Theory

Steel Code Check




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Introduction
Welcome to the Steel Code Check – Theoretical Background.
This document provides background information on the code checks according to different national
and international regulations.


Version info
Documentation Title Steel Code Check – Theoretical Background

Release 2012.0
Revision 03/2012




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... iv
Version info ....................................................................................................................... iv
EC3 – ENV 1993 .................................................................................................................. 2
EC3 – ENV code check ............................................................................................................... 2
Material properties ................................................................................................................... 2
Consulted articles .................................................................................................................... 3
Classification of sections .................................................................................................... 4
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ............................................... 5
Section properties .............................................................................................................. 5
Bending moment ................................................................................................................ 5
Bending, shear and axial force ........................................................................................... 5
Torsion check ..................................................................................................................... 5
Built-in beams .................................................................................................................... 6
Compression members ...................................................................................................... 6
Lateral-torsional buckling ................................................................................................... 6
Use of diaphragms ............................................................................................................. 7
Shear Buckling check ........................................................................................................ 7
Shear buckling check for cold formed sections .................................................................. 7
Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling .................................. 8
Bending and axial compression ....................................................................................... 10
Battened compression members ..................................................................................... 10
EC3 – ENV Fire Resistance ...................................................................................................... 12
Fire actions effect Efi ........................................................................................................ 12
Material properties ........................................................................................................... 12
Temperature analysis - Thermal actions .......................................................................... 13
Nominal temperature-time curve ...................................................................................... 13
Net heat flux ..................................................................................................................... 14
Steel Temperature ........................................................................................................... 15
Calculation model ............................................................................................................ 16
Code Check ..................................................................................................................... 16
Supported sections ................................................................................................................... 17
References ................................................................................................................................. 18
EC3 – EN 1993 .................................................................................................................. 19
EC3 – EN Code check ............................................................................................................... 19
Material properties ................................................................................................................. 19
Consulted articles .................................................................................................................. 20
Classification of sections .................................................................................................. 22
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ............................................. 23
Section properties ............................................................................................................ 23
Bending, shear and axial force ......................................................................................... 23
Torsion check ................................................................................................................... 24
Built-in beams .................................................................................................................. 24
Compression members .................................................................................................... 24
Lateral-torsional buckling ................................................................................................. 25
Use of diaphragms ........................................................................................................... 30

Combined bending and axial compression ...................................................................... 31
Shear buckling check ....................................................................................................... 31
Battened compression members ..................................................................................... 32
Plate girders with sinusoidal corrugated webs ................................................................. 34
Moments on columns in simple construction.................................................................... 39
Scaffolding ....................................................................................................................... 41
EC3 – EN Fire Resistance ......................................................................................................... 47
Fire actions effect Efi .............................................................................................................. 47
Material properties ................................................................................................................. 48
Temperature analysis - Thermal actions ............................................................................... 48
Nominal temperature-time curve ...................................................................................... 48
Net heat flux ..................................................................................................................... 49
Steel Temperature ................................................................................................................. 50
Calculation model .................................................................................................................. 52
Code Check ........................................................................................................................... 52
EC3 – EN Cold-Formed ............................................................................................................. 53
Consulted articles .................................................................................................................. 53
Material properties ........................................................................................................... 55
Initial Shape ..................................................................................................................... 56
Geometrical Proportions .................................................................................................. 57
Effective Shape ................................................................................................................ 58
Section Checks ................................................................................................................ 64
Stability Checks ............................................................................................................... 76
Use of Diaphragms .......................................................................................................... 80
Special considerations for Purlins .................................................................................... 84
Supported sections ................................................................................................................... 91
References ................................................................................................................................. 92
DIN18800 ........................................................................................................................... 96
DIN18800 Code check ............................................................................................................... 96
Material properties ................................................................................................................. 96
Consulted articles .................................................................................................................. 97
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 100
Net area properties ........................................................................................................ 100
Plastic interaction formula for RHS section .................................................................... 100
Plastic interaction formula for CHS section .................................................................... 104
Torsion check ................................................................................................................. 105
Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 105
Calculation of the buckling length .................................................................................. 106
Torsional buckling .......................................................................................................... 106
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 107
LTB Check ..................................................................................................................... 108
Combined flexion for check method 2 ............................................................................ 111
Battened compression members ................................................................................... 112
Effective area properties ................................................................................................ 113
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 114
Shear buckling check with buckling influence ................................................................ 114
Cold formed thin gauge members ....................................................................................... 114
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 115

References ............................................................................................................................... 116
ONORM B 4300 ............................................................................................................... 118
ONORM B 4300 Code check ................................................................................................... 118
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 119
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 119
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 120
References ............................................................................................................................... 121
NEN .................................................................................................................................. 123
NEN6770/6771 Code check ..................................................................................................... 123
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 123
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 124
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 126
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 126
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ........................................... 126
Torsion check ................................................................................................................. 127
Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 127
Buckling length ............................................................................................................... 127
Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 127
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 128
Battened compression members ................................................................................... 129
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 130
Shear buckling check with buckling influence ................................................................ 130
NEN6072 - Fire Resistance ..................................................................................................... 131
Fire actions effect ................................................................................................................ 131
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 131
Nominal temperature-time curve ......................................................................................... 132
Steel Temperature ............................................................................................................... 132
Calculation model ................................................................................................................ 135
Code Check ......................................................................................................................... 135
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 136
References ............................................................................................................................... 137
AISC – ASD : 1989 .......................................................................................................... 138
AISC - ASD Code check .......................................................................................................... 138
Classification of sections ..................................................................................................... 140
Section properties ................................................................................................................ 140
Buckling length .................................................................................................................... 140
Flexural Torsional Buckling .................................................................................................. 140
Lateral-torsional buckling ..................................................................................................... 140
Shear buckling check .......................................................................................................... 141
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 142
References ............................................................................................................................... 142
AISC – LRFD : 2001 ........................................................................................................ 144
AISC - LRFD Code check ........................................................................................................ 144
Classification of sections ..................................................................................................... 146
Section properties ................................................................................................................ 146

Buckling length .................................................................................................................... 146
Lateral-torsional buckling ..................................................................................................... 146
Use of diaphragms .............................................................................................................. 147
Shear buckling check .......................................................................................................... 147
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 147
References ............................................................................................................................... 148
ANSI/AISC 360-05:2005 .................................................................................................. 149
ANSI/AISC 360-05 Code check ............................................................................................... 149
Classification of sections ..................................................................................................... 151
Section properties ................................................................................................................ 151
Buckling length .................................................................................................................... 151
Lateral-torsional buckling ..................................................................................................... 151
Use of diaphragms .............................................................................................................. 151
Shear buckling check .......................................................................................................... 151
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 152
References ............................................................................................................................... 152
AISI NAS S100-2007 ....................................................................................................... 153
AISI NAS S100-2007 Code check ........................................................................................... 153
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 153
Initial Shape ................................................................................................................... 155
Dimensional limits .......................................................................................................... 156
Effective Widths ............................................................................................................. 156
Properties of Sections .................................................................................................... 157
Tension Members .......................................................................................................... 158
Flexural Members .......................................................................................................... 158
Compression Members .................................................................................................. 167
Combined Compression and Bending ........................................................................... 170
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 170
2
nd
Order using Appendix 2 ............................................................................................ 174
Lapped Purlin Design ..................................................................................................... 175
References ............................................................................................................................... 176
CM66 ................................................................................................................................ 178
CM66 Code check ................................................................................................................... 178
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 178
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 180
Plastic coefficient ........................................................................................................... 180
Compression members .................................................................................................. 180
Factor kf ......................................................................................................................... 180
LTB Check ..................................................................................................................... 180
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 180
Combined flexion ........................................................................................................... 181
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 181
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 181
References ............................................................................................................................... 182
CM66 - Additif 80 ............................................................................................................ 183
CM66 - Additif 80 Code check ................................................................................................ 183

Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 183
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 184
Section check ................................................................................................................. 184
Compression members .................................................................................................. 184
Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 184
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 184
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 185
References ............................................................................................................................... 185
BS5950-1:1990 ................................................................................................................ 186
BS5950-1:1990 Code Check ................................................................................................... 186
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 186
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 187
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 189
Slender cross-section .................................................................................................... 189
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 189
Bending moment ............................................................................................................ 190
Bending, shear, axial force............................................................................................. 190
Lateral torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 190
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 191
Compression member .................................................................................................... 191
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 191
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 192
References ............................................................................................................................... 192
BS5950-1:2000 ................................................................................................................ 194
BS5950-1:2000 Code Check ................................................................................................... 194
SIA263 ............................................................................................................................. 195
SIA263 Code check ................................................................................................................. 195
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 195
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 195
Section classification ...................................................................................................... 197
Slender cross-section .................................................................................................... 197
Sections properties ........................................................................................................ 197
Lateral torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 197
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 198
Shear buckling ............................................................................................................... 198
Stability check ................................................................................................................ 198
Torsion check ................................................................................................................. 198
Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 198
SIA263 - Fire Resistance ......................................................................................................... 198
Fire actions effect Efi ............................................................................................................ 198
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 199
Temperature analysis - Thermal actions ............................................................................. 199
Nominal temperature-time curve ......................................................................................... 199
Net heat flux ........................................................................................................................ 199
Steel Temperature ............................................................................................................... 200
Calculation model ................................................................................................................ 201
Code Check ......................................................................................................................... 201

Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 201
References ............................................................................................................................... 202
GBJ 17-88 ........................................................................................................................ 203
The GBJ 17-88 code check ..................................................................................................... 203
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 203
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 204
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 205
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 206
Buckling curves .............................................................................................................. 206
Buckling length ............................................................................................................... 206
Lateral torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 206
Local stability of compressed members ......................................................................... 206
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 207
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 207
References ............................................................................................................................... 208
Korean steel code check ............................................................................................... 209
The Korean steel code check ................................................................................................. 209
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 209
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 209
Section classification ...................................................................................................... 210
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 211
Buckling length ............................................................................................................... 211
Lateral torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 212
Combined stresses ........................................................................................................ 213
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 213
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 214
References ............................................................................................................................... 214
BSK 99 ............................................................................................................................. 216
BSK 99 Code check................................................................................................................. 216
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 218
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 219
Effective cross-section properties for class 3 cross-section ........................................... 219
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 219
Section check ................................................................................................................. 219
Compression members .................................................................................................. 219
Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling .............................. 220
Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 221
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 222
Shear force ( shear buckling) ......................................................................................... 222
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 223
References ............................................................................................................................... 224
IS 800 ............................................................................................................................... 225
IS:800 Code check .................................................................................................................. 225
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 225
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 225
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 226

Section properties .......................................................................................................... 227
Section check ................................................................................................................. 227
Compression members .................................................................................................. 227
Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling .............................. 227
Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 229
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 230
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 230
References ............................................................................................................................... 231
EAE code check ............................................................................................................. 232
Material properties ............................................................................................................... 232
Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 233
Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 235
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ........................................... 235
Section properties .......................................................................................................... 235
Torsion check ................................................................................................................. 235
Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 235
Compression members .................................................................................................. 236
Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 236
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 236
Combined bending and axial compression .................................................................... 237
Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 237
Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 237
References ............................................................................................................................... 238
Calculation of buckling ratio ......................................................................................... 240
Introduction to the calculation of buckling ratio .................................................................. 240
Calculation buckling ratio – general formula ........................................................................ 240
Calculation buckling ratios for crossing diagonals ............................................................. 242
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal ................... 242
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned tension diagonal ......................... 243
Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension diagonal .......................... 243
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal .......... 244
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned compression diagonal ................. 244
Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous compression diagonal ................. 245
Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements ......................................................... 246
Definitions ............................................................................................................................ 246
Calculation of the critical Euler force ................................................................................... 246
Calculation buckling ratio for lattice tower members .......................................................... 248
Leg with symmetrical bracing .............................................................................................. 249
Leg with intermediate transverse support ............................................................................ 249
Leg with staggered bracing.................................................................................................. 250
Single Bracing ..................................................................................................................... 250
Single Bracing with SBS (Secondary Bracing System) ....................................................... 251
Cross bracing ...................................................................................................................... 251
Cross bracing with SBS ....................................................................................................... 252
K Bracing ............................................................................................................................. 253
Horizontal Bracing ............................................................................................................... 253

Horizontal Bracing with SBS ................................................................................................ 254
Discontinuous Cross bracing with horizontal member ......................................................... 255
Calculation of buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis ....................................................... 256
References ............................................................................................................................... 256
Calculation of moment factors for LTB ....................................................................... 258
Introduction to the calculation of moment factors ............................................................... 258
Calculation moment factors ................................................................................................... 258
Moment distribution generated by q load ............................................................................. 258
Moment distribution generated by F load............................................................................. 260
Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam ...................................... 261
References ............................................................................................................................... 261
LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis .............................................. 262
Introduction to LTBII ............................................................................................................... 262
Eigenvalue solution Mcr ......................................................................................................... 262
2
nd
Order analysis ................................................................................................................... 264
Supported National Codes ..................................................................................................... 264
Supported Sections ................................................................................................................ 265
Loadings .................................................................................................................................. 267
Imperfections ........................................................................................................................... 267
Initial bow imperfection v0 for DIN and ONORM ................................................................. 268
Initial bow imperfection v0 for EC-EN and EAE ................................................................... 268
Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0 for other supported codes ........................................... 269
LTB Restraints ......................................................................................................................... 270
Diaphragms ............................................................................................................................. 271
Linked Beams .......................................................................................................................... 272
Limitations and Warnings ...................................................................................................... 273
References ............................................................................................................................... 274
Profile conditions for code check ................................................................................ 275
Introduction to profile characteristics ................................................................................... 275
Data for general section stability check ................................................................................ 275
Data depending On the profile shape .................................................................................... 276
I section ............................................................................................................................... 276
RHS ..................................................................................................................................... 277
CHS ..................................................................................................................................... 278
Angle section ....................................................................................................................... 279
Channel section ................................................................................................................... 280
T section .............................................................................................................................. 281
Full rectangular section........................................................................................................ 282
Full circular section .............................................................................................................. 283
Asymmetric I section ........................................................................................................... 284
Z section .............................................................................................................................. 285
General cold formed section ................................................................................................ 286
Cold formed Angle section................................................................................................... 288
Cold formed Channel section .............................................................................................. 289

Cold formed Z section ......................................................................................................... 290
Cold formed C section ......................................................................................................... 291
Cold formed Omega section ................................................................................................ 292
Cold formed C section eaves beam ..................................................................................... 293
Cold formed C Plus section ................................................................................................. 294
Cold formed ZED section..................................................................................................... 295
Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips ........................................................................... 296
Cold formed ZED section inclined lip ................................................................................... 297
Cold formed Sigma section .................................................................................................. 298
Cold formed Sigma section stiffened ................................................................................... 299
Cold formed Sigma Plus section .......................................................................................... 300
Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam ............................................................................. 301
Cold formed Sigma Plus section eaves beam ..................................................................... 302
Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined ......................................................................... 303
Cold formed I-Plus section................................................................................................... 304
Cold formed IS-Plus section ................................................................................................ 305
Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric .............................................................................. 306
Rail type KA ......................................................................................................................... 307
Rail type KF ......................................................................................................................... 308
Rail type KQ ........................................................................................................................ 309
Warping check ................................................................................................................ 310
Stress check ............................................................................................................................ 310
Calculation of the direct stress due to warping .................................................................... 311
Calculation of the shear stress due to warping .................................................................... 314
Plastic Check ........................................................................................................................... 316
Standard diagrams for warping torque, bimoment and the St.Venant torsion .................. 319
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, local torsional loading Mt ........................................ 320
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, local torsional loading Mt ...................................... 321
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, distributed torsional loading mt .............................. 323
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, distributed torsional loading mt ............................. 324
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, local torsional loading Mt .................... 325
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, distributed torsional loading mt ........... 326
Decomposition of arbitrary torsion line ................................................................................ 327
Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3 ...................................................................... 328
Decomposition for situation 2 .............................................................................................. 328
References ............................................................................................................................... 328
Check of numerical sections ........................................................................................ 330
Stress check ............................................................................................................................ 330
Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 331
Adaptation of torsional constant ........................................................................................... 331
References ............................................................................................................................... 332
Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections) ...................................... 334
Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 334
Reduction of plastic moment capacity due to plate bending .............................................. 334
Plastic interaction formula for single bending and shear force .......................................... 337

Plastic check for plate in bending ......................................................................................... 338
Stress check for slim floor beams ......................................................................................... 339
Normal stress check ............................................................................................................ 339
Shear stress check in plate.................................................................................................. 339
Torsion check due to unbalanced loading ........................................................................... 340
References ............................................................................................................................... 342
Effective cross-section properties for lattice tower angle members........................ 343
Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower angle members ............ 343
References ............................................................................................................................... 344




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
1

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
2
EC3 – ENV 1993

EC3 – ENV code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, art.3.2.2.1.)


(fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100 100<t<=250 100<t<=250
fy fu fy fu fy fy
S235
S 235
235 360 215 340 175 320
S275
S 275
275 430 255 410 205 380
S355
S 355
355 510 335 490 275 450
S420
S 420
420 520 390 520
S460
S 460
460 550 430 550

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table

Remark : For cold formed sections, the average yield strength fya can be used (by setting the proper
data flag in the Cross Section input dialog).
The average yield strength is determined as follows:


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
3

with fyb the tensile yield strength = fy
fu the tensile ultimate strength
t the material thickness
Ag the gross cross-sectional area
k is a coefficient depending on the type of forming :
k = 0.7 for cold rolling
k = 0.5 for other methods of forming
n the number of 90°bends in the section


Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to Table 5.3.1. (class 1,2,3 or 4). The section is checked for
tension (art. 5.4.3.), compression (art. 5.4.4.), shear (art. 5.4.6.) and the combination of bending, shear
and axial force (art. 5.4.9.).

For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to art.5.5.. The following criteria are
considered :
- for compression : art. 5.5.1.
- for lateral torsional buckling : art. 5.5.2.
- for bending and axial compression : art. 5.5.4.

The shear buckling resistance is checked using the simple post-critical method from art. 5.6.3.

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for part 5.3., 5.4., 5.5. and 5.6. in the
following table. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation the following chapters.


5.3. Classification of cross sections
5.3.1. Basis x
5.3.2. Classification x
5.3.3. Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis
5.3.4. Cross-section requirements when elastic global analysis is used
5.3.5. Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section x (*)
5.3.6. Effects of transverse forces on webs

5.4. Resistance of cross-sections
5.4.1. General x
5.4.2. Section properties (*)
5.4.3. Tension x
5.4.4. Compression x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
4
5.4.5. Bending moment x (*)
5.4.6. Shear x
5.4.7. Bending and shear x
5.4.8. Bending and axial force x
5.4.9. Bending, shear and axial force x (*)
5.4.10. Transverse forces on webs

5.5. Buckling resistance of members
5.5.1. Compression members x (*)
5.5.2. Lateral-torsional buckling x (*)
5.5.3. Bending and axial tension
5.5.4. Bending and axial compression x (*)
5.6. Shear buckling resistance
5.6.1. Basis x
5.6.2. Design methods
5.6.3. Simple post-critical method x
5.6.4. Tension field method
5.6.5. Intermediate transverse stiffeners
5.6.6. Welds
5.6.7. Interaction between shear force, bending moment and axial force x

5.9. Built-up compression members
5.9.3. Battened compression members
5.9.3.1. Application x(*)
5.9.3.2. Constructional details
5.9.3.3. Second moment of inertia x
5.9.3.4. Chord forces ar mid-length x
5.9.3.5. Buckling resistance of chords x
5.9.3.6. Moments and shear due to battening x

Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
5
Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved :
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. Weff is the
effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.
eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform
compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary
section, also for the stability check.

For angle sections, see chapter 'Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower
angle members'.
Section properties
5.4.2.2 : The net area properties are only taken into account in the Tension Check in case of lattice
tower angle sections with bolted diagonal connections if the LTA functionality has been activated.
For more information, reference is made to the Theoretical Background Bolted Diagonal
Connections. In all other cases the net area properties are not taken into account.

5.4.2.3 : The shear lag effects are neglected .

Bending moment
5.4.5.3 : The holes for fasteners are neglected.



Bending, shear and axial force
The reduced design plastic resistance moment for the interaction of bending, shear and axial force,
is taken from Table 5.17. Ref. |2|

Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
6
Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ
sections)’
Compression members
5.5.1.5 For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see chapter “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).
The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[5], Annex D.

Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS
(Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general
formula F.2. Annex F Ref. |1|. For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to
"Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by


z
2
t
z
2
z
2
EI
L²GI
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=



with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (=
lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis


See also Ref. |3|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd
Order Analysis’.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
7
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.
Shear Buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check for cold formed sections
See Ref.[4] 5.8 :

The shear resistance of the web Vw,Rd shall be taken as the lesser of the shear buckling resistance
Vb,Rd and the plastic shear resistance Vpl,Rd.

The shear resistance of the web should be checked if:



The shear buckling resistance Vb,Rd is given by


The plastic shear resistance Vpl,Rd is given by



with
w ì
the relative web slenderness
fyb the basic yield strength
fy the average yield strength
sw the web length
t the web thickness
E the modulus of elasticity
fbv the shear buckling strength
¸M0 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is
caused by yielding (=1.1)
¸M1 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is
caused by buckling (=1.1)
E
f
t
s
346 . 0
f
f
83 . 0
yb
w
w
_
1 M
0 M
y
yb
w
_
· = ì
¸
¸
· s ì
1 M
bv w
Rd , b
f t s
V
¸
· ·
=
3
f t s
V
0 M
y w
Rd , pl
¸
· ·
=
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
8
The value for fbv is given by :



fbv
<1.40
w
yb
f
48 . 0
ì

>1.40


Remarks:

For an arbitrary composed section, the total Vb,Rd and Vpl,Rd is taken as the sum of resistance of
each web, where the angle u (teta) is larger than 45°(see figure)

The basic yield strength is taken equal to the average yield strength.



Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling
See Ref.[4] 6.2.3.

The design buckling resistance Nb,Rd for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be obtained
using buckling curve b, and with relative slenderness given by :

w
_
ì
²
f
67 . 0
w
_
yb
ì
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
9




with |A the ratio Aeff/A (see Ref.[1] 5.5)
fyb the basic yield strength
o
cr
the critical stress
ocr,T the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling

ocr,TF
the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling
G the shear modulus
E the modulus of elasticity
IT the torsion constant of the gross section
CM the warping constant
iy the radius of gyration about yy-axis
iz the radius of gyration about zz-axis
lT the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling
y0 the position of the shear center
ly the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
10



Bending and axial compression
When the torsional buckling and/or the torsional-flexural buckling is governing, the formula (6.12)
from Ref.[4], article 6.5.2. is applied.


Battened compression members
The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member :

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc



Two links (battens) are used.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
11
The following additional checks are performed:
- buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with Nf,Sd
- section check of single chord, using internal forces :

4
a V
M
2
V
V
N N
s
G
s
G
SD f, G
=
=
=


- section check of single batten, using the internal forces :

4
a V
M
2 h
a V
T
s
0
s
=
=


For the calculation of Vs, the value of Ms is increased with the value of the internal force Mzz.

l
a
ho


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
12
EC3 – ENV Fire Resistance
Fire actions effect E
fi


The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the analysis. It is
recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the internal forces used in the
fire resistance check.

The accidental combination is given by

) f ( A Q Q G
d j , k j , 2 1 , k 1 , 1 k GA
E + ¢ E + ¢ + ¸ E


with Gk characteristic values of permanent actions
Qk,1 characteristic value of the (main) variable action
Qk,j characteristic values of the other variable actions
Af(d) design values of actions from fire exposure
¸GA partial safety factor for permanent actions in the accidental situation
¢1,1 ¢2,j combination coefficients


Material properties

The material properties are depending on the steel temperature.

Strength and deformation properties :

a
, a
, E
y
, p
, p
y
, y
, y
E
E
k
f
f
k
f
f
k
u
u
u
u
u
u
=
=
=


The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky,u
, proportional limit
kp,u
and modulus of elasticity kE,u
is given by tables in Ref.[6], table 3.1.

