQ/fled'v h'of d"n clhdf jf of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/L
lj/fhdfg h'ofRj+u' b' . BMof hjo\ qmdzM j|Dxfo0fL, OGb«fo0fL, sf}df/L,
rfd'08f, u0f]z, cUgL, s?0ffdo, ssf{6] s gfu, pdfdx]Zj/ j l;+xgL b' .
vjo\ qmdzM jf/fxL, j}i0ffjL, e}/jL, dxfsfnL, dxfnIdL, jfo', Ifqkfn
j[if -Sjf y';f_ j Jofl3|gL b' . clhdf BM yfo\ lrlrUjM u+t 5foftMu' b' .
BMoft jxof dt" j lt;f g+ 5foftMu' b' .
of]ufDj/of No"g] b]un+ lkg] u0f]BMof d"lt{ b' . Yj v8\ul;l4
ljgfos of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/L+ :jod k|s6 ofMu' vM .13 Yj u0f]zof d"lt{
d]u' d"lt{ :jof kfM . y'ls Rj+Dx u0f]zof dt' ;fwf/0f rGb«df hs b' u'ls+
;F vg]b' . ;fwf/0f lt;f toftMDx, tfxf ukto\ Sjvfof, gfuof cfzgo\

13

Sj]n
+ f jlz+ :jlguno\ b'Mv laof Rj+ano\ Sj]n
+ f jlzofu' la£g pkb|j zfGt
ofo\t Yf'Dx u0f]z of]ufDj/+ k|s6 ofMu' w}u' hgljZjf; b' .
&

ˆot'gf Rj+u' b' . Yj u0f]BM lxl6d+u axfgo\ ˆot'gf Rj+u' b' . Gxo\Dx gfu+
s'OsftMu' b' . hnljgfos h'ul' n+ nMof k|lts SogftMu' h'O . Yj BMoft
v8\ul;l4 ljgfos g+ wfM . rf]ef/of Sjo\nf jl; /fIf; :ofo\t pTklQ
ofu' u'ls+ ofgf u0f]zof gf+ x] Sjo\nf u0f]z h'n w}u' hgljZjf; b' . y'sy+
rf]ef/of Sjo\nf u0f]zof Dxo\kL :jfk' vg]bt .
b]uMof kl/;/o\ ;;'BM, jh|lj/ dxf+sfn, dxfd~h'>L, ljZjjh|,
leGBM, /fwfs[i0f14, gf/fo0fBM, jh|wft' r}To, dxfdfof gfk+ yg ehg
kf6L j ;QM g+ b' . dlGb/of k'jk{ fv] zfGtLs/ u'Daf b', u'Dafb'g–]
zfSod'lg a'4, cfo{tf/f, if8Ifl/ nf]sZ] j/ :yfkgf ofgf tMu' b' . yg
@))# ;fno\ >L # kßzdz]/+ lxl6 toftMu' Njx+kf} g+ b' . cy] x] t'+ d]du] '
Njx+kf} –
!= b]uMno\ b'g] BMof hj+, vj+ lgkfM clen]v b' .
@= b]uMno\ b'xf+ jg]u' yf;o\ hj+vj+ lgkfM Njx+kf} b'u' l;db'ul' n+ Sjo\ xofM
toftMu' b' .15
#= u'Dafof lkg] nIdLgf/fo0f b'u' tkfu' Njx+kf} b' .
$= u'Dafof c+uno\ tw+u' b'?Njx+to\, k"j+{ yxf+ jg]ano\ hjo\ -@)%&_
clen]v b' .
%= b]uMno\ b'gl] kxf+ jo\ano\ b]kfo\ Gx"u' -@)%*_ clen]v b' .
^= b]uMno\ yxf+ jg]u' klZrd lbzfof :jfxfg] Wjfvf bo\su' ' clen]v b' .

Yj /fwfs[i0f BM lj=;+= @)!@ ;fno\ u+uf k|;fb clwsf/L+ dfu{ !# ut]
:yfkgf ofMu' vM . YJf /fwfs[i0f BM lbsftMu' yfdo\ b'g] sfkL hfo\s
eQmhglk+; s[i0f s[i0f Rju' tofMtMu' b' .
15
g]=;+= ^*& of k|tfk dNnof 5kfM b' . u'ls BM yfo\ Njx+of kMvfM j Wjfsf
bo\su' ' l; b' . d]u' clen]vo\ of]ufDj/oft nIdLgf/fo0f wsfM pNn]v
ofgftMu' b' . y'u' clen]vof kf7 kl/lzi6o\ b' .
14

*

&= b]uMno\ yxf+ jg]u' klZrd lbzfof :jfxfg] Wjfvf lkg] l;+x lgDx tMu'
clen]v b' .
*= b]uMof GXog] Rj+u' ;Qno\ b'g] BMof No"g] b'?Njx+of clen]v b' .
(= klZrdof :jfxfgo\ /]lnË tMu' clen]v b' .
hDdf Gofkf k'nf+u' Njx+kf} h'n . Yj afx]s+ lrlrw+u' Njx+kf} Gx"u'
b]uM j r}To bo\sf toftMu' oSj x] b' . cy] x] yg b]uMof k"j+{ yxfF jg]u'
kfv] k'nf+u' a'u+ fM g+ b' . Yj hL0ff]å{ f/ ofMu' 5kfM u"ObF lt k'nf+u' Njx+kf} g+
b' . :yflgo >4fn' eQmhglklgu' s'tn+ lj=;+= @)^* ;fno\ ehg ofo\u'
k'nf+u' ;tM y'gfM Gx"u' bg]u' Hof GXofsf Rj+u' b' . ef}uf]lns agfj6of sf/
0f+ yg rnM j+u' vF Gog]b' . Yj b]uMof klZrd efuo\ rnM jgf cfM
dxfdfof b]uM No"gt] s hs Nog . /f]hLd}o+ f >]i7of Rj;' sy+ g]=;+= !!@$
czf]h & ut] v'Gx' rnM j+u' h'n .16
yg b'u' ljZjjh| af/] yy] woflbu' b' – æYj k'nf+u' ljZjjh|
k~ra'4 dWoof GofDxDx a'4 cdf]3l;l4of lr+ vM . Yj b'ul' n+ Gxfkf yg
tMw+u' r}To g+ b'u' h'OdfM u'u' ug+ Nxfgf+ hs+ Rjgnf .Æ17
lj=;+= @)%% ;fnl;j]+ GXof]of :j?k 5rfv]/+ lrhfMu' kMvfn
rfMxLsf tMUf' VfM . cn] l;+ofu' yfdo\ lgtF cfo\kfof kf} hs toftMu' vM .
pan] BMyfo\ b'xf+ jg]u' n'vf, BMof k[i7e"ld, j b]uM b'go] f :j?k bSj+
Njx+ofu' vM . cem Yj :jofM GXoM -lj=;+= @)#%_ of :j?k w}u' kf} 5'+ db'u'
vM . 5rfM v]/+ v'Nnf, Kos'g+ o\ Njx+of Ko+uM lrhfu' yf+ j Njx+of Wjfvf
-u'sL BMlk+ lsoftMu'_o\ l;+ofu' vfkf 5'gftMu' vM . yfo\ g+ rs+u' j Ono\
yf}+ :jof h+uno\ l;dft g+ oSj b' .

/f]hLd}o+ f >]i7,æ:joDe"O lrRrf bgfRj+u' h'h' k|tfk dNnof k|tfkk'/ dlGb/
j rnM jgfM UjMt'n] To+u' Dxo\lk clhdfof dlGb/Æ v]nO' tf bFkf},@%M@%,kf}
!!* –!@@ .
17
e'jgnfn k|wfg, æDxo\lk b]ptfyfgÆ dw'ks{, -uf]/vfkq ;+:yfg, @#M*,!!!!_ kf} ( .
16

(

Dxo\lk b]uMof klZrd lbzfo\ lj=;+= @))@ Njx+ Ajnf jn, u'ls
c:ki6 d'lt{ vg]bt . KobF lnkf lj:tf/+ cfs[lt lgdf{0f h'Dx eujtL vM . Yj
onof s?0ffdoof df+ oIf/fh zlzof snf dfof wsfM dfofb]jL wfo\u'
oft .18
Yfg bz{g ofo\t jOlk+ eQmlklg lglDt j b}lgs pkef]uoft b]uMof blIf0f
k"j{ jgo\ a'u+ frf g+ b' . yf}:+ jof u'ObF GXoM O6'a+ xfnof lkG;+ a'u+ f lh0ff]å{ f/
ofu' Njx+kf}of ldlt+ vg]b' . lj=;+= @)^) ;fno\ a'u+ foft rSsf tofM t'+
bo\s' ano\ gLlgu' km'6 Sjo\ nMof d'xfg n'of t'+ Dx'O dkmof Tjk'n . cg
Jojl:yt dh'u' h'of Njx+kf} efh' ljsf;/Tgof 5]o+ \ toftMu' b' .
Dxo\lk BM5]o“ f kl/ro
Dxo\lk clhdfof BM5]F c;F, tFnfl5 TjfMof r'so\ b' . yf}s
+ Gxo\
sf=d=g=kf= j8f g+ #) of b'g] nfgf Rj+u' vM . Dxo\lk clhdfof BM5]F ælnlk
u'lyÆof HofMs'ly gfk+ Rj+u' uNnL+ b'g] lgu" r's b'xf+ jg]dfM . Yj r'sof
gf+ g+ Dxo\lk clhdfof gfd+ x] æDxo\lk r'sÆ toftMu' b' . b]uMy]+ BM5]F g+
pQ/ lbzfo\ :jof Rj+u' b' . r'so\ b'xfF jg]j+ cfsif{s vg]bu' ' Yj BM5]oF f
j0f{g y'sy+ ofgfu' h'n .
lkg]of :j?k –
:jtF hfMu' BM5]oF \ lkg]+ u+ 5uM b' . d" n'vfof hjo\ sj+ j vjo\
VofM b' . n'vfof lgv]/+ l;+xt b' . n'vf vn'O b]jf toftMu' b' . n'vfof hM
vM lnof em08f b' . lgu" lqsf]0ffsf/ em08fo\ rGb« ;"o{ b' . hjkfv] tUjMu'
u+ 5uMg+ b' . dftFgo\ n'vf km';o\ lnof kftf+ e'gftMu' ltls‰ofM b' . u'sL
Bg] if6\sf]0f b'g] ci6kqbnof d08n b' . Yj ltls‰ofMof hjo\ u0f]z j

18

ljsf;/Tg jh|frfo{, æDxo\lk dlGb/sf] P]ltxfl;s tyf ;f+:s[lts Ps
kl/roÆ åfbztLy{ ci6dLj|t n'dlGt -uf]u+ a', åfbztLy{ pkf]ifw ci6dL j|t
tby{ ;ldlt, !!@*_ kf} (^ .
!)

s'df/of lskfM b' . RjtFo\ lgkfM ‰ofMof by'O bn'rf 5uM oMvfgftMu' b' .
h:tfof kf} toftMu' BM5]oF \ uh" 5uM 5'gftMu' b' .
b'go] f :j?k –
:jtF hfMu' BM5]oF \ 5]ln, dftF j RjtF ofgf :jtF b' . dftFgo\
:jfxfg+ yfxf+ jg]j+ hjo\ Rj+u' sf]7f b' . yg BMto\u' sf]7f h"ul' n+ n'vflkg]
tf]/0f g+ b' . Yj tf]/0fo\ Kokf NxfM b'Dx clhdf toftMu' b' . Yj tf]/0f
lnofu' h";f+ xfs';] RjgfM lGxlGx+ k"hf ofOu'ln+ l;Gx lts]u' yf;o\ hs
Dxf;' . Yj sf]7f b'g] clhdfoft pQ/ :jsf BM hfqfano\ y]+ ofgfM
5fo\lkof tMu' b' .19
!=j| D xfo0fL @=OGb« f o0fL #=s' d f/L $=rfd' 0 8f %=u0f] z ^=l;+ l xgL
&=gfu/fhf j vj+ qmdzM !=af/fxL @=j}i0fjL #=e}/jL $=dxfnIdL
%=Jofl3|gLoft ldno\ ofgf tMu' b' . BM5]oF \ bSj+ BMlklg n'+ l;of d"lt{t
bo\sftMu' b' . Gxfkf l;hMof BMof 5\Øf]t+ hs b'u' vM, u'sL ldlt g+
lsoftMu' b' . lnkf Gx"u' d"lt{t bo\su" ' Ono\ lgyL BM to\ dToM wsfM k'nf+u'
ufnfM 5\jn .20
BM5]oF \ of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/Lof lskfM kf}efno\ RjoftMu' g+ b' .21
yg BM5]oF \ g+ BMof kfq j v8\u b' . Yj rx]« klQs+ Dxo\kL o+sL . rx]a« no\
rx]« clhdf tofM o+su] ' cfzg, TjfM b]jfM cflb bSj+ Hjn+t yg x] tO .
yg rx]« ano\ udo\ o+lsu' clhdfof d"lt{ toftMu' b' . Dxo\lk hfqf ano\
udo\ o+lsu' clhdf g+ ofgf lgu" clhdfof d"lt{t b' . rx]« ano\ udo\
o+sLDx BMoft x] rx]« clhdf wfOu' vM .
Yj BM5]F Gxfkf hL0f{ h'ofM xfsg+ bo\su" ' h';f+ k'nf+u' x] kxof h" .
rf+ bgftMu' j :jfxfg] g+ l;+ofu' b' . h:tfof kltO hs uh"to\t Knf:6/
ofgftMu' b' .

yLyL yfo\of Dxo\lk
Dxo\lk BM zlQmof nflu ;fwgf ofO . Yj x] qmdo\ yLyL yf;o\
Yf'hflk+ BM lk+ :yfkgf ofgf tMu' b' . g]jfMto\u' ljz]iftf sYf+ g]jfMt ug ug
jgL, cg x] yMu' s'nb]jtf g+ o+sL . Yj x] cg';f/ g]jfMt tftfkfs
a;f]af; ofof+ jg . cn] BMofyfo\ jo\ km'lk+ jof x] Rjg . yfs'ln;] yMlk+
ug jg cg x] BMoft g+ ;fnfM o+su] ' Hof h'ofRj+u' vg]b' . u'u' y'sy+ b' –
!= ef/tof cf;fdo\ sfd?k sfdfIf w}u' yf;o\ b' . ug+ g]kfno\ s?0ffdo
xMu' Ono\ aGw'bQ cfrfo{+ yfkgf ofMu' wsf a'u+ dnf]sZ] j/ ljHofs"u'
j+zfjnLof GXoygf tMu' b' .
@= blIf0fsfnL kmlk{Ëo\ s'?jf -s6'jfn bx_ w}u' yf;o\ aGw'bQ cfrfo{+
yfkgf ofMu' .
#= :joDe" :t'kf Rjo\ gdl;+ r's gf+u' yf;o\ Dxo\lk :yfg b' . clUgk'/+
zflGtk'/o\ jg]u' nFo\ b]kfo\ Rj+u' ;fwf/0f kvfMn+ 3]/] ofgftMu' b' .
;u{to\ v'nf toftMu' b' .
$= :joDe"of tMKo+u' :jfgo\ Rjo\ dYog]j+ Ujfv+rfo\ Nj+xof of]ufDj/ kL7
b' .22
%= l;3Mno\ b'g] cfu+ BM yfo\ of]ufDj/ x] vM . Yj jfsjh|+ :yfkgf ofMu' vM .
^= ono\ lx/0oj0f{ dxfljxf/of cfuFBM g+ of]ufDj/ vM .
&= d?O hjo\ lku+ggL t'nfw/lklg of]ufDj/ kL7 wsf b' . Yj d? u0f]BMof
BM5]oF \ g+ b'g] nfM .
*= ono\ slgaxfnof lkg] vflnu' yf;o\ g+ of]ufDj/ kL7 b' .
(= o]o+ f SjfaxfMof cfu+BM g+ of]ufDj/ x] vM .

19
20
21

Kff} @% o\ :joflb;+ .
Dxo\lkof d"n u'?h' gfkof vFNxfaNxfof cfwf/o\ .
Yj lskfM kl/lzi6o\ b' .
!!

sf7df8f}+ pkTosf xfsg+ 5'+ sf/0fjz hndUg h';f+ :joDe" nv+ Tjk'O
dv' . Yj of]ufDj/ kL7 l;a]+ nM yxf+ jlg dv' w}u' hgljZjf; b' .

22

!@

@= Dxo\lk ;DalGw ljleGg wfld{s dt

zfQm wd{o\ Dxo\lkof yfo\
u'u' ;Dk|bfo g+ b]jLof pkf;gf 5u" x] hs sf/0f dfg] ofO . u'u'
;Dk|bfono\ ;jf]R{ r zlQm, ;[li6 j ljgfzsfl/0fL, cljgfzL cljsf/Lof
sf/0f b]jLoft sfO . jx] æzfQm ;Dk|bfoÆ vM . dft[zlQmof pkf;gf
k/Dk/f t;s+ x] k|frLg vM .
cfWoflTds b[li6+ ljrfM ofo\ano\ k|s[lt x] d"n zlQm vM .
k|sl[ tof cfwf/ dbo\s+ 5' g+ kbfy{ ts g+ pTyfg h'Ou' ;Dej db' . k|sl[ t+
Ao"u' ;f}Gbo{of yMu' zLk 5Ønf snf Oltxf;o\ Gx"u' cfofd tg]u' d"lt{
tyf lrq ug k|r/' dfqf+ b}, cHofu' yf;o\ zlQm j zlQmof pkf;st oSj
bO . yg zlQmof gfk+ yLyL BMlklg pkf;st b' . t/ GXofDx BMof
pkf;gf ofM;f+ zlQm dbo\s ;'of+ pkf;gf h'Ou' c;Dej vM . ljZjof
d]du] ' yf;o\ y]+ zlQmof pkf;slklg NofM sd dh'of x] lg/fsf/ tyf
;fsf/ ?ko\ BMlklg kL7t vg] b'u' vM .23

23

Dfbgdf]xg ld>, sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf wfld{s tyf ;f+:s[lts ;Dkbf k'/ftTj ljefuM nlntk'/,!!!^ _ kf} ! –# .
!#

g]kfno\ zfQm wdf{jnDjLlkG;+
lg/fsf/ Njx+-lskf M #_oft
zlQm kL7 sy+ dfg]ofgf jMu' b' .
Gxfkf+u' ztflAblg;]+ zfQm k/Dk/f
lg/Gt/ ?k+ GXofgf jofRj+u' b' .24
tGq sy+ d'VotM dft[zlQm+ x]
j|Dxf08 ;+rfng h'of j+u' b' .25
g]kfnof ;Gbe{o\ g+ O{;f k"j{
:jof GXoM BM lklgu' cg';Gwfg
ofo\u' ‰jno\ k'/ftTjljb\lkG;+
ld;flklgu' 5\Øf]+ n'Os'u' b' .
Yjx] sy+ dft[zlQm pkf;gf
g]kfno\ g+ t;s+ k'nf+ w}u' ;Lb' .
dNnsfno\ jofM ci6dft[sf, lskf M # lg/fsf/ Dxo\lk clhdf
gjb'uf{, bzdxfljBf, clhdf
y]+ hfu' dft[zlQm pkf;gf ofo\u' rng k|r/' dfqf+ vg]bt . jx] qmdo\
u'0fsfdb]j+ -g]=;+= !)&_ sf7df8f}+ :yfkgf ofMjno\ zlQmof k|tLs sy+
clhdflk+ :yfkgf oft .
lxGb' wd{o\ ldh+BMof zlQm sy+ dfgo\ ofgftMu' b' . bSj+ BMlklg
zlQm w}u' ld;fBM vM . u'Dx BMof zlQm vM jof Hj+;f j axfg g+ jx] h'O .
uy] lzj+ ;[li6 j ;+xf/ lgtf+ ofO py]+ x] zlQm g+ zfGt j pu| lgu" :j?kof
h'O . yy] zlQmof zfGt ?k ;tL, kfj{tL vM;f pu| ?k b'uf{, sfnL vM .
af}4 wd{o\ g+ zlQmofsy+ of]lugL j jh|af/fxL vM .26 g]kfno\ tflGqs
dtsy+ zlQmof nflu k"hf ofo\u' tw+u' nx/ jn . u'ls+ ofgfM ;Ktdft[sf,
24

Lain S. Bangdel, Inventory of Stone Sculptures of Kathmandu
Valley ,(Royal Nepal Academy : Kamaladi Nepal, 1995 ) p.39 .
25
Trilok Chandra Majupuria and Rohit kumar Majupuria,
Reiigions Nepal : M .Devi , Lashker (Gwalior India) p. 230 .
26
Trilok Chandra Majupuria and Rohit kumar Majupuria,
Gods, Goddesses and Reiigious Symbols of Buddhism and
Tantrism , M. Devi ,Lashker (Gwalior India, 2005) p. 105.