For cold formed members ky,u
is taken from Ref.[7], table III.2.5.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
13


In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to be constant
during the analysis:

unit mass µa 7850 kg/m³
thermal elongation Al/l 14 x 10
-6
(ua-20)
thermal conductivity ìa 45 W/mK


Temperature analysis - Thermal actions

In this part, the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are described. See
Ref.[8], Section 4, and Ref.[7], II.2.2.

Nominal temperature-time curve
The following temperature-time curves can be selected :

with t time in [min]
ug gas temperature in [°C]
oc the coefficient of heat transfer by convection



- ISO 834 curve





- external fire curve





Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
14
- hydrocarbon curve




- smoldering fire curve


during 21 minutes, followed by the standard ISO 834 curve

Net heat flux

r , net r , n c , net c , n d , net
h h h ¸ + ¸ =

with hnet,d the net heat flux
hnet,c the convective heat flux
hnet,r the radiative heat flux
¸n,c factor depending on NAD [1.0]
¸n,r factor depending on NAD [1.0]



with u configuration factor [1.0]
cres resultant emissivity
= c
f
c
m

cf emissivity related to fire compartment
= [0.800]
cm emissivity related to surface material
= [0.625]
ur = ug
gas temperature in [°C]
um surface temperature of member in [°C]
oc coefficient of heat transfer by convection
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
15
Steel Temperature
The increase of temperature Aua,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval At

t h
c
V / A
d , net
a a
m
t , a
A
µ
= u A

with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m
-1

c
a
the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
hnet,d the net heat flux per unit area [W/m²]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]

The increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval At



with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
µp the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³]
ua,t the steel temperature at time t
ug,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
Aug,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval
ìp the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]

The value Aua,t > 0.0

For the increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent coating, we refer to
the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g. strength
after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature ucr,d is computed. From
this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d is calculated (the time domain).

Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the
regulations given in 'ENV 1993-1-2:1995' and/or 'Model Code on Fire Engineering - ECCS N°111'.
The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in the temperature/time domain..
Torsional buckling and shear buckling are not considered.

For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the stability check are
performed.
The following checks are executed :

EC3-1-2 :
- classification of cross section : art. 4.2.2.
- resistance for tension members : art. 4.2.3.1
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.2.3.2.
- resistance for beams (class 1,2) : art. 4.2.3.3.
- resistance for beams (class 3) : art.4.2.3.4.
- resistance for members (class 1,2,3) subject to bending and compression : art. 4.2.3.5.
- critical temperature : art. 4.2.4.

ECCS Model Code on Fire Engineering
- resistance for tension members : art. III.5.2.
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. III.5.3.
- resistance for beams (class 1,2) : art. III.5.4.
- resistance for beams (class 3) : art. III.5.5.
- resistance for members (class 1,2,3) subject to bending and compression : art. III.5.6.
- resistance for members (class 4) : art. III.5.7.
- critical temperature : art. III.5.8.


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17
Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class
1
x x x
Stability check class
2
x x x
Stability check class
3
x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class
4
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.



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18
References

|1| Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

|2| Essentials of Eurocode 3
Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N°65, 1991

|3| R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[4] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[6] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules - Structural fire design
ENV 1993-1-2:1995, 1995

[7] Model Code on Fire Engineering
ECCS - N°111
May 2001

[8] Eurocode 1
Basis of design and actions on structures
Part 2-2 : Actions on structures - Actions on structures exposed to fire
ENV 1991-2-2:1995


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
19
EC3 – EN 1993

EC3 – EN Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in:

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1: General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2006

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009






Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, table 3.1.)
Within the material properties the rules for reduction of the yield strength in function of the thickness
can be edited.

Remark: For cold formed sections, the reductions of the yield strength in function of the thickness
are not applied.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
20
Consulted articles

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in "Eurocode 3: Design of steel
structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings - EN 1993-1-1:2005".
The cross-sections are classified according to Table 5.2. All classes of cross-sections are included.
For class 4 sections (slender sections) the effective section is calculated in each intermediary point,
according to prEN 1993-1-5:2003, Chapter 4.4 .
The stress check is taken from art. 6.2.: the section is checked for tension (art. 6.2.3.), compression
(art. 6.2.4.), bending (art. 6.2.5.), shear (art. 6.2.6.), torsion (art.6.2.7.) and combined bending, shear
and axial force (art. 6.2.8., art.6.2.9. and art.6.2.10.).
The stability check is taken from art. 6.3.: the beam element is checked for buckling (art. 6.3.1.),
lateral torsional buckling (art. 6.3.2.), combined bending and axial compression (art. 6.3.3.) and
battened compression members (art. 6.4).
The shear buckling is checked according to EN 1993-1-5:2006, Chapter 5.
For I sections, U sections and cold formed sections warping can be considered.
A check for critical slenderness and torsion moment is also included.
For integrated beams, the local plate bending is taken into account for the plastic moment capacity
and the bending stresses in the section. The out-of-balance loading is checked.

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The chapters marked
with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the
following chapters.

EN 1993-1-1

5.5 Classification of cross section
(*)
5.5.1. Basis
x
5.5.2. Classification
x
6. Ultimate limit states

6.1. General
x
6.2. Resistance of cross-sections
6.2.1 General

x
6.2.2 Section properties
x(*)
6.2.3 Tension
x
6.2.4 Compression
x
6.2.5 Bending moment
x
6.2.6 Shear
x
6.2.7 Torsion
x(*)
6.2.8 Bending and shear
x
6.2.9 Bending and axial force
x
6.2.10 Bending, shear and axial force
x
6.3. Buckling resistance of members
6.3.1 Uniform members in compression

x(*)
6.3.2 Uniform members in bending
x
6.3.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression
x(*)
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
21


6.4 Uniform built-up compression members
6.4.1 General
6.4.3 Battened compression members



Annex A:Method 1:Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in
6.3.3.(4)
x
Annex B:Method 2:Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in
6.3.3.(4)
x


EN 1993-1-3

6.1.2. Axial tension
x
6.1.3. Axial compression
x
6.1.5. Shear force
x
6.1.6. Torsional moment
x


EN 1993-1-5

4.4. Plate elements without longitudinal stiffeners
x
5. Resistance to shear
5.1. Basis
x
5.2. Design resistance
x
5.3. Contribution from webs
x
5.4. Contribution from flanges
x
5.5. Verification
x
7.1. Interaction between shear force, bending moment and axial
force
x


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check since stability effects are related to the whole member and not to a single
cross-section.
To determine this critical classification, all sections in the Ly and Lz system lengths of the buckling
system are checked and the worst classification is used as the critical. Note that only sections on the
actual member are used so in case the system length spans multiple members, only the sections of
the actual member are used to determine the critical classification.

For non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary
section.
The classification according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.2 is done using the general formulation for
‘parts subjected to bending and compression’. In this way the beneficial effect of tension is also
accounted for.
- For example, for class 1, in case of bending combined with a tensile axial force the cross-
section is less subjected to compression thus leading to an o value smaller than 0,5. This in
turn leads to higher classification limits than the case for ‘part subject to bending’.

- For example, for class 1, in case of an asymmetrical section in bending, depending on the
geometry of the section the cross-section is less subjected to compression thus leading to an
o value smaller than 0,5. This in turn leads to higher classification limits than the case for
‘part subject to bending’.


Specifically for sheet welded Iw and Iwn cross-sections the weld size as inputted in the cross-
section is accounted for in the classification as follows:





With: Hw Web height
a Weld size


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved :
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. Weff is the
effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.
eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform
compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary
section, also for the stability check.
Section properties
The net area properties are not taken into account.
The shear lag effects are neglected.

Bending, shear and axial force
Plastic Interaction for CHS
The 2009 correction sheet to EN 1993-1-1 Ref.[11] specifies an interaction formula for CHS
sections. This formula however does not include the influence of shear. Table 5.17. Ref. |15|
specifies the full interaction formula including also shear.
In addition for CHS sections the resultant shear force and resultant moment are determined.
The moment resistance is determined taking into account this resultant shear force.
The unity check then becomes the following:




Plastic Interaction for other sections
By default the plastic combined interaction check according to EN 1993-1-1 article 6.2.9.1 formula
(6.41) is only executed for I-sections, full rectangular and RHS sections since Eurocode only gives
formulas to reduce the plastic bending resistance of these sections in case of a normal force.

However, in case there is no normal force, no reduction of the plastic bending resistance for normal
force is needed and thus the plastic interaction can be used also for other cross-sections.
This is used specifically for the following cross-sections:
Angle section (Form code 4)
U-section (Form code 5)
T-section (Form code 6)
Asymmetric I-section (Form code 101)
In case these sections are classified as class 1 or 2 and no normal force is present the combined
interaction is checked according to formula (6.41) with Alpha and Beta set to 1.00.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Torsion check
For the cross section check including torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'.

Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ
sections)’.

Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see chapter “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

Buckling curves are determined according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.2.
In case the cross-section of the member is not listed in this table, the buckling curves are taken from
the user inputted values in the cross-section properties.

For non-prismatic members with cross-sections that are not listed in Table 6.2 all generated
sections will receive the user inputted values of the buckling curves of the first section in the span.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), and Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS), the elastic
critical moment for Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mcr is given by the general formula F.2. Annex F Ref.
|10|.
For any other section, the elastic critical moment for Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mcr is given by:



With E Modulus of elasticity
G Shear modulus
L Length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw Warping constant
It Torsional constant
Iz Moment of inertia about the minor axis
C1 Moment factor which by default is taken as 1,00. Within the Steel setup
it can be set to use the calculated value of C1 instead of 1,00.

See also Ref. |4|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Circular hollow sections (CHS) are taken as non-susceptible to Lateral Torsional Buckling.

Rectangular hollow sections are classified as non-susceptible to Lateral Torsional Buckling if the
following condition is fulfilled (Ref.[9] pp.119).

ì

With: h Height of RHS section
b Width of RHS section
ì

Relative slenderness for weak axis flexural buckling


Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.


For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd
Order Analysis’.

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Determination of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3
The coefficients C1, C2 and C3 can be calculated according to three different methods:
ENV 1993-1-1 Annex F
ECCS 119/Galea
Lopez, Yong, Serna

By default the method according to ECCS 119/Galea is applied.
The following paragraphs give information on these methods.
ENV 1993-1-1 Annex F
When this setting is chosen, the moment factors are determined according to ENV 1993-1-1 Annex
F Ref.[10].
Detailed information can be found in chapter "Calculation of moment factors for LTB".

ECCS 119/Galea
When this setting is chosen, the moment factors are determined according to ECCS 119 Annex B
Ref.[9].
The figures given in this reference for C1 and C2 in case of combined loading originate from Ref.[28]
which in fact also gives the tabulated values of those figures as well as an extended range.


The actual moment distribution is compared with several standard moment distributions. These
standard moment distributions are moment lines generated by a distributed q load, a nodal F load, or
where the moment line is maximum at the start or at the end of the beam.

The standard moment distribution which is closest to the actual moment distribution, is taken for the
calculation of the factors C1 and C2.

Linear Moment
In case of a linear moment diagram the C1 coefficient is determined using formula (301) of ECCS 119
Annex B Ref.[9].
The coefficient C2 is taken as zero in this case.

Point Loading
In case of Point loading the coefficients C1 and C2 are calculated using tables 5-8 of Galea Ref.[28].
A double interpolation is used for intermediate values.

Line Loading
In case of Line loading the coefficients C1 and C2 are calculated using tables 1-4 of Galea Ref.[28].
A double interpolation is used for intermediate values.

In case k differs from 1.00 the C1 and C2 values determined from Galea Ref.[28] are overruled by
the values from ECCS 119 Annex B Ref.[9] tables 63 and 64
For all cases the factor C3 is taken from ECCS 119 Annex B Ref.[9] tables 63 and 64. The C3 value
is determined based on the case of which the C1 value most closely matches the table value.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
27
The table for C3 uses the value ¢f which is taken as 0 by default.
For asymmetrical I-sections (Form code 101) ¢f is calculated as follows:

Ifc and Ift concern the moments of inertia of the compression ( c ) and tension ( t ) flange about the
minor axis.
For this method ¢f should be within the following range:
¢

When this is not the case ¢f is set to the respective limit and a warning is given.


I-section Cantilevers
ECCS 119 Annex B Ref.[9] tables 65 to 68 give values for C1, C2 and C3 for I-section cantilevers.
These coefficients are used only in case the following conditions are met:
- The member concerns a cantilever.
A cantilever is defined as a member at the end of a buckling system which has free ends for both
buckling about the y-y and z-z axis. In addition, the LTB length should correspond to the full
system length of the buckling system.
- The cross-section is an I-section (Form code 1) or Asymmetric I-section (Form code 101).
This method differentiates between ‘warping prevented’ and ‘warping free’ at the fixed end. This
setting is taken from the buckling system.

This method uses the value ¢f which is calculated as specified above.
For this method ¢f should be within the following range:
¢

When this is not the case ¢f is set to the respective limit and a warning is given.


This method uses the coefficient

which is defined as follows:

With: L System length for LTB
E Modulus of Young
G Shear modulus
Iz Inertia about the weak axis
It Torsion constant
hs Distance defined as follows:
Form Code 1: H - t
Form Code 101: H – 0,5 * tt – 0,5 * tb

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
28

should be within the following range:

When this is not the case

is set to the respective limit and a warning is given.

In addition this method should be used in combination with k equal to 2,00 and kw equal to 1,00
When this is not the case an additional warning is given.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
29
Lopez, Yong, Serna
When this setting is chosen, the moment factors are determined according to Lopez, Yong, Serna
Ref.[29].
When using this method the coefficients C2 and C3 are set to zero.
The coefficient C1 is calculated as follows:






With: k1 Taken equal to kw
k2 Taken equal to kw
M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 The moments My determined on the buckling system in the
given sections as shown on the above figure.
These moments are determined by dividing the beam into 10
parts (11 sections) and interpolating between these sections.

Mmax The maximal moment My along the LTB system.

 This method is only supported in case both k and kw equal 0.50 or 1.00


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Modified design rule for LTB of Channel sections
In case this setting is activated within the Steel Setup, the reduction factor for Lateral-Torsional
Buckling of Channel sections is determined according to Ref.[22].

More specifically the calculation is done as follows:

This Modified design rule is applied only in case the following conditions are met:
- The section concerns a Channel section (Form Code 5)
- The General Case is used for LTB (Not the Rolled and Equivalent Welded Case)
- 15 <= Lltb/h <= 40 (with Lltb the LTB length and h the cross-section height)



Correction factor k
c

In case Lateral-Torsional Buckling curves for the ‘Rolled and equivalent welded’ case are used
according to EN 1993-1-1 article 6.3.2.3 the correction factor kc can be determined in two ways:

By default kc is taken from Table 6.6

Alternatively, kc can be determined from C1 as follows Ref.[30]:

Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

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Combined bending and axial compression
For prismatic members the value My,Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
strong axis in the member. The value Mz,Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
weak axis in the member.
For non-prismatic sections, the values My,Ed and Mz,Ed are the concurrent bending moments for each
intermediary section.

 When Torsional(-Flexural) buckling is governing the _z value in equation (6.62) is taken
as the minimum of _z and _TF.


Interaction Method 1 – Annex A

For Czz the corrected formula given in correction sheet EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009 Ref.[11] is used:

ì

ì

Interaction Method 2 – Annex B

Doubly symmetric I sections which have a reduction factor for Lateral Torsional Buckling _LT equal to
1,00 are classified as non-susceptible to torsional deformations.

Circular hollow sections are classified as non-susceptible to torsional deformations.

Rectangular hollow sections are classified as non-susceptible to torsional deformations if the
following condition is fulfilled (Ref.[9] pp.119).

ì

With: h Height of RHS section
b Width of RHS section
ì

Relative slenderness for weak axis flexural buckling


Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

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Battened compression members
The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member:

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc


 This specifically concerns hot rolled sections i.e. cold-formed pair sections are not
supported.
Battened compression members are evaluated according to EN 1993-1-1 article 6.4.1 and 6.4.3.

Two links (battens) are used.

The following additional checks are performed:
Section check of chord as beam in field between battens
This check is executed according to articles 6.4.3.1 & 6.2.9.1 using the following internal forces:

4
a V
M
2
V
V
N N
Ed
G
Ed
G
Ed ch, G
=
=
=

With: Nch,Ed Chord force according to formula (6.69)
VEd Shear force in the built-up member according to
formula (6.70)
a Distance between battens

For I-sections a classification is made which thus supports both an elastic or plastic interaction. For
U-sections always an elastic interaction is made.

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Buckling check of chord
This concerns a weak axis buckling check of a single chord according to articles 6.4.3.1 & 6.3.1.1
using chord force Nch,Ed.


Section check of single batten
An elastic section check of a single batten is executed according to articles 6.4.3.1, 6.2.9.2 & 6.2.6
using the following forces:

4
a V
M
2 h
a V
T
Ed
0
Ed
=
=

With: VEd Shear force in the built-up member according to
formula (6.70)
a Distance between battens
h0 Distance between centroids of chords

l
a
ho


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Plate girders with sinusoidal corrugated webs
Plate girders with sinusoidal corrugated webs (“SIN beams”) are covered in EN 1993-1-5 Annex D. The
method given in this chapter is specified in Ref.[33]. Background information can be found in Ref.[16].



The check is executed for sheet welded cross-sections of type Iw c and Iwn c. The corrugations are taken
to be perpendicular to the upper flange.

The dimensioning of corrugated web girders is executed for the in plane effects NEd, Vz,Ed and My,Ed.
Transformation of internal forces

For every point of the plate girder the chord forces N,og and N,ug are found by transformation. These
chord forces are still parallel to the member axis while the shear force is orthogonal to the axis.
The following angles are defined:
- α = the slope of the lower chord against the upper chord
- β = the angle between the centre line and chords.





The shear force Vz is decomposed into a corrugation-parallel component V* and an axis-parallel
component N(V)*.



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N(V)* can be added directly to the calculated normal force N. The chord forces can now be determined as
follows:


With: A,og Area of the upper flange
A,ug Area of the lower flange
H,steg Web height
t,og Thickness of the upper flange
t,ug Thickness of the lower flange


From the chord forces the chord-parallel components and the corrugation-parallel components are
determined. For the upper chord this becomes:



For the lower chord the following intermediate step is used:




The actual force in the lower chord is then:



The actual component of the shear force can then be written as:

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
36

The chord forces Nog* and Nug* are now known. By summation of the V* and V(Nog)* and V(Nug)*
components the total shear force is obtained.
Resistance of sinusoidal corrugated web girders

The normal force and bending moment are taken by the flanges while the shear force is taken by the
corrugated web.

Flanges
For the flanges the following limits are checked:
- Yielding
- Local buckling
- Global buckling

Yielding

NRd,yield = bf * tf * fy / ¸M0

With: bf Flange width
tf Flange thickness
fy Yield strength
¸M0 Partial safety factor


Local buckling
Local buckling of the compression flange is checked according to EN 1993-1-5 article 4.4.

To avoid local buckling the slenderness is limited to 0,748. By substituting this into the formula
for the slenderness the following limit is obtained for the width:



For a sinusoidal corrugated web member the total flange width thus becomes:


The resistance for local buckling can then be written out as:

NRd,local = b * tf * fy / ¸M0

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Global buckling
Global buckling of the compression flange (Lateral-Torsional Buckling) is checked according to EN
1993-1-1 article 6.3.2.4:

This is written out to the following resistance for the compression flange:


With: b Flange width
t Flange thickness
fy Yield strength
E Modulus of Young
Lc Length between lateral restraints (LTB length)
kc Correction factor according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.6

The design value can then be written out as:

NRd,global = NRk / ¸M1

With: ¸M1 Partial safety factor


Web
For the web the shear resistance is determined according to EN 1993-1-5 Annex D article D2.2:

Where _c is taken as the lesser of the reduction factors for local buckling _c,l and global buckling
_c,g.
According to Ref.[34] it was found by testing and FEM that no local buckling occurs for all actually
produced beams with sinusoidal corrugated webs. Therefore only the reduction factor for global
buckling _c,g needs to be accounted for.




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
38



With: fy Yield strength
E Modulus of Young
v Poisson ratio
tw Web thickness
hw Web depth
Iz Second moment of area of one corrugation of length w,
calculated as:


a3 Height of a sinus wave
Taken as 40 mm for tw < 3 mm
Taken as 43 mm for tw ≥ 3 mm

w Length of the projection of a half wave

s Unfolded length of a half wave
Taken as 178 mm for tw < 3 mm
Taken as 182 mm for tw ≥ 3 mm




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Moments on columns in simple construction
This NCCI presents a method for determining the moments on columns in simple construction due
to the eccentricity of the beam-to-column joints. This method is intended for braced frames with
nominally pinned joints. The method is detailed in Ref.[31] and [32].
Conditions
In case the setting is activated in the Steel Setup the additional moments will be calculated on
columns in which the following conditions are satisfied:

- The column cross-section concerns an I-section (Form code 1) or RHS section (Form code 2)
- The column has structural type Column, Gable column or Secondary column
- The column is uniform i.e. does not have arbitrary sections or haunches
- Only connected beams with structural type Beam or Rafter are accounted for. In addition these
beams should have a hinge at the side where they are connected to the column.
- There can maximally be two connected beams in the same plane in the same node. These two
connected beams must have the same X-axis direction of their LCS.
Additional moments
When the above conditions are satisfied the additional moments are calculated in the following way:

With: Rb1,Ed Shear force in the considered plane in the connected beam at the
specified distance
h Profile height for an I-section
Profile height or width for an RHS-section
tw Web thickness for an I-section
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The distribution of the additional moments to the upper and lower column sections is carried out in
proportion to their stiffness, except where the ratio of the stiffnesses (I/L) does not exceed 1.5,
when the moments may be shared equally. This is illustrated on the following picture:

With: MU Distributed moment to the upper column section
ML Distributed moment to the lower column section
IU Inertia in the considered plane of the upper column section
IL Inertia in the considered plane of the lower column section
LU System length in the considered plane of the upper column section
LL System length in the considered plane of the lower column section
These additional moments are then added to the sections in the column just above and just below the
connected beam.
 The simplified procedure given in this chapter allows to account for eccentricities
without specifically adding these eccentricities in the calculation model. In case
however an actual member eccentricity is defined on the column member the above
procedure will not be used since additional moments will already be generated during
the analysis.


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Scaffolding
The scaffolding member and coupler check are implemented according to EN 12811-1 Ref.[23].
The following paragraphs give detailed information on these checks.

Scaffolding member check for tubular members
The check is executed specifically for circular hollow sections (Form code 3) and Numerical
sections in case the proper setting is activated in the Steel Setup.

The check is executed according to Equation 9 given in EN 12811-1 article 10.3.3.2. However, the
EN 12811-1 only gives an interaction equation in case of a low shear force.
Since the EN 12811-1 is based entirely on DIN 4420-1 Teil 1 Ref.[26] the interaction formulas
according to Tabelle 7 of DIN 4420-1 Teil 1 are applied in case of a large shear force.


The interaction equations are summarised as follows:

Conditions Interaction for tubular member
and

and

and

and







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With: M

V




Npld

Vpld

Mpld

A Area of the cross-section
Wel Elastic section modulus
Wpl Plastic section modulus
N Normal force
Vy Shear force in y direction
Vz Shear force in z direction
My Bending moment about the y axis
Mz Bending moment about the z axis
fy Yield strength of the material


Safety factor taken as ¸M0 of EN 1993-1-1

 As specified in EN 12810 Ref.[25] & 12811 Ref.[23] the scaffolding check for tubular
members assumes the use of a 2
nd
order analysis including imperfections.

In case these conditions are not set the default EN 1993-1-1 check should be applied
instead.


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Scaffolding coupler check
The scaffolding couplers according to EN 12811-1 Annex C Ref.[23] are provided by default within
Scia Engineer.
The interaction check of the couplers is executed according to EN 12811-1 article 10.3.3.5.