!$

ci6dft[sf, gjb'uf{ j bzdxfljBfof ?ko\ g+ k"hf h'of jn . tGqo\ zlQm
jf ld;fBM dbo\s+ ldh+BMlk+ zlQmlxg h'O .@&
lzj kfv]+ zj h'u' h'of ug lzj b} cg zlQm b}u' x] h'n . lzj
w}u' dxfBMof cfgGb ?k vM . dg"of bsn] cfgGbof cj:yf w}u' d[To' vM .
pls+ zjkfv]+ lzj h"u' vM . lzj j zlQm 5yfo\ x] b} . zj d;fgo\ b}u'
h'of jof zlQm g+ cg+ x] b} . lzj j zlQm w}u' af}4 wd{o\ æk|1fÆ :qL j
æpkfoÆ k'?if vM . yy] k|1f j pkfo 5u" x] yf;o\ b}u' h'of ;fwslk+
;fwgf ofo\t kL7o\ ofO .
lxGb' wd{of lkG;+ Dxo\lk clhdfoft zlQm kL7 sy+ k"hf ofM jO .
ci6dft[sfo\ Yj Dxo\lk clhdfoft u'lnl;of+ dfx]Zj/L BM wsfM wfM .
u'lnl;of+ rfd'08f g+ wfo\u' ofM . yg df]xgL ano\ eujtLof ?ksy+
dxfsfnL wsfM k"hf ofo\u' ofgfRj+u' b' .cn] ;f]GtLof Ono\ YJfx] kL7o\
dxfnIdLof sy+ k'HofjO .
zlQm wsfM clhdf jf dfO{oft g+ sfM . cKjM y]+ kL7o\ aln
aLjno\ d"nDx BMoft aL dv' . kL7/Ifs sy+ e}/j jf u0f]z bofRjgL .
y'ldt x] aln aLu' ofO . y'sy+ yg Dxo\kL clhdfof hjo\ Rj+Dx u0f]zoft
aln aL .
BMt kL7o\ 5Dx jf RofDx Njx+of ?ko\ vg]b} . b]zl+ kg], Zdzfg
jf u'F Rjsfo\ ci6dft[df sy+ RofDx clhdflk+ k|Voft h" . o]oF \ bsn] k|l;4
BMlk+ dWo] rfd'08f -s+u clhdf_, OGb«fo0fL -n'lt clhdf_, eb«sfnL÷j}i0fjL
-Got clhdf_, Dxo\lk j 5\jf; clhdf, zf]efeujtL j afns'df/L vM .28

27
28

af}4 wd{o\ Dxo\lkof yfo\
g]kfMof ljz]iftf w}u' x] wfld{s ;lxi0f'tf vM . pls+ yg 5Dx x]
BMoft yLyL wdf{jnDjLlkG;+ yMyM BM sy+ gfnfM k'Hofgf jofRj+u' b' .
y'sy+ x] Dxo\lk BMoft zfSt lkG;+ kL7dWo] 5u" kL7dfg] ofgftMu' b' .
ci6dft[sfo\ u'Dx]l;of+ rfd'08f j u'Dx]l;of+ dfx]Zj/L sy+ sofRj+u' b' .
cy] x] af}4 wdf{jnlDalkG;+ of]ufDj/ wsfM dfg] ofgftMu' b' . Dxo\lk
clhdfoft zfQm j af}4 ;Dk|bfooflkG;+ plQs+ dxTj laof kL7sy+ k"hf
ofgf j}Rj+u' b' . dxfl;l4lkG;+ :jMcWoog ofgfM l;l4 k|fKt ofMu' yfo\ sy+
af}4to\ kL7 softMu' vM .
g]jfM efo\of æDxÆ vFUjMof ;+:s[t+ æcfTdÆ cy{ h'O . pls+ Yj kL7oft
cfTd kL7wsf g+ wfo\u' ofM . Dxo\lkoft af}4wd{o\ Ko+u' kL7-cfTd kL7,
k/ kL7, of]lugL kL7 j u'Xo kL7dWo] 5u" woftMu' b' .
of]ufDj/
of]u w}u' æhf]8Æ j cDj/ w}u' æcfsfz -z"Go_Æ vM . k|1f j
pkfoof of]u h'O . cDj/ w}u' vg]b;f+ jf:tljstf dv' . Yj z"Gotf
;DalGw 1fg vM . z"Gotf af/] Gxfkf+u' zlbof leIf' gfufh'g{ + dfWolds
zf:qo\ JofVof ofgftMu' b' . Yj zf:q k|1fkf/ldtf u|Gyof a/fa/L h" .29
æof]ufDj/ k|1f]kfoÆ oft j[xT:joDe" k'/f0fo\ dxfjL/;+j/ RjoftMu' b' .
ug+ ug+ jL/jL/]Zj/ g+ woftMu' b' .30
cfOSgf]uf| lkms l8S;g/L ckm b OlG8og /]lnlho;of sy+ of]ufDj/
w}Dx of]uof ;fdfu|L b'Dx a'4, jh|w/of k|sf/-nfdfOHd sy+_ vM . jr'u'

29

cfzf/fd zfSo -e"ldsf_ "A Short Critical ….", jh|ofg k/Dk/fdf
of]lugLsf] e"ldsf, -s'nZ] j/ M ljl/l~r df]tL :d[lt u'Xo tf/f sf]if, !!@(_ kf}
xxiii .

30

e'jgnfn k|wfg, æDxo\lk b]ptfyfgÆ dw'ks{, -uf]/vfkq ;+:yfgM e"uf]nkfs{ @# M
*,!!!!_ kf} & .

Ibid, p.112.

Angelea Dietric, Tantric Healing in the Kathmandu Valley,
Book Faith India(Azadpur Commercial Complex). p.40 .

!%

!^

/+uDx wd{rqm d'b«fo\ zlQm
l8uDj/f jf 1fg8flsgLgfk
cljefhg, wg'if, ;/, jh| j
jh|306 cfo'w b'Dx vM .31
a]gf]tf]if e§frfo{ g+
y'sy+ x] of]ufDj/of JofVof
ofM;f+ 1fg]Zj/Lof /+u wfM;f
t'o' jf jr' h'O woftMu' b' .
Yj of]ufDj/ BM cIf]fEo WofgL
a'4of kl/jf/o\ nfM . of]ufDj/
-lskf M $_ BMof d"lt{ rLgo\
g+ vg]b' .32 dxfofgL a'4
wd{oft k|rf/ k|;f/ ofo\u'
Hof gfufh' { g , c;+ u ,
j;' j GwlkG;+ dfWoflds,
lskf M $ of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/L
of]ufr/ bz{goft ;km"of ?k
laofM k|rf/ ofo]u' ‰jno\ of]ufDj/ jn . of]uof dfWod+ z"Gotf ts
Yo+su] ' cEof; x] of]ufrf/ vM .
k|1f j pkfo -jh|jf/fxL j jh|w/of ldngkfv]+ k|1f]kfo h'O_
y'u' cj:yfo\ z"Gotf h'O . ug ceo, 8/, qf;, jt{dfg, eljio, e"t 5'+ x]
No+ bOdv' dfq z"Go j cfgGb h'O . 5'+ x] db'u' d]nof ?k x] of]u vM .
of]uofkfv]+ cDj/tf k|fKt ofo]u' cEof; x] of]ufDj/ vM .

af}4dfuL{to\ of]ufDj/ w}Dx 5Dx k|VoftDx BM vM . cw{kof{Í
d'bf« o\ rGb«df Bg] lgaM kn]:jfFno\ lgDx l;+x Bg] RjgfRj+Dx, d"nVjfM jr',
hju' t'o' j b]kfu' XofpFu' ofgfM hDdf :jkf VjfM b' . u'Dxl;of v'kfM NxfM
b' . d"n lgkfM Nxfto\ jh| j u+ HjgftMu' b' . tfxfof lt;f ltoftMDx, jr'
/+uofDx 1fg8flsgL -k|1f_oft ;lQs 3o\kg' fM lgkfM Nxft+ 5flt j z/
HjgftMu' b' . d]u' lgkfM Nxft+ snz kfq j wg'if HjgftMu' b' .33
of]ufDj/ j 1fg8flsgL cf;fdof sfdf?sfdfIfo\ s?0ffdo
BMoft hGd Ao"lk+ oIf j oIf0fL vM . pls+ nugv]no\ Gxj+ ofOano\
1fg8flsgLg+ l;df+ ;'nf :jjO .34 Yj x] wfk' d]/L P;= ;N;/of g]kfnd08n
;km'tL g+ RjoftMu' b' .
of]ufDj/of cfo'w jHf| j u+of t;s+ dxTj b' . Jfh|ofgo\ u'?h'lk;+
x/]s k"hf kåtL jHf| j u+ 5\ØnL -;Ktljwfg'Q/ k"hf u'?d08n k"hf cflb_ .
jh|+ j u+÷k'?if j k|sl[ t u'ls+ pkfo j s?0ffof k|ltlglwTj ofO . u+ :qL
k|sl[ tof, u"u' k|1f j z'Gotfof k|tLs vM . jh|ofgo\ k|1f j pkfo cåo
?ko\ Sog]t BMlkGt r'Djg, cflnËg ;Def]u d'bf« o\ k|:t't ofO . uy]
rqm;+j/ – jh|jf/fxL, r08dxf/f]if0f – å]ifjh|L . yhfu' k'?if:qL hf]8foft
k"hf, lrqsnfof gfk+ tflGqs ;dflwof cEof;o\ g+ 5\ØnL .35
of]ufDj/oft æk|1f]kfo\Æ wsfM RjoftMu' b' . Yjof cy{ ld;f ldh+
tTjof ;+of]uof k|tLs vM .#^ Yj dxf;'v jf z"Gotfof k|lts vM . jx]sy+
Dxo\kL cjl:yt BM hf]ufDj/, of]ufDj/ af}4lklg d"nDx BM sy+ sfO;f
of]ufDj/of wsfM rf}nfYj rt'bzL{vG' x' jh|frfo{ k"/f]lxtkfv]+ k"hf ofgf
jofRj+Uf' b' .
33

31

32

Liebert Gosta, Iconografic Dictionary of the Reiigions HinduismBuddhism - Jainism (2nd ed. , Sri Satguru Publications :Delhi, India, 1986 )
p. 354.

Benoytosh Bhattacharya, The Indian Buddhist Iconography,
(West Bengal: Shastri Villa, Naihati, West Bengal, Rathayatra , 1985)
p.186.

!&

Min Bahadur Shakya, The Icongraphy of Nepalese
Buddhism:(Maitighar, Thapathali,Handicraft Association of Nepal,
1999) p. 47.
34
Ibid, pg 47.
35

sljGb« jh|frfo{, g]kfn k/Dk/fut af}4 jh|ofg, -g]kfn k/Dk/fut af}4
wd{;3
+ klqsf k|sfzg ;ldlt, !!#)_ kf} $) –$@ .
36
;g ;fo\ld, æDxo\lk clhdfof hfqfÆ g]kfMof hfqf, -o]F M g;gf klAns]zg, !!@( _
kf} %* .
!*

1fg8flsgL of]ufDj/of zlQm sy+ softMDx BM vM . dft[zlQmsy+
1fg8flsgLoft x] clhdf wsfM dfg] ofO . af}4;Dk|bfooflk;+ of]lugL
sy+ $ Dx of]lugL, ^$ Dx of]lugL g+ sfo\u' ofM . of]u zAbof :qL jf
ljz]if0f jfrs vFUjM kfv]+ x] of]lugL h'u' vM . of]lugL w}Dx g+ ld;f BMlk+
vM uy]– jh|of]lugL, v8\uof]lugL .37
lgikGg of]ufjnLsy+ of]ufDj/ 1fg8flsgL d08nfofDx d"nDx
BM vM . of]ufDj/of Vjf kfM :jkfM b' . d"nVjfM jr', hju' t'o' j b]kfu'
XofpFu' vM . hjo\ z/, jh| j 1fg8flsgLoft cflnËg ofgfRj=u' cy] x]
vjo\ 306, /Qmkfq j wg'if qmdz HjgftMu' hDdf v'kfM NxfM b' . 38

sfnfGt/o\ jgfM :joDe" wd{wft' Hof]lt?k gfz h'O wsfM dgo\
jMu'ln+ r}To bo\sf Tjk'Ou' ljrfM jn . YjvF yMu'?oft s+ano\ cfrfM
dn';] r}To bo\s] dHo" wsfM cf1f h'n . u'0ffs/ u'?+ x] zflGt>Loft
cfrfMn'of la;]ln+ zflGts/ cfrfo{+ h'n .

;flxlTos u|Gyo\ of]ufDj/
:joDe" k"/f0f sy+ ;To o'uo\ g]kfn pkTosf sflnbx h'ofRj+u'
h'n . rLg+ -k+rzLif{ kj{t_+ dxfd~h'>L :joDe" Hof]lt?k bz{g ofo\t
ljHoft . Yjx] Ono\ blIf0fkfv] Rj+u' rf]afnof Gx;sfk 5]bg ofgfM ygof
nM lkt5|j\ of dg" Rjg] lhn . sfZok a'4+ jf/f0f;L Rj+u' d[ubfjgo\ RjgfM
:joDe" wd{wft' Hof]lt?k pTklQ h'u' afv+ sgfRjg . Yj afv+ uf}8 b]zof
h'h' k|r08b]j+ GogfRj+u' h'n . lnkf :joDe" wd{wft' Hof]lt?k bz{g ofgfM
åfbz tLy{ j ci6j}/fu tLy{jt| ofo\u' ljrfM ofgfM YfM sfo\ zlQmb]joft
/fHofleif]s laof yM g]kfM jn .

jx] ;fwgf+ BM k|;Gg h'of of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/L+ zflGts/ cfrfo{oft
yMDx+ ˆjgfMu' j:t' aLt jrg a4 oft . zflGts/ cfrfo{ snM Hjgf k"hf
ofMj+ ano\ jof sfo\ No"No" ju' l;dv' .

af}4 wdf{jnDaL lnR5lj h'h' j[ifb]jof kfno\ uf}8 b]zof h'h'
k|r08b]j g]kfM jMu' vM . g]kfno\ jof :joDe" wd{wft' Hof]lt?k bz{g
ofgfM åfbz tLy{ j ci6j}/fu tLy{jt| oft . cn] ygx] æk|jHof;Dj/Æ
ofo\u' OR5f h'ofM jh|frfo{ u'? u'0ffs/of yfo\ jg . k|r08b]j+ YfMu'' bSj+
vF slgano\ u'0ffs/+ k|jlht ofo\t of]UoDx vM wsfM ljlwjt k|jlht
ofgflan . ygln k|r08b]jof gf+ zflGt>L leIf' h'n .
37

38

;Todf]xg hf]zL-d'_+ arfM w+u' g]jfM vFUjM w's" M -dxfaf}4, o]MF nfsf}n lkygf,
!!)&_ Kff}= %!% .
Benoytosh Bhattacharya, The Indian Buddhist Iconography , (West
Bengal: Shastri Villa, Naihati, West Bengal, Rathayatra , 1985) p.205.

!(

zflGts/ cfrfo{+ :joDe" dxfr}To bo\s] w's
+ f k+rk'/ lgdf{0f
oft . :joDe" dxfr}Toof lns Gofu" dxfe"tof k|lts -k[YjL_ a;'k/' ,
-jfo'_ jfo'k/' , -clUg_ clUgk'/, -cfsfz_ zflGtk'/ j -hn_ gfuk'/ vM .
zflGtk'/ b'g] of]ufDj/ k|lt:yfkg ofo\t ;fwgf oft . of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/L+
zflGts/ cfrfo{of k'hf+ k|;Gg h'of ljHoft .

Dxo\lkof d]du] ' wfld{s :yngfk :jfk"
Dxo\lk clhdfof yfo\ rfsfM j}ul' n+ BMlk+ gfk :jfk' nf b'u' x] h'n .39
Dxo\lk åf]oF \ b]uM bo\st] rf sfMj}u' afx]s+ d]u' wfld{s :yngfk g+ :jfk" b'u'
vF Sjo\ GXoAjofu' Rj;' g+ yk :ki6 ofO . :joDe" k"/f0fof sy+ Dxo\lk
BM :joDe" dxfr}To :jof k'nf+ h" . :joDe"of zflGtk'/o\ of]ufDj/ yfkgf
ofMu' vF g+ :joDe" k"/f0fo\ b' .
afHoM j+lklg cg';f/ Dxo\lk clhdf, km'l;+VoM clhdf j dgsfdgfof
kf;flk+ wsfM wfO . t/ yg Dxo\lk clhdf, km'l;+VoM clhdf j gSjfM
eujtL -g'jfsf]6_of ;DjGw vg]b' . Nx'ltk'lGxof hfqfano\ 5Gx' GXo
rx]v
« G' x' rfGx] Dxo\lk b]uno\ o1 k"hf h'O . Yj k"hfof by'O x] km'l;+VoMkfv]
tMKjfu' lr/fu Rofsf dt Sog]u' ofO . cy] x] t'+ km'l;+VoMn+ g+ g'jfsf]6

39

Ufg+ rfM sfo\t jO wsf l;s]t kl/lzi6o\ rfM sf j}u' wnM :joflb;F .
@)

Dxo\lk :yfgof s?0ffdogfk ;DaGw

kfv] dtM Sog]u' ofO . yy]
Dxo\lk+ dt Sols km'l;+VoMno\
k"hf z'? h'O . g'jfsf]6
eujtL g+ k"hf z'? h'O .
Yfy] BMlklg ;DaGw
b'u' nf vg] x] bt . Yj :jDx
BMyfo\ k"hf ofOlk+ u'?h' lklg
g+ ;DaGw b'u' h'ofRjg .
‰jfMaxfMof -/Tgs] t '
dxflaxf/_ jh|frfo{lklg :j+u'
sjM b'u' h'ofRjg . pls
dWo] 5vnM Dxo\lk sjM, d]u'
5vnM km'l;+VoM sjM j d]u'
vnM g'jfsf]6 sjM wsfM
5'6o\ ofgftMu' h'ofRjg .
lskf
g'jfsf]6 eujtL k'HofOlklg
dgsfdgfo\ g+ k"hf ofM jg]dfMu' h'of Rjg .