The interaction equations are summarised as follows:

Coupler type Interaction equation
Right angle coupler


Friction sleeve



With: Fsk Characteristic Slipping force
Taken as Nxk and Vzk of the coupler properties
2Fsk = Nxk + Vzk
Fpk Characteristic Pull-apart force
Taken as Vyk of the coupler properties
MBk Characteristic Bending moment
Taken as Myk of the coupler properties
N Normal force
Vy Shear force in y direction
Vz Shear force in z direction
My Bending moment about the y axis


Safety factor taken as ¸M0 of EN 1993-1-1 for steel couplers
Safety factor taken as ¸M1 of EN 1999-1-1 for aluminium couplers


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Manufacturer couplers
In addition to the scaffolding couplers listed above, specific manufacturer couplers are provided
within Scia Engineer.
The interaction checks of these couplers are executed according to the respective validation reports.

Cuplock
The cuplock coupler which connects a ledger and a standard is described in Zulassung Nr. Z-8.22-
208 Ref.[35].

The interaction equations are summarised as follows:

Cuplock Coupler Interaction equation
Interaction 1


Interaction 2



With: Nxk Taken from the coupler properties
Myk Taken from the coupler properties
Mxk Taken from the coupler properties
N Normal force in the ledger
My Bending moment about the y axis
Mx Torsional moment about the x axis
Nv Normal force in a connecting vertical diagonal
o Angle between connecting vertical diagonal and standard


Safety factor taken as ¸M0 of EN 1993-1-1 for steel couplers
Safety factor taken as ¸M1 of EN 1999-1-1 for aluminium couplers




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Layher Variante II & K2000+
The Layher coupler which connects a ledger and a standard is described in Zulassung Nr. Z-8.22-
64 Ref.[36]. Both Variante II and Variante K2000+ are provided.



Layher
Coupler
Interaction equation
Interaction 1 Variante II:


Variante K2000+:


Interaction 2





With: NR,d
= Nxk /
With Nxk taken from the coupler properties
My,R,d
= Myk /
With Myk taken from the coupler properties
MT,R,d
= Mxk /
With Mxk taken from the coupler properties
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46
Vz,R,d
= Vzk /
With Vzk taken from the coupler properties
N Normal force in the ledger
(+) This index indicates a tensile force
Vy Shear force in y direction
Vz Shear force in z direction
My Bending moment about the y axis
Mx Torsional moment about the x axis
Nv Normal force in a connecting vertical diagonal
o Angle between connecting vertical diagonal and standard
e = 2,75 cm for Variante II
= 3,30 cm for Variante K2000+
eD = 5,7 cm for Variante II and Variante K2000+
ç = 1,26 cm for Variante II
= 1,41 cm for Variante K2000+


Safety factor taken as ¸M0 of EN 1993-1-1 for steel couplers
Safety factor taken as ¸M1 of EN 1999-1-1 for aluminium couplers




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EC3 – EN Fire Resistance

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules – Structural fire design
EN 1993-1-2:2005

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-2:2005/AC:2005

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-2:2005/AC:2009


Fire actions effect E
fi


The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the analysis. It is
recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the internal forces used in the
fire resistance check.

The accidental combination is given by (see EN 1990 – Ref[5])

Eq. 6.11b EGk,j + P + Ad+ (¢1,l or ¢2,l)Qk,l+ E¢2,iQk,i

The choice between ¢1,l or ¢2,l is done by the user. Default is ¢1,l.


with Gk,j characteristic value of permanent action j
P relevant representative value of prestressing action
Qk,l characteristic value of leading variable action l
Qk,i characteristic value of accompanying variable action i
Ad design value of the accidental action
¢1,l ¢2,l combination coefficients


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48
Material properties

The material properties are depending on the steel temperature.

Strength and deformation properties :

a
, a
, E
y
, p
, p
y
, y
, y
E
E
k
f
f
k
f
f
k
u
u
u
u
u
u
=
=
=


The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky,u
, proportional limit
kp,u
and modulus of elasticity kE,u
is given by tables in ref.[6], table 3.1.

For cold formed members ky,u
is taken from Ref.[7]; table III.2.5.

In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to be constant
during the analysis :

unit mass µa 7850 kg/m³
thermal elongation Al/l 14 x 10
-6
(ua-20)
thermal conductivity ìa 45 W/mK


Temperature analysis - Thermal actions

In this part, the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are described. See
Ref.[8], Section 3, and Ref.[7], II.2.2.

Nominal temperature-time curve

The following temperature-time curves can be selected :

with t time in [min]
ug gas temperature in [°C]
oc the coefficient of heat transfer by convection

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49

- ISO 834 curve



- external fire curve



- hydrocarbon curve



- smoldering fire curve



during 21 minutes, followed by the standard ISO 834 curve

- user defined temperature-time curve


Net heat flux

r net c net d net
h h h
, , ,
+ =


with hnet,d the net heat flux
hnet,c the convective heat flux
hnet,r the radiative heat flux

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50


with u configuration factor [1.0]
cres resultant emissivity
= cf cm
cf emissivity related to fire compartment
= [1.00]
cm emissivity related to surface material
= [0.70]
ur = ug
gas temperature in [°C]
um surface temperature of member in [°C]
oc coefficient of heat transfer by convection


Steel Temperature
The increase of temperature Aua,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval At

t h
c
V A
k
d net
a a
m
sh t a
A = A
, ,
/
µ
u


with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m
-1

ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
hnet,d the net heat flux per unit area [W/m²]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
ksh correction factor for the shadow effect [1.0]
The correction factor is calculated for I sections only



The increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval At

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51



with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
µp the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³]
ua,t the steel temperature at time t
ug,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
Aug,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval
ìp the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]

The value Aua,t > 0.0


For the increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent coating, we refer to
the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.

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Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g. strength
after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature ucr,d is computed. From
this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d is calculated (the time domain).
Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the
regulations given in 'EN 1993-1-2:2005'. The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in the
temperature/time domain..
Torsional buckling and shear buckling are not considered.

For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the stability check are
performed.
The following checks are executed :

- classification of cross section : art. 4.2.2.
- resistance for tension members : art. 4.2.3.1
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.2.3.2.
- resistance for beams (class 1,2) : art. 4.2.3.3.
- resistance for beams (class 3) : art.4.2.3.4.
- resistance for members (class 1,2,3) subject to bending and compression : art. 4.2.3.5.
- check for class 4 sections : Annex E


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EC3 – EN Cold-Formed

The members are checked according to the regulations given in:

Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 3: Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting
EN 1993-1-3:2006

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-3:2006/AC:2009


Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 5: Plated Structural elements
EN 1993-1-5:2006

Corrigendum
EN 1993-1-5:2006/AC:2009





Consulted articles
An overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The articles marked with “x” are
consulted. The articles marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following
paragraphs.

Article Title
1 Introduction X

2 Basis of design X

3 Materials
3.1 General X
3.2 Structural Steel X(*)

5 Structural Analysis
5.1 Influence of rounded corners X(*)
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5.2 Geometrical proportions X(*)
5.3 Structural modelling for analysis X
5.5 Local and distortional buckling
5.5.1 General
5.5.2 Plane elements without stiffeners
5.5.3 Plane elements with edge or intermediate stiffeners
5.5.3.1 General
5.5.3.2 Plane elements with edge stiffeners
5.5.3.3 Plane elements with intermediate stiffeners
X
X(*)

X(*)
X(*)
X(*)

6 Ultimate Limit States
6.1 Resistance of cross-sections
6.1.1 General
6.1.2 Axial Tension
6.1.3 Axial Compression
6.1.4 Bending moment
6.1.4.1 Elastic and elastic-plastic resistance with yielding at
the compressed flange
6.1.5 Shear Force
6.1.6 Torsional Moment
6.1.7 Local Transverse Forces
6.1.8 Combined Tension and Bending
6.1.9 Combined Compression and Bending
6.1.10 Combined shear force, axial force and bending moment
6.1.11 Combined Bending moment and local load or support
reaction
X
X(*)
X(*)

X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)

X(*)
6.2 Buckling Resistance
6.2.1 General
6.2.2 Flexural buckling
6.2.3 Torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling
6.2.4 Lateral Torsional buckling of members subject to bending
6.2.5 Bending and axial compression
X
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
6.3 Bending and axial tension X(*)

10 Special considerations for purlins, liner trays and sheetings
10.1 Beams restrained by sheeting
10.1.1 General
10.1.2 Calculation methods
10.1.3 Design criteria
10.1.4 Design resistance
10.1.5 Rotational restraint given by sheeting
10.1.5.1 Lateral spring stiffness
X(*)
X
X
X(*)

X(*)
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 As specified in EN 1993-1-3: 1.1(3) the code does not apply to cold -formed CHS (FC 3)
and RHS (FC 2) sections. For these form codes the default EN 1993-1-1 provisions
apply.

 Haunches, arbitrary members and cross-sections without initial shapes are not
supported for the EN 1993-1-3 code check. In this case the default EN 1993-1-1 code
check is executed.

 The checks are executed according to the principal axis in accordance with EN 1993-1-
3 art. 1.5.1(4) NOTE except where stated otherwise.

Material properties
The steel grades given within EN 1993-1-3 Table 3.1b are available in the default Material Library of
Scia Engineer.

Average Yield Strength
The average yield strength is supported according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 3.2.2.

The average yield strength is applied in the following resistance calculations:
- Axial Tension
- Axial Compression
- Bending Moment
- Torsional moment
- Flexural Buckling
- Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling
- Purlin design – Cross-section resistance
 The average yield strength is calculated using Ag of the Initial shape.

Steel Core Thickness
The steel core thickness is supported according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 3.2.4.

The steel core thickness is only available for the following sections:
- Cross-section which have form code FC 111 – FC 126 & FC 129
- Cold-formed pair sections (2CFUo, 2CFUc, 2CFCo, 2CFCc, 2CFLT)

The ranges for the core thickness are set ‘for sheeting and members’.
 Form codes 172 & 128 are not supported for the Steel Core Thickness.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Initial Shape
For a cross-section with material Steel and fabrication set to Cold-Formed, the Initial Shape can be
defined.

For a General cross-section the ‘Thin-walled representation’ has to be used to be able to define the
Initial Shape.

The thin-walled cross-section parts can have the following types:

F Fixed Part – No reduction is needed
I Internal cross-section part
SO Symmetrical Outstand
UO Unsymmetrical Outstand

Parts can also be specified as reinforcement:

None Not considered as reinforcement
RUO Reinforced Unsymmetrical Outstand (edge stiffener)
RI Reinforced Intermediate (intermediate stiffener)
DEF Double Edge Fold (edge stiffener)

ROU and DEF reinforcement types can be set only to elements of type SO or UO.
RI types can be set only to elements of type I or UO or SO.

For general cross-sections neighbouring elements of type RI are seen as one stiffener for the
calculation of the stiffener area and inertia.




The initial shape is supported for the following cross-section types:
- Standard profile library cross-sections
- Cold formed Pair cross-sections of profile library sections
- General thin-walled sections
- General sections with thin-walled representation
- Thin-walled geometric sections
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57
- All other sections which support the centerline and do not have roundings

For standard profile library cross-sections, the flat parts are taken between the roundings. The
roundings are set as fixed parts.

For predefined sections without roundings, the initial shape is based on the centreline dimensions
i.e. the flat parts are taken between the intersection points of the centrelines.

For standard profile library cross-sections and pair sections the Initial Shape is generated
automatically. Within this automatic generation the stiffeners are handled as follows:
o For the following form codes edge stiffeners are automatically set as RUO
FC 114 Cold formed C-section
FC 115 Cold formed Omega section
FC 116 Cold formed C-Section eaves beam
FC 118 Cold formed ZED section
FC 119 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips
FC 120 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip
FC 121 Cold formed Sigma section
FC 124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam
FC 126 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined
FC 129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric

o For the following form codes edge stiffeners are automatically set as DEF
FC 117 Cold formed C-Plus section
FC 122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened
FC 123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section
FC 125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam
FC 127 Cold formed I-Plus section
FC 128 Cold formed IS-Plus section

o For the following form codes internal stiffeners are automatically set as RI
FC 121 Cold formed Sigma section
FC 124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam
FC 122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened
FC 123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section
FC 125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam
FC 128 Cold formed IS-Plus section
FC 129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric
Geometrical Proportions
The Geometrical proportions are checked according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.2(1) Table 5.1.
The limits for edge stiffeners (c) and double edge folds (d) are checked in case the correct stiffener
type (RUO or DEF) has been set in the initial shape.

The limit ratio’s given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.2(2) are checked. Lip dimensions c and d are however
always accounted for and will not be ignored.

In addition the limit for the internal radius given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.1(6) is checked.

 For general sections, the geometrical proportions are checked for elements I, UO and
SO using their respective part lengths. Flanges including RI stiffeners are thus
considered part by part and not as one whole flange.
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Effective Shape
Influence of rounded corners
Within Scia Engineer the exact method is applied i.e. all properties and dimensions are determined
including the influence of rounded corners.

The approximate procedure given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.1(3) and following is thus not supported.

Notional widths
The notional widths are specified in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.1 and Figure 5.1.


The initial shape elements are taken between the roundings (i.e. internal dimensions w).

The notional widths bp are then calculated as follows:

- For an internal element (I)
bp = w + rm * sin ( |left / 2) + rm * sin ( |right / 2)

- For an outstand element (UO, SO)
bp = w + rm * sin ( | / 2)

In addition to the notional with bp, for each element the centerline length lc is determined as follows:

- For an internal element (I)
lc = bp + gr,left + gr,right

With gr,left = rm * [tan ( |left / 2) - sin ( |left / 2)]
gr,right = rm * [tan ( |right / 2) - sin ( |right / 2) ]
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- For an outstand element (UO, SO)
lc = bp + gr

With gr = rm * [tan ( | / 2) - sin ( | / 2)]


General procedure for one element

By default, EN 1993-1-3 specifies that the stress f (ocom,Ed) to be used for the effective section
calculation should be taken as fyb/¸M0

The reduction of an element is in general given by:
beff = p * b

With: beff Effective width
p Reduction factor
b Full width

- Step 1:
For the given stress f the normal stress over the rectangular plate element of the initial
geometrical shape is calculated.
These stresses are calculated based on the nominal width bp.


o beg : normal stress at start point of rectangular shape – compression stress is
positive
o end : normal stress at end point of rectangular shape – compression stress is
positive
If the rectangular shape is completely under tension, i.e. o beg and o end are both
tensile stresses, no reduction is needed, p = 1.0
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60

- Step 2: Determine f1 and f2:
in case o o
f1 = o beg
f2 = o end
in case o o
f1 = o end
f2 = o beg

- Step 3: Calculate the stress gradient ¢:

- Step 4: If ¢ = 1 the element is under uniform compression, else the element is
under stress gradient.

Depending on the stress gradient and the element type, the effective width can be
calculated as specified in the following paragraphs.

 EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.2 concerning the plastic reserve of the tension flange is not
supported i.e. always an elastic stress distribution is used.


Internal Compression Elements
The effective width of internal compression elements is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5 art. 4.4
and Table 4.1.
This applies to elements of type I.
The notional width bp is used as

Outstand Compression Elements
The effective width of outstand compression elements is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5 art.
4.4 and Table 4.2.
This applies to elements of type UO and SO
The notional width bp is used as

 When activating the checkbox “Use Lambda,p,red 4.4(4)” the reduced slenderness is
determined using ocom,Ed as the maximal compressive stress f1 f2 in the element.
 When activating the checkbox “Use Annex E E.1(1)” the formulas given in Annex E
are used to determine the reduction factor µ.

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Plane Elements with Edge Stiffeners
The procedure for determining the effective width/thickness of elements with edge stiffeners is given
in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.5.3.2 and art. 5.5.3.1.
This applies to elements of type RUO and DEF

General remarks regarding the stiffness K of the edge stiffener given in formula (5.10b) .
- hw is taken as lc (centreline length) of the biggest adjacent element. Adjacent
elements are those elements connected to the flange. For typical cross-sections,
there is only one adjacent element, the web.
- For Sigma sections, hw is taken as the sum of the centreline lengths of the web
elements.
This concerns the following form codes:
FC 121 Cold formed Sigma section
FC 124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam
FC 122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened
FC 123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section
FC 125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam
FC 128 Cold formed IS-Plus section
FC 129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric

- General Cross-section: hw for stiffener:
o Elements connected to the stiffener are not accounted for since they are
considered as flanges
o Elements connected to those flanges are all accounted for in case they are
of type I and the summation is made of the lengths of these elements
o Roundings are not accounted for

- General Cross-section: In case there is only one edge stiffener
kf is taken as zero. (i.e. no interaction between two flanges since there is only one
flange).
- General Cross-section: In case there are two edge stiffeners
kf is determined by default. (i.e. interaction between the two flanges is accounted
for).
- General Cross-section: In case there are more than two edge stiffeners
The same logic is followed as for a single stiffener. The factor kf is thus taken as
zero.
 The formula for K given in the EN 1993-1-3 is based purely on simple sections with two
flanges. In case of more complex cross-sections, the only exact procedure is to
perform a numerical analysis (finite strip method) to determine the critical stresses for
local and distortional buckling. This is referenced as the ‘Advanced Procedure’ given
in art. 5.5.1(7).
 Critical stresses for local and distortional buckling obtained from a numerical analysis
can be inputted in the cross-section manager.

 The reduced effective area of the stiffener As,red according to art 5.5.3.2(11) is
calculated using ocom,Ed = fyb/¸M0.

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Plane Elements with Intermediate Stiffeners
The procedure for determining the effective width/thickness of elements with intermediate stiffeners
is given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.5.3.3 and art. 5.5.3.1.
This applies to elements of type RI

The stiffness K of the internal stiffener is determined from formula (5.11):

o

v

 The reduced effective area of the stiffener As,red according to art 5.5.3.3(10) is
calculated using ocom,Ed = fyb/¸M0.

General procedure of Effective Shape calculation
The general procedure which combines the effective section calculation of plane elements without
and plane elements with stiffeners is given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 5.5.2(3) and art. 5.5.3.

This procedure can be written out as follows:
- Step 1: The effective width of the flanges and edge/intermediate stiffeners within the
flanges are calculated based on gross section properties.

This includes the optional iterative procedure for the edge/intermediate stiffeners as
specified in art. 5.5.3.2(10) and art. 5.5.3.3(9).

- Step 2: This partially effective shape of the previous step is used to determine the
stress gradient and effective width of the web.

This includes the optional iterative procedure for the intermediate stiffeners as
specified in art. 5.5.3.3(9).

- Step 3: The end result of the previous two steps is the effective cross-section and its
properties can be calculated.

- Step 4: This process can now be optionally iterated using the stress ratio based on
the effective cross-section in place of the gross cross-section.

Both iteration procedures (iteration of stiffeners and iteration of the full cross-section) can be set in
the Steel Setup.

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Manufacturer provided effective section properties

In case in the Steel Setup the option ‘Use manufacturer provided effective section properties’is
activated, effective section properties from the manufacturer are taken from the Effective Section
Library instead of calculated by EN 1993-1-3.

The following properties can be defined in the Effective Section Library:

Property Description
fy [MPa] Steel grade for which the effective properties have been derived
Aeff [mm^2] Effective Area for compression
eN,y [mm] Shift of centroid in y direction for compression
eN,z [mm] Shift of centroid in z direction for compression

Ieff,y My+ [mm^4] Effective moment of inertia about the y-y axis for a positive moment
My
Weff,y My+ [mm^3] Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the y-y axis for a
positive moment My
eM,z My+ [mm] Shift of centroid in z direction for a positive moment My

Ieff,y My- [mm^4] Effective moment of inertia about the y-y axis for a negative moment
My
Weff,y My- [mm^3] Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the y-y axis for a
negative moment My
eM,z My- [mm] Shift of centroid in z direction for a negative moment My

Ieff,z Mz+ [mm^4] Effective moment of inertia about the z-z axis for a positive moment
Mz
Weff,z Mz+ [mm^3] Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the z-z axis for a
positive moment Mz
eM,y Mz+ [mm] Shift of centroid in y direction for a positive moment Mz

Ieff,z Mz- [mm^4] Effective moment of inertia about the z-z axis for a negative moment
Mz
Weff,z Mz- [mm^3] Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the z-z axis for a
negative moment Mz
eM,y Mz- [mm] Shift of centroid in y direction for a negative moment Mz

 In case the yield strength used for the cross-section does not match any of the yield
strengths defined in the Effective Section Library the default EN 1993-1-3 calculation
will be used.

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Section Checks
Axial Tension
The Axial Tension Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.2.

The net section resistance Fn,Rd is taken as:


With Anet taken equal to Ag since bolt holes are not accounted for.

Axial Compression
The Axial Compression Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.3.

The choice between formula (6.2) and (6.3) is made by comparing the gross area Ag from the initial
shape with the effective area Aeff of the effective shape for compression.
The gross area Ag used in the formulas is taken from the cross-section manager.

 This comparison using the initial shape property is of importance for the following
reasons:

- Profile Library sections can have different gross properties compared to the initial
shape since the gross properties come from certain sources (books, tables, …) and
are mostly rounded off.

- For general cross-sections the gross shape can differ from the initial shape since the
initial shape concerns a thin walled representation.

Each element on which a distortional buckling reduction factor _d is applied is seen as ‘stiffened’.
All other elements are seen as ‘plane’.

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Bending Moment
The Bending Moment Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.1.

The choice between formula (6.4) and (6.5) is made by comparing the elastic section modulus Wel
from the initial shape with the effective section modulus Weff of the effective shape for bending.
The elastic section modulus Wel used in the formulas is taken from the cross-section manager.

 Note: This comparison using the initial shape property is of importance for the
following reasons:

- Profile Library sections can have different gross properties compared to the initial
shape since the gross properties come from certain sources (books, tables, …) and
are mostly rounded off.

- For general cross-sections the gross shape can differ from the initial shape since the
initial shape concerns a thin walled representation.

An element of type I is seen as ‘plane’.
An element of type UO or SO is seen as ‘outstand’.

As indicated in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.1(2) formula (6.5) is only applied in case:
- There is only single bending i.e. My OR Mz
- There is no torsion i.e. Mx = 0
- There is no Torsional (-Flexural) buckling i.e. _TF = 1,00
- There is no Lateral Torsional buckling i.e. _LTB = 1,00
- There is no Distortional buckling i.e. all reinforcement types of the cross-
section elements should be ‘none’ or, in case there are stiffeners, they should
not be in compression.
- The angle | between the web and flange exceeds 60°.

In case formula (6.5) should be applied but the above conditions are not fulfilled, formula (6.6) is
applied.

EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.2 concerning the plastic reserve of the tension flange is not supported i.e.
always an elastic stress distribution is used.

EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.4.3 concerning the effects of shear lag is not supported.

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Shear Force
The Shear Force Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.5.

General
The shear resistance is calculated for each ‘web’ element separately and the cross-section
resistance is taken as the sum of these element resistances.
Only elements with element types I, UO and SO are accounted for.
In addition, elements with stiffener type RUO or DEF are not accounted for.

Formula (6.8) is rewritten as follows for both directions:

With: oi = Angle of element i related to the principal y-y axis
lc,i = Centreline length of element i

 By default the Shear Check is executed ‘without stiffening at the support’
In case Local Transverse Forces data are inputted which have the checkbox ‘No Local
Transverse Forces Check’ activated, the Shear Check in those sections is executed
‘with stiffening at the support’.

Elements without Internal stiffeners
The centreline length lc,i for each element i is taken from the Initial shape.

The angle oi for each element i is determined as the angle related to the principal y-y axis.

The relative web slenderness for each element i is determined according to formula (6.10a).

The slant height sw,i is taken as the notional width bp,i of the element under consideration as
indicated on the following picture.
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Sections with Internal stiffeners
Special considerations are required for cross-sections with internal stiffeners (Type RI).
The following picture illustrates a web with internal stiffener:

The internal stiffener and connected elements are seen as ‘one web’. This ‘composed’ web is seen
as ‘one’ element i in the shear calculation.