Dxo\lk BMof bsn] ;lQs
onof a'u+ BM gfk :jfk' vg]b' .
s?0ffdoof k"j{ hGdo\ ygx] l;4
h'u' afvF b' . h'h' g/]Gb«bj] + ef/
tof sfdf? sfdfIfo\
s?0ffdooft sfMj+ u ' Ono\
jGw'bQ cfrfo{+ tGq ;fwgf ofgfM
a'+uBMoft eDaMof ?ko\ ;fnfM
snz b'g] s'gfM g]kfM xMu' vM .$!
sfd?k sfdfIfo\ jGw'bQ cfrfo{+
jx] Ono\ Dxo\lk BMoft ;fwgf
ofgf yfkgf ofMu' vM .

M % onof a'u+ BM

a'u+ BM-lskf M %_of k"j{ hGdof vF yg+ x] z'? h'u' vg]b' .
a'u+ BMoft le+st] j sn]j/ lxn]t x] ygof rf dfMu' x] h'n . d]lk+ BMlklg
y]+ d"lt{ :og wfM;f hs rf sfM jOu' dh';] lem+lgbFo\ 5Sj jo\ x] dfM . j
x] g+ hfqf ofgf, ljlwjt\ ?k+ k"hfofgf, ;fOt :jof, n'+ j jxof s'ln+
SjfgfM hs gof s'+ rf kfn]u' ofO .40
cy]x] t'+ xl/l;l4of e}/joft j vf]sgfof lzsfnLoft lem+lgbFo\
df]xgL l;Gx sfOu' ofM . lem+lgbFo\ 5Sj Dxo\lk kL7o\ jofM tflGqs ljlw+
df]xgL kmof o+su] ' ofM .

g]kfM xofM rfofu' d"lt{
lskf ^ M s'?jf
bo\s]t Dxo\lkof rf o+sn .
blIf0fsfnL kmlk{Ëo\ s'?jf -s6'jfn bx_ -lskf ^_ w}u' yf;o\ aGw'bQ
cfrfo{+ yfkgf ofMu' Dxo\lk :yfg b' . yg+ x] df+of VjfM :jo\u' 5Gx' GXoM
rfGxo\ s?0fdooft VjfM l;s]t nM sfMjo\u' ofO .
:joDe" :t'kf Rjo\ g+ Dxo\lk :yfg b' . clUgk'/+ zflGtk'/o\ jg]u' nFo\
b]kfo\ ;fwf/0f kvfMn+ 3]/] ofgftMu' b' . Rjo\ kf} wfM;f toftMu' db' . b'g]
;fwf/0f Njx+t hs b' . yg s?0ffdoof hfqf ofo\t ;fOt :jOu' yfo\
vM . Yj yfo\oft gdl;+ sf}lz wfo\u' ofM . yg a'u+ Mof kf+hl' k+ axf+ HjgfM
k"hf ofjO .42

41

40

;g ;fo\ld, Dxo\lk clhdfof hfqf g]kfMof hfqf , -o]F M g;gf klAns]zg
!!@(_ kf} %& .
@!

Afnb]j h'h' j ;'/G] b«dfg >]i7, g]kfMof tflGqs BM j tflGqs k"hf -o]M+ Afnb]j
h'h' j ;'/G] b«dfg >]i7, !!@) _ kf} & .
42
x]d/fh zfSo, >L :joDe" dxfr}To -:joDe" Mo]+ ,:joDe" ljsf; d08n ,
!)(*_ kf} %&! –&@ .
@@

#= Dxo\lk BMof ;fF:s[lts kIf

lskf & M t+nfl5 BMvM

Dxo\lk clhdfof b“ob\ ;+ Gofo\sLu' vM hfqf
k/Dk/flg;]+ GXofgf jofMRj+u' jf;'bj] bQ+ gL:jgf ys'u' w}u'
laZjf; ofgfM jofRj+u' gLlh u'ly b'u' >L of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/L -Dxo\lk
clhdfof_of bFob\ ;+ Gofo\s] dfMu' vMhfqf-lskf &_ r}q z'Sn qof]bzLof
lb+lg+;+] GXofO . Yj hfqf 7Flxl6of >]i7lkG;+ Gofo\lsu' u'ly vM . Yj hfqfo\
r}q z'Sn qof]bzLlg;]+ r}q s[i0f t[ltofts k'hf h'O . hfqf o+s yLyL sy+
k'hf h'O . y'sLof k'hfof ultljlw y'sy+ b' –
qof]bzLv'Gx' ;'yo\ ofo\dfMu' ljlw
Yjv'Gx' a';fbF wsfM g+ wfo\u' ofM . BM5]oF \ jgf BM sf]yfo\ snz
k'hf ofo\dfM . k'hf ofo\ ano\ BMoft b[li6+ s+sfM rf}d/L g+ 5fo\dfM .$#
43

rtfd/L nYofgf psL Bf]g] cf?jfM, k+rktfsf, s0f{ktf tof 5fo\uo' ft x]
rf} 5fo\u' wfO{ .
@#

snz k"hf ofo\ ano\ yfk]st] snz, wf}klt, ;'sG' bf j vfo\ sf]l/+, yf]+
yfkL+, cGtL, s6fyf]+ j XofpF yf]+ g+ :jg]dfM . BM k"hf j lsuM ltg] l;wnls
kf;M alh -;do\_ XjnfM, ;f]dfo\ Rj+u' Yff]+ j wf} ;u+ 5fo\dfM .44 ;sl;of+
BM eflu ofgf, l;Gx ltgf k|;fb sfO . u'?, k'/f]lxt nufot ;sl;ofF ;do\
gO . lrk+ lyO w'gls gf]sg" + BM k"hfofu' :jfF Sjsfo\u' ofO, u'?h'oft
ef]hg ofsL . ef]hg ofo\ ano\ u'?h'oft BM AjM wsfM s"l5 AjM 5AjM
to\dfM .
r}q z'Sn qof]bzLv'Gx' axlg æ5f]on
\ f a"Æ ofO . æ5f]on
\ f a"Æof
ef]o\ go\ws
+' fM ;'gfg+ 5]oF \ hf go\dHo" . v'l; xfrf+ ufof ug+ jg]dHo" . 5f,
nfef, Kofh cflb cdn ef]hg ofo\dHo" . 5\Øu+ ' nfsf+ ts+ GXofo\ dHo" .
u'l7of/t dWo] ;'of+ kl/jf/lk+ l;t wfM;f b'v+ Rjg]dHo" . afx«f tsg+
to\dHo" . t/ so\tfk"hf wfM;f ofo\Ho" . 5f]on
\ f a", Ejo\ofM 5Gx' GXoM
ofOu' lgdGq0ff jf kSsf ofOu' Hof vM . y'ls+ Ejho\ dfMlkGt lrgfMto\u'
Hof ofO . Yjv'Gx' jOlk+ vnMlk+ sGxo\vG' x' g+ j} wsfM kSsf h'O . 5f]on
\ f
a" w}u' Ejo\of nut sfo\u' Hof g+ vM .
rt'b{ zLv'Gx' ofo\dfMu' ljlw
Yj v'Gx' u'l7of/t bSjl;of DjM Nx'of, ;F vfgfM, n'l; WogfM gL
ofo\dfM . BMoft g+ ;kmf ofO . Yj v'Gx' GofDx ysfln, BMkfnf j u'?h'+
g+ ;F vfo\dfM . BM5]F 5vfF aF lynfM ysfln gls+ g+ ;stf+ k"hf to\dfM .
lemdgf hfls k"hfoft y'O, lem+lgdgf hfls af}hf y'O . tUjMu' lem+GofuM
bf]nf j lrUjMu' Goo\uM bf]nfo\ ;jf{ hf ygL . lem+GofuM BM uf]hf j Goo\uM
tUjMu' uf]hf hfofu' x] bo\su] ' HofM u'?h'+ ofO . tUjMu' af} nKt]o\ af}hf
ygfM af}:jfF bSj+ tfM nfsL . dfo\, d':ofM, slru' nf, lx+, :jf],+ tft' j
r;'lDxrf g+ k"hfof nflu tO . df+;fx'ltof nflu g+ :jf]F to\dfM . ysfln
gls+g+ lgkfM sf]tM j GXoM b'jfk"hf 5kfM tO . lk7o\ k"hf ofo\t dfMu'
;Dk"0f{ Hjn+, o1of Hjn+, k"0ff{ Hjn+ cflb ln;]+ ;'Olgtf lajM bSj+ tO .
44

Yj k"hfoft dfMu' Hjn+t kl/lzi6o\ b' .
@$

Yj v'Gx' ;'yo\ ysfln gls+ g+ BM5]oF \ aOuno\ tofM so\tf nM
Nxfgf ;u+ lanls j|tjGw h'O . d]yfo\ ug+ 5'+ ofo\dHo" w}u' lgod b' . t/
d]yfo\ so\tfk"hf ofMj+u' k|df0f g+ db' . 7Flxl6of Dxo\lk sjM lklg 5vnM
>]i7 lklg hs yy] h'O . y'ld;+ hs jh|frfo{ u'efh' toftMu' b', d]lklg
ad{' tofM k'HofO . BM5]o+ \ j v6o\ tOu' ljlw yg Sjo\ GxoM Ajofsy+ b' .

lskf * M Dxo\lk clhdf j u0f
y'sy+ clhdfoft pQ/kfv] :jsfM hj+ qmdzM !=j|Dxfo0fL
@=OGb«fo0fL #=s'df/L $=rfd'08f %=u0f]z ^=l;+lxgL &=gfu/fhf j vj+
qmdzM !=af/fxL @=j}i0fjL #=e}/jL $=dxfnIdL %=Jofl3|gL ofgf ldno\
ofO . BMhfqf ofODx clhdfof GXog]; rx]« clhdf tO . y'sy+ x] BMv6o\
j udo\ g+ tOu' ljwfg vM . BMof GXof]g] t'+ v8\u 5k" j kfq 5uM g+ tO . v8\u
j kfq udo\ g+ o+sL . udo\ x] g+ kfq 5uM yfkgf ofgftMu' b' .
BM 5fo\k] w's
+ fM k"hf ofgfM ;GWof O{ h'Oj+ d"nfrfo{ u'?h'+ d"nDx
clhdf a'ofM pkfWofo u'?h'+ rx]« clhdf a'of j d]lk+ ci6dft[sf BMkfnfto\;+
SjMlaof :jl:t jfSo Ajgf BM hfqf ofo\u' v6o\ ldno\ ofgfM tO . cg+ln
GXoM b'jf k"hf ofO . Yj k"hf ysfln gls+ g+ ofO . k"hf w'gj] + BM
s'DxfMto\;+ Sjlaof nfl5; lkt o+sL . -Gxfkf l;+ofu' BM vM lgtF b'u' vM
k'Nff+ h'of yf}s
+ Gx] Dxo\kL x] toftMu' b'_ Gx"u' v6o\ :jfFDxf j lrUjMu' u+
5fo\lkof tO . v6o\ BM tofM le+u' tf;ofu' 5q BM vM gfk+ tof tO .
@%

lem+v'Dx s'DxfMto\;+ Sjlaof
afh+ gfk+ tFnfl5, Hof7f, 7d]n
-eujfg axfn_, uNsf]kfvf,
;fdfv'l; h'sfM Dxo\lk åf]Fo\
Yo+sL . Gxfkf Yjv'Gx' axgL
;fo\ld lkG;+ BM5]o+ \ ;do\ 5fgf,
bfkf yfMjgL . tFnfl5 Tjfn+ bfkf
yfgf uNsf]kfvf ts hs jgf
cg+ x] lnxfF jO .45 cfM TjfM
afs' h'ofM y'sy+of Hofof nflu
cfo:tfof cefj+ bfkf yfo\u' x]
aGb h'Ow's
+ n.
tF n fl5 TjfMn+ BM
lskf ( M h1zfnf
NXjgfM o+snls BM kfnfof
ysflng+ k"hfof ;fdfg j k"hfs" BM5]oF o\ f sf];+ Sjlaof n'vfvn'; bgfM,
d"n k"hfeM-sf]tM_ hjkfv] tofM w'+ RofsfM ysfln lg;]+ bSj+ Rjgf k"hf s"
;+sNk ofgfM Dxo\kL 5\jO . k"hf ;fdfg jg]j+ hf]/] ofgftMu' ef]o\ g+ TjM
dlkms ;stf+ s'DxfMto\t Sjlasf Dxo\lk Yo+sL . Dxo\kL BMvM Yogls BMoft
:jrfM po\sf BMof GXoMg] lbsL . u'? k'/f]lxt+ BMoft cfzg u|x0f ofs]t
BMyfo\ kf]tfo\ r'+ g+ if6\sf]0f bo\sf jf :jl:t Rjof tO . tfo\ j cfv]oF f
cfzg tofM udo\ BM AjO . d"nDx clhdfoft udo\ to\ws
+' fM d]lk+ BM qmdz
yMyMu' yf;o\ AjO . BM udo\ Yog wsfM l;s]t dxfkfqof hn k|;fb ;sl;t+
xfM ofO . BM udo\ Yogls n;s'; ofo\t 5u" sy+of pT;j x] h'O .
BM Sjlaof jMlk+ s'DxfMt, afh+ vnM j eQmhglk+ lnxf+jgL . b]uM
GXog] Rj+u' ;Qno\ rfGxo\ xf]d ofo\t t'ou" ' sfkt+ lxgftO . Yj o1 ofMu'
u'lyof/lk+ afx]s d]lkG;+ :jo\dHo" . pls+ o1 rfGxo\ hs ofOu' vM . BMof
tKo+s nfSs ;x;|fx'lt o1 ofo\t ;'OlgkfM slr cKkf tofM u'?h+' h1-lskf (_
45

Gxfkf yg+ lg;]+ Uofgfk' h"ul' n+, BM Sjlalk+ hs jlg . BM Sjlajno\
5'+ ofo\ km}dv' w}u' hgljZjf; b' .
@^

lskf !) M xf]d ofgfRj+u'
bo\sL . Yj h1ljlw cg';f/ ;'Olgtf nIf0f nfsfM :yfkgf ofO . hhdfgof
ysflnoft u'?h'+ Gxfkf+ ;"of{3{ k"hf ofsL . jof+ No" BMu' vnMof ;sn
b'hMlkGt ;Mtf ;x;|fx'tL, df+zfx'lt o1 j d"n k"hfof k"hfeM ;+sNk
ofsfM lsuM clgofsL .
y'u' k"hfo\ Gxfkf–Gxfkf z]iffx'lt, df+zfx'lt j ;x;|fx'tL :j+u'
sy+of o1 ofO .46 hfof dg"of 5\Øf]+ bo\sf o1o\ b'Ou'oft z]iffx'lt o1
wsfM wfO . :jf]+ cyjf ;]+ b'ou" ' x] o1 wsfM wfO . ;'Olgtf lajM b'of ofOu'
o1 x] ;x;|fx'tL o1 wsfM wfO . Gxfkf h'ofRj+u' df+zfx'lt o1 yf}s
+ Gx] yg
dh'O w's
+ n . yg h'Ou' xf]d -lskf !)_ u'?h', Dxo\lk vnM j BMkfnfM afx]s
d]lkG;+ :jo\dHo" . pls+ yg xf]d ofo\ GXo x] t'o" sfkt+ af/] ofgfM tO .
Gxfkf Yj df+zfx'lt o1 ofOano\ lgv/ xfs"Dx j t'oD" x b'u' aln
aLu' ofgfRj+u' vM . xfs"Dx]l;of 5\Øf]+ j :jf]+ o1o\ b'O . t'oD" xl;of l;sfa"
ofo\dfM w}u' lgod b'u' vM . nueu kLbF GXoM yy] l;sfa" ofO ano\ y'sy+
Og]u' ofgfRj+u' h'ofRjg .
46

y'u' df+zfx'lt o1 ofOano\ sf]nfO{ rrf xfnL .
@&

Hfju' ldvfof AjM
– Gxfkf+Dx ysfln
vju' ldvfof AjM
– lgDx ysfln
Hfju' Gxfo\ko+ f AjM
– :jDx ysfln
Vfju' Gxfo\ko+ f AjM
– KoDx ysfln
hj jfs'lwof AjM
– GofDx ysfln
vj jfs'lwof AjM
– v'Dx ysfln
d]ofu' AjM
– Gxo\Dx ysfln
y'gfrf÷TjfMof AjM
– u'?h'
y'sy+ b'uo' f nf u'?h', u'l7of/ j BMkfnfM bSjl;t+ AjM yO .
o1of qmdo\ k"hfof by'O klZrd pQ/ s'g+ o\ tKjfMu' lr/fu Rofsf dt
Sog]u' ofO .47
u'?h'+ Gof; ofgfM ljlwk"js
{ k"hf ofgf u'? d08n bg] w's
+ fM z'l4
sfo{ ofo\t k+ruJo 5fO . Bf+nfgf Rj+lk+ ;sl;t+ u'?h'+ k+ruJo aL .
df]xlg kmo\u' Hof g+ ofO . l;Gx bo\su] ' Hof ysfln gls+ g+ ofO . cn]
;dflw bgf dfdls k"hf ofO . ljlwjt\ sy+ o1 ljwfg ;km" :jof clUg
cfx'lt ofgf k"hf ofO . pkfWofo u'?h'+ BMyfo\ udo\ ljlwjt\ ?k+ b]jLof
k"hf ofO . BMoft :jf+ 5fOano\ d"n
" frfo{+ :jf+ hk ofgf Ao';] rrf Do]
48
xfn]dfM .
k"hf l;wnls wsL Rj+u' ;do\ g+ 5fO . ;f]dfo\ Rj+u' yf]+ BMyfo\
Rj+u' kfq; yg]dfM . k"hf l;wnls cfx'tL ;+sNk ofsf cfx'tL b'O . cfx'tL
l;wnls ;x;|fx'lt ofO . GofDx ysfln tof df+zfx'lt ofo\t ysflnlkGt
hUu]of 5rfMv]/+ tO . cDk jf wfnfo\ nM tof nMNxfgfM aL . yg d"nfrfo{+
BMof d"n dGq hk ofgfM ;lR5 j Rofs' ;f]+ b'O . pkfWofo u'?h'+ rrf
xfnL .49 cDk; Rj+u' hnwf/f GofDx ysflnlk;+ o1; rrfofu' tfno\
rLwfn+ t'nn
' ' xfo\sL . rrf xfn] l;wo\j+ cDkoft o1of 5rfv]/+ ef]ko' s
\ f

47

Yj lr/fu Sog]u' sf/0f cWofo # of #=# Dxo\lkof d]u' wfld{s :yngfk :jfk"
kf} @)o\ b' .
48
ælhgj/ jf a'4 of]ufDj/Æ rrfxfnL, Yj rrf kl/lzi6o\ b' .
49
sf]nfo\ rrf kl/lzi6o\ b' .
@*

krf]kr
+ f/ k"hf ofgf ygf tO . ;sn]+ hhdfglk+t k;"sf Hj+sf lsuM
ltsL . k"0ff{xl' t ;+sNk ofsfM k"0ff{xl' t b'O .
k"hf lj;{hg ofgfM ;u+ wf}klt 5fofM l;Gx ltgfM, ltsfM o1;
5fo\sf blIf0ff 5fO . u'?h'oft g+ x:t blIf0ff aL . Dx"rf k|;fb -;do\_
j dfdls k|;fb gofM lrk+ yL . lrk+ yL w's
+ fM BMkfnfMof ysflnoft gfu
k'O+{ xfo\s] 5|j\ O . k'O+{ xfofM lnxfF jnls joft g+ lrk+ lysL . BMkfnfof
lrk+ yL l;wnls BM udo\ :js] 5|\jO . y'an] x] BMuf]hf -tUjMu'_
bo\sftMu' g+ udo\ to\s] 5|j\ O . ysfln gls+ g+ Roftf 3f;f tof yfo\eO'
BMAjM tO . Yj AjMx] cfu+AjM vM . ysfln gls+g+ cfu+AjM BM yfo\ 5f jgL .
xfsg+ yMDx+t+' nfgfM g+ xO . cn] ;do\ Ejo\ go\t AjM tO . ;do\ Ejo\ y'sy+
AjM tO .
!= d"nfrfo{ u'?h'
@= pkfWofo u'?h'
#= BMkfnfof ysfln
$= o1 AjM
%= snM AjM
^= u0frqm AjM
&= VoM AjM
Yj Ejho\ Roftf 3f;f, s"l5 -lgdgf_ alh j v]lk r]lk g+ to\dfM .
;do\ go\ l;wnls d" Ejo\ gO . Ejo\ gOano\ uhlhg jf p/+ue/0frrf
xfnL . Ejo\ go\ l;wnls g' l;nf, aftfo\ lrk d's
+ fM snM jfO . lrk ;'rs]
l;wnls u0frqm jfo\sL . y'ln Hof l;wo\j+ Dxo\kL Yj v'Gx'of k"hf j Ejo\
SjrfO . lj=;+= @)^% ;fno\ YJf k"hf dh"n . t/ BM hs Ajo\ xn . cfkl;
åGbof sf/0f+ yy] hfqfo\ c;/ nfgfRj+u' b' . y'ul' ; Yj hfqf gLbF GXoof
k/Dk/fsy+ k"hf ofo\u' Hof Sjrfn .
k'GxLv'Gx' ofo\dfMu' ljlw
Yj Dxo\lk BMof hfqfof d" lb+ Nx'lt k'lGx v'Gx' vM . Yj v'Gx' yg
b]uno\ >4fn' eQmhglk+ bz{g ofo\t jO . ;'yo\ BM Sjlalk+ s'DxfMt b]os
\ ]
jn wfM;f l;GxM ltsfM ;do\ gsL . lnt o+su] ' Hjn+ bSj+ s'DxfMto\t
Hj+sfM 5\jO . Yj v'Gx' BM5]gF + 5Gx' GXof] hfqf ofgf xMDx Dxo\lk clhdf
@(

lGxlR5 udo\ x] ljHofsf
tO . BM vM 5fo\lko\t
u'l7of/to\;+ :jf+ HjgfM jO .
BM vMoft :jf+ D xfM j
lrlsrf w+u' u+t vfofM
emMemM wfo\s 5fo\kL .
;GWof O{ h' n ls BMvM
BMyfo\ GXog] tofM 5fo\kL .
;GWof O{ h'nls BM Sjlat
s' D xfMt jO . d" n
clhdfoft d"nfrfo{+ u'?+
:j:tL jfSo AjgfM ud+
lskf M!! ;doalh
ygfxof v6o\ tO .
pkfWofo u'?h'+ rx]« clhdf v6o\ tO . yy] x] ci6dft[sf BMlk+ g+ v6o\
tof BMkfnf g+ BM ldno\ ofgf lrgfaL . s'DxfMto\;+ BMvM Sjlaof b]uM
:jrfM pOsL . BMvM ;fdfv'l;, uNsf]kfvf, n}grf}/, ksgfhf]n, gofFahf/
rfM x'Osf eujfgaxfn+ tFnfl5 Tjfno\ Yo+sL . tFnfl5 Yogls ysfln gls+
g+ k"hf ofgf BM b'sfO . tFnfl5 ;Qno\ BM lbsf k"hf ofO . Gxfkf yg BM
Yogls t+nfl5of ;fo\ld g]kfMkm}rf aLu' ofgfM j}Rj+u' vM . drfvnM, Nofo\Dx
vnM j Hofyf vnM ofgf :jvnM ;fo\ldlkG;+ k"hf ofo\u' rng b' .
lj=;+= @)^^ ;fno\ Nx'lt k'lGxv'Gx' Dxo\lk BMyfo\ ;do\ åF to\u'
Hof g+ h'n . Gxfkf Ifdf k"hf ofM jno\ 5sM g+ yg ;do\ åF tMu' b' .
;fwf/0foftof k"hf ofO ano\ GXofDxl;of+ g+ ;do\alh-lskf !!_ tO .
t/ ;do\ alhof tMw+u' dxTj b' .
tGqof k"hfo\ hLjaln aLdfM . tflGqs zlQm j l;l4of nflu
tflGqs to\;+ g/jln ts+ laof j+u' vFt Gog] db'u' dv' . yy] vM;f+ Gxfkf
dg"to\;+ hLj :ofgf aln aLu' kfk b' wsfM of]lg+ hGdsflk+ hLjt :ofgfM
aln ef]u aLu' dofM . dGq ;fwgf ofgf ;Dfo\ g+ hLj ;[li6 ofgfM hs aln
50

Afnb]j h'h' j ;'/G] b«dfg >]i7, g]kfMof tflGqs BM j tflGqs k"hf M -o]+ Afnb]j
h'h' j ;'/G] b«dfg >]i7, !!@)_ kf} !! .
#)

ef]u laof clx+;f dxfaln k"hf ofo\u' ofgfRj+u' vM . lnkf hLj ;[li6 ofo\
dkm'lkG;+ g+ hLj alnof ?ko\ x] ;do\ ygf 5fo\u' ofgfRjg . pls+ tflGqs
ljlwof ;do\ hLj alnof k|tLs vM .50
;do\ Hjn+ :ofMahL -alhgfk+_ xfs'd':of, kfn', 5\jo\nf, j
co\nfM Goftf hs vM . :ofahL cfsfz tTj, xfs'd:' ofo\ jfo' tTj, kfn'O
hntTj, 5\jo\nfo\ k[YjL tTj, j co\nfMvo\ t]h tTjof u'0f b' . k+rtTjof
k|tLs h'ul' n+ ;do\ yg]t Hjn+ Goftf x] to\dfu' vM . raf+ Vo]F hs :ofM;f+
g+ Vo]F 5s' 5s' ;do\Ajo\ to\dfM . k/Dk/f+lg;]+ yy] tof ;do\ 5fo\u' j
go\u' ofgfRj+u' vF ;do\ j aln j:t' 5tf x] vM wsfM So+ .51
kf?÷k/]jfv'Gx' ofo\dfMu' ljlw
Yj v'Gx' BM bz{g ofM jOlk+ Sjrfn ls BM v6o\ tO . ysfln gls+
j u'?h' RjgfM GXoMb'jfM k"hf ofO . GXoMb'jfM k"hf l;wnls BM v6o\
k'Hofgf, BMvM ygfM hfqf ofo\t GXofsL . t+nfl5of ;fo\ldlkG;+ BM v6o\
tofM tfo\of DfxfM xgfM 5fo\u' g+ kf?v'Gx' x] ofO . skfo\of Dxo\vf bo\sf
5fo\u' ofO . BM5]oF \ jgfM ;sn vnMt j u'?h'oft ;do\ gsL . t/ yfs'ln
gls+ j Gjs' lGxlR5 Bf+ nfo\dfM .
BM hfqf ofo\u' n“k' –
tFnfl5, Hofyf – yFlxl6 – gfo\TjfM – ef]6flxl6 – dxfaf}4 –
;jnaxfn – b'ua+ lx – gofF;8s – 6]axfM – cf]daxfM – o+ufM – Os'axfM
– dGh'>L – lvrfk'v" – emf]5F] – nu+ TjfM – gfo\kfrf] – ad{' TjfM – Hofk'
t'+ – d';a+' xfno\ lbsf englg b'g] jgf ;do\ gO – ad'{ TjfM – Xo"dtM TjfM
– HofaxfM – sf]lxl6 – le+Bf] kfvf – xg'dfgWjfvf – bdfO+{ 6f]n – GotM
– 7Flxl6 – Hofyf BM5]F . Yj nFk' gLGofbF GXoofu' vM . Yj nFko' ft 5'+ erf
cMk'Osf BM hfqf ofo\u' ofo\ w's
+ n . t/ y'ul' ; xfsg+ Yj x] nFk' g+ BM hfqf
ofu' vM .
51

] k"jj{ t\, kf} !# .

BM b'sfo\u' –
axgL BM b'sfo\t lkvfnv'; Rj+u' tUjMu' Njx+to\ aF lynfM tO .
u'ls u'?h'+ :jl:t lr+ RjO . BM5]oF \ BM lbs]u' yf;o\ g+ u+l5 BMlkGt :jl:t
cfzg Rjo\dfM . BM b'sfo\t dfMu' Hjn+ l7s ofgfM tO . Gjs' j ysfln
gls+ lgDx BM b'sfo\t n'vfvn'O RjgfRjgL . ysfln gls+ ef}drf b'sfo\ano\
y]+ ;dfM ofgf le+u' tf;of n+, kl;{ j uf GoofM ;FKjM KofgfRjgL . BMvM
n'vfv?; Yogls vMof uh" b'u" AjM lnsof gls+g+ BM k'HofO . of]dlx«+ l;km+
n'ofM BM n;s'; ofO . TjfMof j u'l7of/lk+ d'gfM Rjlgu'ln+ x'n h'O .
BM b'sfOano\ t;s+ GXoOk's pT;j ofO . ;sn]+ BM vnMt d'gf k"hf
ofO . u'?h+' :jl:t jfSo Ajgf u'u+ " j g:jfMu' w'k+ ygfM n;s'; ofO .
ysfln gls+ g+ BMoft aln+ kLsL . BMoft rf}d/L, of]d/L j Nj+rfdl/+ l;km+
n'O . BMkfnfMg+ BMt lrgftMu' ˆogL . d"nfrfo{ u'?h'+ d"n clhdf,
pkfWofo u'?h'+ rx]« clhdf a'ofM yt o+sL . d]dl] k+ BMt xf;f jf wsL tofM
o+sL . BMt km'Ss+ BMof cfzgo\ ldno\ ofgf tO . ysfln gls+, Gjs' j
;sn]+ vnMt hfgfM sf]tM k"hf j GXob'jfM k"hf ofO . k"hf l;wo\sf ;do\
gO . BM b'sfo\t lGxlR5 Bf+ nfgfRj+lk+ ysfln gls+ j Gjs' lgDxl;t+
af+nfs lrk+ lyo\sd
] fM .
BM b'sfo\ w's
+ fM axlg gOu' Ejo\ x] d" Ejo\ vM . Ejho\ Roftf
3f;f, v]lk r]lk tofM Ejo\ gO . u'?h'oft lg AjM, BMkfnfof yfs'lnoft
5AjM, sn AjM, u0frqm AjM tofM vnM bsl;t+ Ejo\ tO . u'?h'+ Ejo\
gOano\ ci6 If]qkfn, uhlhg jf p/+ufe/0f dWo] 5k" rrf xfnL .52
Ejo\ go\ l;wo\sf g' l;nf, snM u0frqm jfs] 5\jO .
b'tLof v'Gx' ofo\dfMu' ljlw
;'yo\ ;sn]+ eQmhglk+ BMbz{g ofo\ l;wo\sL . BMyfo\ ;kmf
ofgfM aF lynfM ;f}aF k'O . sf]tM k"hf tof u'?h' j ysfln gls+ RjgfM BM
k'HofO . GXo b'jfM g+ k'HofO . k"hf l;wo\j+ ;sl;of+ :jf+ l;Gx sofM ;do\
gO .
52

#!

Yj ci6 If]qkfn, uhlhg j p/+ufe/0f rrf Do]t kl/lzi6o\ b' .
#@

Yj v'Gx' æhfa"Æ wsfM xfoftMu' hf gO . Ejo\ go\ GXoM BMoft
;M-;x_ ef]hg tO . snM AJfM j u0frqm AjM g+ tO . hfa" Ejho\ ;sl;of+
lyly 3f;f tof gO . u'?h' g+ ci6 If]qkfn rrf xfnL . Ejo\ go\ l;wo\sf
snM j u0frqm jfs] 5\jO . Yjv'Gx' axgL s'DxfM Ejo\ Gofo\sL .
æs'DxfM Ejo\Æ wsfM lem+Gxo\Dx s'DxfMto\t ;stf+ tofM afFnfs
Ejo\ gsL . y'ano\ x] BM kfnfM j gf}oft g+ Ejo\ gsL . Yj v'Gx' u'?h'oft
g+ labf AjM wsfM s"l5 alh tof Ejo\ aL . d"nfrfo{ u'?h'oft Ko+u' efu,
pkfWofo u'?h'oft Ko+u' efu j BMkfnfof yfs'lnoft lgu" efu Ejo\
afFnfs tofM aL . BMkfnf ld;flk+t g+ labf AjM wsfM Ejo\ gs]u' j aLu'
ofgftMu' b' .
t[tLofv'Gx' ofo\dfMu' ljlw
Yjv'Gx'oft æKoGx' ljrfMÆ wsfM g+ wfO . ;'yo\ BM5]oF \ -gf} ah]
GXoM ts_ BM bz{g ofMjOlk+ Sjrfnls u'?h'+ BM wf]of aL . BMkfnfMlk;+
BM sf]t o+sfM ;f]s+ tofM bfo\sftMu' nvo\ l;nL . BM sf]7fo\ ;kmf ofsfM
u'?h'+ BM to\u' cf;go\ :jl:t RjO . hj+ t"lk+ Gof tofM dT:o cf;g tof
BMoft qmdfg';f/ cf;go\ tO . BM5]oF \ k'Hff ofo\t tkfMu' sf]tno\ k"hf
to\dfM . Vono\ k"hf 5|j\ o\u' wsfM Dxo\lk udo\ g+ k'hf 5\j| o\dfM .
tUjMu' sn; k"hf tof k"hf 5\jO . sn; rf}dlx«, k+rktfsf
lem+Gofk', cf?jf lem+GofkfM, tUju' nlDkrf j s';f nKt] -k'O{+ xfo\t_ g+
to\dfM . k'O{+ xfo\t skfo\ k'O+{ u'kO' +{ tofM bo\sd
] fM . BMkfnfMof ysfln
Dxo\lk; snM jgf k"hf l;wnls nlDkrf; Rj+u' ;do\ lrk+ lyO .
BM sf]7fo\ u'?h'+ snz, wf};u+, dt, dfdls, vfo\, yflk+, clGtO
-XofpFYjF, s6fYjF_ :jgfM k"hf ofO . snz dfdls k'Hff l;wo\sf BM k"hf
ofO . BM k"HofO ano\ :jfF 5fo\t :jfF hk ofgf hs 5fO . :jfF 5fO ano\
lhgj/ hggL jf jh|wf]/L rrf g+ xfnL . d"nfrfo{ u'?h'+ :jl:t jfSo
AjgL . pkfWofo u'?h'+ rrf xfnL . k"hf l;wnls BMoft dfdls k|;fb
5fO . kf;M alh -;do\_ g+ 5fO .
##

rfsMk"hf -rqmk"hf_ ofO . lsuM ltgf wf}klt 5fofM k"hf SjrfO .
BM bz{g ofgfM l;Gx ltgfM, ltsL . GofDx ysfln Rjgf dfdls k|;fb sof
lrk+ yL . Dx" ;do\ go\ l;wnls BM sf]7fof HofM l;wn . ef]hg ofo\u'
Ono\ BMoft g+ ;M ef]hg 5fO . ef]hg ofo\t Gxfkf y]+ t'+ AjM to\dfM . Ejo\
to\ ano\ jf+u' nfef g+ to\dfM . Ejo\ go\ ano\ u'?h'+ p/+uf e/0f rrf
Do] xfnL . g' l;n] w's
+ fM snM j u0frqm jfo\sL . cn] u'?h'oft hhdfglk;+
>4f+ blIf0ff aL .
Yj of]ufDj/ hfqfof nflu k"hf ofo\t u'?h'lkGt 5'+ x] cfo:tf
toftMu' db' . ‰jfM axfM -/Tgs]t' dxfljxf/_of u'?h'lkGt Dxo\lk sjM
wsf toftMu' b' . u'?h' >L xif{/Tg jh|frfo{of ;Gtfglk;+ k"hf rno\
ofo\dfMu', d]lk;+ ofo\ dHo" woftMu'ln+ yf}+ ts Yj Hofoft lg/Gt/tf
laoftMu' h'n . >L xif{/Tg jHf|frfo{of ;Gtfglk;+ x] ofgfM j}Rj+u' b' . :j=
b]j/Tg jHf|frfo{h+' k"hf ofo\t sfo\ d:t lrwL h'ul' n+ a/] 5'O{ w'gj] +
d"nfrfo{ ofgfM hfqfoft GXofsfj+u' vM .
:jf“–5f k"hf -a}zfv z'Sn k'l0f{df_
>L of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/Lof hfqf j k"hf l;wo\ w's
+ fM nlR5 lnkf
a}zfv z'Sn k'l0f{df -:jfFof k'lGx_ v'Gx' Dxo\kL jgf k"hf ofO . Yj
k"hfoft x] æ:jfF–5f k"hfÆ wsfM wfO .
Yj v'Gx' BM5]oF \ ;'yo\ aF lynf gL ofgf ysfln gls+g+ k'hf tO .
jxof snz j tkfMu' sf]tno\ k"hf tO . vfo\, XofpF YjF, YJfF, co\nf, b]
5fkf, cGtL, yflk+ ;stf+ to\dfM . rtfd/L, cf?jf, k+rktfsf, b[li6,
;fb'?, £oM, sl:t g+ r"nfs]dfM . Dxo\lk jg]t dfMu' ;fdfg j Ejo\ go\t
dfMu' Hjn+ s' bo\sL . k"hf s" BM 5]oF \ GXoMg] RjgfM ;+sNk ofgfM hs
Dxo\lk jgL . BMu' vnlk+ ;sn]+ Dxo\lk Yogls BM udo\ ;kmf ofO . u'?h'+
snz, dfdls k"hf oft dfdfu' k"hf Hjn+t sofM k"hf yfko\sL . k"hf
yfko\su] ' BM udo\ b'xfF jgfM hjkfv] BMof vjo\ Rjgf ofO .

#$

bsn] Gxfkf+ u'?h'g+ hhdfgof yfs'lnoft yMu' GXog] tofM
;"of{3{ k"hf ofO . ;sn]+ hhdfglk+ ;Mtf k"hfeM ;+sNk ofO . u'?d08n
bgfM k+ruAo 5fgfM ljlwsy+ k"hf ofO . df]xlg kmof, b[li6 s+sf, l;Gx
ltsL . ;dflw bgfM, snz k"Hff ofgfM dfdls k"hf ofO . cn] hs BM k"hf
ofO . BM k"hf ofgfM :jfF 5fo\ ano\ u?h'+ :jfF hk ofo\dfM . sf]tno\ ch':jfF
tofM :jfF hk ofO . :jfF 5fo\ ano\ ;sn]+ BMu' vnMlk+ g+ GXog] to\dfM .
pkfWofo u'?h'+ of]u] fDj/, lhgj/ hggL jf jh|wf]/L rof{ uLt xfnL .
d"nfrfo{ u'?h'+ :jl:t jfSo Ajgf rf}d/L, kf;M alh 5fO . rfsM
k"hf ofsfM lkg]Rj+lk+ BM ;sl;t+ k"hf ofO . ;sn BM vnMlk+ d'gf lsuM
tL w's
+ fM ysfln gls+ g+ ;u+ wf}klt 5fO . l;Gx ltgfM k"hfo\ blIf0ff tofM
u'?h'oft g+ blIf0ff aL . l;Gx tLu' Hof Sjlhn wfM;f ;do\ gO .
Ejo\ go\ ano\ Roftf 3f;f r"nfs]dfM . BMAjM, u'?h'oft j
BMkfnfMoft s"l5 jlh tofM BM AjM to\dfM . VoMAjM, snMAjM j u0frqm
AjM5u" 5u" AjM to\dfM . ;sl;of+ Ejo\ gO . Ejo\ go\ano\ u'?h'+ uhhLg
jf ci6Ifqkfn rrf xfnL .53 Ejo\ go\ l;wo\sf snM j u0frqm jfo\sL . BM
u'7L vnMlklg ;xnx ofgf u'7L kfM lau' ofO . Ejo\ go\u' HofM Sjlht
wfo\j+ lnxf+ jO . uNsf]kfvf Yog wfo\j+ æaf k"hfÆ ofO . Yj k'Hffoft ln;f
k"hf wsfM g+ wfM . BM5]oF \ Yogls n'vf; k"hf ofO, y'ln Hof l;wo\j+ Yj
k"hf ljlw SjrfO .