For such a ‘composed’ web, the different distances are determined as follows:
- The slant height sw is taken as the distance between
- The starting point of the nominal width bp,i of the first element in the web.
- The end point of the nominal width bp,i of the last element in the web.
- The total developed slant height sd is taken as the sum of the nominal widths bp,i of all the
elements in the web.
- The slant height sp concerns the notional width bp,i of the largest plane web element.

The relative web slenderness is determined according to formula (6.10b).
The inertia of the stiffener(s) Is is taken from the Initial shape

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The centreline length lc of this composed web is calculated as follows:
- In case the first or last element of the composed web has element type SO or UO:
lc = sw + gr
With gr = rm * [tan ( | / 2) - sin ( | / 2)]

If the first element is an outstand, gr is taken as gr at the end point of the last
element.

If the last element is an outstand, gr is taken as gr at the starting point of the first
element.
Reference is made to Notional widths.

- In case both the first and last element of the composed web has element type I:
lc = sw + gr,first + gr,end

With gr,first taken as gr at the starting point of the first element.
gr,end taken as gr at the end point of the last element.

The angle o of the ‘composed’ web concerns the angle of the centreline length lc relative to the
principal y-y axis.

 Neighboring connected elements are seen as one ‘web’. A typical example of this is a
sigma section: the web has two internal stiffeners which both are connected to the
same internal element. As such they are recognized as forming one web.


Torsional Moment
The Combined Stress Check including Torsion and Warping is executed according to EN 1993-1-3
art. 6.1.6.
Regarding warping reference is made to Warping check.

The average yield strength fya in all three formulas (6.11a), (6.11b), (6.11c) will only be used in
case for all three force components separately (N, My, Mz) the average yield strength may be used
(Aeff = Ag ; Weff,y = Wel,y ; Weff,z = Wel,z).

Local Transverse Forces
The local transverse forces check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art 6.1.7 and following.

The check is executed on the positions where there is a jump in the Vz shear force diagram.

Remarks:
- The shear force diagram of both the actual member as well as adjacent members is
evaluated. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same buckling
system.
- The Flange Condition depends on the definition of the initial shape. In case there is an
element with reinforcement type ROU or DEF the setting is taken as ‘Stiffened ’.
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- The distances for One-flange/Two-flange and End/Interior are evaluated taking into account
adjacent members. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same
buckling system.
- In case the cross-section has multiple webs, for determining the load condition the maximal
web height is used.
- As opposed to EN 1993-1-3 art.6.1.7.2(4), the exact inputted bearing length ss will be used
at all times i.e. the simplification of using the minimal length for both opposing loads is not
supported.
- As indicated on EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6.6, the local transverse force resistance is taken
relative to the support, not according to the principal z-axis. Therefore FEd, is determined
according to the LCS axis system and not according to the principal axis system!

General Procedure
This paragraph specifies the general procedure to determine the local transverse web resistance
which is applied for any type of cross-section except for FC 115 (Cold formed Omega).

 In case the cross-section has any element with stiffener type RI, the procedure for
stiffened webs is applied first.
In a first step the web height hw is determined for each ‘web’ element:
- Only elements of type I are accounted for.
In addition elements with stiffener types RUO and DEF are not accounted for.
- For each of those elements i the centreline length lc,i is read from the Initial shape
- For each of those elements i the angle |i is determined as the angle of the element
relative to the horizontal axis (based on Figure 6.6).
In addition, only elements with an angle |i ≥ 45°are accounted for.
- The web height for each element i is calculated as:

|

- In case none of the cross-section elements fulfil the above conditions, the local
transverse forces check is not supported for the cross-section.

When hw,i is determined, the local transverse resistance Rw,Rd,i for each of those elements is
determined based on EN 1993-1-3 art.6.1.7.2
The final cross-section resistance is taken as the sum of the individual element resistances.

By default, the local transverse resistance Rw,Rd,i is determined using EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6.7a &
6.7b.

The following table shows the relation between the loading conditions and the cases defined in the
tables.


Loading Condition Table Case
End One Flange (EOF) 6.7a a) i)
Interior One Flange (IOF) 6.7a a) ii)
End Two Flange (ETF) 6.7b b) i)
Interior Two Flange (ITF) 6.7b b) ii)
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In case Web rotation prevented was set using Local Transverse Forces data instead of EN
1993-1-3 Figure 6.7a & 6.7b the formulas given in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.7.2(4) are used.
The following table shows the relation between the loading conditions and the cases defined in this
article.

Loading Condition Article Case
End One Flange (EOF) art. 6.1.7.2(4) a) i)
Interior One Flange (IOF) art. 6.1.7.2(4) a) ii)
End Two Flange (ETF) art. 6.1.7.2(4) b) i)
Interior Two Flange (ITF) art. 6.1.7.2(4) b) ii)

Omega Sections
Specifically for FC 115 (Cold formed Omega) cross-sections the special procedure for sections with
two or more unstiffened webs is applied. The local transverse resistance Rw,Rd,i for each of those
webs is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.7.3.
 Other cross-sections with two or more unstiffened webs will always be calculated
according to the General Procedure, not this special procedure.

The value of o in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.7.3(5) is taken for ‘liner trays and hat sections’.

The following table shows the relation between the loading conditions and the categories defined in
EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6.9.


Loading Condition Category
End One Flange (EOF) 1
Interior One Flange (IOF) 1
End Two Flange (ETF) 1
Interior Two Flange (ITF) 2

 Figure 6.9 does not directly specify ETF. However since two flange loading is specified
as category 1 and End loading is also specified as category 1, the combined condition
of ETF is considered as category 1.

 According to [27] to use la = 10 mm for the end support reaction force (category 1)
results in a very conservative resistance. A modification is given for case 2 and 3 of
Figure 6.9: la = c + Ss.
By activating the setting “Use la correction in (6.18)” this modification is applied.


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Stiffened Webs
This paragraph outlines the special procedure in case of stiffened webs according to EN 1993-1-3
art. 6.1.7.4.
This method is used only in case there are one or more elements with stiffener type RI

The procedure consists of four steps.

Step 1: Creating ‘composed’ webs
In a first step, ‘composed’ webs are created using the same procedure as outlined in Sections with
Internal stiffeners.
This includes the determination of the centreline length lc,i of those ‘composed’ webs.


Step 2: Evaluation of ‘composed’ webs
The special procedure outlined in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.7.4 is only valid under certain conditions.
Therefore, each ‘composed’ web is evaluated to see if it meets the following requirements:
- There is one or more elements with stiffener type RI
- Each RI element should have element type I (i.e. it is at both sides connected to
other elements signifying it’s a fold instead of a stiffener).
- Elements connected to this RI element should not have stiffener type RI. This
implies that the procedure is not applied in case of neighbouring stiffener elements
i.e. elements forming ‘one’ big stiffener.
Composed webs which do not meet these requirements are further evaluated in step 3.
Composed webs which meet all requirements are further evaluated in step 4.

Example:

All four sections have ‘composed’ webs.
Section A contains two RI stiffeners which are connected. The web thus does not meet the
requirements.
Section B contains a single RI stiffener which meets all the requirements. This stiffener is thus a
‘true’ two fold stiffener so the special article applies.
Section C contains several RI stiffeners however not all match the requirements (one is an outstand,
others are connected etc). The web thus does not meet the requirements.
Section D has a composed web which contains two RI stiffeners. Both meet all the requirements
and are thus ‘true’ two fold stiffeners. The special article applies.


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Step 3: Composed webs which do NOT meet the requirements
For composed webs which do not meet the requirements, the special article is not valid. The local
transverse force resistance of these webs will be determined according to the General Procedure
In this case, the centre line length lc,i of the composed web is used in the determination of hw.
The angle |i is determined as the angle of the centre line length relative to the horizontal axis.


Step 4: Composed webs which meet all requirements
For composed webs which meet all requirements, the special procedure outlined in EN 1993-1-3
art. 6.1.7.4 is applied.
The ‘system line’ of this web is taken as the centre line length lc,i.

The eccentricity e is determined at each end of an RI within the ‘composed’ web. Eccentricity emin
and emax are then taken as the min and max value for the considered composed web.
In case the limit specified in formula (6.21) is not fulfilled, the special article is not applied and the
composed web is considered as a web which does not meet all requirements. For such a web the
procedure outlined in step 3 is applied.


For the developed width of the loaded flange bd any RI stiffeners of element Type I are always
included, independent of their angle. RI stiffeners of element Type UO or SO are always ignored.
Connected flange elements which have a relative angle > 135° are accounted for as „one‟flange for
the determination of bd.
In case there is no connected flange, for example when using a general section, then bd is
considered as zero. Practically this implies that there is no limit for ka,s.

The data is then used to determine ka,s according to formula (6.22).
The Rw,Rd,i value of the composed web is then calculated as:
Rw,Rd,i = ka,s * Rw,Rd,i,general
With Rw,Rd,i,general calculated according to the General Procedure
The value of hw,i for this composed web is calculated using the centre line lc,i of the composed web
as outlined in step 3.

Combined Tension and Bending
The Combined Tension and Bending Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.8.

The bending resistances are determined using the section moduli Weff of the effective shapes for
bending.

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Combined Compression and Bending
The Combined Compression and Bending Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.9.

Additional moments due to the shift in neutral axis are calculated at the beginning of the check and
added to the internal forces.

 This ensures specific bending checks are executed also in case there is no initial
moment but only an additional moment.

The shifts in neutral axis eNy and eNz are read directly from the effective shape for compression.

As specified in EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.3(3) additional moments are only accounted for in case they
lead to an unfavourable check result.

The bending resistances are determined using the section moduli Weff of the effective shapes for
bending.

Combined Shear Force, Axial Force and Bending Moment

The Combined Shear Force, Axial Force and Bending Moment Check is executed according to EN
1993-1-3 art. 6.1.10.

In the following paragraphs formula (6.27) is written out for both directions.

Shear Vy
In case of shear Vy formula (6.27) is written out as follows:

Remarks:
- Mf,Rd is taken as zero in case of Vy

(In case of weak axis bending, the ‘web’ becomes a ‘flange’. Since there is only a
single ‘flange’ in that case, the moment resistance of this flange is negligible. In
addition, in case of more webs like in a box section EN 1993-1-5 art. 7.1 (5)
specifies Mf,Rd = 0. Therefore, as a general conservative approach for Vy the value
of Mf,Rd is taken as 0.)

Shear Vz
In case of shear Vz formula (6.27) is written out as follows:

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Remarks:
- According to [Ref.16] pp70 Mf,Rd is calculated as follows:

This is generalised in the following way:
a) Only elements with element types I, UO and SO are accounted for
b) Only elements which have an angle o with the principal y-y axis which is s 45°
are considered

In case there is only one or none of such element, Mf,Rd = 0.
c) Of these elements, the one with the lowest beff is considered. The width beff
concerns the effective with of this element, read from the effective shape for
bending.
d) Af = beff * t with t the thickness of the considered element.

e) Next only elements which have an angle o with the principal y-y axis which is >
45°are considered.

In case there are no such elements, set Mf,Rd = 0.

f) Of these elements, the one with the highest value of lc * sin(o) is considered,
with lc the centreline length of the element.
g) hf = lc * sin(o)
h) Mf,Rd is now be calculated as:

- According to [Ref.16] pp70 Mpl,Rd is calculated as follows:

with Wpl read from the gross section properties.

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Combined Bending Moment and local Load/Support Reaction
The Combined Bending Moment and local Load/Support Reaction Check is executed according to
EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.11.

In formula (6.28c) the internal force MEd is taken as the actual moment in the section considered, not
the moment at the edge of the support.

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Stability Checks
Flexural Buckling
The Flexural Buckling Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.2.2 and EN 1993-1-1 art.
6.3.1.

Table 6.3 regarding the buckling curves is revised as follows:

Form code Description about axis Curve
1 I section y-y
z-z
a
b
101 Asymmetric I section y-y
z-z
a
b
114 Cold formed C section any b
116 Cold formed C-Section eaves beam any b
117 Cold formed C-Plus section any b
118 Cold formed ZED section any b
119 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips any b
120 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip any b
121 Cold formed Sigma section any b
122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened any b
123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section any b
124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam any b
125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam any b
126 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined any b
127 Cold formed I-Plus section y-y
z-z
a
b
128 Cold formed IS-Plus section y-y
z-z
a
b
129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric any b
2CFCo with a = 0 y-y
z-z
a
b
2CFCc with a = 0 Closed section rule 6.2.2(3)
2CFUo with a = 0 y-y
z-z
a
b
2CFUc with a = 0 Closed section rule 6.2.2(3)
2CFLT with a = 0 any c
Any other section any c
All other sections fall in the ‘other cross-section’ case of curve c for any axis.

For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio"
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling
The Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.2.3 and EN
1993-1-1 art. 6.3.1.4.

The buckling curve for torsional (-flexural) buckling is taken as the z-z buckling curve according to
the table given in Flexural Buckling.

The value of the elastic critical load Ncr is taken as the smallest of Ncr,T (Torsional buckling) and
Ncr,TF (Torsional-Flexural buckling).

Calculation of N
cr,T

The elastic critical load Ncr,T for torsional buckling is calculated according to Ref.[17].

t

With: E Modulus of Young
G Shear modulus
It Torsion constant
Iw Warping constant
lT Buckling length for the torsional buckling mode
y0 and z0 Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid
iy radius of gyration about the strong axis
iz radius of gyration about the weak axis




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Calculation of N
cr,TF
The elastic critical load Ncr,TF for torsional flexural buckling is calculated according to Ref.[17].

Ncr,TF is taken as the smallest root of the following cubic equation in N:

0

With: Ncr,y Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the y-y axis
Ncr,z Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the z-z axis


Ncr,T Critical axial load for torsional buckling
Lateral Torsional Buckling
The Lateral Torsional Buckling Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.2.4 and EN 1993-
1-1 art. 6.3.2.2.
For additional information reference is made to Lateral-torsional buckling.
For information regarding the influence of diaphragms on the Lateral Torsional Buckling Check
reference is made to Use of Diaphragms.


Bending and Axial Compression
For determining the Combined Bending and Axial Compression check according to EN 1993-1-3 art.
6.2.5 EN 1993-1-3 allows two possibilities:
- Use the EN 1993-1-1 interaction according to article 6.3.3
- Use the alternative according to EN 1993-1-3 article 6.2.5(2)
The choice between these two methods is set in the Steel Setup.

Interaction according to EN 1993-1-1
The interaction is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art. 6.3.3 using interaction factors from Annex
A & B.
In both Method 1 (Annex A) and Method 2 (Annex B) the cold - formed sections are seen as ‘class
3 or 4’.

Alternative interaction according to EN 1993-1-3
The interaction is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.2.5(2).

Nb,Rd is taken as the lowest value of
- the flexural buckling resistance about the y-y axis
- the flexural buckling resistance about the z-z axis
- the torsional (-flexural) buckling resistance


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 Formula (6.36) includes the strong axis bending resistance Mb,Rd. There is however no
indication for a weak axis bending moment. Therefore, in case a weak axis bending
moment is present, this interaction cannot be applied and the general interaction
according to EN 1993-1-1 is applied.

Bending and Axial Tension
The Combined Bending and Tension Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.3.
The code specifies that the same equations as for compression should be used. These interaction
equations are however not fully valid in case of tension.

The purpose of the interaction check for bending and tension is to check the stresses at the
compression fiber. In the AISI NAS 2007 Ref.[18] code the following formula is given in article C5:


This formula is rewritten using EC-EN notations as follows:

With: Mb,y,Rd The Lateral Torsional Buckling resistance.
Mc,z,Rd,com The moment resistance for the compression fiber in case of Mz.
Nt,Rd The Tension Resistance


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Use of Diaphragms
The influence of a diaphragm is outlined in the following diagram.



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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First of all the lateral stiffness S of the diaphragm is determined and compared to the required
stiffness Serf.
The lateral stiffness S is calculated according to Ref.|19|,3.5 and Ref.|20|,3.3.4.

L
K
+
K
10
a.
= S
s
2
1
4


with a The frame distance
L
s
The length of diaphragm
K1 Diaphragm factor K1
K2 Diaphragm factor K2

The required stiffness Serf is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.1


In case S < Serf the member is seen as Inadequately braced. In this case, when the diaphragm is
located on the compression side, the Lateral Torsional Buckling check is executed using the
augmented torsional stiffness It. Reference is made to Adaptation of torsional constant.

G
l
vorhC I I
2
2
t id , t
t
+ =
0


with l The LTB length
G The shear modulus
vorhC
u
The actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm

 As specified in art. 10.1.1 the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0,2 S in case the
diaphragm is connected every second rib only.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is seen as Fully braced. In this case, a first test is executed to
evaluate if the special purlin checks according to EN 1993-1-3 Chapter 10 can be applied.

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More specifically, this chapter is applied only in case the cross-section concerns a Z, C, E or U
section:

Form code Description
5 Channel section
102 Rolled Z section
112 Cold formed channel
113 Cold formed Z
114 Cold formed C section
116 Cold formed C-Section eaves beam
117 Cold formed C-Plus section
118 Cold formed ZED section
119 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips
120 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip
121 Cold formed Sigma section
122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened
123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section
124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam
125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam
126 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined
129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric


 The code specifies that the chapter is also valid for hat (Omega) sections however in
all further paragraphs; no specific formulas are given for Omega sections. For
example the free flange geometry is described only for Z, C and E sections, not for
Omega sections. Therefore, Omega sections are not supported for this special
chapter.


In case the cross-section does not match any of the above, the default checks are executed. Since
the member is seen as fully braced, no Lateral Torsional Buckling check needs to be executed in
case the diaphragm is located on the compression side.

In case the cross-section does match the list of set form codes, a second test is executed. More
specifically, the special purlin checks according to EN 1993-1-3 Chapter 10 can be applied only in
case:
- The dimensional limits of article 10.1.1(1) are satisfied
- The section is only loaded by N, Vz, My

 Chapter 10 specifies only checks related to in plane effects N, Vz and My. Therefore, in
case of other loading components, the special articles are not valid and the default
checks will be applied.

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For a section which meets all requirements, the following is done:
- Reduced default Checks are executed i.e. not all default checks will be executed.
- Special purlin checks according to Chapter 10

More specifically, the following ‘default’ checks will be executed:

Section Check Article
Axial tension 6.1.2
Axial compression 6.1.3
Bending moment 6.1.4
Shear force 6.1.5
Torsional moment NOT
Local Transverse Forces 6.1.7
Combined tension and bending NOT
Combined compression and bending NOT
Combined shear, axial force and bending moment 6.1.10
Combined Bending and Local Transverse Force 6.1.11
Stability Check Article
Flexural buckling only for y-y 6.2.2
Torsional and Torsional-Flexural buckling NOT
Lateral-Torsional buckling NOT
Bending and axial compression NOT
Bending and axial tension NOT

The Torsional moment check will never occur in this case since the prerequisite is to have only N,
Vz, My.

The combined axial and bending checks are not executed since they are replaced by the special
purlin checks.

The flexural buckling check is executed for y-y buckling in accordance with EN 1993-1-3 art.
10.1.4.2(2).

Torsional buckling and Lateral-torsional buckling are prohibited by the fully braced diaphragm. The
compression in the free flange is included in the special purlin checks.
The combined stability checks are not executed since they are replaced by the special purlin
checks.

 In contrast to art. 10.1.3.3(2) the Local Transverse Load Check and its interaction with
the bending moment is executed even if the support reaction is a tensile force.

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Special considerations for Purlins
As outlined in Use of Diaphragms for a section which meets all requirements, special purlin checks
according to EN 1993-1-3 Chapter 10 will be executed:
Diaphragm on the compression side
- Cross-section resistance according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1
- In case of compression in the free flange also Stability of the free flange according
to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2

Diaphragm on the tension side
- Cross-section resistance according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1
- Stability of the free flange according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2

Resistance of Cross-Section
The Resistance of the Cross-Section is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1.
Since this check concerns a separate formula for each flange (10.3a) and (10.3b) the effective
section modulus Weff,y is determined for each flange separately.

The average yield strength will only be used in case for both force components separately (N, My)
the average yield strength may be used (Aeff = Ag ; Weff,y = Wel,y).

Definition of the free flange geometry
The dimension h is taken as the full cross section height.

The properties of the free flange are calculated according to the z-z axis of the full cross-section.
The following table shows the supported cross-sections including the contributing web height.

Form code Description Contributing web
5 Channel section 1/5 h
102 Rolled Z section 1/5 h
112 Cold formed channel 1/5 h
113 Cold formed Z 1/5 h
114 Cold formed C section 1/5 h
116 Cold formed C-Section eaves beam 1/5 h
117 Cold formed C-Plus section 1/5 h
118 Cold formed ZED section 1/5 h
119 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips 1/5 h
120 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip 1/5 h
121 Cold formed Sigma section 1/6 h
122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened 1/6 h
123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section 1/6 h
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124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam 1/6 h
125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam 1/6 h
126 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined 1/5 h
129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric 1/6 h

 As the code indicates in Figure 10.2, for sigma sections the rounding which leads to
the web depression is also accounted for in the height of the free flange. Therefore, to
generalize this principle, within Scia Engineer the rounding between the flange and the
web is always accounted for in the free flange height (for all section types).

Determination of the equivalent lateral load
The equivalent lateral load on the free flange qh,Ed is determined from the vertical load qEd on the
purlin using formula (10.4).

For any given moment diagram, the equivalent vertical line load qEd is determined as the line load
which results in approximately the same bending moment diagram..

The factor kh is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 Figure 10.3.
 For kh0, the general formula for Z,C or E sections is applied. The formula for a simple
Z-section is not supported.
For Gravity loading, the vertical loading is assumed to be positioned at the outside of the web. For
Uplift loading the vertical loading is assumed to be positioned exactly in the middle of the flange
width.

For Gravity loading the general formula including the shear center distance e is used.
For Uplift loading the general formula including the shear center distance f is used. In case of a
symmetrical Z section this distance will become a.

The load qh,Ed is given a positive sign in case it follows the same convention as shown in the code.
The load is given a negative sign in case it points in the other direction.

Determination of the lateral bending moment
Table 10.1 provides the formulas to determine Mfz,Ed for specific positions within the beams: at the
ends (e) and at the position of the maximal moment (m).
Within Scia Engineer however, the check is executed in different sections. Therefore, the values of
Mfz,Ed need to be known in each section.

To this end, as indicated in the code in EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1(7), the general equations have
been derived using the theory of beams on an elastic Winkler foundation.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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The differential equation for the displacement of a beam on elastic foundation loaded by a line load
is written out as follows Ref.[21]:

With: E Section modulus
I Bending stiffness
L Member length, taken as La
q Line load, taken as qh,Ed
K Foundation stiffness, taken as lateral spring stiffness K
ì

A,B,C,D Integration constants

The integration constants are determined depending on the boundary conditions for the cases given
in Table 10.1.
Using the beam equation with the second derivative of the displacement the equation for the
bending moment Mfz,Ed is obtained and leads to the following solutions:
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Solution for a beam on elastic Winkler foundation with Hinged end conditions




Solution for a beam on elastic Winkler foundation with Hinged-Fixed end conditions




Solution for a beam on elastic Winkler foundation with Fixed end conditions



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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The determination of a hinged or fixed end for Mfz,Ed is done as follows:
- A single span member is always considered to have hinged ends.
A single span member is defined as a member with only one part in the buckling
system for Ly.
- An LTB restraint is always considered as a fixed end.
- For multi-span members, the ends of the buckling system for Ly are considered as
hinged. The internal points of the buckling system for Ly are considered as fixed.

As specified in EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.1(5) in case the free flange is in tension Mfz,Ed is taken equal
to zero.

To determine if the free flange is in tension or compression the following stress is calculated:
(My,Ed / Weff,y,free flange) + (Ned / Aeff)
In case this stress results in tension, the free flange is considered to be in tension.
In case this stress results in compression, the free flange is considered to be in compression.

The sign of Mfz,Ed determines the tension/compression side of the free flange and thus determines
which Wfz is used in the check.

 The limit of R s 40 given in art. 10.1.4.1(6) does not apply since the general Winkler
theory is used instead of table 10.1.