%= Dxo\lk BMof k"hf k/Dk/f
x/]s BMlklgu' b]uno\ yLyL sy+of k"hft bFob\ ;
F h'ofRjgL . Yj
k"hf ofo\u' tl/sf ;fwf/0f jf w'dwfd sy+ ;do kl/l:ylt xy+ kfgfRjgL .
ljleGg Ono\ ofOu' k"hfof ljwfgt kfgf x] RjgL . wfld{s cf:yf tofM
k"hf ofM;f+ 5Dx BM oft x] km/s wdf{anDjL lkG;+ ofOu' Jojxf/ kfO .
yg h'Ou' k"hfof k|sf/ y'sy+ b' .
b}lgs k"hf -lgTok"hf_
dfl;s k"hf
kj{ k"hf
d]du] ' k"hf

s= b}lgs k"hf -lgTok"hf_

53

Yj uhhLg j ci6Ifqkfn rrf Do] kl/lzi6o\ b' .
#%

lGxlGx yg kL7o\ h'Ou' lgTo k"hf vM . ;'yo\ $M))–%M#) of b'g]
ygof lgTo k"hf SjrfO . yg lgTo k"hf ofo\t 3f}l5 aL . eQmhglklgu'
;'ljwfoft j k"hfo\ 5'+ afwf dh'OdfM wsfM ;'yo\ Gxfkf+ ofOu' vM . yg
b]uMno\ k'hf/L af}4 ;Dk|bfoof h'ofRj+u' b' . jh|frfo{ k'hf/L h'ul' n+ af}4
tflGqs ljlw sy+ k"hf h'O .
#^

@))^ ;fn /fd
gjdL v'Gx' k+= b]j/Tg
jh|frfo{+ Dxo\lk BMoft
jxof dt" j lt;ft 5fMu'
vM . Yj lt;f bo\st] lghL
Woaf tofM j 5'+ erf rGbf
d's
+ f ofMu' vM . pan]lg;]+
jx] lt;ft ltsfM BM
k'Hofo\u' ofgfM j}Rj+u' b' .
;'yo\ BMoft lt;f+ ltOs]
w's
+ fM u'?h'+ u'?d08nfr{g
ofO . cn] of]ufDj/ ;dflw
bgfM hs k~rfd[t+ k'hf
ofo\u' ofO . lgTo k"hf
-lskf !@_of nflu dfMu'
lskf !@M lgTo k'hfof n"
;fdfu|L :jf+, l;Gx, g}jB
] ,
w',+ w'kfFo,\ uf]hf j k+rfd[t vM . u'?h' ljsf;/Tg jh|frfo{of s'tn+
of]ufDa/ k'Hofo\u' ljlwoft ;+ux| ofgf ;km" lkbg] w's
+ n . Yj æof]ufDj/
;dflwÆ of Rjld efh' o1dfg klt jh|frfo{ vM .

;'yo\ BM bz{g ofMj}lk+ Sjrfnls b]uno\ b'g] BM j BMyfo\ ;kmf
ofo\u' Hof h'O . lGxgo\ g+ BM yfo\ rfM Xo"jlk+ b} . axgL BM lgefM aLj+
yg ;fwf/0f lsl;d+ cf/tL h'O . yg ;GWof cf/tL ofo\u' ;do wfM;f
lglZrt db' . cf/tL ofo\t u'an]+ u'?h' x] yxfF ljHofO ;f u'an] BMkfnf
g+ ofO .
v= dfl;s k"hf
dfl;s k"hf w}u' nf-dlxgf_o\ 5sM ofOu' ljz]if k"hf vM . nlR5
5sM j}u' lbg uy]– rx],« k'lGx, Psfblz jf ;+Gx' v'Gx'of lbgo\ no\ klQs+
ofOu' k"hf dfl;s k"hf vM . yhfu' k"hf blR5of b'g] 5Gx' hs jf nlG5
o+s g+ h'O . yg Dxo\lk BMyfo\ h'Ou' dfl;s k"hf Sjo\ GXoAjofsy+ b' –
c_ rx]« k"hf

:yfgLo hg;d'bfo d'gf ;'yo\ BMyfo\ ehg ofMjO . ;'yo\ BM
bz{g ofMjOlk+ k'rM d'gf x] yg b]l} gs ehg ;+rfng h'ofRj+u' b' . yg
BMofyfo\ ehgu'7L wsfM ljz]if db' . :yfgLo hg;d'bfolk+ ldn] h'ofM
bftflklgu' ;xfotf+ yg ehg h'ofRj+u' vM . ehg ofo\t of]ufDj/of
ehg wfM;f vg]db' . yLyL BMlklg ehg d's
+ fM ;km" bo\sftMu' b' . cn]
y'an] YJf Do] xfn]dfM w}u' g+ db' . wfld{s cf:yf tofM bSj BMlk+ cflv/
5Dx x] vM wsfM eflkof yLyL BMlklgu' ehg xfn]u' ofM . ehg ofo\t
dfOs, xfla{g, tDan, stf{n, z+v j u+ cflbg+ b' . d]ano\ :jof zlgaf/
v'Gx' tf O{ts ehg ofO . ehg ofo\ l;wo\sf ehg ofMjOlk+ ldn] h'of
lrof Tjg]u' Aoa:yf g+ ofgftMu' b' .

x / ] s
dlxgfof cfd} GXoM
rx]« k"hf h'O . Yj
v'Gx' BM5]oF \ Rj+Dx rx]«
clhdf -lskf !#_
udo\ xofM lGxlR5
AjoftO . Gxfkf Yj
k" h f GXofs] t rx] «
lskf !# M r¥x]ano\ xODx clhdf
l;jf u'7L b'u' vM .
Yj u'7L xg]t u'7L ;+:yfg+ Woaf laoftMu' b' . Woaf t;s+ sd h'ul' n+ nf
klQs+ Ejo\ dof;] 5sn+ bFo\ 5Sj Ejo\ ofOu' vM . t/ cfM j Woaf g+ sfM
djg] w's
+ n . rx]« klQs+ BM5]oF g\ + BM vd'ln tof Sjlaof xO . eQmhglk;+
k'Hofos]t udo\ tofM, axgL xfsg+ lnt o+sL . BMoft BMkfMnf g+ x]
Sjlaof xO . Gxfkf Gxfkf BM udo\ tofM u'?h'+ tflGqs ljlw+ k"hf h'Ou' vM .
BM5]oF \ b'sfo\ w's
+ fM g+ u'?h'+ x] k'HofO . t/ yf}s
+ Gxo\ yy] k"hf g+ dofo\
w's
+ n.

#&

#*

cf_ o+nfl;jf
Yj o+nfl;jf w}u' o+nf nlR5 BMyfo\ jg]u' vM . yy] o+nfl;jf -o+nf
;]jf_ jg]u' k'nf+u' rng vM . yL yL kL7 klQs+ o+nfl;jf jg]u' ofM .
o+nfl;jf wsfM yMu' :yflgo yf;o\ ;lQs Rj+u' kL7o\ jgfM k"hf ofO . Yj
o+nfl;jf w}u' TjfMno\ d:t d'gfM Bs] jg]u' vM . aMrflwslk+ ld;f d:to\t
Hof :og]u' ‰jno\ df+lk;+ k"hf :og]sy+ 5\jOu' vM . o+nf l;wnls clGtd
v'Gx' w's
+ u] ' wsf Ejo\ Gofo\sL . t+nfl5 TjfMof ;fo\ldlkG;+ o+nf Hjl5
Dxo\lk clhdfof yfo\ bfkf yfMjgL .
u= kj{ k"hf
blR5of b'g] jOu' ljleGg lsl;dof gvMt emL;+ xgfMjof x] RjgL .
yLYfL Ono\ df};d kl/jt{g ln;]+ jftfj/0f gfk+ cg'sn
' h'Ot Jojxf/ ofO .
psy+ x] dgf]~hgof ;fwg sy+ gvMrvM xgfM j}Rj+u' vM . Dxo\lk BMyfo\
x/]s gvMklQs+ k"hf h" . psL dWo ljz]if sy+ xlgu' kj{ y'sy+ b' –
c_ >Lk~rdL

yg /fwfs[i0f, gf/fo0f, e}/a, u0f]z, r}To, lzjlnË cflb :yfkgf
ofgftMu'ln+ yLyL gvMrvMno\ jf ljz]if cj;/o\ eQmhglk+ jof x] RjgL .
yg BM yfo\ ljjfx, j|tjGw, h+sf], u'E+ jo\of gfkgfk+ JolQmut u'l7 g+
Gofs]u' ofM .
cf_ Dff]xgL
Dff]xgL gvM g]kfldto\ tMw+u' gvM vM . y'an] kL7 klQs+ k"hf
ofMjg]u' k|rng b' . g]jfMt hs dv' u}/ g]jfMt g+ Yj v'Gx' yg BM k'HofjO .
df]xgL hf]l5+ yg axf+ HjgfM k"hf ofMjOlklgu' eL8 x] h'O . Gxfkf h";f
rfn+vG' x' BM5]oF \ kfofM lkxf+ jofM e'ok" ml; kfn]u' rng g+ b' . t/ cfMjof
Yj dGXofo\ w's
+ n.
O_ ;f]GtL
Dff]xgL gfkgfk+ jOu' gvM ;f]GtL vM . Dff]xgLano\ Yj Dxo\lk
clhdfoft b'uf{of ?ko\ k"hf ofO . cn] ;f]GtLano\ Yj x] clhdfoft
dxfnIdL wsfM k'HofM jOlk+ g+ sd dh" .
O{_ kfxF“rx]]«

rLlwlk+ d:to\t cfvM
:og] u ' z' ? ofOu' lbg sy+
>Lk~rdLv'Gx' softMu' b' . cn]
tMlwslklg g+ ljBf ;o\dfM wsfM
k'Hofo\u' ofO . ljBfof b]jL wsfM
;/:jtL oft k' H ofO wfM;f
dxfd~h' > Loft
af} 4
wdf{jnDjLlkG;+ k'HofO . yg
Dxo\lk dxfd~h'>L j ;;'dfh'
-lskf !$_ lgDx+ :yfkgf ofgftMu'
b' . ;lQs Rj+u' b]uno\ k'Hofo\t
jg]u' h'ofM >Lk~rdLv'Gx' eL8
h'O .

g]jfMto\ Dff]xgL gvM w's
+ fof tMw+u' gvM kfxfFrx]« vM . kfxfFrx]«
b]u' k"hf db'lklg xg]u' gvM vM . Yj v'Gx' BMyfo\ aln Hjgf k'HofM jO .
hf]ufDj/ jf 1fg8flsgL -clhdf_BMyfo\ aln wfM;f aLdv' . gfk+ Rj+Dx
u0f]BM yfo\ aln aL . Yjv'Gx' g+ yg zlgjf/ :jofM eL8 x] h'O .
3= d]du] ' k"hf

lskf !$ M ;;'dfh'

#(

ljleGg Ono\ h'ofM j}Rj+u' lgod cg';f/of k/Dk/fut k"hf
afx]s g+ d]du] ' k"hf g+ h" . x/]s b]uno\ >4fn' eQmhglkG;+ yMlkG;+ km'
y]+ k'hfcfhf ofgfM x] RjgL . yy] b}lgs k"hf, dfl;s k"hf, kj{ k"hf afx]s+
g+ h'ofRjlgu' k"hfoft y'ls AjynfMu' h'n .

$)

c_ kfq yg]u'

O_ kL7 kl/qmdf

ug+ g+ zlQmzfnL BMlk+ yfo\ dg"to\;+ yMu' OR5f cg';f/ yLyL
sy+of k"hft ofgf x] RjgL . chfu' x] k"Hff ljlw dWo kfq yg]u' vM . Yj
k"hfoft /fqL k"hf sy+ sfO . ;'yo\ !@ ah] lnkf lg;]+ rfGxl;of !@ ah]
b'g] ofOu' k"hf vM . Yj k"hfoft k+rdxfkfq k"hf g+ wfM . Yj k"hf ofo\t
;Dxo\ alh Hjn+ dfM . d]lk+ BMyfo\ :jofM ygof ljlw kfgfRj+u' b' .

Gxfkf efb«si[ 0f ci6dLv'Gx' o]oF \ kLu+ rflxn]u' rng b' . o]oF \ Rj+u'
dft[sfkL7 bz{g ofo\u' x] kLu+ rflxn]u' vM . Yj rng t;s+ k'nf+u' vM .
yy] rfMlxn]t softMlk+ ci6dft[sf BM y'sy+ b' –

yg kfq yg]t dfdls k"hf ofgfM hs k+rdxfkfq k"hf ofO .
Gxfkf+ wf}klt tofM GofuM yflk+rfo\ kfq yg]tdfMu' Hjn+ tofM ;'sG' bf
k'HofO . kfq yg]u' Hjn+ :jgf df]xlg kmo\uo' ft x] dfdls k"hf wsfM wfO . :j+u"
Hjn+ g+ xfsg+ GofuM kfq ygfM u'?h'+ ejgf k"hf ofo\dfM . d]yfo\ kfq k"hf
ofo\ano\ snM k"hf ofgfM kfq yg]u' ofO . ygof ljlw sy+ k"hf ;fdfu|Loft
Gxfkfnfs :jgfM hs k"hf ofO .

a|Dxfo0fL – kfl;sf] clhdf,
dfx]Zj/L – eb«sfnL,
sf}df/L – ånf clhdf -yfkfynL_,
j}i0fjL – g} clhdf -krnL_,
jf/fxL – s+3 clhdf,
OGb«fo0fL – n'lt clhdf,

cf_ efsn k"hf

rfd'08f – Dx]lk clhdf,

g]jfMto\ 5'+ 5u" Hof ofo\dfM;f+ -tw+u' jf lrw+u_' BMofs] efsn
ofo\u' ofO . yMu' OR5f cfsf+Iff k"/f ofo\t efsn k"hf ofo\u' ofO . yy]
efsnf ofu' k'/f h'Oj+ BMyfo\ k"hf ofMjgL . yMlk;+ km'y]+ jf yDx+ 5'+ 5fo\
wsfM dltO tMu' vM jx] ;fdfg jf aln HjgfM jO . u'lnl;of+ yMu' j yM
kl/jf/of :jf:Yo, bL3f{o,' j ;DkGgtfof ;d[l4 h'OdfM wsf BMofs] ˆjgL .

dxfnIdL – 6'sr
' f l;yo\ .

Yj Dxo\lk clhdf d]lk+ BMy]+ ljz]if j/ aLDx wsfM dv';] 5' ˆjg
jx] aLDx BM wsfM dfg] ofgftMu' b' . yg nfv dtM Rofs]u,' 5f xfo\su] '
g+ ofMjM . ljz]ift 5f xfo\su] ' :joDe"of xf/tL clhdfyfo\ ofO . t/ km'Ss+
BMlk+t clhdf wfou' kl/kf6L+ ofgfM Yj Dxo\lk clhdfof yfo\ g+ 5f
xfo\su] ' ofM .
cn] yLyL kj{ k"hfof gfk+ Ejo\ Gofo\sLlk+ g+ sd dh" . Ejo\ ofo\t
l5+s zfGt yfo\, ;Qn, nM, rMlaof Joj:yf b'ul' n+ ofgfM g]jfMt hs dv' u}/
g]jfMt g+ cfkfn+ ;+Vofo\ b' . o]oF flk+ afx]s on j Vjk+lg;]+ yg u'+ Ejo\ Gofo\s
jO . pls+ wfld{s j ;fdflhs sfo{of lglt+ YJf yfo\of dxTj vg]b' .
$!

yf}s
+ Gx] kLu+ rflxn]u' Ono\ Dxo\lkoft TJfMlkmsf tVtL clhdfoft
softMu' b' . kLu+ rflxn]u' Ono\ d"n BMoft kL7BM sy+ dsf;] dft[sf
u0fo\ Rj+lk+t kL7b]jLsy+ rfM lxnftMu' vg]b' .54 jh|frfo{ cflblklg bLIff
sfo\ w's
+ fM kL7 k"hf jgLu' Ono\ Dxo\kL g+ jg]u' ofM . r}q k'lGxof vM dWo]
Dxo\lk clhdf -hf]ufDj/ hf]lugL_j KofYjF clhdf -afO;wf/f b'g]of
rfd'08f_ of BM k|l;4 h" .
O{_ Dxo\lk BM u'ly vnM
>L of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/L Dxo\lk clhdfof hfqf rno\ ofo\dflk+ BM
u'ly vnMt tFnfl5 TjfM, Dxo\lk 5]F sjM j 7Flxl6 TjfMof sjMt ldn] h'ofM
hfqf ofO . kfn+kf ysfln nufot vnMlk+ ;sl;of kfM sofM hfqf rno\
54

j]bgfy /]UdL, g]kfndf ci6dft[sf, k|1f , -o]F Mg]kfn /fli6«o k|1f k|lti7fg
!; @:$), !!)#_ kf} @^,@& .
$@

ofgf jofRj+u' b' . Dxo\lk BM u'ly vnMoft æDxo\lk 7s'Æ wsfM g+ ;Daf]wg
ofgfjMu' vg]b' .
o]F /Tgs]t' dxfljxf/-‰jfM axf_of ah|frfo{ u'?h'lklg sfo\ drft
r"8fsd{ ofo\t Dxo\lk 7s' h'h' -Dxo\lk vnMof ysfln_oft k'hf; pkl:yt
ofgfM, r"8fsd{ ofo\t Dxo\lk 7s' h'ho' f ph+ -jrg_ sofM hs r"8fsd{
ofo\u' rng cfMts g+ oyfjt x] blg . d]dy] fo\of jh|frfo{ u'?h'lklg r"8fsd{
ofo\t 7s' h'ho' f ph+ sofM r"8fsd{ ofo\u' rng g+ ofgftMu' vg]db' .
>L of]ufDj/of hfqf k"hf tyf d]du] ' 5'+ g+ k'hf ofo\dfM;f ts+
u'?h' k'/f]lxt ‰jfMaxfof jh|frfo{ æDxo\lk sjMÆof u'?h'lk+ hs tofM
k'hf ofo\÷ofs]dfM . pls+ yf}+ ts ‰jfMaxfof ah|frfo{ xif{/Tgof ;Gtfglk+;+
k'hf ofgf jofRj+u' vM .
tFnfl5 BM5]oF ;
\ Gxfkf df]xlg gvM ano\ Dxo\lk 7s'lk;+ ;sn]+
d'gf df]xlg kmofM k"hf ofo\u' ofgfRj+u' vM . df]xlgof rfn+vG' x' BM5]oF \ g+
kfofM jof, e'o" kml; kfn]u' ofgfRj+u' vM . t/ yf}s
+ Gx] Yj Hof aGb h'O
w's
+ n . Yj æDxo\lk 7s'Ælklg Gxfkf jh|frfo{lk+s] bLIff -b]vf_ sfo\u'
ofgfRj+u' vM . Yj k|rng d]dl] k+ >]i7lklg db' . pls+ Yj dxTjk"0f{ h" . yy]
b]vf sofMt}u' h'of Gxfkf BM5]oF \ k"hf s'yL b]vf b'lk+ hs b'xf+ jg]u' ofM .
d]lk+ ;'g+ + jg]dHo" . t/ yf}o+ f lbgo\ b]vf sfo\u' Hof dh"ul' n+ GXofDx+ jg]u'
ofo\ w's
+ n . ljz]iftM Yj Dxo\lk BMvM hfqf tFnfl5 TjfM, Dxo\lk 5]F sjM
j 7Flxl6 TjfMof sjMt ldn] h'of ofOu' vM . t/ cfM jof Yj hfqf lg/Gt/
?k+ GXofsf jg] km} w}u' vFo\ ljZj:t dh'O w's
+ n.
Yj Dxo\lk BMof vM hfqf Gofo\lslk+ u'lyof/lklgu' ef}drf jf u'yL
b'xfF djlk+ u'lyof/lk+ b'ltg]t Dxo\lk clhdf yfo\ Ujo\bf+ to\dfM . cn]
ysflng+ bSj+ u'lyof/to\ GXog] l;Gx ltsfM n;s'; ofgfM b'ltg]u' Hof
h'O . BMyfo\ YofDx u'lyof/of snfM b'dsflgDx h";f+ d:t wfM;f NofMdb' .
u'yL b'ltg]dflg lkG;+ BM yfo\ h'Ou' o1 :jo\dHo" .