Determination of the distance between anti-sag bars
The code defines anti-sag bars as bars which provide lateral rigid support to the free flange. Within
Scia Engineer, LTB restraints are thus seen as anti-sag bars.

In case LTB restraints are defined at the free flange, the length La is taken as the length between
these restraints. In case there are no LTB restraints defined at the free flange, La is read from the
buckling system.

Determination of the lateral spring stiffness
The lateral spring stiffness K is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.5.1(4).

The developed height of the purlin web hd is taken as the total developed slant height sd used in the
Shear Check, as described in Shear Force.

The rotational restraint CD is taken as vorhC, the rotational stiffness of the diaphragm, as described
in Adaptation of torsional constant.

The dimension bmod depends on the direction of the equivalent horizontal load qh,Ed and the type of
cross-section. According to the code this depends if the load brings the purlin into contact with the
sheeting at the purlin web or at the tip of the purlin flange.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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This is clarified in the following picture:

The distance a i.e. position of the fastener is taken as 0,5 b. The fastener is thus assumed to be
positioned in the middle of the flange.

Buckling Resistance of the Free Flange
The Buckling Resistance of the Free Flange is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2.

To determine if the free flange is in tension or compression the following stress is calculated:
(My,Ed / Weff,y,free flange) + (Ned / Aeff)
In case this stress results in tension, the free flange is considered to be in tension.
In case this stress results in compression, the free flange is considered to be in compression.
For a free flange in tension the buckling resistance does not need to be checked.

For determining the buckling length lfz of the free flange a difference is made between gravity
loading (downward –z loading) and uplift loading (upward +z loading).

Gravity Loading
In case of downward –z loading the buckling length of the free flange is determined according to
formula (10.9).
The qi factors are determined according to EN 1993-1-3 Table 10.2a.

 Art. 10.1.4.2(4) is not supported.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Uplift Loading
In case of upward +z loading the buckling length of the free flange is determined according to
formula (10.9).
The qi factors are determined according to EN 1993-1-3 Table 10.2b.

 The method according to art. 10.1.4.2(6) & (7) is not supported.
General Notes
For both loading types, Tables 10.2a & b differentiate between ‘simple span’, ‘end span’ and
‘intermediate span’. This is based on the Ly system length.
In case the member under consideration has only one part for Ly then it is considered as ‘simple
span’.
When the member has more parts for Ly it is considered as multi-span. For a multi-span, sections
located in the first or last part of the system length are considered as ‘end span’. Sections located in
the other parts are considered as ‘intermediate span’.

 Table 10.2a does not specify ‘simple span’. The values for a ‘simple span’ are taken
equal as an ‘end span’.

The ‘number of anti-sag’ bars used in Tables 10.2a & b concerns the number of LTB restraints
defined on the actual member. Only LTB restraints at the side of the free flange are accounted for in
this ‘number’.


EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2(5) specifies a method for the buckling length in case of a ‘relatively large
axial force’. Within Scia Engineer this is quantified using a limit value, which is set in the Steel
Setup.

In case the axial load is considered as large, the method described in EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.1.4.2(5)
is applied.

This procedure applies to both gravity and uplift loading using Table 10.2a and 10.2b respectively.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class
1
x x x
Stability check class
2
x x x
Stability check class
3
x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class
4
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) Sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.

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References

|1| Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005

[2] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1-3: General rules
Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting
EN 1993-1-3:2006

|3| Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1.5 : Plated structural elements
EN 1993-1-5 : 2006

|4| R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[5] EN 1990
Eurocode – Basis of structural design
EN 1990:2002 E

[6] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules - Structural fire design
EN 1993-1-2:2005

[7] Model Code on Fire Engineering
ECCS - N°111
May 2001

[8] Eurocode 1
Actions on structures
Part 1-2 : General Actions - Actions on structures exposed to fire
prEN 1991-1-2:2002

[9] Rules for Member Stability in EN 1993-1-1
Background documentation and design guidelines
ECCS - N°119
2006




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
93
[10] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[11] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009 Corrigendum

[12] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules - Structural fire design
EN 1993-1-2:2005/AC:2009 Corrigendum

[13] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1-3: General rules
Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting
EN 1993-1-3:2006/AC:2009 Corrigendum

[14] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1.5 : Plated structural elements
EN 1993-1-5 : 2006/AC:2009 Corrigendum

[15] Essentials of Eurocode 3
Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N°65, 1991

[16] Commentary and Worked Examples to EN 1993-1-5 “Plated Structural Elements”
Johansson B., Maquoi R., Sedlacek G., Müller C., Beg D.,
JRC - ECCS, 2007.

[17]
SN001a-EN-EU
NCCI: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes
Access Steel, 2006
www.access-steel.com

[18]
AISI S100-2007
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
2007 edition

[19] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
94
[20] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993

[21] D. Vandepitte
Berekening van Constructies
Boekdeel 1 pp522
www.berekeningvanconstructies.be

[22] Design rule for Lateral Torsional Buckling of Channel Sections
A-2007.9
O-2007.21
Karin de Louw
2007

[23] EN 12811-1
Temporary works equipment
Part 1: Scaffolds – performance requirements and general design
2004

[24] EN 12810-1
Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components
Part 1: Products specifications
2004

[25] EN 12810-2
Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components
Part 2: Particular methods of structural design
2004

[26] DIN 4420 Teil 1
Arbeits- und Schutzgerüste
Allgemeine Regelungen, Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen, Prüfungen
Dezember 1990

[27] Corrections and amendments to EN 1993-1-3
Meeting of ECCS-TWG 7.5
T. Höglund
2010

[28] Déversement élastique d’une poutre à section bi-symétrique soumise à des moments
d’extrémité et une charge répartie ou concentrée.
Y. Galéa
CTICM, Construction Métallique, n°2-2002.




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
95
[29] Lateral-Torsional buckling of steel beams:
A general expression for the moment gradient factor.
A. López, D. J. Yong, M. A. Serna
Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures, 2006.

[30] SC001a-EN-EU
Code commentary: Collection No. 1
Access-Steel, 2007.

[31] SN005a-EN-EU
Determination of moments on columns in simple construction
Access-Steel, 2005.

[32] Steel Building Design
Medium Rise Braced Frames
SCI PUBLICATION P365.

[33] Target specification Dimensioning Profiles
ZEMAN & CO. GmbH
Wien, 2006.

[34] New proposals for EN 1993-1-5, Annex D:
Plate girders with corrugated webs.
H. Pasternak, J. Robra, G. Kubieniec
IABSE-FIB Conference, Dubrovnik, 2010.

[35] Zulassung Nr. Z-8.22-208
Modulsystem "CUPLOK"
Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik, 2006.

[36] Zulassung Nr. Z-8.22-64
Modulsystem "Layher-Allround"
Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik, 2008.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
96
DIN18800
DIN18800 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

DIN 18800 Teil 1
Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 3
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990



Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, Tab.1)

The standard steel grades are :

(fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=80 40<t<=80
fy fu fy fu
S235
S 235
St 37-2
240 360 215 360
S275
S 275
280 430 255 430
S355
S 355
St 52-3
360 510 325 510

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t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100
fy fu fy fu
S420
S 420
420 520 390 520
S460
S 460
460 550 430 550


Consulted articles

For the section check, the cross section is classified according to DIN18800 Teil I, Table 12,13,14,15
and 18.. Depending on this classification, the section is checked as slender section, EL/EL
(elastic/elastic), as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or as PL/PL (plastic/plastic).
For the EL/EL check, DIN18800 Teil I, Element (746), (747), (748), (749), (750) are used.
The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I, Element (756), (757) and Table (16) ,(17). The
PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I, Element (758), Table (16),(17).
The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2, Element (715).
For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for buckling, lateral
torsional buckling and bending and compression. The following criteria are used :

- compression : Element (304),(306)
- lateral torsional buckling : Element (311),(309)
- bending and axial compression : Element (313),(321),(322)
- bending (LTB) and compression : Element (320),(323)

For slender sections, the following criteria are used :
- calculation of effective area : Element (705),(706),(708),(709),(712),(713)
- buckling check : Element (715),(716),(718),(719)
- LTB check : Element (725),(726),(728),(729)

For the shear buckling check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3. The
following criteria are used : Element (113), (504), (602),(603)




A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts following table. The
chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
98
Teil 1
7.5. Verfahren beim Tragsicherheitsnachweis Nachweise (*)
7.5.1. Abgrenzungskriterien und Detailregelungen (*)
7.5.2. Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch
(745)………………………………………………………………………………
(746) ………………………………………………………………………………
(747) ………………………………………………………………………………
(748) ………………………………………………………………………………
(749) ………………………………………………………………………………
(750) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Elastisch-Plastisch
(753) ………………………………………………………………………………
(756) ………………………………………………………………………………
(757) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Plastisch-Plastisch
(758) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x

Teil 2
3.2. Planmässig mittiger Druck
3.2.1. Biegeknicken
(304) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x (*)
3.2.2. Biegedrillknicken
(306) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x (*)
3.3. Einachsige Biegung ohne Normalkraft
3.3.1. Allgemeines
(307) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
3.3.2. Behinderung der Verformung
(309) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x (*)
3.3.3. Nachweis des Druckgurtes als Druckstab
3.3.4. Biegedrillknicken
(311) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x (*)
3.4. Einachsige Biegung mit Normalkraft
3.4.1. Stäbe mit geringer Normalkraft
(312) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
3.4.2. Biegeknicken
(314) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
3.4.3. Biegedrillknicken
(320) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
3.5. Zweiachsige Biegung mit oder ohne Normalkraft
3.5.1. Biegeknicken
(321) ………………………………………………………………………………
(322) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x(*)
3.5.2. Biegedrillknicken
(323) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
99
4. Mehrteilige, einfeldrige Stäbes
4.1. Allgemeines
4.2. Häufig verwendete Formelzeichnen
(404) ………………………………………………………………………………
4.3. Ausweichen rechtwinklig zur stofffreien Achse
(405) ………………………………………………………………………………
(406)……………………………………………………………………………….
(408)……………………………………………………………………………….
(409)……………………………………………………………………………….
x(*)


x

x
x
x
x

7. Planmässig gerade Stäbe mit ebenen dünnwandigen
Quenschnittsteilen
7.1. Allgemeines
(701) ………………………………………………………………………………
(702) ………………………………………………………………………………
(704) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
7.2. Berechnungsgrundlage
(705) ………………………………………………………………………………
(706) ………………………………………………………………………………
(707) ………………………………………………………………………………
(708) ………………………………………………………………………………
(709) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
x
7.3. Wirksame Breite beim Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch
(711) ………………………………………………………………………………
(712) ………………………………………………………………………………
(713) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x (*)
x
7.4. Wirksame Breite beim Verfahren Elastisch-Plastisch
7.5. Biegeknicken
7.5.1. Spannungsnachweis beim Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch
(715) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
7.5.2. Vereinfachte Nachweise
(716)
………………………………………………………………………………
(718)
………………………………………………………………………………
(719) ………………………………………………………………………………
(721) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
7.6. Biegedrillknicken
(722) ………………………………………………………………………………
(723) ………………………………………………………………………………
(725) ………………………………………………………………………………
(726) ………………………………………………………………………………
(728) ………………………………………………………………………………
(729) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

Teil 3
5. Nachweise
(504) ………………………………………………………………………………
(*)
x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
100
6. Abminderungsfaktoren
(601) ………………………………………………………………………………
(602) ………………………………………………………………………………
x
x
x

Classification of sections

For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Net area properties

The net area properties are not taken into account .
The holes for fasteners are neglected.

Plastic interaction formula for RHS section


b
s/2
h
AG
AS/2

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
101


For RHS section, classified as Plastic-Plastic or Elastic-Plastic, the plastic interaction formula
according to Ref.[13], can be selected.

- Used variable :

A sectional area
AS = s h
AG = (A-AS)/2.0
Wel,y elastic section modulus around y axis
Wel,z elastic section modulus around z axis

fy,d yield strength
ty,d shear strength

Vz,pl,Rd = AS ty,d
Vy,pl,Rd = 2AG ty,d

NSd normal force
My,Sd bending moment around y axis
Mz,Sd bending moment around z axis
Vy,Sd shear force in y direction
Vz,Sd shear force in z direction
MT,Sd torsional moment

2
Rd , pl , z
Sd , T
Sd , z
z
z
Rd , pl , z
Sd , T
Sd , z
V
b
M
V
1 else
0 . 1
4
1
V
b
M
V
if
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = q
= q s
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
102
2
Rd , pl , y
Sd , T
Sd , y
y
y
Rd , pl , y
Sd , T
Sd , y
V
h
M
V
1 else
0 . 1
4
1
V
h
M
V
if
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ = q
= q s
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+



Ar= qzAS + 2qyAG
r
S
z
A
A
q = o


Npl,Rd = Ar fy,d
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷
=
yd y , el Rd , pl Rd , pl , y
f W 25 . 1 , hN
4
2
min M


|
.
|

\
|
o +
=
yd z , el Rd , pl Rd , pl , z
f W 25 . 1 , bN
4
1
min M


Rd , pl
Sd
N
N
n =

Rd , pl , y
Sd , y
y
M
M
m =

Rd , pl , z
Sd , z
z
M
M
m =


- The following interaction formula are checked :


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
103



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
104
Plastic interaction formula for CHS section

For CHS section, classified as Plastic-Plastic or Elastic-Plastic, the plastic interaction formula
according to Ref.[14], Tafel 6.74, is used :

|
.
|

\
|
|
t
=
| =
qt =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = q >
= q s
|
=
+ =
+ =
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
s el Q , pl Q , pl
s r Q , pl
r
2
pl
v
pl
v
pl
v
s
pl
2
z
2
y v
2
z
2
y v
plQ
v
Q , pl
v
W 25 . 1 , N
d
min M
A N
dt A
Q
Q
1 :
4
1
Q
Q
1 :
4
1
Q
Q
3
dt 2
Q
M M M
Q Q Q
1
2 N
N
cos
1
M
M



with Qy,Qz internal shear force
Nv internal normal force
My,Mz internal bending moments
|s yield strength
d,t dimensions from CHS
Wel elastic section modulus

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
105
t
d

Torsion check

For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'.

The stability check (DIN 18800 T2, formula 28 & 30) for doubly symmetric I section becomes
(Ref.[9], pp. 259) :

) 30 ( 0 . 1 k
M
M M
k
M
M
N
N
) 28 ( 0 . 1 k
M
M M
k
M
M
N
N
z
d , z , pl
w , z z
y
d , y , pl M
y
d , pl z
z
d , z , pl
w , z z
y
d , y , pl
y
d , pl
s
+
+
k
+
k
s
+
+ +
k



with Mz,w
h
M 2
w
=
Mw bimoment (see chapter 'Standard diagrams for warping torque,
bimoment and the St.Venant torsion')
kz = 1.50 In case there is no compression force kz is taken as 1.00
(Ref.[9], pp. 270).

Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ
sections)’

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
106
Calculation of the buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[10], Annex D.
Torsional buckling

The slenderness for torsional buckling ìvi is given by (see Ref.|6| , 7.5):



with l0 the torsional buckling length, refers to the input value for the
system length lyz
lz the system length for buckling around zz-axis
Remark : the z-axis refers to the axis which goes through the
shear force centre.
|z refers to the buckling ratio around the zz-axis
Remark : the z-axis refers to the axis which goes through the
shear force centre.
|0 refers to end warping and is input by the value kxy
zM the shear center
iy the radius of gyration around major axis
iz the radius of gyration around minor axis
ip² = iy² + iz²
iM² = ip² + zM²
Iw the warping constant
Iz the moment of inertia around minor axis
It the torsional constant


With this slenderness ìvi and the buckling curve c, the reduction factor k is calculated.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
107
Use of diaphragms

(see also Ref.|7|,3.5 and Ref.|8|,3.3.4.)

The shear stiffness S for diaphragm is calculated as follows:

L
K
+
K
10
a.
= S
s
2
1
4



with a the frame distance
Ls the length of diaphragm
K1 factor K1
K2 factor K2



The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms:

G
l
vorhC I I
2
2
t id , t
t
+ =
0



with l the LTB length
G the shear modulus
vorh
C
u

the actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
108
LTB Check

For aysmmetric I sections, RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow
Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula F.2. Annex
F Ref. |4|. For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of
moment factors for LTB".

Depending on the input of the basic data, Mcr for symmetric I sections is given by the general
formula F.2. Annex F Ref. |4|, by the DIN formula (19), or by formula according to Ref.[11] "Roik,
Carl, Lindner, Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dünnwandiger Stäbe, Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst &
Sohn, 1972".

DIN formula (19) :




with l,l0 the LTB length
|z refers to rotational end-restraint ‘in plan’ (about the z-z local axis).
|0 refers to end warping
zp the point of load application
Iw the warping constant
Iz the moment of inertia around minor axis
It the torsional constant
A the sectional area
E the modulus of elasticity
ìvi the slenderness for torsional buckling ( see above)
, the moment factor ( equivalent for factor C1)





Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
109
Roik, Carl & Lindner


z
t w
p
2
p
z
cr y , ki
I
I ² l 039 . 0 I
c
²
z 5
² c
²
z 5
² l
² EI
M M
· · +
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

t
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
, = =


with , moment factor according to Roik, Carl, Lindner
E modulus of elasticity
I
z
moment of inertia around weak axis zz
l system length for LTB
z
p
application point for loading, negative value is on top and has negative
influence
I
w
warping constant
I
t
torsional constant


The factor , is supported for the following cases (described in Ref.[11], tables 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.18,
5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.33) :

Linear moment distribution :



Moment line according to distributed loading

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
110





Moment line according to concentrated loading



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
111



For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
2
z
2
z
2
EI
GI L
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=


with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

See also Ref. |5|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For full rectangular sections the value of n according to DIN 18800-2 tabelle 9 is taken as 1,5
according to Ref.[8] pp 175.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd
Order Analysis’.


Combined flexion for check method 2

The value My is the maximum value of the bending moment around the strong axis in the member.
The value Mz is the maximum value of the bending moment around the weak axis in the member.
For non-prismatic sections, the values My and Mz are the concurrent bending moments for each
intermediary section.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
112
Battened compression members

The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member :

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc



Two links (battens) are used.
The following additional checks are performed :
- buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with NG
- section check of single chord, using internal forces (Ref.[7], pp.88-95) :

4
a maxV
M
2
maxV
V
W
A
)
l
a
sin( M max
2
N
N
y
G
y
G
*
z
G
z G
=
=
t + =


- section check of single batten, using the internal forces (Ref.[7], pp.88-95) :

2
Te
M
2 h
a maxV
T
y
y
=
=


For the calculation of maxVy, the value of Mz is increased with the value of the internal force Mzz.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
113
l
a
hy
e


Effective area properties

The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy,k) according
to the El-El procedure (DIN18800 T2, 7.3.).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved. The most
critical effective area properties are the effective area properties on the position where the
appropriate moment of inertia is the minimum.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary
section, also for the stability check.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
114
Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check with buckling influence
The influence of the buckling effect into the shear buckling control, is neglected when there is a
bending moment present.
It means that kk=1 if ¢<0.9. See also Ref.[3], Element 503.

Cold formed thin gauge members
The following table includes a list of DASt-Richtlinie 016 (Ref.[12]) elements which are implemented
in Scia Engineer by using the related DIN18800 T2 (Ref.[2]) element.


Supported elements from
DASt - Richtlinie 016
Covered by DIN 18800
T2 elements
Remarks
3.7.1. Grenzzustand der Tragfähigkeit
328 Tab.26
329 712
330 712
333 Tab.27
335 706

4.3.1. Biegemomententragfähigkeit
404 715

4.4. Biegedrillknicken biegebeanspruchter
Bauteile
4.4.3. Allgemeiner Nachweis

421 311
422 311
423 725, 726

4.5. Druckbeanspruchte einteilige Stäbe
4.5.1. Allgemeines

429 708-710
430 708-710
431 708-710
432 708-710
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
115
433 708-710
434 708-710
4.5.2. Planmä|ig mittiger Druck
435 716 A
D
ef is not used
436 manual input / input in
profile library for KSL
437 723
438 723
4.5.3. Einachsige Biegung mit Druck
440 707
441 718
442 728
4.5.3. Zweiachsige Biegung mit Druck
443 707
444 721 A
D
ef is not used
445 729



Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
116

I

RHS CHS L U T PPL RS E O COM NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Section check PL-PL x x
Section check EL-PL x x
Section check EL-EL x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check slender
section
x x x x x x
Stability check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check slender
section
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) sections are classified as EL-EL cross section by default.




References

|1| DIN 18800 Teil 1
Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

|2| DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

|3| DIN 18800 Teil 3
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990

[4] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[5] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[6] G. Hünersen, E. Fritzsche
Stahlbau in Beispielen
Berechnungspraxis nach DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 3 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1991
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
117

[7] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

[8] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993

[9] Stahlbau Kalender 1999
DSTV
Ernst & Sohn, 1999

[10] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[11] Roik, Carl, Lindner
Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dünnwandiger Stäbe
Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn
1972

[12] DASt-Richtlinie 016
Bemessung und konstruktive Gestaltung von Tragwerken aus dünnwandigen
kaltgeformted Bauteilen
Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft - 1992

[13] H. Rubin,
Interaktionsbeziehungen für doppeltsymmetrische I- und Kasten-Querschnitte bei
zweiachsiger Biegung und Normalkraft
Der Stahlbau 5/1978, 6/1978

[14] Stahl im Hochbau
14. Auflage, Band I / Teil 2
1986, Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
118
ONORM B 4300
ONORM B 4300 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

ÖNORM B 4300-1
Stahlbau
Berechnung und Konstruktion der Tragwerke
Bemessung nach Grenzzuständen
DK 624.014.2.046, März 1994

ÖNORM B 4300-2
Stahlbau
Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 2 und ÖNORM B 4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.2, April 1994

ÖNORM B 4300-3
Plattenbeulen
Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 3 und ÖNORM B 4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.4, April 1994

DIN 18800 Teil 1
Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

DIN 18800 Teil 3
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
119
Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, 2.1. and Ref. |4|, Tab.1)

The standard steel grades are:

(fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=80 40<t<=80
fy fu fy fu
St 360
S235
S 235
240 360 215 360
St 430
S275
S 275
280 430 255 430
St 510
S355
S 355
360 510 325 510


t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100
fy fu fy fu
S420
S 420
420 520 390 520
S460
S 460
460 550 430 550

Consulted articles

For the section check, the cross section is classified according to ONORM B 4300-1 Tab.3,4,5 and to
DIN18800 Teil I, Table 15,18. Depending on this classification, the section is checked as slender
section, EL/EL (elastic/elastic), as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or as PL/PL (plastic/plastic).
For the EL/EL check, ONORM B 4300-1 Art. 5.2. is used. (The 7% increase of the moment of
inertia is taken into account for rolled I section - see Ref. |1|, Art. 5.2.5.4.).
The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I, Element (756), (757) and Table (16) ,(17). The
PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I, Element (758), Table (16),(17).
The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2, Element (715).

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For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for buckling, lateral
torsional buckling and bending and compression. The following criteria are used :

- compression : Element (304),(306)
- lateral torsional buckling : Element (311),(309)
- bending and axial compression : Element (313),(321),(322)
- bending (LTB) and compression : Element (320),(323)

For slender sections, the following criteria are used :
- calculation of effective area : Element (705),(706),(708),(709),(712),(713)
- buckling check : Element (715),(716),(718),(719)
- LTB check : Element (725),(726),(728),(729)

For the shear buckling check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3. The
following criteria are used : Element (113), (504), (602),(603)

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in "DIN18800 Code check".

Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical sections

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Section check PL-PL x
Section check EL-PL x
Section check EL-EL x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check slender
section
x x x x x x
Stability check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check slender
section
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x


(1) sections are classified as EL-EL cross section by default.