$#

p_ Dff]xgL l;GxM sfMjOu' ljlw
xl/l;l4of e}/joft j vf]sgfof lzsfnLoft lem+lgbFo\ df]xgL
l;GxM sfMjOu' vM . Yj k"hf ofo\t 5|Øu' ;fdfu|L bSj+ yg x] TjMtf jgL .
Yj k"hf ofo\t l;+ofu' snM j bSj+ Hjn+t rfofu' tw+u' yflk+rf -lgdgf
j j:jof tUju'_ j nKt] HjgfM jO . k"hf ofgf ;do\ gofM bSj+ ;fdfg
TjMtf jg]u' rng b' . yg cld;+ ofOu' k"hf kfq yg]u' vM .
k/Dk/f sy+ lem+lgbFo\ 5sM Dxo\lk kL7o\ jofM tflGqs ljlw sy+
k"hf ofO . df]xgL sfo\t k"hfof ysfnLDx KofvF Nx'of Rj+u' Ono\ d]lk;+
ysfnLoft aFo\ knfM dto\s;
' ] HjgL . kfo\l5 jx] Ono\ df]xgL l;GxM sofM
;sn]+ vnMlk+ lnkmM ts+ d:j;] lnxf+ jgL .
Yj l;Gx o+sf b]uMno\ k"hf ofgf BMoft g+ ltls . Yj l;GxM lts]
w's
+ fM uf+do\ 5Dx dg" kfM h'O w}u' ljZjf; b' . cg b]uMno\ lGxlGx k"hf
ofo\t, tflGqs BMlk+ k'Hofo\t t+Dx dg"of nf+ bo\su' ' w'k yg]u' ofO w}u'
;DalGwt dg'lklgu'+ wfMk' vM . yhfu' w'+ lem+lgbF ts ufsL, xfsg+ lem+lgbF
lnkfM df]xgL sfMjO .55 Yj vFo\ u'ln oyfy{tf b' wsfM dfnfM :jo\u' Hof
wfM;f ofo\ x] dfgL . b]uMno\ jofM df]xgL sfMjOlk;+ wfMu' vFof cfwf/o\
Rjofu' vM .
pm_ bLIff sfo\u'
Dxo\lk 5u" zlQm kL7 vM . zlQm kL7o\ of]uL jf l;4 k'?iflk+
;fwgf ofo\u' yfo\ vM . kL7o\ of]uL jf l;4lk+ ;fwgf ofo\u' yfo\ h'ofM x]
kL7 ;fwgf ofo\u' wsfM g+ wfO . kL7oft 1fg j zlQmof ;+ud :yn sy+
sfO . yy] ;fwgf ofo\u' :yfg w}u' PsfGt :yn, dfgjLo a:tL :jofM
tfkfs, h+un kL7 x] h'O .

55

ljsf;/Tg jh|frfo{, Dxo\lk dlGb/sf] P]ltxfl;s tyf ;f+:s[lts Ps kl/ro,
åfbztLy{ ci6dLj|t n'dlGt -uf]u+ a' åfbztLy{ pkf]ifw ci6dLj|t tby{ ;ldlt ,
!!@*_ kf} !)) .
$%

ljz]iftM af]S;Lto\;+ Dxo\lk clhdf, afns'df/L, zf]efeujtL,
s+u clhdf, n'lt clhdf j n'dl/ clhdf k'Hofo\u' ofO . Yj BMlk+t k"hf
ofgfM zlQm j 1fg -hfb'dGqo\ ljZjf; ofOlk;+ yMu' cfjZostf k|fKt
ofo\t_ k|fKt ofO .56
laBf -s'laBf j ;'laBf lgtf+_ ;o\lslk+ dg"to\;+ yg uyfMd'uM
rx]v
« G' x' klt+ Rofsf snM HjgfM k"hf ofMjO wsfM afHoM j+lk;+ wfo\u' ofM .
ª_ Dxo\lk BMof u'ly
5'+ g+ ;fdflhs tyf wfld{s s[ofsnfkoft lg/Gt/ ?k+ GXofsf
o+st] u'ly tofMtO . y'sy+ ljleGg BM, b]uMno\ yLyL Hof GXofs]t u'ly
tofMtMu' bO . o]oF f cKjM w}y+] g]jfM to\ u'ly xg]ano\ VoM k"hf jg]u' rng
b' . cy]x] Ifqkf6Lof 5vnM g]jfM to\;+ xgfM j}Rj+u' æho of]ufDj/ dfO{
u'lyÆ of u'lyof/ to\s] u'lyoft dfMu' Hjn+go\ sFoo\ fu' kfqo\ g]=;+= #!^,
##(, $)(, $^!, $&*, $*(, %!!, ^!&, &)!, &!%, (!$, (!( of ldlt
lsoftMu' hDdf kLRofuM dfq b' . u'ls g]=;+= #!^ bsn] k'nf+u' ldlt vg]b' . %&
Dxo\lk BM k'nf+u' kL7 wsfM vg]b' . cy]+ x] g]=;+= #!^ of clen]v vg]bu' l' n+
Yj yf;o\ u'lYf to\u' z'? h"u' g+ oSj Gxfkf wsfM ;Lbt .
c_ lt;f u'ly
eQmhglk;+ yMu' uR5] cg';f/ km'yr
] fy] lt;f bo\sf 5foftMu' b' .
yg Gxfkf lt;f 5fof tMlk;+, lt;f larf ofo\t lt;f u'ly bo\sftMu' b' . cn]
bF klQs+ jx] lbgo\ lt;f u'ly Gofo\s jO . yy] yMlk;+ 5fgfu' lt;f larfM
ofo\u' nflu lt;f u'ly tOu' vM . lt;f+ tLsf k"hf ofgfM Ejo\ GofsL, cn]
lnxfF jg]t xfsg+ lt;f lnt o+sL . yy] lt;f u'ly db'lk;+ BMkfnfoft x]
56

57

Angelea Dietric, Tantric Healing in the Kathmandu Valley, Book
Faith India (Azadpur Commercial Complex), 1998, p.40.

/f]hLd}o+ f >]i7, :joDe"O lrRrf bgfRj+u' h'h' k|tfk dNnof k|tfkk'/ dlGb/
j rnM jgfM UjMt'n] To+u' Dxo\lk clhdfof dlGb/, v]nO' tf bFkf} -@%M@%,
!!@%_ kf} !@! .
$^

lhDdf aL . t/ BM kfnflk+ nlR5 5sM kfM lxn]u' ofO . yg lt;fof cfts
5'+ g+ nutto\u' Hof wfM;f h"u' db'lg . pls+ Dxo\lk BMof lt;f 5' u'ln b'
wsfM wfo\ dkm' .
cf_ bQ u'ly
jf;'bj] bQ+ :j;M bF GXoM x] u'ly Joj:yf ofgfM hfqf GXofsf j+u'
vM . Yj b]uM Gxfkf Yff}+ :jofM tMhf j tMAof b'u' h'ofRjg . pan] cltj[li6of
sf/0f+ v'l; afM jof rfM j lkm NJffs HofgfRj+u' r'Osf o+sn .
BM bofRj+u' yf;o\ tUju' Njx+ bofRj+u' Ono\ æaf;'bj] bQÆ gf+of JolQm+
k"hf ofo\u' j u'lyof nflu Joj:yf ofgfM j+u' h'n . pls+ Yj hfqfoft
æaf;'bj] bQ u'7LÆ g+ wfM .58 ljsf;/Tg jh|frfo{, Dxo\lk dlGb/sf]
P]ltxfl;s tyf ;f+:s[lts Ps kl/ro, åfbz tLy{ ci6dLj|t n'dlGt uf]u+ a' åfbztLy{ pkf]ifw ci6dLj|t tby{ ;ldlt !!@*_ Kff} !)! .
Yj vFoft k'li6 ofOu' 5u" x:tlnlvt Yof;km" n'ofjMu' b' . Yj
;km'tL æç gdM >L of]ufDj/fo .. >]of]:t' ;Djt *@( kf}if z'Sn gjld
Yj v'Gx' bTt k"hf lbg h'/f] ..Æ RjoftMu' b' . g]=;+= *@( g+ yf}o+ f ;Djt
ts !!#) o\ :j;M bF h'n . u'lyof gf+ HjMnfu' x] h'n .
Yj Yof;km" Vjkof 1fgs/ jh|frfo{ -yfo\ ;fsf]7f, jif{ %%_ ofs]
b' . ;km'tL hfqfoft dfMu' d;nfof pNn]v b' . dlw 5'Ot, alh Nx'Ot
hflsof kmF g+ RjoftMu' b' . spnf ofo\t toftMu' a'o+ f sif{ j u'lyof/to\
gf+g+ b' . a'oF f pNn]v ofo\u' ‰jno\ Wj/sf], k'/rf] j O{dfbf] of a'F woftMu'
b' . yf}s
+ Gx] Yj u'lyoft x] Dxo\lk vM hfqf wfo\u' ofgfRj+u' b' .
Yj ;km'tL ljro\ cfvM kfgfRj+Uf' b' . u'ls g]=;+= *#$o\ xfsg+ 5'+
vF tgftMu' b' . d]u' Rofu" kfgfo\ yLyL BMlklg Znf]s RjoftMu' b' .
of]ufDj/ jh|frfo{lklg cfu+BM h"ul' n+ yg b]u' k"hf ofo\t jO
cy]xt] +' yg yLyL yf;+ Gofo\sM jOu' u'ly y'sy+ b' .
%*

ljsf;/Tg jh|frfo{, æDxo\lk dlGb/sf] P]ltxfl;s tyf ;f+:s[lts Ps kl/
roÆ, åfbztLy{ ci6dLj|t n'dlGt -uf]u+ a' åfbztLy{ pkf]ifw ci6dLj|t tby{
;ldlt !!@*_ kf} !)! .
$&

n}grf}/of /hslklg ;Lu',

%= pk;+xf/

c;+of t'nfw/lklg ;Lu',

of]ufDj/ :joDe" k'/f0f sy+ :joDe" dxfr}To :jofM k'nf+Dx BM
vM . lnR5ljsfnof clen]vo\ Dxo\lkof gf+ pNn]v h'ofRj+u' b' . kL7
wfM;f g]=;+= !)& of u'0fsfdb]j h'ho' f Ono\ :yfkgf ofMu' w}u' j+zfjnLof
cfwf/o\ vg]b' . sfo, jfs j lrQ rqm sy+ o]F /fHooft ;'/Iff ofo\t
ci6dft[sf yfkgf u'0fsfdb]j h'h' ofMu' wsfM lnlvt ?ko\ bt .
lnR5ljsflng clen]vo\ æDxlk|Ë u|fdÆ wsfM yfo\ gf+ h'ofRj+u' b' . Yj
æDxlk|ËÆ w}u' ls/fFtsflng vFUjM wsfM woftMu' b' . æDxlk|ËÆ vFUJMn+ x]
Dxo\lk h"ju+ ' vM . of]ufDj/of gf+ yfo\of gfd+ Dxo\lk clhdf h"ju+ ' vM .
t/ lsDabGtL cg';f/ Dxo\ Bg] BM Rj+ul' n+ Dx; kL7 h'n .

j+3 j nu+of zfSo ;d'bfoof u'ly,
If]qkf6Llg;]+ l;3M tsof gMsdLlklg b]u' BM,
OgaxfM j hdMdLlklg b]u' BM,
7Flxl6of >]i7lklg g+ u'ly -lr/fu u'ly_,
tFnfl5of ;fo\ldlklg d'Vo kL7 ,
j6' j 7Flx6Lof dfgGw/ lklgu' g+] b]u' BM, j
onof lx/0oj0f{ dxfljxf/oflkG;+ cfh'sy+ -cfu+BM_ b]u' BM k"hf ofjO .

of]ufDj/ tGq, lgikGgof]ufjln j x]?s rqm;Dj/ Yj :j+ul' n+
tGq ;fwgf vM . Yj :j+ul' n+ tGqsy+ of]ufDj/ x] k|dv
' BM vM . jh|ofgof
jh|frfo{lklg d"NfDx cfu+BM x] of]ufDj/ vM . of]ufDj/ tGq, lgikGgof]ufjln
sy+ of]ufDj/of :j?k aofg ofgftMu' b' . of]ufDj/ w}Dx k'?if j :qL
zlQmof ;+of]u vM . k|1f j pkfoof of]u x] z"Gotfof k|tLs vM .
jh|ofgof k|dv
' BMsy+ >L of]ufDj/ vM . of]ufDj/ w}Dx af]lw;Tj÷jh|w/
vM . cKjM ofgf lg/fsf/of ?ko\ :yflkt ofgfM tMu' h'O . Yj 5u" u'Xo jf
;GWof efiff vM . o],F onof zfSo j jh|frfo{lk;+ cfu+BM sy+ sofRj+u' b' .
tfkfs+lg;]+ g+ cf:yf tofM j}lk+ sd dh" .
:joDe" k'/f0f ;flxlTos u|Gy h'ul' n+ Oltxf; dfn]t pln b'Uo+u'
>f]t wfM;f dv' . Yj k"/f0fo\ zflGts/frfo{ h'h' j[ifb]jof kfn+lg;]+
u'0fsfdb]jof Ono\ ts Djfu' SogftMu' b' . t/ xfsg+ k|tfk dNn+ yMDx+
gfknfgfu' wsfM RjoftMu' b' . zflGtk'/ b'g] z+s/frfo{ ;dfwL RjgfRj+u'
b' wsfM k|tfk dNnof g]=;+ &*( ;fnof clen]vo\ b' . zflGtk'/ b'g] b'xfF
j+u' Ono\ yMDx+ z+s/frfo{ gfk nfgf, dxfd]3 ;'q sfo\t jofs] cg'dlt
sofM xofu' wsfM æj[li6 lrGtfdl0fÆ lrgfvFo\ RjoftMu' b' .
lsDabGtL sYf+ s?0ffdo Gxfkfof hGdo\ l;4 h"u' yfo\ h'of
ygof rfoft t;s+ dxTj laoftMu' b' . afv+of cg';f/ z+s/frfo{of

$*

$(

lzio jGw'bQ cfrfo{+ of]ufDj/of tGq ;fwgf ofgfM a'u+ BMoft eDaMof
?ko\ ;fnfM snz b'g] s'gfM g]kfM xMu' vM . Gxfkflg;]+ YJf u'OF Rj+u' rfM
o+sfM hLjGof; ofgfM yLyL BMlk+ bo\su] ' j le+so] f gfk+ sn]j/ lxn]t
ygof rf 5|o\ nf j}Rj+u' b' . Yj zlQm kL7 k|frLg Pj+ t;s+ zlQmzfnL
h'ul' n+ lem+lgbFo\ 5sM vf]sgfof l;sfnL j xl/l;l4 e}/joft df]xgL l;GxM
sfMjOu' vM .

h+un df;] ofgfM ;'sD' af;L to\ cltqmd0f cflb+ Yjof cl:tTj x«f; h'of
jgfRj+u' vg]b' . xfn rLw+u' uMof ?ko\ ;f+ ;+/If0f ofgftMu' b' . æDxo\lk
;+/If0f tyf Joj:yfkg ;ldltÆ u7g ofgfM Dxo\lk kl/;/of ;+/If0f
ofo\u' Hof h'ofRj+u' b' . yf}+ sGxo\of b]zof cj:yf+ ofgfM k"hf kf7o\ hs
l;ldt h'ofM Rjg] km}u' l:ylt dGt . pls+ efjL k':tfoflkG;+ Yj x] nhufM
sM3fO w}u' lglZrt dh" . Yj x] yf}o+ f kl/l:yltof vfo"u' ;Totf vM .

ygof hfqf blR5 5s Nx'lt k'lGxv'Gx' h'O . rf}nfYj qof]blz
v'Gx'lg;]+ rf}nfufM t[ltof ts h'O . Yjx] hfqfof Gxfkf+u' lbgoft a';fwF
g+ wfOu' h'ofRjg . hfqfof d'Vo u'7Lof/ >]i7 -7Flxl6of Dxo\lk sjM_ vM .
BMofyfo\ k"hf ofOlk+ u'?h' -‰jfMaxfM÷/Tgs]t' dxflaxf/of jh|frfo{_lk;+ x]
BM5]oF \ jgfg+ k"hf ofO . cn] BM hfqf ofo\u' ‰jno\ BMvM Sjlau' efnf
Hof7f s'DxfMto\u' vM . BMyfo\ kfMNffM Rjlglk+ OgaxfMof Hofk't vM . yg
Dxo\lk BMof gfk+ u'ly g+ cy] x] k'nf+ h'ofRj+u' b' . of]ufDj/ u'7Lof
a;hfno\ g]=;+ #!# of ldlt vg]bu' l' n+ ygof hfqf t;s+ Gxfkf+lg;]+
GXofgfj}Rj+u' wsfM l;s]km' . g]=;+ *@( of x:tlnlvt Yof;km" n'ofjMu'ln+
cem :oNnfu' k|df0f h'of Ao"u' b' .
Yj Dxo\lk b]uMno\ rf sfMj}u' afx]s+ g+ d]lk+ BMlk+ gfk :jfk' g+ b' .
cn] ljz]if ofgf s?0ffdo BMof wfM;f k"j{ hGdlg;]+ of]ufDj/ gfk yLyL
Ono\ :jfgfM Rj+u' b' . yg s?0ffdo BMof sn]j/ lxn]t rf sfMj}u' Hof
g+ lg/Gt/ ?k+ GXofgfM jofRj+u' db' . slnof Gxfkf+u' ##&^ bFo\ h'h'
g/]Gb«bj] of kfno\ s?0ffdo BM ljHofu' sy+ !&@# bF bt . lem+lgbFo\ 5SjM
rf sfMjo\dfMu' NofvF lj=;+= @))% o\ ;lR5 j lem+GXo\sM h'n . cg+ 5sn+
gL:jbF lnkf lj=;+= @)@* o\ ;lR5 j lem+RofsM h'n . xfsg+ gLv'bF lnkf
lj=;+= @)%$ o\ o+su" l' n+ ;lR5 j lem+us
\' M h'n . 59
Yj Dxo\lkof ef}uf]lns :j?k Gxfkf :jofM lns'gf lrwgf jg]
w's
+ n . cy] x] ef}uf]lns agf}6of sf/0f g+ Yj u'OF rnM j+u' vM . ygof

%)

%!

zAbfjnL
vF U jM
cDk
cof]lgh
cf?jf
s0f{ktfsf
s6fyf]+
udo\
raf+
r;'lDxrf
rf}d/L
5f]on
\ f a"
wfnf
wf]of aLu'
wf}klt
tft'
g]kfM km}rf
k+ruJo
k+rktfsf
ad{'
lajM
a';fbF
af}:jfF
df+zfx'lt
z]iffx'lt
;jf{

cy{
rfMofu' c+vr
' f b'u' yn
of]lg+ hGd dsflk+ hLjt
Goftf /+uof sf+ Nxft+ yfgftMu' BMoft
5fOu' j:t'
Goftf /+uof sfkt+ bo\sL, y'ls tMs' 5s" sfkt+
bo\sL
sM yf]+
BMof u0fo\
Vo]+
;Mk'lDxrf, ef]l/
rtfd/Loft x] wfMu'
Ejo\ 5Gx' GXoM ofOu' lgdGq0ff jf Ejo\of z'?jft
BMoft co\nf 5fo\t to\u' yn
l;n]t aLu'
sf]tMno\ bOu' Hjn+, y'ls wf} to\t 5\ØnL
cftklt, cfGb«f
g]kfno\ b}u' 5u" km}rfof k|hflt
;fof b'?, wf}, £oM, uf]a/, rf] Goftf j:t'
Goftf /+uof lrs' sfkM tofM l;+sfo\ tofM bo\sftMu'
em08f
j|fXd0f
u]8fu'l8oft g]jfM efif+ wfOu'
BM :yfkgf ofMu' lb+oft wfMu'
af}kfMno\ to\u' :jf+oft wfu'
nfM b'of ofOu' o1of gf+
b'of ofOu' o1of gf+
jf Njfs Hofu' ls-hfls_
%@

;x;|fx'tL
l;km+
;"of{3{
;+sNk
XofpFyf]+

#@ tfM ljaM b'of ofOu' o1of gf+
l;+ofu' km+
;'o{ BM oft ofOu' jf aLu' c3{
k|lt1f
co\nf sfo\t y'oftMu' s6o\ yxf+jOu' or'u' lt
lnsfgf bo\sftMu'

%#

Kfl/lzi6 !
gdM >L of] u fDj/ 1fg] Z j/L dxfb] j L k| 1 f] k foTdsfo}
-Wofgof :tf]q_ zfb{n
' ljqmLl8t 5Gb
of k|0ffl:ylt sfl/0fL ;'hggL sfd]Zj/L rf]bs]
of tf/f b'Mv 5]lbgL ;'vs/L /fu]Zj/L tLy{s] .. ! ..
of dftf ;'/ ;'Gb/L wgs/L dGq]Zj/L u'Xos]
of ljBf eo tfl/0fL ozsf/L dfx]Zj/L sfgg] .. @ ..
of k|1f ;'v bflogL k|es
' /L kL8]Zj/L k'ik s]
of eb«f s'lnz]Zj/L lhgs/L of]uZ] j/L d+8n] .. # ..
of z"Gof hublDasf eujtL 1fg]Zj/L kb\ds]
of b]jL wdf]b{ o] ;'vdo] u'Xofno] s'8+ n] .. $ ..
lq rqm] k"0f]G{ b' /]j ;'sdn] ;Tjfno] /flhtd\
ko{+ sf;g;+l:yt+ ;'/dg+ of]u ;dflw l:ytd\ .. % ..
of b]jL qm'r d+8n] olbs/+ rfGos/+ k[i7s]
rt'/fgGb dxf/;] ;'udg+ l;x;g+ if8e'h+ .. ^ ..
>[Ëf/flb /;flGjt+ qod'v+ s[i0ff+ r of]ufDj/+
b+i6«f6] s
\ 6 laqmLtfgg+ lq gog+ lztf?0ff+ rqmdft\ .. & ..
af0ff+ gfu olb lz/Zr vk/+ a|dxskfn w/+
h6f d's6' d+l8t+ wg'w/+ of]uZ] j/dLZj/d\ .. * ..
gfgf ?kw/+ dgf]/y s/+ u'XoM ;dflw l:ytd\
Cl4 l;l4 :j?ks+ bzan+ dGq dxfgfosd\ .. ( ..
eujGt] kb\dl:yt+ rps/+ k|1f zl// w/d\
dxf jLo{+ k/fqmd+ ;'vs/+ Sn]zf]kxf/+ lje'd\ .. !) ..
dxf k|1f zl// w[s olbd'lg of]ufDj/+ olHhgd\
t+ a'4+ r tyfutfno u'?+ lgTo+ gdfld ;bf .. !! ..
ol:dg ;'/f;'Gb/ ;/]Gb« g/]Gb« j[Gbf :Tjkfb kß klttf e|d/f lz/f]leM
tlT;l4 ;fwg kof]lAw dxflgwfg+ >L nf]sgfy+ r/g+ z/g+ k|ofldM .. ! ..
WofgLgf Wofks+?k+ hfdsfd\ dGq ?ksd\
;fwsfg\ l;l4?k:Tj+ gdfld of]u gfosd\ .. @ ..
%$

Gffgf ;dflw kl/k"0ff{ ljlrqdËd\
;[li6 l:ylt k|nosfl/ ljsfzd"nd\
lgjf{0fb+ ;'ut zf;g+ k|fKtLsfgfd\
lgTo+ gdfld lqd'v+ hubLZj/fo
ljljw+
;dflw
kl/k"0ff{sf/L
;bfof]u Wofg]g
1fg+
ljxf/L
o]
j|Dx
rof{l+ rt+ u[xfdfgDx
t+
u[Xodfg
:Tjd]s+
k|kB]
gdfld
of]ufDj/
1fg]Zj/LEofd\

!= lhgj/ hggL - BM k"hf; xfn]u' _
/fu – g6 -a;Gt_ tfn – hlt
lhgj/ hggL k|efZj/ dl0f @
jL/f;lo ;d/; å+bf cflnË0ff ..w' #..
gL/ ;"x ;"/o >[u+ f/ ;+k0" ff{
@
uf9f cflnË0ff cfgGb gog} .. ..
rfklo ;Def]u ;oglw gog]
/fu lj/fu ålodfem] lgif0.f{ .. ..
cAh s'lnz ;Def]u ljd"vgf @
;'/g/ k|dv
' g å+bf cflnË0ff .. ..
bxlbx e"jg] >L of]uDj/f
@
k|0ffdfld 1fg]Zj/ cflnË0ff .. ..

%%

..
.. # ..
..
.. $ ..
..

@= Jfh|wf]/L - BM k"hf; xfn]u' _
/fu –dfnj
tfn –
Jfh|wf]/L j]tfn r08f/L b]jL
@
l;+l3gL Aofl3|gL hDa" pn'lsgL .. w' # ..
gdflf >L of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/L of @
lqlg g]q b]jL lqe"jg kloz]
.. ..
k"j{ pQ/ klZrd blIf0f lbu b]jL @
8flsgL lålkgL rp l;s+ af]hgL .. ..
Rft"/ df/ lbu+ t"Dx] kmn+t' b]jL
@
lqlg g]q b]jL gf rlGt b]jL
.. ..
x/L x/ a|Dx O{Gb« z"/ u0f]
@
iff]bz of]lugL ;d/ ;Defj]
.. w' # ..

#= p/+uf e/0f - Ejo\ go\ ano\ xfn]u' _
/fu –nln u'~hln
tfn – hlt
p/+uf e/0f >Ll/ttg" zf]ef @
OGb«gLn ;db/lt kLËn s]zf ..
Hfut cg'sDkf s[kf u'0f b]jL @ .. w' # ..
b'i6df/ lj£g ljgfl;gL b]jL ..
/Qm gog lqgf ?b« dfnf
@
v8\u slt{ skfn lgnf]Tknf ..
Aof3| rd{ j:q k|Tofln9f
@
Vfj{ nDaf]b/ ;jf qmfGtf
..
r/0f z/0f >L pu|tf?0fL dftf @
eglo cdf]3 jh| uLt rl/tf .. w' # ..

%^

$= ci6 Ifqkfn - Ejo\ go\ ano\ xfn]u' _
/fu – e}/jL
tfn –
ci6 Ifqkfn lbu+ ljlbu+ e'jg] Wj+l;n]df/ rt'/u+ ]
@
uu0ff z]v/ uug?g+ em+sf/f 8d? 306 aflhof/] .. w' # ..
x"+ x"+ @ gdfld k+r8flsgL k+r h'ult 1fg8flsgL z/0f h'Uo h'Uo .. ! ..
k"j{ pQ/ klZrd blIf0f rt"/ e'jg] lj£g df/ lj£g vl08of/] @
8flsgL lålkgL rp l;s+ af]hgL 3f]/ a]tfn ;+qf;jbgf .. ..
l;+l3gL Aofl3|gL hDa" pn'lsgL våfË k/z' c+sz
" x/tf @
jh| 8flsgL 3f]/ a]tfn 8flsgL r08fn 8flsgLrt"/ jbg+ .. ..
lhg hggL b]jL 8flsgL t'hkfo z/0f k+rd'bf« e/0f lje'liftf @
v8\u s]6s jh|306 våfË] kfq k/d]Zj/ 1fgb]jL .. ..

%= uhlhg - Ejo\ go\ ano\ xfn]u' _
/fu – e}/jL
tfn – Pstfn
uhlhg p4{xfy] wl/of sdn s"lnz cåojf/L @
8d? slt{ s"yf/ lqz"nf jfd] cåfË skfn w/f .. ..
>L ;De/ nfof jfR5/Lt"Dx h'u] lngf df/lo/] rfklo of/]
Effof zf;' ejGt' d'bf« l/0ff .. w' # ..
Kffz j|Dxz'q jfdxfy] wl/of pg/zzLn dfnf @
gLn xl/t nf]lt sgse rf}dv
' clt ljs/fn w/f ..
cflnwk|of] e}/jf rfkloof/] sfln/fqL ljDj d'bf« @
ljZj s'lnz c4{rGb« hooIf Aof3| rd{ if6\ d'bf« ..
6lq;+ >[Ëf/ lj/+ jL/]Zj/ e'hlo; of/ ;+;f/w/f ..

%&

%= sf]nfO - x]jh| tGq _

Kfl/lzi6 @

/fu – tf]lb
tfn – dfy
sf]nfOn] lyofjf]nf d'dl" g/] sg sf]nf @
3gs lklyxf]lo jh|Os
{ ?0ff] lqmoflog nf]nf .. w' # ..
Dfgo+h+ s"Gb'? jh|lo l8l08 dftfg x] jh|lo @
Tflx e? vfhg ufw] eogflo jlog oflo @
xfn] sfln+ hgog oflo b'b+ ?' jh|g oflo ..
rp ;d s:t'/L ;Nxf sk'/ nfjg oflo @
dno+ hlo wg;fln+hn] :tlx e?/ jfhg oflo ..
k|i] f" gIfq s/Gt] z'4f z'4g d'glo @
lgn;"x c+u rGb«fjlo oft lx h;/fkfg oflo .. ..

of]ufDj/ rof{ uLt
;|ft] – ljsf;/Tg jh|frfo{, Dxo\lk .

/fu – /fdsnL
ho dfO{ hf]ufDj/ hut hggL
lqe'jg lxtsf/0fL
-xfFb]_

tLg nf]ss] x/t s/t t'd
e'lQm d'lQm j/bfo0fL dftf
pQ/ v08d] glbof lsgf/f d]
h+un ljro\ zf]efodfg

-xfFb]_

cflb kL7s] dl0f c;'/ ;+xf/0fL
lg/+hg cfgGb :j?lkgL ====

/fu – /fdsnL
;sn kL7of d"n dftf hf]lugL
gfu >L hf]ufDj/ ; .. w' ..
pQ/ lbu;+ lji0f'dlt lt/;+
cfgGb Dx}kLof rf];+ 1fg]Zj/L .. ! ..
sdnof jg Vjfn t]h clt ;'h{ Hj/
dkm' Nxfo\ l5u' cjtf/ 1fg]Zj/L .. @ ..
b]jnf]sof yf; p4f/ h'ou' cf;
eQmof Yff; clt bof 1fg]Zj/L .. # ..
NxfsDx z/0f yf; l5 kfnL lgkfof sf];+
k|tfkl;+x lg:t] Nxfn 1fg]Zj/L .. $ ..
;|ft] M 7Flx6L dfgGw/ u'lyO ;'/lIft h'ofRj+u' bfkmf Do] d'gf
-x:tlnlvt_, k[= #)–#! -lq/Tg dfgGw/kfv]+ k|fKt_

%*

%(

Kfl/lzi6 #
sforqmof kL7
!= Ifqkf6L
@= b]jL3f6
#= gjnL
$= ;fFv'
%= b'nfn3f6
^= b'Dhf
&= Tof+uf
*= s'?jfn
jfsrqmof kL7
!= km:v' -;LtfkfOnf_
@= Dxo\lk
#= xfFl8ufFp
$= rfFu'
%= eQmk'/
^= ;'gfs'7L
&= hfnGw/
*= aNv'
lrQrqmof kL7
!= rGb«nv'
@= kfl;Sj
#= sdnflb
$= n'dlb
%= lkmaf]
^= g} clhdf
&= s+sZ] j/L
*= OGb«fo0fL

uf]if'/]Zj/
g'jfsf]6 e}/j
ufFrf
jh|of]lugL
knf~rf]s eujtL
s'z]Zj/
6Lsf e}/j
kmlk{ª jh|of]lugL
xl/l;l4
of]ufDa/
tf]/g b]jtf
slt e}/j
dxfsfnL
afns'df/L
Hjfnfb]jL
dR5]ufpF
gf/fo0flxlt
hdn
gf6]Zj/
6'Fl8v]n
j]t'w/
krnL
s+sZ] j/L - lji0f'dtL _
OGb«fo0fL - lji0f'dtL _

Kfl/lzi6 $
Dxo\kL rf sfjMu' wnM
ldlt
;DjlGwt b]uMoft rf sfjMu'
!= lj=;+=@)!(–!!–&
krnL -6]s_' gjb'uf{of d"lt{t hL0ff]å{ f/ ofo\t .
@= lj=;+=@)@^–)$–% xg'dfg9f]sf b/jf/ b'go] f uf]Ko hL0ff]å{ f/ ofo\t .
-;/sf/L :t/+_
#= lj=;+=@)@&–@–@@ Xo"dt TjfMof a'4jf/Lof cflba'4 hL0ff]å{ f/ ofo\t .
$= lj=;+=@)@(–!)–( sLlt{k/' of >L af3e}/j d"lt{ hL0ff]å{ f/ ofo\t .
-;/sf/L j :yflgo :t/+ _
%= lj=;+=@)#) ;fno\ lj=;+= !(() ;fnof e'Vffrf+ b'gfMjMu' onof
dxfaf}4 ljxf/ j BM le+st] .
^= lj=;+=@)#$–)!–!@ hdM axfno\ Rj+Dx d}qo} jf]lw;Tj hL0ff]å{ f/
ofo\t .
&= lj=;+=@)$*–h]i7 6]axfnof kfnfMBMof lem+lgbFof d]nfof pknIo\
le+st] .
*= lj=;+=@)$*–)#–!! ljh]Zj/L BMof lem+lgbFof d]nfo\ sn]j/ lxn]t .
(= lj=;+=@)$*–>fj0f on, leG5]F axfnof cfuFBM le+st] .
!)= lj=;+=@)%!–)(–!! ;fg]kf Tjfno\ Rj+Dx >Ldlt u0f]zdfof ;'jfn
-BMdfF_ yfo\ >L xf/tL clhdfof kl/jf/ ;lxt+
d"lt{ yfkgf ofo\t GofuM hns'De yfkgf ofgf,
o]oF f RofDx jh|frfo{ tofM af}4 ljlwsy+ o+su" ' .
!!= lj=;+=@)%$–!@–!@ bsn] lnkf ;lR5 j lem+us
' M a'uF BMof sn]j/
lxn]t o+su" ' .

;|ft] – e'jg/Tg jh|frfo{, !!!*, yL yL BMlklg d"lt{ bo]st] j NXjg]t >L
Dx]lk:Yffgof rfofu' dxTj, ;GWof6fOD;, #M!^^, kf} s z'qmjfMof
tF;fkf} .

Gf]kfnd08nof @* kL7 – jh|ofg k/Dk/fdf of]lugLsf] e"ldsf+ ;fef/
^)

^!

Kfl/lzi6 %
>L of] u fDj/ 1fg] Z j/Lofu' hfqfoft dfMu' ;fdfu| L wnM
>L of]ufDj/ 1fg]Zj/Lof bFo\ bF; Gofo\su] ' /yf/f]x0f hfqfoft
Bf] u'7L , vnM, kfMnf g+ r"nfs] dfMu' k"hfof ;fdfu|Lt j hfqf
hf]l5oft dfMu' Hjn+of wnMkf} y'sy+ b' .
!= k'hf l;Gx
! kfp
@= Dxf;' l;Gx
! kfp
#= XofpF l;Gx
! kfp
$= clj/ l;Gx
cfwf lsnf]
%= w"k -tMDx"u_'
# Dx"
^= UjM Ujo\
!) UjM
&= k+r;'q sf÷k;"sf
vnM :jof dfSj
*= :jfF
k'hf ofo\t dfSj
(= g}jB
:ofalh, d':of, kfn'
!)= k+r ktfsf
!@) k'
!!= s0f{ksf hf]M
&) k'
!@= cf?jf
&) k'
!#= l;Gtf l;+
#@ sf -xf]d ofo\t dbo\s dufMu' _
!$= :j+ l;+
#@ sf -xf]d ofo\t dbo\s dufMu' _
!%= tMhf]u' hUu] Hjn+
! -h6fjfn g}Sof_
!^= s';f nKt]
!&= xf]d ofo\t aLaM
@ tf -afrs+ lx;fa+_
!*= aLaMto\t ;nfMkf
#@ kfM
!(= cfx'tL laOt ;nfMkf
cfwf ld6/ -s;fo\ uf bo\st] _
@!= j/] Hjn+ –
s_ n'F rL
* tf
v_ k'hf c+u'
* tf
u_ n'F kn]
$ ˆjM
3_ jx kn]
$ ˆjM
^@

ª_ k+r/Tg
r_ jxof b[li6

! KjM tM KjMu'
!% HjM -5sf] oft_
!% HjM KosM oft ^) HJfM .
@@= af}hf y'ot\ j ;?jf -to\tls_ to\t hfls $ kmf
@#= Bf]÷uf]hf bo\st] ÷k"hfoft hfls dfSj
@ kmf
@$= rvMlk
#) rfM
@%= anL kfM yg]t dfMu' Hjn+ –
s_ rf]sf alh @ dgf
v_ slru' nf, lx, :jF j cfGb«f
u_ Uj dfo\
3_ xfs' d':of slru'
ª_ nfef j 5fMrf .
@^= af} kfMno\ to\u' yL yL :jfFt –
s_ sln xM :jfF
v_ aR5f sR5f :jfF
u_ lrsF wln :jFf
3_ l;Gxfo\ :jfF
ª_ bfˆj :jfF srfM
r_ l;t' .
@&= £of], sl:t, ;f b'? j uf]e/ -£of] xf]d ofo\t g+ dfSj _
@*= 5]F ;ls, a'F ;ls÷5]F wfn], a'F wfn] j l;;fa';f to\t dfSj kmnkm'n .
@(= Bf] yfkgf ofo\t cf;gof nflu t'ou' ' t'n sfkM ! kfp
#)= wf} k'hfof nflu
! uM
#!= alh
k'hfoft j Ejo\ hf]l5oft dfSj .
#@= :ofM alh
;do\ oft % dgf
##= O{sf, ksfM
afM rs+
#$= df O{tf
!)* k'
#%= af O{tf
!)* k'
#^= af hh+sf
!%) k'
#&= s'DxM sf
dfSj
#*= v]n' O{tf
!)* k'
^#