References


|1| ÖNORM B 4300-1
Stahlbau
Berechnung und Konstruktion der Tragwerke
Bemessung nach Grenzzuständen
DK 624.014.2.046, März 1994

|2| ÖNORM B 4300-2
Stahlbau
Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 2 und ÖNORM B
4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.2, April 1994

|3| ÖNORM B 4300-3
Plattenbeulen
Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 3 und ÖNORM B
4300-1
DK 624.014.2.075.4, April 1994

[4] DIN 18800 Teil 1
Stahlbauten
Bemessung und Konstruktion
DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990

[5] DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

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[6] DIN 18800 Teil 3
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Plattenbeulen
DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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NEN
NEN6770/6771 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991

Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Stabiliteit
NEN 6771, december 1991-januari 2000


Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the
thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, art.9.1.2.1.1.)

The standard steel grades are :

(fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm)

t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100 100<t<=250 100<t<=250
fy fu fy fu fy fy
S235
S 235
235 360 215 340 175 320
S275
S 275
275 430 255 410 205 380
S355
S 355
355 510 335 490 275 450
S420
S 420
420 520 390 520
S460
S 460
460 550 430 550

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table.


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Consulted articles

The cross section is classified according to NEN 6771 Table 1. (Class 1, 2, 3 or 4).

The section is checked on following criteria:
- Tension: NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.1., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.1.
- Compression: NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.2., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.2.
- Shear: NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.4., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.4.
- Bending, shear and axial force: NEN 6770 Art. 11.3., NEN 6771 Art. 11.3.

For the stability check, the element is checked on following criteria:
- Compression: NEN 6771 Art.12.1.1.1/ 12.1.2./12.1.3.
- Lateral torsional buckling : NEN 6771 Art.12.2.
- Bending and axial compression: NEN 6771 Art.12.3.
- Shear buckling : NEN 6771 Art.13.8. / 13.9.

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for NEN6770 part 11,12 and NEN6771 part
10,11,12,13. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a
supplementary explanation the following chapters.

NEN6770
11.Toetsing van de doorsnede
11.1. Algemeen
x
x
11.2. Enkelvoudige krachten en momenten
11.2.1. Axiale trek
x
x
11.2.2. Axiale druk x
11.2.3. Buiging
11.2.4. Afschuiving x
11.2.5. Torsie x
11.3. Combinaties van krachten en momenten
11.3.1. Enkele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving
x
x
11.3.2. Dubbele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving x
11.4. Vloeicriterium x
11.5. De invloed van de boutgaten (*)

NEN6771
10.2.4. Doorsneden x (*)

11.Toetsing van de doorsnede
11.1. Algemeen
x
x
11.2. Enkelvoudige krachten en momenten
11.2.1. Axiale trek
x
x
11.2.2. Axiale druk x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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11.2.3. Buiging
11.2.4. Afschuiving x
11.2.5. Torsie
11.3. Combinaties van krachten en momenten x

12. Toetsing van de stabiliteit
12.1. Op druk belaste staven
12.1.1. Knikstabiliteit
x
x
x (*)
12.1.2. Torsiestabiliteit x
12.1.3. Torsieknikstabiliteit x
12.1.4. Verend gesteunde staven
12.1.5. Staven in vakwerken
12.1.6. Samengestelde staven
12.1.6.1 Algemeen
12.1.6.2. Benodigde grootheden
12.1.6.3. Toetsing van het middenveld van de samengestelde staaf
12.1.6.4. Toetsing van de eindvelden van de samengestelde staaf
12.1.6.4.2 Staven met raamwerkverband
x(*)
x
x
x
x
x
12.2. Op buiging belaste staven(kipstabiliteit)
12.2.1. Toepassingsgebied
xx
x
12.2.2. Toetsingsregel x
12.2.3. Ongesteunde lengte
12.2.4. Opleggingen en zijdelingse steunen
12.2.5. Het theoretisch elastische kipmoment x (*)
12.3. Op druk en buiging belaste staven
12.3.1. Knikstabiliteit
x
x
12.3.2. Torsiestabilteit x
12.3.3. Torsieknikstabiliteit x
12.4. Op trek en buiging belaste staven

13. Toetsing van de plooistabiliteit
13.1. Algemeen
x
x
13.2. Geometrie van het verstijfde en onverstijfde plaatveld x
13.3. Geometrie van de verstijvingen
13.4. Belasting in het vlak van het plaatveld
13.4.1. Normaalspanning in langsrichting
x
x
13.4.2. Schuifspanningen x
13.4.3. Normaalspanningen in dwarsrichting
13.4.4. Platen in en loodrecht op hun vlak belast
13.5. Belasting op verstijvingen
13.6. Ideële kritieke plooispanning van een onverstijfd plaatveld x
13.7. De plooispanning van een onverstijfd plaatveld
13.7.1. Bepaling van de relatieve slankheid van het plaatveld
x
x
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13.7.2. De plooispanning voor een onverstijfd plaatveld met als opleggingen
dwarsverstijving(en) en/of randen

x
13.7.3. De plooispanning voor een onverstijfd plaatveld met ten minste een
langsverstijving als oplegging

13.8. Eisen waaraan plaatvelden en verstijvingen moeten voldoen
13.8.1. Onverstijfd plaatveld
x
x
13.8.2. Dwarsverstijvingen
13.8.3. Langsverstijvingen
13.8.4. Stijfheidseisen te stellen aan langs- en dwarsverstijvingen
13.8.5. Doorsnedecontrole voor langs- en dwarsverstijvingen
13.9. Interactie tussen plooi en knik
13.9.1. Algemeen
x (*)
x
13.9.2. Constructies opgebouwd uit plaatvelden al of niet verstijfd met
dwarsverstijvingen

x
13.9.3. Constructies opgebouwd uit plaatvelden verstijfd met langsverstijvingen
en/of niet verstijfd met dwarsverstijvingen

13.9.4. Berekeningen van de dwarsverstijvingen

Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected.
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved :
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. Weff is the
effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.
eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform
compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.
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127
For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary
section, also for the stability check.

For angle sections, see chapter 'Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower
angle members'.
Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'.
Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ
sections)

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer tochapter "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.[5], Annex D.
Lateral-torsional buckling
For symmetric I sections and RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment
for LTB Mcr is given by the formula of Ref |2|, part 12.2.5.. When the factor o > 5000, the elastic
critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula in EC3, Annex F, F.2. Ref |3|. For
asymmetric I sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula in
EC3, Annex F, F.2. Ref |3|.
For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to Ref.[7], tables 9 (case 1), 10
and 11.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
2
z
2
z
2
EI
GI L
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=



with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
128

See also Ref. |4|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd
Order Analysis’.


Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

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129
Battened compression members
The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member :

(1) 2I
(2) 2Uo
(3) 2Uc



Two links (battens) are used.
The following additional checks are performed :
- buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with Nf,s;d
- section check of single chord, using internal forces :

4
a Q
M
2
Q
V
N N
f;s;d
G
f;s;d
G
f;s;d G
=
=
=


- section check of single batten, using the internal forces :

4
a Q
M
2 h
a Q
V
d s; f;
d s; k;
0
d s; f;
d s; k;
=
=


For the calculation of Qf;s;d, the value of My;s;d is increased with the value of the internal force Mzz.

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130
l
a
ho

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check with buckling influence
The influence of the buckling effect into the shear buckling control, is neglected when there is a
bending moment present, i.e. if ¢<0.9.


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NEN6072 - Fire Resistance
For more info, reference is made to to Ref.[8], Ref.[9].
Fire actions effect

The design effects of actions for the fire situation are taken from the results of the analysis. It is
recommended to use the special combination rules according to Ref.[10], NEN6702 6.2.2., for
calculating the internal forces used in the fire resistance check.

This special combination is given by

rep ; a a ; f rep ; i i q ; f rep g ; f
F Q G ¸ + ¢ ¸ E + ¸


with Grep characteristic values of permanent actions
Qi characteristic value of the variable action
Fa;rep design values of special action (from fire exposure)
¸f;g partial safety factor for permanent actions in the special combination
=1.0
¸f;q partial safety factor for variable actions in the special combination
=1.0
¸f;a partial safety factor for special actions in the special combination
=1.0
¢I the 'momentaaan' factor for the variable action


Material properties

The yield strength is depending on the steel temperature :

d ; y d ; ; y
f f ¢ =
u


The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ¢ is given by :

- ¢=1.0 when ua s 400°C
- when 400°C < ua s 1200°C


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132
with |
2 . 39
482
a
÷ u
=
ua steel temperature in °C
fy;d design value for yield strength at room temperature
fy;u;d design value for yield strength at increased temperature


The following default properties are considered to be constant during the analysis :

unit mass µa 7850 kg/m³
thermal elongation Al/l 14 x 10
-6
(ua-20)
thermal conductivity ìa 45 W/mK


Nominal temperature-time curve
The standard temperature-time (ISO 834) curve is used :

) 1 t 8 ( log 345 20
10 g
+ + = u

with t time in [min]
ug gas temperature in [°C]


Steel Temperature
The increase of temperature Aua in an unprotected steel member during a time interval At


with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
P = Am/V
ut gas temperature in [°C]
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
133
ua steel temperature [°C]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
At the time interval [seconds]
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
cr resultant emissivity
= 0.5
oc coefficient of heat transfer by convection
= 25 W/(m²K)



The increase of temperature Aua in an insulated (non intumescent coating) steel member during a time
interval At


with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
Pi = Ap/V
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
ci the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
di the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
µi the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³]
ua the steel temperature at time t
ut the ambient gas temperature at time t
Aut the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval
ìi;d;ef the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]

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The increase of temperature Aua in an insulated (intumescent coating) steel member during a time interval
At




with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
Pi = Ap/V
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
Kd;ef coefficient of heat transfer of the intumescent coating
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
ua the steel temperature at time t
ut the ambient gas temperature at time t
ìi;d;ef the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]


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Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength (unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g. strength
after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature ua,cr is computed. From
this critical temperature, the fire resistance time is calculated (the time domain).

The critical steel temperature ua,cr is given by :



with q degree of utilization at time t=0
k correction factor
= 1.00 for tension elements
= 1.00 for beams, statically determined, 4 side exposure
= 0.70 for beams, statically determined, 3 side exposure
= 0.85 for beams, statically undetermined, 4 side exposure
= 0.60 for beams, statically undetermined, 3 side exposure
= 1.20 for compression elements (inclusive the buckling check)
= 1.20 for compression and bending elements (inclusive the buckling and
LTB check)

Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the
regulations given in NEN6770/6771, adapted with the yield strength for the increased temperature
and the correction factor. The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in the
temperature/time domain. Shear buckling is not considered.



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Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class
1
x x x
Stability check class
2
x x x
Stability check class
3
x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class
4
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) Sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.

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References
|1| Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991

|2| Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Stabiliteit
NEN 6771, december 1991

|3| Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994

[6] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[7] Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Stabiliteit
NEN 6771, januari 2000

[8] NEN 6072
Rekenkundige bepaling van de brandwerendheid van bouwdelen
Staalconstructies
December 1991

[9] NEN 6072/A2 - Wijzigingsblad
Rekenkundige bepaling van de brandwerendheid van bouwdelen
Staalconstructies
December 2001

[10] NEN 6702
Belastingen en vervormingen TGB 1990
December 1991

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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AISC – ASD : 1989

AISC - ASD Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Manual of Steel Construction
Allowable Stress Design
Part 5 : Specification and Codes
AISC, Ninth Edition, 1989


The cross section is classified according to Table B5.1. (compact, non compact, or slender section).

The member is checked on following criteria:

- tension : D1
- compression : E2, E3
- flexural members : F1,F2,F3,F4
- plate girders : G2
- combined forces : H1,H2

A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.


B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B1. Gross Area x
B2. Net Area (*)
B3. Effective Area
B4. Stability
B5. Local Buckling
1.Classification of Steel Sections
2.Slender Compression Elements
(*)
x
x
B6. Rotational Restraint at Points of Support
B7. Limiting Slenderness Ratios x
B8. Simple Spans
B9. End Restraint
B10. Proportions of Beams and Girders
B11. Proportioning of Crane Girders
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D. TENSION MEMBERS
D1. Allowable Stress x (*)
D2. Built-up members
D3. Pin-Connected Members

E. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS
E1. Effective Length and Slenderness Ratio x (*)
E2. Allowable Stress x
E3. Flexural-torsional Buckling x (*)
E4. Built-up Members
E5. Pin-Connected Compression Members
E6. Column Web Shear

F. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS (*)
F1. Allowable Stress : Strong Axis Bending of I-Shaped Members and Channels
1.Members with Compact Sections
2.Members with Non-Compact Sections
3.Members with Compact or Non-Compact Sections with Unbraded Length Greater
then Lc
x

x
x
x
F2. Allowable Stress : Weak Axis Bending of I-Shaped Members, Solid Bars and
Rectangular Plates
1.Members with Compact Sections
2.Members with Non-Compact Sections
x

x
x
F3. Allowable Stress : Bending of Box Members, Rectangular Tubes and Circular Tubes
1.Members with Compact Sections
2.Members with Non-Compact Sections
x

x
x
F4. Allowable Shear Stress x
F5. Transverse Stiffeners
F6. Built-up Members
F7. Web-tapered Members

G. PLATE GIRDERS
G1. Web Slenderness Limitations
G2. Allowable Bending Stress x
G3. Allowable Shear Stress with Tension Field Action
G4. Transverse Stiffeners
G5. Combined Shear and Tension Stress

H. COMBINED STRESSES
H1. Axial Compression and Bending x
H2. Axial Tension and Bending x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
140

APPENDIX B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B5. Local Buckling x

Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the section classification is
determined for each intermediary section.

Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).
Flexural Torsional Buckling

The slenderness ratio for flexural torsional buckling (KL/r)e is given by

Fe
E
r
KL
e
t =
|
.
|

\
|


See Ref. |1|, Commentary Chapter E1.
The calculation of Fe is given in Ref. |2|, Appendix E.

Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections and channel sections, the allowable LTB stress is given in F1.
For RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) , the allowable
LTB stress is given in F3.
For angle sections with symmetrical legs, the allowable LTB stress is given in Ref. |1|, pp.309-314,
“Specification for allowable stress - Design of single-angle members”.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
2
z
2
z
2
EI
GI L
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=


with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis


See also Ref. |4|, part 7.


With this moment Mcr, the critical LTB stress oLTB is calculated :

y
cr
LTB
I
M
= o

with Iy the moment of inertia about the major axis

The slenderness ratio for LTB ìLTB, is given by

LTB
LTB
E
o
t = ì

The allowable LTB stress is calculated using the slenderness ìLTB with the formulas given in
Ref.|1|, E2.
See also Ref. |5|, Bijlage E.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.
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Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RH
S

CH
S

L

U

T

PP
L

R
S

E

O

CO
M

NU
M
Classification x x x x x x x x
x
(1
)
(1) (1)
Compact section x x x x x


Non-compact
section
x x x x x x x x
x
x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling
check
x x x

(1) sections are classified as non-compact section by default.

References

|1| Manual of Steel Construction
Allowable Stress Design
AISC, Ninth Edition, 1989

|2| Manual of Steel Construction
Load & Resistance Factor Design
AISC, First Edition, 1986
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
143

|3| Manual of Steel Construction
Load & Resistance Factor Design
AISC, Volume I, Second Edition, 1995

[4] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[5] NBN B 51-001
Stalen Bouwconstructies
BIN, 5e uitg. April 1977


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AISC – LRFD : 2001

AISC - LRFD Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

AISC – Manual of steel construction
Load and Resistance Factor Design
Part 16 Specifications and Codes
Third Edition
2001



The cross section is classified according to Table B5.1. (compact, non compact, or slender section).

The member is checked on following criteria :

- tension : D1
- compression : E2, E3, Appendix E3
- flexural members : F1,Appendix F1, Appendix F2
- plate girders : Appendix G2, Appendix G3, Appendix G5
- combined forces : H1,H2

A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.


B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B1. Gross Area x
B2. Net Area (*)
B3. Effective Area for Tension Members
B4. Stability
B5. Local Buckling
1.Classification of Steel Sections
2.Slender Compression Elements
3.Slender-Element Compression Sections
(*)
x
x
x
B6. Bracing at Support
B7. Limiting Slenderness Ratios x
B8. Simple Spans
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B9. End Restraint
B10. Proportions of Beams and Girders

D. TENSION MEMBERS
D1. Design Tensile Strength x (*)
D2. Built-up members
D3. Pin-Connected Members and Eyebars

E. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS
E1. Effective Length and Slenderness Limitations
1.Effective Length
2.Design by Plastic Analysis
x
x (*)
E2. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural Buckling x
E3. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural-Torsional Buckling x
E4. Built-up Members
E5. Pin-Connected Compression Members

F. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS (*)
F1. Design for Flexure
1.Yielding
2.Lateral-Torsional Buckling
x
x
x
F2. Design for Shear x
F3. Web-tapered Members
F4. Beams and Girders with Web Openings

G. PLATE GIRDERS x

H. MEMBERS UNDER COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION
H1. Symmetric Members Subject to Bending and Axial Force x
H2. Unsymmetric Members and Members under Torsion and Combined Torsion,
Flexure, Shear and/or Axial Force
x
H3. Alternative Interaction Equation for Members under Combined Stress

APPENDIX B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B5. Local Buckling x

APPENDIX E. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS
E3. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural-Torsional Buckling x

APPENDIX F. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS
F1. Design for Flexure x
F2. Design for Shear x
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F3. Web-tapered Members

APPENDIX G. PLATE GIRDERS
G1. Limitations
G2. Design Flexural Strength x(*)
G3. Design Shear Strength with Tension Field Action x(*)
G4. Transverse Stiffeners
G5. Flexure-Shear Interaction x(*)
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the section classification is
determined for each intermediary section.
Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).
Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections, channel sections, RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections, T sections,
rectangular sections, and asymmetric I sections, the critical LTB moment is given in F1 and
Appendix F1.
For angle sections with symmetrical legs, the critical LTB moment is given in Ref. |1|, pp.281-288,
“Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle members”.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
2
z
2
z
2
EI
GI L
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=


with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
147
See also Ref. |2|, part 7.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.
Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RH
S

CHS

L

U

T

PP
L

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Compact section x x x x x
Non-compact
section
x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling
check
x x x

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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(1) sections are classified as non-compact section by default.
References


|1|
AISC – Manual of steel construction
Load and Resistance Factor Design
Third Edition
2001

|2| R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988


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ANSI/AISC 360-05:2005

ANSI/AISC 360-05 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

ANSI/AISC 360-05
Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings
2005

The steel code check can be executed according to either ASD or LRFD provisions.

The cross section is classified according to Table B4.1. (compact, non compact, or slender section).

The member is checked on following criteria:

- tension : Chapter D
- compression : Chapter E
- flexural members :Chapter F
- shear : Chapter G
- combined forces : Chapter H

A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.


B. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
B2. Loads and Load Combination x
B3. Design Basis
1.Required Strength
2.Limit States
3.Design for Strength using LRFD
4.Design for Strength using ASD



x
x
B4. Classification of Sections for Local Buckling x

D. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR TENSION
D1. Slenderness Limitation x
D2. Tensile Strength x
D3. Area Determination x(*)

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E. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMPRESSION
E1. General Provisions x
E2. Slenderness Limitations and Effective Length x(*)
E3. Compressive Strength for Flexural Buckling of members without Slender
Elements
x
E4. Compressive Strength for Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling of
members without Slender Elements
x
E7. Members with Slender Elements x

F. DESIGN FOR MEMBERS FOR FLEXURE
F1. General Provisions x
F2. Doubly Symmetric Compact I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent about
their Major Axis
x
F3. Doubly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Compact Webs and Noncompact
or Slender Flanges Bent about Their Major Axis
x
F4. Other I-Shaped Members with Compact or Noncompact Webs Bent about
Their Major Axis
x
F5. Doubly Symmetric and Singly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Slender
Webs Bent about Their Major Axis
x
F6. I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent about Their Minor Axis x
F7. Square and Rectangular HSS and Box-Shaped Members x
F8. Round HSS x
F9. Tees and Double Angle Loaded in Plane of Symmetry x
F10. Single Angle x
F11. Reactangular Bars and Rounds x
F12. Unsymmetrical Shapes

G. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR SHEAR
G1. General Provisions x
G2. Members with Unstiffened or Stiffened Webs x
G4. Single Angles x
G5. Rectangular HSS and Box Members x
G6. Round HSS x
G7. Weak Axis Shear in Singly and Doubly Symmetric Shapes x

H. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION
H1. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force x
H2. Unsymmetric and Other Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force x
H3. Members Under Torsion and Combined Torsion and Combined Stress x


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the section classification is
determined for each intermediary section.
Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

Lateral-torsional buckling
Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

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Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RH
S

CHS

L

U

T

PP
L

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Compact section x x x x x
Non-compact
section
x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Shear buckling
check
x x x x x x

(1) Sections are classified as non-compact section by default.

References


|1| ANSI/AISC 360-05
Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings
2005
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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AISI NAS S100-2007

AISI NAS S100-2007 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in:

AISI S100-2007
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
2007 edition

AISI S100-07-E1
Errata to North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
2007 edition
February 20, 2008
Amended September 25, 2008
Amended June 4, 2009

AISI S100-07/S1-09
Supplement No. 1 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members, 2007 edition
August, 2009

AISI S100-07/S2-10
Supplement No. 2 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members, 2007 edition
February, 2010


The steel code check is supported for the United States provisions and can be executed according to
either ASD or LRFD principles. The Canadian LSD method is not supported.
Consulted articles
An overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The articles marked with “x” are
consulted. The articles marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following
paragraphs.

Article Title
A General Provisions
A4 Allowable Strength Design X
A5 Load and resistance Factor Design X

B Elements
B1 Dimensional Limits and Considerations X(*)
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B2


Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements
B2.1 Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements
B2.3 Webs and Other Stiffened Elements under Stress
Gradient

X(*)
X(*)
B3 Effective Widths of Unstiffened Elements
B3.1 uniformly Compressed Unstiffened Elements
B3.2 Unstiffened Elements and Edge Stiffeners with
Stress Gradient

X(*)
X(*)

B4 Effective Width of Uniformly Compressed Elements with a
Simple Lip Edge Stiffener
X(*)


C Members
C1 Properties of Sections X(*)
C2 Tension Members X(*)
C3 Flexural members
C3.1 Bending
C3.1.1 Nominal Section Strength
C3.1.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength
C3.1.3 Flexural Strength of Closed Cylindrical Tubular
Members
C3.1.4 Distortional Buckling Strength

X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
X(*)
C3.2 Shear
C3.2.1 Shear Strength of Webs without Holes
C3.3 Combined Bending and Shear

X(*)
X(*)
C3.4 Web Crippling
C3.4.1 Web Crippling Strength of Webs without Holes
C3.5 Combined Bending and Web Crippling

X(*)
X(*)
C3.6 Combined Bending and Torsional Loading X(*)
C4 Concentrically Loaded Compression Members
C4.1 Nominal Strength for Yielding, Flexural, Flexural-
Torsional and Torsional Buckling
C4.2 Distortional Buckling Strength
X(*)

X(*)
C5 Combined Axial Load and Bending
C5.1 Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending
C5.2 Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending

X
X(*)

D Structural Assemblies and Systems
D6 Metal Roof and Wall Systems
D6.1 Purlins, Girts and Other Members
D6.1.1 Flexural Members Having One Flange Through-
Fastened to Deck of Sheeting
D6.1.3 Compression Members Having One Flange
Through-Fastened to Deck of Sheeting


X(*)

X(*)

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Appendix 2 Second-Order Analysis
2.1 General requirements

X(*)

 Haunches, arbitrary members and cross-sections without initial shapes are not
supported for the AISI NAS S100-2007 code check. In this case the default AISC 2005
code check is executed.
Initial Shape
For a cross-section with material Steel and fabrication set to Cold-Formed, the Initial Shape can be
defined.

For a General cross-section the ‘Thin-walled representation’ has to be used to be able to define the
Initial Shape.

The thin-walled cross-section parts can have the following types:

F Fixed Part – No reduction is needed
I Internal cross-section part
SO Symmetrical Outstand
UO Unsymmetrical Outstand

Parts can also be specified as reinforcement:

None Not considered as reinforcement
RUO Reinforced Unsymmetrical Outstand (edge stiffener)

ROU reinforcement types can be set only to elements of type SO or UO.
The initial shape is supported for the following cross-section types:
- Standard profile library cross-sections
- Cold formed Pair cross-sections of profile library sections
- General thin-walled sections
- General sections with thin-walled representation
- Thin-walled geometric sections
- All other sections which support the centerline and do not have roundings

For standard profile library cross-sections, the flat parts are taken between the roundings. The
roundings are set as fixed parts.