#(= gfu k'O+{ bo\st] skfo\
:jof to\u'
$)= Ujf
! e]
$!= xfs' d':of
5dgfTofM -k'hf j ;do\oft dfSj_
$@= kfn'
k'hf j ;do\oft dfSj
$#= df]xgL kmo\t tMk'u' O{tf
%) k'
$$= x]F Vo]F
% uM -duf;f kfnfg+ :jof _
$%= dlwrlw -ldi7fGg_
kfnf g+ :jof dfSj to\u'
$^= k'hfoft dfSj kf]tfo\r+"
kfnf g+ :jof dfSj to\u'
$&= tfo], cfv]+
kfnf g+ :jof dfSj to\u'
$*= Bf] yfkgf ofo\t s'Gof
@) Dx -hj+ t"lk+ hs_
!) Dx
$(= ;+Gof
%)= u'u+ ' w"k
@ kfp
%!= sk", >Lv08 w"k
dfSj
%@= df+;fx'tL ofo\t ;f]n
+ f
dfSj
%#= cDkL UjM tUjMu'
% UJfM
%$= af} kfM
@ kfM
%%= ;ln+ k'hfoft hs
%) uM
;ln+ Ejo\oft g+ yofM sfo\u'
%^= vfo] -yflk+ g+ _
!
%&= s6f yf]+ -;f]df+ _
!
%*= XofFp yf]+ -yflk+ _
!
%(= tMuf]u' bf]r
F f -nKt]ofu'_
!% uM k'hfoft
lruf]u' bf]r
F f -nKt]ofu'_
%) uM k'hfoft
^)= tMxfsMu' s0f{ktfsf
!^ k' -sfkM ofu'_
^!= snM jfo\t lbu' -O{tf_
!^ k' -hf]l5+ oft ufSs_
^@= k'hfoft -dt yfs]t_ lrs+ ! dgf
^#= kfMu' nKt] k'hfoft j udo\ @) kfM -d]u' dfM;f kfnfg+ :jof tofM o+su] _'
k'hfoft hs
^$= lt+ Kjf
!
^%= rf} 5fo\u' Hjn+ dfSj
#@ HjM -rtf dlx« ts+ _

^^= hUu] bo\st] slr cKkf
$) kfM -tg]t ts+ ofgf_
^&= hUu] lxg]t ;Mlv lvkM
@ k' -@ Dx' _
^*= slr sf
dfSj
^(= k'hfoft dfu' ynan -k'hfeM t_ –
s_ sf]tM kfM
@ kfM
v_ l;Gxe'
@ kfM
u_ Hjfnf GXofo\s+
! -Bf] :gfg ofs]t_
3_ lvrfe' -VjfM l;s]u' e'_ ! kfM -Bf] :gfg ofs]t_
ª_ yfo\e'
! kfM -Bf]oft ef]hg 5fo\t_
r_ xf]d ofo\t la|lx tfM to\t ;nfM kfM #@ kfM
5_ xf]d ofo\t cfx'lt to\t tMkfu' ;nfM kfM ! kfM
h_ rf}+ vf;L l;hMofu' -£of] gfo\st] _
! uM
em_ co\nf to\t cGtL
! uM
`_ yflk+
# uM
6_ vfo\ to\t– vfo\ sf]/L+
! uM
7_ b]5fkfM e' -d':of, kfn', 5f]on
\ f to\t_ ! kfM
8_ gL nM yNf -tMuf]u'_
! uM
9_ wfnf yn
@ uM
0f_ snz
! uM
Tf_ wf}klt
@ HjM
-d]du] ' 5' 5' dfMu' , vnMlk+ ;sn]+ d'gf ;xnx ofgf dfM dfM sy+ to\u_'

^$

^%

;|ft] – ljsf;/Tg jh|frfo{, Dxo\lk .

Kfl/lzi6 ^

Kfl/lzi6 &

Kf|tfk dNNf g]=;+= &*^
afFw ;+Vof % vfd ;+Vof @ clen]v ;+Vof !#!
sf=O= afnfh' Dx}kLyfgsf] of]ufDj/ b]jtfsf] 9f]sfdf /x]sf] lznfkq .
clen]vsf] nDjfO # km'6 ( O~r, rf}8fO ;f9] # O~r 5 . clen]v %
k+lQm 5g\ . lnlk g]jf/L
clen]vf+z –
>L>Ldfx]Zjlno gdM ..
>f]˜of]:t' ;Djt\ &*^ cB r}qdf:o
s[i0fkIf b;DoflGtyf} ztj[vgIfq] jh|hf]Uo a'wjf;/] dLg–
/flzut] ;ljtl/s'De/flzut] rGb«dlz ..
:jl:t >LsflGtk'lndxfgun] . z:qzf:q;+uLtflb ;s/ljBf
kf/u dfxf/fhflw/fhljbUwr"8fdl0f
>L>L/fh/fh]Gb«sjLGb«hok|tfkdNnb]jk/de§f/s
k| 7fs'n; ljho/fh] ===
=== bfgkltzfSoleIf'
>LnTgk|dv
' g ===
=== k/d]Zj/Llk|ltg Yj /f]x
b'jfnKf|vf/g bos+ bf]xf]/kf h'/f] ..

z+s/dfg /fhj+z, sflGtk'/ – lznfn]v – ;"rL , -sf7df08f} M >L %
sf] ;/sf/ lz=d= k'/ftTj ljefu /fli6«o clen]vfno, @)@&_ Kff} (^ .

^^

^&

Kfl/lzi6 *
of]ufDj/ BMof Gf]=;+= *@( of bQ u'lyof Yof;km"of cfn]vg
< ç gdM >L of]ufDj/fo ..
>]of]˜:t' ;Djt *@( kf}if z'Sn, gjld, Yj s'Gx' bTt k"hf lbg h'/f] ..
Yjt] ofrt] >L of]ufDj/, 1fg]Zj/L k|Llt, bxhg, gls gLgfos,
lbluof, y/of g]Dx :qLk'?if, u'?jfxf g]Sx :qLk'?if, jfxf/kf/, :qLk'?if,
ugl5of h'/f] ..
Yjt]oft, tj‰of/ kfqj+z, hflt /fhef/f]g b'Gtf
Wjnsf] j', /j ! hj # Yjt] b'Gtf h'/f] ..
ª\xj; h'sf]; Dx+ * glsgL, jfxfkf/, :qL k"?if !@ b'lkmªf h'/f] .. ..
e'o \ km+ * hfls, df]x/ 6+sf # hf]lt/fh ef/f]g b'Gtf h'/f] .. ..
k'gefiff, hfls , k;/ efj; km+ ! hfj h'/f] .. 3f;f h'sf] Hofo ..
3/jf]; ;Ug{ h'/f] .. 3/jf] # to .. tf/rfjf] ;+;Ug{ h'/f] .. ..
/kt], lx+, lh/L, xn'/L, df]sl;/L, Nofv ofo k/;]if, Nosf], Nofv Rjfs
s'Gx' , k]jf]y ofj sfo h'/f] .. ..
;Djt *@( kf}if z'Sn gjlds'Gx' df]x/ 6+ & hf]lt/fh ef/f]g sf:o+
tof rf]s lht+sf; 5tsf ltg h'/f] .. .. ) ..
! hfls km+ !) Yjy'o oft, 5Øfo h'/f] .. ..
Wj/sf] j'of, zzh'Sj P]/fslb h'/f] .. ..
hfls km+ @ dlwls, 5Øfo h'/f] .. ..
k'/rf]of, xfs' b]jh'ofs] . jlh km+ !@ Nx'o -of/ /fsDzf, dWo], o]of @
Hofo, u'ly ef/f]; sp/foft h'/f] .. ..
O{dfbf] j'/ cf] @ k'lo h'g ˜ b'Gtf h'/f]
< y}lo, dfIf]/ j' sio{ ! hcf] @ Yjt] aFkl' o h'g b'Gtf h'/f]
< ;/fufg j' sio{ ! ;To/fd h'g b'Gtf h'/f],

^*

^(

< >L # ejfGo} gdM ..
< ;+ *#$ kf}if z'lb !@ ... ! d h'of s}b glg rf]s
< e'dj+| q *@( kf}if z's| gjld Yjs'Gx' eO/f]ho' fs] df]xf] 6+sf ! ..
km+ $ hfls
< ;+jq *@( kf}if z's| gjld Yjs'Gx' l;vgh' df]xf] 6+sf ! ..
km+ $ hfls

-No"go] f kltO_
< ç gdM >L u0f]zfo}M ..
u0fklt rx]/j+ f], lj£g/fhljgfos ..
b]jL k'qf] dxft]hf], dxfjn k/fqmldM ..
dxf]b/ dxfsfo, Dos b]t+ uhfg+g,+
xfgj0f dxflbKt+ qLg]q+ uggfos+
cIfdfnf :jb+ t+r blIf0f] s/ ;+li7
k/z' df]bs kfq]o, jfdx:t ljwfg0f+
gfu h1f kljtf+ u+, gfgf u+wf g/]kg+ gfgf ,
k'iifktf b]j+ b]jf ;'g dg'Iff0ff, l;l4 u+wj j+lbt],
q}nf]So lj£g xTtf/+ dfVjf?w+ gdfld x+ ..
Olt >Lu0fklt:tf]q+ ;dfKt+M .. ..
>L ejfGo} gdM ..
< ç gd >Lr08Lsfo} gdM ..
OGb| pjfr ..
loGb|flIfgfdzfb]jL, b]jg};M d'bf| s'tf ..
uf}l/zf+se/Lb]jL .
b'Uuf{ gfDjL ltjL >'tf .. ! ..
sf+TofogL dxfb]jL .. r08{3:+ yf dxtkf ..
;fljqL;f/ufoqL .. j|Dxf >Lj|DxjflbgL .. @ ..
gf/fo-0fL $_ eb|sfnL ?b|f0fL s[i0f ljunf
clUg Hjf/f /f]bd
| v
' L, sfn/fqL tkl:jgL .. #
&)

d]3 :jgf ;|x;fIfL .. lji0f' dfof h/fb/Lg
dxf]bof d'St s]zL 3f]/ ?kf dxfjnf .. $ ..
cRo'tf ?b|HogGtf, /f]ux:tf lzjlk|of OGbflIf OGb| dftfr
OGb| zlSt k/fo0fL .. % .. lzjb'lt r sfnL r, d[To'Zj/ dx]Zj/L ..
jf/flx gf/l;+lx eLdf e}/jgf lbgf .. .. ^ ..
>'ltM:d[ltb\ >[ltDd], ljBfnIdL ;/:jtL cgGtf
ljhofk"0ff{ dfg:tf]sf k"/flhtf .. & ..
ejfgLkfJj{tLuf}/L, d[8fgL rl08sf+ ljsf PGgfd kb] lbJo}
:t'jf zSt]0f wLdgf .. * .. zt dfjG8jo] b\joDt' gRo]
g] Joflw j+wgft cfj+t' oT; x;|g' jfl5 tfne t]km\n+ ..
Olt >LOGb|flIf:tj ;dfKt+ .. z'e .. ..
< ç gdM >Ldxfe}/jfo} gdM
;Bf]hft zzf+sz|i] 7 jbg+, ;Jj{q sfdk|b+
z[uf/+n/L ;';f}Do jbg+ >L jfdn]jf]TTf{g+ ..
3f]/+ 3f/ snf / iof/+ iof 3f]/ jbg+ 3f]/+ d"v blIfg+,
k"JJf{t+ ; ?k+, ;';f+s jbg+ j|Dx]Gb|jof u]/j/+ ..
pZb+ df]Ifk|b+ ;'zfGt jbg+, ;fGt] z:j zfZjt
kftfn] j/xf6 s]ZjM/d'v+ gfu]Gb| ;+jl' hg+ ..
lgTof gLTo ;'/f ;'/M} ..
:t'ltkb]j d'lTt{ x's
+ f/s+ ;Jj{1 k|gtf]l:dlgTo hut q}nf]Sogfy+ lzj+ ..

&!

Dxo\lkof Njx+kf}

u'Dafof lkg] nIdLgf/fo0f
b'u' tkfu' Njx+kf}
Dxo\lk clhdf BMof vjo\
Rj+u' Njx+kf}

Dxo\lk åFof a+'ufno\ Rj+u'
Njx+kf}
Dxo\lk clhdf BMof hjo\
Rj+u' Njx+kf}

&@

&#

lj;+ @)%& ;fno\ Dxo\lk clhdf b]uM NXj+uo' f clen]v

Dxo\lk clhdfof k'nf+u' :j?k

Dxo\lk clhdf b]uM b'go] f rM¥x] clhdf
&$

&%

lnwF ; f

Gf] k fnefiff j g] k fnL
h'h' anb]j j ;'/G] b«dfg >]i7 -!!@)_ g]kfMof tflGqs BM j tflGqs k"hf
-bf]=;+_+ . o]F M anb]j h'h' j ;'/G] b«dfg >]i7 .

ENGLISH

hf]zL, ;Todf]xg -!!)&_ arfM w+u' g]jfM vFUjM w"s' . o]F M nfsf}n lkygf .

Bandel, Lain S. (1995) Inventory of Stone Sculptures of
Kathmandu Valley, Royal Nepal Academy .

æHofk'Æ k~r -!!@@_ æDx]lk clhdfof kL7Æ, oHh' no\kf,} !M( kf} !@ .

Bhattacharya, Benoytosh (1985) The Indian Buddhist Icongraphy,
West Bengal : Shastri Villa, Naihati, West Bengal, Rathayatra .

bfxfn, k]zn j ;f]d k|;fb vltj8f -!!@*_ cg';Gwfg k4lt .
o]F M Pd=s]= klAn;;{ P08 l8i6«LAo"6;{ . -lj=;+= @)^%_

Dietric, Angelea (1998) Tantric Healing in the Kathmandu Valley,
Azadpur Commercial Complex : Book Faith India .

k|wfg, e'jgnfn -!!!!_ æDxo\lk b]ptfyfgÆ, dw'ks{, @# M * kf} %–!# .

Majupuria, Trilok Chandra and Rohit kumar Majupuria (2004)
Religions In Nepal, Gwalior, India : M. Devi, Lashker.

dfgGw/, u+uf axfb'/ -!!#)_ æDx]kL hfqfdf ljjfbÆ, 6fOD; ckm
g]kfn, !* M @^ kf} !–& .

Majupuria, Trilok Chandra and Rohit Kumar Majupuria (2005)
Gods, Goddesses and Religious Symbols of Buddhism
and Tantrism, Gwalior, India : M. Devi, Lashker .

ld>, Dfbgdf]xg -!!!^_ sf7df8f}+ pkTosfsf wfld{s tyf ;f+:s[lts
;Dkbf . nlntk'/ M k'/ftTj ljefu . -lj=;+= @)%@_

Min Bd. Shakya (1999) The Icongraphy of Nepalese Buddhism,
Maitighar, Thapathali : Handicraft Association of Nepal .

/fhj+z, z+s/dfg -@)@&_ sflGtk'/ – lznfn]v – ;"rL . sf7df08f} M >L
% sf] ;/sf/ lz=d= k'/ftTj ljefu /fli6«o clen]vfno .

Liebert Gosta (1986) Iconografic Dictionary of the Religions
Hinduism - Buddhism - Jainism (2nd ed.), Delhi, India : Sri
Satguru Publications .
Slusser, Mary Sepered (1982) Nepal Mandala Cultural Study of
the Kathmandu Valley, Vol.1 Text, Princeton University, Press
Princeton, New Jersy .

/]UdL, j]bgfy -!!)#_ æg]kfndf ci6dft[sfÆ, k|1f, !,@M$) . -lj=;+= @)@(_
jh|frfo{, sljGb« -!!#)_ æg]kfn k/Dk/fut af}4 jh|ofgÆ, g]kfn
k/Dk/fut af}4 wd{ ;+3 klqsf k|sfzg ;ldlt, kf} $)–$@ .
jh|frfo{, r'Gbf -!!@)_ g]jfMtlhnlhO gvMrvM . o]F M g]kfnefiff Ps]bld .
jh|frfo{, wgjh| -!)%$_ lnR5ljsflng clen]v . sLlt{k/' M g]kfn /
Plzofln cg';Gwfg s]Gb«, lqe'jg ljZjljBfno . -lj=;+= @)#)_

&^

&&

jh|frfo{, Wfgjh| -!)%$_ Uf]fkfn/fh j+zfjnLsf] P]ltxfl;s ljj]rgf .
sLlt{k/' M g]kfn / Plzofln cg';Gwfg s]Gb«, lqe'jg ljZjljBfno .
-lj=;+= @)^^_
jh|frfo{, ljsf;/Tg -!!@*_ æDxo\lk dlGb/sf] P]ltxfl;s tyf ;f+:s[lts
Ps kl/roÆ, åfbztLy{ ci6dLj|t n'dlGt . o]F M åfbztLy{ pkf]ifw
ci6dLj|t tby{ ;ldlt .

If]qL, u0f]z k|;fb j ;f]d k|;fb vltj8f -!!!*_ lxGb' ;dfh / wd
wd{,
lj/f6gu/ Ù lzjf k|sfzg .

Gog] s g]
ci6nfn, dxh{g, wf/fuNnL M o],F jif{ ^#, ehgd08nof ;b:o .

jh|frfo{, e'jg/Tg -!!!*_ æyL yL BMlklg d"lt{ bo]st] j NXjg]t >L
Dx]lk:Yffgof rfofu' dxTjÆ, ;GWof6fOD;, # M !^^, kf} s z'qmjfMof
tF;fkf} .

ld>L, dxh{g, Dxo\lk M o],F jif{ $!, Dxo\lk clhdfof BMkfnfM .

jh|frfo{, zfGtxif{ j dLg axfb'/ zfSo -!!@!_ :joDe" k'/f0f . nlntk'/ M
gfufh{g' af}4 cWoog ;+:yfg .

/ljgf/fo0f, dfgGw/, t+nfl5 M o],F jif{ ^%, t+nfl5of :yflgo afl;Gbf .

ljsf;/Tg, jh|frfo{, Dxo\lk M o],F jif{ %), Dxo\lk clhdfof d"nk'/f]lxt .

jh|frfo{, o1dfg klt -!!@(_ jh|ofg k/Dk/fdf of]lugLsf] e"ldsf . o]F M
ljl/l~r df]tL :d[lt u'Xo tf/f sf]if .
jh|frfo{, o1dfg klt -!!@&_ of]ufDj/ ;dflw . Dxo\lk M g]kfn af}4
;+:s[lt ;+/If0f s]Gb« .
jh|frfo{, 1fgs/-;+_ -*@(_ bTt u'ly . x:tlnlvt Yof;km" -Vjk Ù
JolQmut ;+sng_
;fo\ld, ;g -!!@(_ æDxo\lk clhdfof hfqfÆ, g]kfMof hfqf . o]F M g;gf
klAns]zg .
zfSo, x]d/fh -!)(*_ >L :joDe" dxfr}To . o]F M :joDe" ljsf; d08n .
>]i7, /f]hLd}o+ f -!!@%_ æ:joDe"O lrRrf bgfRj+u' h'h' k|tfk dNnof
k|tfkk'/ dlGb/ j rnM jgfM UjMt'n] To+u' Dxo\lk clhdfof dlGb/Æ,
v]nO' tf bFkf}, @ M @%, M !!*–!@@ .

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