For predefined sections without roundings, the initial shape is based on the centreline dimensions
i.e. the flat parts are taken between the intersection points of the centrelines.

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Dimensional limits
Dimensional limits are supported according to article B1.1 and B1.2.

Article B1.1 (a) (1) for a simple lip is checked for an internal element (I) connected to a stiffener
(RUO).

Article B1.1 (a) (2) is checked for an internal element (I).

Article B1.1 (a) (3) is checked for an outstand element (UO or SO).

Articles B1.1 (b) concerning flange curling and (c) concerning shear lag effects are not supported.

Article B1.2 (a) is checked for web elements under stress gradient. Webs are defined as elements
perpendicular (tolerance +/-45°) to the axis of bending.

Effective Widths
Uniformly Compressed Stiffened elements
The effective width of Uniformly Compressed Stiffened elements is calculated according to article
B2.1 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type I with stress gradient ¢ = 1

Serviceability Determination is not supported.


Webs and Other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient
The effective width of Webs and Other Stiffened elements under stress gradient is calculated
according to article B2.3 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type I with stress gradient ¢ ≠ 1

Serviceability Determination is not supported.


Uniformly Compressed Unstiffened elements
The effective width of Uniformly Compressed Unstiffened elements is calculated according to article
B3.1 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type SO or UO (with or without reinforcement type
RUO) with stress gradient ¢ = 1

Serviceability Determination is not supported.

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Unstiffened elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient
The effective width of Unstiffened elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient is calculated
according to article B3.2 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type SO or UO (with or without reinforcement type
RUO) with stress gradient ¢ ≠ 1

The alternative methods for unstiffened C-sections are not supported.
Serviceability Determination is not supported.

Effective width of Uniformly Compressed elements with a Simple Lip Edge Stiffener
The effective width of Uniformly Compressed elements with a Simple Lip Edge Stiffener is
calculated according to article B4 (a) Strength Determination.
More specifically, this concerns elements of type I with stress gradient ¢ = 1 which are connected to
a fixed element (rounding) which in turn is connected to an element of type UO or SO with
reinforcement type RUO.

Serviceability Determination is not supported.

 Effective section properties can never be bigger than gross section properties (for
example in case of manually inputted gross section properties which have been
rounded down).

Properties of Sections
Deductions for holes, openings and cut-outs are not supported.

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Tension Members
The tensile strength is determined according to article C2.

For yielding in the gross section:

|

For rupture in the net section:

|

With: Fy Yield strength
Fu Tensile strength
Ag Gross area of cross-section
An Net area of cross-section

Since deductions for holes, openings … are not supported An = Ag.

Flexural Members
Nominal Section Strength
The nominal section strength is determined according to article C3.1.1. More specifically Procedure
I - Based on Initiation of Yielding is applied.



Lateral Torsional Buckling Open Section
The Lateral Torsional Buckling strength for open sections is determined according to article C3.1.2.1
(a).
For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.

The simplified formulas of article C3.1.2.1 (b) are not supported.


Doubly symmetric sections
For Doubly symmetric sections formula (C3.1.2.1-4) is used for either axis.
This applies to the following form codes:
1 (Symmetric I shape)
7 (Rectangular section)
11 (Solid tube)
In addition this applies to the cold formed pair sections 2CFUo, 2CFUc, 2CFCo, 2CFCc
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Formula (C3.1.2.1-4) is rewritten as follows:


Remarks:
- For x-x bending the LTB length is used instead of the effective length KyLy.
- For y-y bending Kx is taken as the buckling ratio about the x-axis and Lx the system
length for buckling about the x-axis.
- The equation for r0 is expanded to allow any type of cross-section:

- Cb for x-x bending is calculated according to formula (C3.1.2.1-6)
- Cb for y-y bending is taken as unity.





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Point symmetric sections
For Point symmetric sections formula (C3.1.2.1-5) is used for either axis.
This applies to the following form codes:
102 (Z section)
113 (Cold formed Z section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

Formula (C3.1.2.1-5) is rewritten as follows:


The same remarks are valid as for doubly symmetric sections.


Singly symmetric sections
For Singly symmetric sections formula (C3.1.2.1-4) is used for bending about the x-x axis and
formula (C3.1.2.1-10) for bending about the y-y axis.
This applies to the following form codes:
5 (Channel section)
112 (Cold formed Channel section)
114 (Cold formed C section)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
121 (Cold formed Sigma section)
122 (Cold formed Sigma section stiffened)
123 (Cold formed Sigma-Plus section)

Formulas (C3.1.2.1-4) and (C3.1.2.1-10) are written as follows:

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The same remarks are valid as for doubly symmetric sections.
The parameter j is calculated using the formula for C-sections given in Ref. [4].
Other section types
All other cross-sections which are not covered by the previous paragraphs are considered to be
doubly symmetric, except for the following form codes:
2 (Rectangular Hollow Section)
3 (Circular Hollow Section)

Lateral Torsional Buckling Box Section
The Lateral Torsional Buckling strength for box sections is determined according to article C3.1.2.2.
This applies to the following form code:
2 (Rectangular Hollow Section)
In addition this applies to the cold formed pair sections 2CFUc and 2CFCc with distance a = 0 mm

Formulas (C3.1.2.2-1) and (C3.1.2.2-2) are rewritten as follows:

The same remarks are valid as for open doubly symmetric sections.


Flexural Strength Closed Cylindrical Tubular members
The Flexural Strength of Closed Cylindrical Tubular members is determined according to article
C3.1.3.
This applies to the following form code:
3 (Circular Hollow Section)

 In case the diameter to thickness ratio D/t exceeds the limit 0,441 E/Fy the check is not
executed and a warning is issued on the output.



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Distortional Buckling Strength
For both bending axis the distortional buckling strength is determined according to article C3.1.4.
More specifically the general Procedure (a) is followed using formula (C3.1.4-6).

The check is executed in case the following conditions are met:
- The cross-section has at least one element with reinforcement type RUO
- For the given bending moment in the section, at least one of these elements is in
compression
More specifically this implies that, if the stiffener is in compression distortional buckling can occur
(even if the flange itself is partially in tension). This is in accordance with the distortional buckling
shapes for weak axis bending of typical C-sections obtained using numerical analysis Ref. [9].

Remarks:
- The unbraced length Lm is taken as the LTB length and this for both bending axis.
- In case a diaphragm is positioned on the compression side and the diaphragm
provides full bracing, the member is regarded as continuously restrained and Lm =
Lcr.
- The rotational stiffness of the restraining element is by default taken as zero.
In case a diaphragm is located on the compression side, is taken as the
rotational stiffness vorhC
u
of the diaphragm.

For diaphragms reference is made to Use of diaphragms.

- For calculating the compression flange properties, the default Scia Engineer axis
convention is used (x-y axis system located at the centroid of the flange, with the x-
axis measured positive to the right from the centroid and the y-axis positive up from
the centroid)

- The elastic section modulus of the full unreduced section relative to the extreme
fiber in first yield Sfy is taken as Sfy,x for x-x bending and Sfy,y for y-y bending.
- In determining the stress gradient in the web, pure symmetrical bending is
assumed. This implies that for x-x bending this parameter equals 2 and for y-y
bending this parameter equals zero.
- The distance b0 for a standard profile library section is taken as the width property.
For a general section this is taken as the summation of the Internal (I) parts of the
flange.
- The distance h0 for a standard profile library section is taken as the height property.
For a Sigma section (Form Code 121 – 125) this is taken as the (full) height
property. For a general section this is taken as the maximal height of the ‘web’
elements.
Web elements are defined as elements with an angle > 45°to the horizontal axis.
- When there is no ‘web’ element (i.e. CHS section ), distortional buckling is not
checked.
- Flanges are defined as elements with angle < 45°to the horizontal axis.
Connected flange elements which have a relative angle > 135°are accounted for as
‘one’ flange for distortional buckling.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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- For cross-sections with roundings, the flange/web junction is taken to be at the
intersection between the flange/web rounding and the flat part of the flange.
- The thickness t is taken as the smallest thickness of the cross-section elements.
- For Omega sections (Form Code 115) the top flange is not seen as flange for
distortional buckling.

Shear
The shear strength is determined according to article C3.2.1.
In the calculation of Aw only elements with element types I, UO and SO are accounted for. In
addition, elements with reinforcement type ROU are not accounted for.

For each element i the shear area Aw,i is calculated as follows:



With: i = The number (ID) of the element.
xend = End position of element i .
xbeg = Begin position of element i.
t = Thickness of element i.
o = Angle of element i to the horizontal x-x axis

In addition, for each element i the nominal shear stress Fv,i is calculated.

The shear strength of the element then becomes Vn,i = Aw,i * Fv,i

The nominal shear strength Vn for the cross section is taken as the sum of the Vn,i of the related
elements.

Transverse stiffeners are not supported, therefore the shear buckling coefficient kv is taken as 5,34.

 AISI NAS S100-2007 does not give provisions to calculate the shear resistance for
circular hollow sections (Form Code 3). Therefore the default AISC 2005 provisions are
used in this case.

Combined Bending and Shear
The combined bending and shear check is determined according to articles C3.3.1 and C3.3.2.
Transverse stiffeners are not supported; therefore the equations for unreinforced webs are used.

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Web Crippling Strength
The web crippling strength is determined according to article C3.4.1.
More specifically the general equation (C3.4.1-1) is applied.
The alternative given in equation (C3.4.1-2) is not supported.

The web crippling check is executed on the positions where there is a jump in the Vy shear force
diagram.

Remarks:
- The shear force diagram of both the actual member as well as adjacent members is
evaluated. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same buckling
system.
- The angle u between the plane of the web and the plane of the bearing surface is taken as
90°.
- The Flange Conditions depend on the definition of the initial shape. In case there is an
element with reinforcement type ROU the setting is taken as ‘Stiffened or Partially Stiffened
Flanges’.
- The distances for One-flange/Two-flange and End/Interior are evaluated taking into account
adjacent members. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same
buckling system.

The following paragraphs specify the supported cross-section types.

Built-Up Sections
For built-up sections table C3.4.1-1 is used.

This applies to cold formed pair sections 2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a = 0 mm and the
following form codes:
127 (Cold formed I-Plus section)
128 (Cold formed IS-Plus section)

Since these pair sections consist of two webs the resistance of the full section is obtained by adding
the values of each web.

Single Web Channel and C-Sections
For single web channel and C-sections table C3.4.1-2 is used.
This applies to the following form codes:
5 (Channel section)
112 (Cold formed Channel section)
114 (Cold formed C section)
116 (Cold formed C section eaves beam)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
In addition this applies to the following pair sections:
2CFUc and 2CFCc
2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a > 0 mm
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Since the pair sections consist of two webs the resistance of the full section is obtained by adding
the values of each web.

Single Web Z-Sections
For single web Z-sections table C3.4.1-3 is used.
This applies to the following form codes:
102 (Z section)
113 (Cold formed Z section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

Single Hat Sections
For single hat sections table C3.4.1-4 is used.
This applies to the following form code:
115 (Cold formed Omega section)

Since these sections consist of two webs the resistance of the full section is obtained by adding the
values of each web.

Other Sections
For any other cross-section types as those listed in the previous paragraphs no web crippling check
is executed.

In addition table C3.4.1-5 is not supported.

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Combined Bending and Web Crippling
The combined bending and web crippling check is determined according to articles C3.5.1 and
C3.5.2.

Requirement (a) is applied to the following form codes/sections:
5 (Channel section)
112 (Cold formed Channel section)
114 (Cold formed C section)
116 (Cold formed C section eaves beam)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
102 (Z section)
113 (Cold formed Z section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)
115 (Cold formed Omega section)
2CFUc and 2CFCc
2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a > 0 mm

Requirement (b) is applied to the following form codes/sections:
2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a = 0 mm

Requirement (c) is applied to the following form codes/sections in case the check is executed within
a lapped zone:
102 (Z section)
113 (Cold formed Z section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

Remarks:
- The exception given for requirement (a) is not supported.
- In case a lapped Z section does not meet the limits for requirement (c) the provisions of
requirement (a) are applied instead.
- For requirement (c) it is assumed that conditions (1), (2), (3) & (4) are fulfilled.

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Combined Bending and Torsion
Combined bending and torsion loading is evaluated according to article C3.6.
In each fiber of the cross-section the bending stresses Sigma Mx and Sigma My are calculated.
These stresses are based on the effective cross-sectional properties and calculated in the fibers of
the gross cross-section.
In addition, in each fiber the shear stress due to torsion Tau t is calculated based on gross section
properties.
Using these stresses, the R factor is calculated according to equation (C3.6-1) using the following
expressions:

f bending = Sigma Mx + Sigma My
f torsion = Tau t
f bending + f torsion =

(composed stress)

The critical fiber is taken as the fiber with the biggest composed stress.

The increase of the R factor in case of C-sections is not supported.

For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.

Compression Members
Nominal axial strength
The nominal axial strength is determined according to article C4.1 using Fn = Fy.

Flexural Buckling
The stress Fe for flexural buckling is determined according to article C4.1.1.

For the calculation of the effective length factor, reference is made to “Calculation buckling ratio –
general formula”.


 In case an LTB restraint of type ‘Both’ is inputted, it specifies that both the top and
bottom flange are held into position. As such, this point is seen as a fixed point for
weak axis buckling.

This implies that the system length Ly is taken between the LTB restraints of type
‘Both’ and the member ends. In addition the effective length factor ky is set to 1,00.

For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.

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Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling
The stress Fe for torsional (-flexural) buckling is determined according to the general method given
in Ref. [7].

Doubly symmetric and hollow sections are taken as not subject to torsional (-flexural) buckling.
This applies to the following form codes:
1 (Symmetric I shape)
2 (Rectangular Hollow Section)
3 (Circular Hollow Section)


For any other section the stress Fe is taken as the smallest of Sigma,t and Sigma,TF

Sigma,t = Ncr,T / Ag
Sigma,TF = Ncr,TF / Ag

With: Ncr,T Critical axial load for torsional buckling
Ncr,TF Critical axial load for torsional-flexural buckling


Ag Gross section area


Determination of N
cr,T

The elastic critical load Ncr,T for torsional buckling is calculated according to Ref.[7].

t

With: E Modulus of Young
G Shear modulus
J Torsion constant
Cw Warping constant
lT Buckling length for the torsional buckling mode
x0 and y0 Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid
rx radius of gyration about the x-x axis
ry radius of gyration about the y-y axis


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Determination of N
cr,TF
The elastic critical load Ncr,TF for torsional flexural buckling is calculated according to Ref.[7].

Ncr,TF is taken as the smallest root of the following cubic equation in N:

0

With: Ncr,x Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the x-x axis
Ncr,y Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the y-y axis


Ncr,T Critical axial load for torsional buckling

The smallest value of Fe (flexural, torsional and torsional-flexural buckling) is used for calculating Fn
according to article C4.1.

For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.


Closed Cylindrical Tubular sections
The axial strength for closed cylindrical tubular sections is determined according to article C4.1.5.
This applies to the following form code:
3 (Circular Hollow Section)

 In case the diameter to thickness ratio D/t exceeds the limit 0,441 E/Fy the check is not
executed and a warning is issued on the output.

Distortional Buckling Strength
The distortional buckling strength is determined according to article C4.2. More specifically the
general Procedure (a) is followed using formula (C4.2-6).

The check is executed in case the cross-section has at least one element with reinforcement type
RUO.

Remarks:
- The same remarks are valid as for distortional buckling of flexural members.
- The elastic distortional buckling stress Fd is determined for each flange separately. The
minimal Fd is taken as the limiting value of the cross-section.

Because of this separate determination, a diaphragm on only one flange is accounted for in
the Fd calculation of that specific flange.
In addition, this procedure allows stiffened flanges of unequal dimensions.


For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.
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Combined Compression and Bending
The combined compression and bending check is executed according to article C5.2.
The shifts ex and ey of the neutral axis are determined for the required compressive axial strength.
The additional moments due to these shifts are then calculated by multiplying the required
compressive axial strength with these respective shifts.

The special provisions for angle sections apply for the following form codes:
4 (Angle section)
111 (Cold formed Angle section)

In case of 2
nd
order analysis, reference is made to “2nd Order using Appendix 2”.

Use of diaphragms
Diaphragms are used specifically in conjunction with article D6.1 concerning purlin and girt design.

The lateral stiffness S for a diaphragm is calculated as follows in case the bolt pitch of the diaphragm
is set as ‘br’: (Ref.|11|,3.5 and Ref.|12|,3.3.4.):


With a Frame distance
Ls Diaphragm length
K1 Diaphragm stiffness factor K1
K2 Diaphragm stiffness factor K2

For a bolt pitch of ‘2br’ the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0,2 S (Ref.|11| p22).

For the rotational stiffness vorhC
u
of a diaphragm reference is made to “Adaptation of torsional
constant”.

The available lateral strength S is compared to the required lateral strength Serf Ref.[8]:

With E Modulus of Young
CW Warping constant of the purlin
L LTB length of the purlin
G Shear modulus
J Torsion constant of the purlin
Iy Second moment or area about the y-y axis of the purlin
h Height of the purlin
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In case the available lateral strength S is higher than or equal to the required strength Serf, the
diaphragm is providing sufficient stiffness and the purlin is seen as fully braced.
In case the available lateral strength S is lower than the required strength Serf, the diaphragm is not
providing sufficient stiffness and the purlin is seen as inadequately braced.


The influence of a diaphragm on different checks (bending, compression and torsion) is outlined in
the following overview.

Bending
Diaphragm on the compression flange
The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced.
As a result no LTB check is required for bending about the x-x axis.
Distortional buckling still needs to be checked. For distortional buckling is taken as vorhC
u
.

 See Ref.[2] pp 47 “Since the distortional buckling has an intermediate buckling half
wavelength; the distortional buckling still needs to be considered even for braced
members.”

In case S < Serf the member is seen as inadequately braced.
As a result the LTB check for bending about the x-x axis is executed using the augmented torsional
stiffness J.
Reference is made to “Adaptation of torsional constant”.

Distortional buckling still needs to be checked. For distortional buckling is taken as vorhC
u
.

Diaphragm on the tension flange
The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced on the tension flange.
In this case article D6.1.1 is applied.
As a result no LTB check is required for bending about the x-x axis.
In addition, no distortional buckling check is required.

In case S < Serf or in case the limits of article D6.1.1 are not met, the member is seen as
inadequately braced.
As a result the LTB check for bending about the x-x axis is executed by default, without an
increased torsional stiffness J.
In addition distortional buckling is checked taking as zero.

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Compression
Diaphragm on one flange
The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced.
In this case article D6.1.3 is applied.
As a result no distortional buckling check is required.

In case S < Serf or in case the limits of article D6.1.3 are not met, the member is seen as
inadequately braced .
As a result the default compression checks are executed.
In addition distortional buckling will be checked taking as zero.

Diaphragm on both flanges
In this case the specifications of the previous step apply using the largest lateral stiffness S of both
diaphragms.

Torsion
Diaphragm on any flange
The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.

In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced against torsion.
In this case the reduction due to torsion is not applied.

In case S < Serf, the member is taken as inadequately braced.
As a result the reduction for torsion is determined by default.


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Flexural members having one flange through-fastened to sheeting
The nominal flexural strength is determined according to article D6.1.1.

This article is only applied in case the following conditions are met:
- The member is in bending about the x-x axis
- The diaphragm is located on the tension flange
- The diagram is through fastened
- The lateral stiffness S ≥ Serf
- The conditions for article D6.1.1 are met

Remarks:
- The article is only valid for C and Z sections with edge stiffeners (i.e. elements with
reinforcement type ROU).

This applies to the following form codes:
114 (Cold formed C-section)
116 (Cold formed C-section eaves beam)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

- For determining the R factor a difference is made between simple span and continuous
spans. This difference is based on the system length Lx.
When the member under consideration has only one part for Lx it is taken as simple span.
When the member has more parts for Lx it is taken as continuous span.
- The article is not applied for cantilevers. A cantilever is defined as a member at the end of a
buckling system which has free ends for both buckling about the x-x and y-y axis.
- In addition, the article is not applied for continuous beams in the region between inflection
points adjacent to a support.
- It is assumed that conditions (8), (9), (10), (11), (12) & (13) are fulfilled.
- The correction factor r for compressed insulation is not supported.


Compression members with one flange through-fastened to sheeting
The compressive strength is determined according to article D6.1.3.

This article is only applied in case the following conditions are met:
- The member is in compression
- The diaphragm is located on one or both flanges
- The diagram is through fastened
- The lateral stiffness S ≥ Serf
- The conditions for article D6.1.3 are met

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Remarks:
- The article is only valid for C and Z sections with edge stiffeners (i.e. elements with
reinforcement type ROU).

This applies to the following form codes:
114 (Cold formed C-section)
116 (Cold formed C-section eaves beam)
117 (Cold formed C-Plus section)
118 (Cold formed ZED section)
119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips)
120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip)
126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)

- The fastener distance x is taken as 0,5.
- It is assumed that conditions (7) & (8) are fulfilled.

2
nd
Order using Appendix 2
In case the proper setting is activated in the steel setup, the provisions according to article 2.1 of
Appendix 2 are applied.


More specifically, when the check is executed for a non-linear combination the following changes
are applied:
- Effective length factor Kx is set to 1,00
- Effective length factor Ky is set to 1,00
- ox for article C5.2 is taken as 1,00
- oy for article C5.2 is taken as 1,00
- Cmx for article C5.2 is taken as 1,00
- Cmy for article C5.2 is taken as 1,00

Article 2.2 of Appendix 2 is not supported.

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Lapped Purlin Design
For the analysis, the purlin line is considered prismatic i.e. the increased stiffness due to the doubled
cross-section within the lap is ignored Ref.[5].

 Since the lap length is defined along the member axis, it is important to specify
a sufficient ‘number of sections on average member’ in the Solver Setup when using
overlaps.

Combined Strength
The strength within the lapped zones is taken as the sum of the strengths of the individual members
Ref.[4].

The use of the combined strength of the individual members is applied for the following checks:
- Nominal Bending Check
- Shear Check
- Combined Bending and Shear Check
- Web crippling Check
- Combined Bending and Web Crippling Check
- Bending – Distortional Buckling Check

For distortional buckling, the distortional buckling stress Fd is calculated for the critical flange i.e. the
flange resulting in the lowest Fd value.

The following equations are then used:
Mcrd = (Sfsection 1 + Sfsection 2) * Fd
My = (Sfysection 1 + Sfysection 2) * Fy

Special considerations for Lateral Torsional Buckling
Within a lapped zone, at the bottom flange the LTB check depends on the Bottom flange fully
braced setting within the Overlap data.

In case this setting is activated it implies the bottom flange within the lapped zone is fully fixed and
thus no LTB occurs.

This has the following implications:
- Within the lapped zone, in case the bottom flange is in compression, no LTB check is
executed.
- Outside of the lapped zone the LTB length is taken to the end of the lap.

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Diaphragm on the tension flange

In case the following conditions are met:
- Diaphragm on the top flange which provides full bracing
- Setting Bottom flange fully braced activated in the overlap data
- The top flange is in tension
By default it would imply article D6.1.1 should be applied however this article is only valid in case the
compression flange is free. Since in this case the compression flange is fully braced this article is
not applied and the nominal bending strength is used.

References

[1] AISI S100-2007
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
2007 edition

[2] AISI S100-2007-C
Commentary on North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel
Structural Members
2007 edition

[3] AISI S100-07-E1
Errata to North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural
Members
2007 edition
February 20, 2008
Amended September 25, 2008
Amended June 4, 2009

[4] AISI SG03-2
Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual
2002 edition

[5] G. J. Hancock, T. M. Murray, D. S. Ellifritt
Cold-Formed Steel Structures to the AISI Specification
Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001

[6] A Gerhsi, R. Landolfo, F.M. Mazzolani
Design of Metallic cold formed thin-walled members
Spon Press, London, UK, 2002

[7] SN001a-EN-EU
NCCI: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes
Access Steel, 2006
www.access-steel.com
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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[8] EN 1993-1-3:2006
Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures
Part 1-3: General rules - Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting
CEN, 2006

[9] Schafer, B.W., Ádány, S.
Buckling analysis of cold-formed steel members using CUFSM: conventional and
constrained finite strip methods.
Eighteenth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures,
Orlando, FL. October 2006.

[10] J. Schikowski
Stabilisierung von Hallenbauten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Scheibenwirkung
von Trapez- und Sandwichelementdeckungen, 1999
http://www.jschik.de/

[11] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

[12] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993

[13] AISI S100-07/S1-09
Supplement No. 1 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members, 2007 edition
August, 2009

[14] AISI S100-07/S2-10
Supplement No. 2 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed
Steel Structural Members, 2007 edition
February, 2010



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CM66

CM66 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Règles de calcul des constrcutions en acier
ITBTP / CTICM
Régles CM Decembre 1966
Editions Eyrolles 1982


Consulted articles

The cross-section is checked for tension (art. 3,1), bending (art. 3,2.) and shear (art. 3,3.).

For the stability check, the following criteria are considered:
- for compression : art. 3,4.
- for compression and bending : art. 3,5
- for lateral torsional buckling : art. 3,6.
- for double bending and axial compression : art. 3,7.
- for shear buckling : art 5,212

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation the following chapters.


3 Règles générales concernant les calculs de résistance et de déformation
3,0 Données numériques x

3,1 Pièces soumises à traction simple x (*)

3,2 Pièces soumises à flexion simple ou déviée x
3,21 Flexion simple x(*)
3,22 Flexion déviée

3,3 Effet de l’effort tranchant dans les pièces fléchies x

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3,4 Pièces soumises à la compression – flambement simple
3,40 Généralités x(*)
3,41 Pièces comprimées a parois pleines x
3,42 Pièces composées a treilis
3,43 Pièces composées a traverses de liaison
3,44 Conditions spéciales imposées aux éléments comprimés a parois minces x

3,5 Pièces soumises à compression avec flexion dans le plan de flambement
3,50 Principe x
3,51 Coefficient d’amplification des contraintes de flexion x (*)
3,52 Vérfication des pièces a parois pleines

x
3,53 Vérification des pièces composées à treilis
3,54 Vérification des pièces composées à traverses de liaison

3,6 Déversement en flexion simple
3,60 Généralités x
3,61 Pièces symétriquement chargées et appuyées
3,611 Poutres à äme pleine x(*)
3,612 Poutres à treilis
3,62 Cas des piéces soumises à deux moments différents au droit des appuis x(*)
3,63 Cas des poutrelles en console parfaitement encastrées
3,64 Coeffcients utilisés pour la détermination de kd
3,641 Coefficient D x
3,642 Coefficient C x(*)
3,643 Coefficient B x(*)

3,7 Flexion composée
3,70 Domaine d’application x
3,71 Notations x
3,72 Principe des vérifications x
3,73 Formules enveloppes pour les pièces à parois pleines x (*)

3,8 Flambement dans les systémes hyperstatiques

3,9 Déformations x

5 Règles spéciales à certains éléments
5,212 Poutres composées à âme pleine – âmes x

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Section properties
The net area properties are not taken into account .

Plastic coefficient
The plastic coefficients are calculated according to the Ref.[1], 13,212 (Valeurs du coefficient ψ
d’adaptation plastique).

Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

Factor kf
The factor kf is calculated using the formula given in Ref[1], 3,516
3 ; 1
l M
A
1 72 . 1 25 . 0
k
2
med
M
f
÷ µ
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ + µ
=


If Mmed ≈ 0.0, the formula 3,513 is used :
3 . 1
25 . 0
k
f
÷ µ
+ µ
=
LTB Check
The LTB check is performed for symmetric I sections. For other cross sections the factor kd=1.0.
For the calculation of the coefficient C, we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
The coefficient B is calculated by interpolating the table for B given in Ref[1] 3,643, and using the
calculated C value with table for C given in Ref[1] 3,642.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.
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Combined flexion
The values ofx is the maximum value of the bending stress in the member for the bending around
the strong axis. The value ofy is the maximum value of the bending stress in the member for the
bending around the weak axis.
For non-prismatic sections the values ofx and ofy are the local (i.e. in each intermediary section)
bending stresses.
Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.


Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

R
S

E

O

COM

NUM
Section check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Buckling check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section buckling
check
x x x x x x x x
LTB Check x
Shear buckling check x x x x


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
182
References


|1| Règles de calcul des constrcutions en acier
ITBTP / CTICM
Régles CM Decembre 1966
Editions Eyrolles 1982

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
183
CM66 - Additif 80

CM66 - Additif 80 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Additif 80
Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to art. 5,12. (classification 'plastic' or 'elastic').
The section is checked for tension and compression (art. 4,2), bending (art 4,3), shear force (art.
4,4), the combination of bending and axial force (art. 4,5 and art 4.6).

For the stability check, the following criteria are considered:
- for lateral torsional buckling : art. 5,2.
- for compression : art. 5,31.
- for compression and bending : art. 5,32

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The chapters marked
with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the
following chapters.

4 Resistance des sections
4,1 Règle générale (*)
4,2 Effort normale x
4,3 Moment de flexion x
4,4 Effort tranchant x
4,5 Moment de flexion et effort normal x
4,6 Momens de flexion, effort normal et effort tranchant x

5 Stabilité des éléments
5,1 Conditions de non voilement local x (*)
5,2 Résistance au déversement des poutre fléchies
5,21 Règles de contreventement latéral au voisinage des sections plastifiées
5,22 Moment ultime de déversement en flexion simple x (*)
5,23 Dimensionnement des entretoises
5,24 Résistance au déversement en flexion déviée x
5,3 Résistance au flambement
5,31 Eléments simplement comprimés x
5,32 Eléments comprimés et fléchis x
5,33 Longueur de flambement (*)
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
184
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.


Section check
If the sections are not according to the conditions specified in art. 5,1, the sections are checked
according to the regulations given in Ref.[2].
If a torsional moment is present, the sections are checked according to the regulations given in
Ref.[2].
Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).



Lateral-torsional buckling
For the calculation of the moment factors C1 and C2, we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for
LTB", using the EC3 values.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
185
Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification Add
80
x x
Plastic section check
Add 80
x x
Buck:ling check Add
80
x x
LTB check Add 80 x x
Compression +
bending Add 80
x x

References

[1] Additif 80

|2| Règles de calcul des constrcutions en acier
ITBTP / CTICM
Régles CM Decembre 1966
Editions Eyrolles 1982



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
186
BS5950-1:1990

BS5950-1:1990 Code Check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in:

British Standard BS 5950
Structural use of steelwork in building
Part1. Code of practice for design in simple
and continuous construction:hot rolled section
British Standard distribution BS5950 Part1 1990 revised in 1992




Material properties

For standard steel grades, the yield strength py is defined according to the thickness of the element
(see Table 6 Art.3.1.1.). The standard steel grades are :

Grade 43 : yield strength defined between 245 and 275 N/mm²
Grade 50 : yield strength defined between 325 and 355 N/mm²
Grade 55 : yield strength defined between 415 and 450 N/mm²


(pY in N/mm², t in mm)


Steel grade

Thickness
limits

PY



Grade 43

ts16 mm

275 N/Mm²

ts40 mm

265 N/mm²

ts63 mm

255 N/mm²

ts100 mm

245 N/mm²



ts16 mm

355 N/mm²
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
187

Grade 50

ts40 mm

345 N/mm²

ts63 mm

340 N/mm²

ts100 mm

325 N/mm²



Grade 55

ts16 mm

450 N/mm²

ts25 mm

430 N/mm²

ts40 mm

415 N/mm²

ts63 mm

400 N/mm²


Remark: For cold-formed section, values for Py are not influenced by the previous table.
Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material is defined as
material for the selected code.


Consulted articles
According to Art. 3.5. and table 7, cross sections are classified in 4 types:

- Plastic
- Compact
- Semi-compact
- Slender

A reduction factor is applied to the design strength of the material in use for slender sections by
following the rules described in Art. 3.6 and in Table 8. Partial safety factor of design strength is
included in py value.
The section is checked for bending (Art.4.2.), tension (Art.4.6.), compression (Art.4.7.), shear
(Art.4.2.3.), combined moment and axial force (Art. 4.8.) and biaxial moments (Art.4.9.). For the
stability check, the beam element is checked for lateral torsional buckling, shear buckling,
compression and bending with axial compression. Articles used for this stability check are the
following:

- for lateral torsional buckling : Art. 4.3.
- shear buckling : Art. 4.4.5.
- for compression : Art. 4.7.
- for bending and axial compression : Art. 4.8.


A more detailed overview of used articles is given in the following table.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
188

Part. 3 Section properties
3.5. Limiting proportions of cross sections Art. 3.5.1.
Art. 3.5.2.
Art. 3.5.4.
Table 7
Fig.3
3.6. Slender cross section Art. 3.6.1.
Art. 3.6.2.-3.6.3.
Art. 3.6.4.
Table 8
Part. 4 Design of structural elements
4.2. Member in bending Art. 4.2.1.3. (a) (c)
Shear capacity Art. 4.2.3.
Moment capacity with low shear Art. 4.2.5.
Moment capacity with high shear Art. 4.2.6.
4.3. Lateral torsional buckling


Member in bending Art. 4.3.7.
LTB factor
General Art. 4.3.7.1.
Equivalent uniform moment Art. 4.3.7.2.
Buckling Resistance Art. 4.3.7.3.
Bending strength pb Art. 4.3.7.4.
Equivalent slenderness ìLT, |, q, u, v

Art. 4.3.7.5.
Appendix B.
Factors m, n Art. 4.3.7.6.
Equal flanged rolled section Art. 4.3.7.7.
Buckling resistance moment for single angle Art.4.3.8.

4.4. Plate Girders


General Art. 4.4.1.
Dimensions of webs and flanges Art. 4.4.2.2. Art. 4.4.2.3.
Moment capacity Art. 4.4.4.
Section with slender webs Art. 4.4.4.2. (a)
Shear buckling resistance of thin webs Art. 4.4.5.1.
Design without using tension field action Art. 4.4.5.3. and Appendix H.1.

4.6. Axially loaded tension members



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
189
Tension capacity Art. 4.6.1.
Effective Area of simple tension members Art. 4.6.3.1. Art. 4.6.3.3.

4.7. Compression member


Slenderness Art. 4.7.3.2.
Compression resistance Art. 4.7.4.
Compressive strength Art. 4.7.5. Appendix C

4.8. Axially loaded members with moments


Tension members with moments Art. 4.8.2. + EC3 5.4.9.&Annex F
Compression members with moments Art. 4.8.3.
Local capacity check Art. 4.8.3.2.
Buckling check with exact approach Art. 4.8.3.3.2.

4.9. Members with biaxial moments


See 4.8.



Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check.
So, the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Slender cross-section
Slender sections are particularly sensitive to local buckling. British Standard code (Art. 3.6.) defines
stress reduction factor to prevent this phenomenon. For webs subject to moments and axial load
and for circular hollow sections, the design strength py should be assumed such that the limiting
proportions for semi-compact section are met. For other sections, where a slender outstand is in
compression, the design strength should be reduced by the factor given in Table 8.

Section properties
The net area of a section is taken as its gross section neglecting the deduction due to fastener
holes: Art. 3.3. Shear area of a cross-section is calculated by using Art. 4.2.3.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
190
Bending moment
Before any calculation of members in bending, it's necessary to determine the shear capacity. For
plastic and compact section with high shear load, moment capacity is calculated with the plastic
modulus only for I and PLL sections (Art. 4.2.6. and 4.8.). For other cross-section, with plastic or
compact section classification, characterised or not by a low shear load, we assumed that the
moment capacity is calculated by using the same approach than for semi-compact section: the
elastic modulus (elastic calculation).

Bending, shear, axial force
For plastic and compact sections, BS5950 Art. 4.8.2. & 4.8.3.2. (b) prescribes a detailed approach to
determine the unity check of axially loaded members with moments. The detailed relationship allows
a greater economy for plastic and compact section . In this expression, we use a reduced moment
capacity Mr respectively about the major and the minor axis. Those values are determined by using
EC3 Art.5.4.9. (see Ref.[5]). For semi-compact and slender section, the simplified approach is
applied following Art. 4.8.2.and Art. 4.8.3.2. (a).

Lateral torsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric PPL), rectangular sections (solid and hollow), T sections,
channel sections and angle section, the critical lateral torsional buckling moment is given by the
general formula Art. 4.3.7. and Annex B2&3. For other sections, we follow conservative
recommendation described in Art. 4.3.7.5. and calculation proposed in EC3 to determine the elastic
critical moment Mcr EC3 Annex F1.1. Formula (F.1.) see Ref [5].

The condition to be satisfied in all the cases is that



with

Mb=Sxpb

and



(m is an equivalent uniform moment factor)

pb is the bending strength and is related to the equivalent slenderness :


in which n is an equivalent slenderness factor.

For beam without loading point between points of lateral restraint, n=1 and m depends on the ratio
of the end moments at the points of restraint.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
191
For beam loaded between point of lateral restraint, m=1 and n depend on the ratio of the end
moments at the points of restraint and on the ratio of the larger moment to the mid-span free
moment.
There are thus two methods for dealing with lateral torsional buckling namely:
'm approach' i.e. the 'equivalent uniform moment method' with n=1
'n approach' i.e. the 'equivalent slenderness method' with m=1
In any given situation, only one method will be admissible, taking into account that it is always
conservative to use m=n=1. Since the publication of BS5950 Part 1 1990, doubt has been cast on
the correctness of using n factors less than 1 in combination with an effective length LLTB less than
the length of the member L in the calculation of ìLTB. However, as a interim measure, pending
clarification ina future version of BS5950, it is recommended that ìLTB is taken as the smaller of the
two following values:


By using the settings of BS5950, the user can define which method correspond to his situation or
define his choice as the conservative method m=n=1.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Compression member
For member submitted to compression, we applied the recommendations given in BS 5950 and
Appendix C to determine the compressive strength.

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
192
Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x x x x x x
Section check class 2 x x x x x x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 1 x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4 x x x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x

(1)sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default



References


[1] British Standard BS5950 Part 1 : 1990+Revised text 1992
Structural use of steel work in building
Part1 Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction: hot rolled sections

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
193
[2] Plastic design to BS5950
J.M. Davies & B.A. Brown
The steel Construction institute

[3] Steelwork design
Guide to BS5950: Part 1: 1990
Volume 2 Worked examples (revised edition)

[4] Essentials of Eurocode 3
Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N°65, 1991

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992

[6] R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
194
BS5950-1:2000
BS5950-1:2000 Code Check

The background to this code check can be found within the document “BS 5950-1:2000 steel code check
Theory”
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
195
SIA263

SIA263 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

SIA263
Construction en acier
SIA263:2003


Material properties
The most common steel grades are used in SIA263. Their mechanical properties are described in
table 1 SIA263. The following table gives the yield strength for each type of grade commonly used in
function of the nominal web thickness:


t<=40 t<=40 40<t<=100 40<t<=100
fy fu fy fu
S235
S 235
235 360 215 340
S275
S 275
275 430 255 410
S355
S 355
355 510 335 490
S460
S 460
460 550 430 530


Consulted articles
The classification described in SIA263 is based on the calculation method. The calculation method
in SIA263 distinguish the method used respectively to determine the internal forces and to perform
the section and the stability check.
By facility, we can obviously make a parallel between the calculation method of SIA263 and the
section classification proposed in EC3.

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196
According to SIA263 Table 5a-5b , cross sections are classified in 4 types:

- PP (plastic-plastic) or class 1
- EP (elastic-plastic) or class 2
- EE (elastic-elastic) or class 3
- EER (elastic-elastic reduced) or class 4

The first letter of the classification denomination is related to the method used to calculate internal
forces in the structure. The second letter indicates if we perform the section and the stability check
with a elastic or a plastic approach. Finally, we must note that the steel code SIA263 is essentially
oriented for symmetrical and bisymmetrical profile like I profiles. In the present modulus, others
profiles are calculated by using a classic elastic approach (EE classification) and EC3 prescriptions.

The section is checked for tension, compression, shear, combination of bending and axial forces.
For the stability check, the beam element is checked for lateral torsional buckling, shear buckling,
compression and bending with axial compression. A more detailed overview for the used articles is
given in the following table :

4 Analyse structurale et dimensionnement
4.1 Généralités x
4.2 Bases de l'analyse structurale et du dimensionnement
4.3 Modélisation
4.3.1 Classification des sections

x
4.4 Résistance des sections
4.4.1 Effort normal

x
4.4.2 Flexion x
4.4.3 Effort tranchant x
4.4.4 Flexion et effort tranchant x
4.4.5 Flexion et effort normal x
4.4.6 Sollicitations multiaxiales x
4.5 Stabilité
4.5.1 Flambage

x
4.5.2 Déversement des poutres fléchies x
4.5.3 Flexion et compression x
4.5.4 Voilement des éléments plans comprimés x
4.5.5 Voilement des éléments plans cisaillés x
4.8 Situtation de projet incendie
4.8.1 PRINCIPES

x
4.8.2 Propriétés de l'acier en cas d'incendie x
4.8.5 Méthode de calcul simplifiée x
5 Eléments de construction
5.1 POUTRES ET POTEAUX DES CLASSES DE SECTION 1 ET 2

x
5.3 Eléments comprimés à section composée
5.3.1 Barres étrésillonées ( à travers de liaison)

x
5.4 Poutres composées à âme pleine
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
197
5.4.1 Résistance à la flexion x
5.4.2 Résistance à l'effort tranchant x
5.4.3 Interaction entre flexion et effort tranchant x
Annexe B Moment critique de déversement élastique Mcr x
Annexe C Echauffement des éléments de construction en cas d'incendie x

Section classification
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point. For each load
case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability
check.
So, the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination. However, for non-
prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section.

Slender cross-section
The design of a section that not satisfies the table 5 of SIA263 is always performed by using a
reduced area. This classification correspond to the EER method. The determination of a reduced
area is based on the effective width of each compression element in the current section (Art. 4.5.4).
The using of a reduced area implies the recalculation of the shear centre position, the inertia and the
elastic modulus.


Sections properties
The holes due to fastener are neglected in the area of a section

Lateral torsional buckling
For double symmetric I profile, we don't have to perform any lateral torsional buckling check if
NEd/Npl,Rd s 0.15 and the conditions provided in Table 6 SIA263 are satisfied. For any other case, a
LTB check must be perform.
Calculations described in Annex B for I,U and PPL can be applied to T sections only if the flange is
subjected to compression. Otherwise, as for section not supported by SIA263 in the LTB check, we
use prescriptions given in EC3 Annex F. Those rules allow us to determine a elastic critical moment
for lateral torsional buckling for symmetrical (formula F.2 EC3) and non symmetrical (formula F.1.
EC3) sections around the minor axis.
In the case of I, U, PPL and, T only with compression in flange, characterised by a reduced area or
not, we have to determined before any calculation irc, defined as the radius of gyration of a section
comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web area, taken about an axis in the
plane of the web.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd
Order Analysis’.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
198
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.


Stability check
For double symmetric I profile PP or EP, SIA263 provides specific formula to perform the stability
check of member submitted to biaxial moment. For other sections, non symmetric or from EE and
EER classification, a general formula is provided to design member under mono-axial sollicitations.

Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'.

Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ
sections).



SIA263 - Fire Resistance
Fire actions effect E
fi


The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi,d,t are taken from the results of the analysis. It is
recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the internal forces used in the
fire resistance check.

The accidental combination is given by

EGk + Pk + Ad+ E¢2,iQk,i

with Gk characteristic values of permanent actions
Qk,i characteristic value of the variable action i
Ad design values of accidental action from fire exposure
¢2,j combination coefficients
Pk characteristic value of prestressing action
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
199
Material properties

The material properties are depending on the steel temperature.

Strength and deformation properties:

° u u
° u u
=
=
20 , a , E , a
20 , y , y , y
E k E
f k f


The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength ky,u
and modulus of
elasticity kE,u
is given by tables in ref.[1], Figure 15.


In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to be constant
during the analysis :

thermal elongation Al/l 14 x 10
-6
(ua-20)
thermal conductivity ìa 45 W/mK


Temperature analysis - Thermal actions

In this part, the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are described. For
more info, EC3 Chapter 'Temperature analysis - Thermal actions'
Nominal temperature-time curve
See EC3 Chapter 'Nominal temperature-time curve'.

Net heat flux
See EC3 Chapter 'Net heat flux'

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
200
Steel Temperature
See Ref.[1], Annexe C.

The increase of temperature Aua,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval At
t h
c
V / A
d , net
a a
m
t , a
A
µ
= u A


with Am the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m
-1

ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
hnet,d the net heat flux per unit area [W/m²]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]

The increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval At


with Ap the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m]
V the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m]
ca the specific heat of steel [J/kgK]
cp the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK]
dp the thickness of the fire protection material [m]
At the time interval [seconds]
The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds
µa the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]
µp the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³]
ua,t the steel temperature at time t
ug,t the ambient gas temperature at time t
Aug,t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval
ìp the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]

The value Aua,t > 0.0

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
201

For the increase of temperature Aua,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent coating, we refer to
the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.

Calculation model

The calculation can be performed in 2 domains :

- strength domain
- temperature/time domain

In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g. strength
after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature ucr,d is computed. From
this critical temperature, the fire resistance time tfi,d is calculated (the time domain).

Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the
regulations given in Ref.[1], 4.8.5.

For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the stability check
are performed.

The following checks are executed :

- classification of cross section : art. 4.8.5.2.
- resistance for tension members : art. 4.8.5.4.
- resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.8.5.5..
- resistance for beams (class 1,2,3) : art. 4.8.5.6., art. 4.8.5.7., art. 4.8.5.8.
- resistance for members (class 4) : art. 4.8.5.9.


Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.


I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check PP x x(2) x(3)
Section check EP x x(2) x(3)
Section check EE x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check EER x x x x x x
Stability check PP x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check EP x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check EE x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check EER x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x
LTB x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4)

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.
(2) check according to EN 1993-1-1
(3) check according to ENV 1993-1-1
(4) general formula for Mcr






References
[1] SIA263
Construction en acier
SIA263:2003

[2] SIA263/1
Construction en acier / Spécification complémentaires
SIA263/1:2003



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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GBJ 17-88

The GBJ 17-88 code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in :

National standard of the People’s Republic of China
Code for design of steel structures
GBJ 17-88
Beijing 1995

Material properties
The used steel grades are:

- Grade3
- 16Mn
- 16Mnq
- 15Mn
- 15Mnq

For Steel3, the following groups are defined according to the element thickness (in mm):

Group Diameter or thickness of bars Thickness of L-, I- and U
sections
Thickness of
Plates
1 <=40 <=15 <=20
2 >40-100 >15-20 >20-40
3 >20 >40-80

The design values are (in N/mm²)

Steel Group Thickness f fv fce fy
Steel3 1
2
3
215
200
190
125
115
110
320
320
320
235
235
235
16Mn
16Mnq
<=16
17-25
26-36
315
300
290
185
175
170
445
425
410
345
345
345
15Mn
15Mnq
<=16
17-25
26-36
350
335
320
205
195
185
450
435
415
390
390
390
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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with f the resistance design value for tension, compression, bending (N/mm²)
fv the resistance design value for shear (N/mm²)
fce the bearing resistance (N/mm²)
fy the yield strength (N/mm²)


Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material is defined as
material for the selected code. If they are not defined as GBJ material, the following rule is used

f = 0.91 x yield strength
fv = 0.58 x yield strength


Consulted articles
The section and elements are checked according to part 4 and 5. When plastic design is allowed,
part 9 is supported.
A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted.



4. Calculation of flexural members
4.1.Strength
4.1.1.
4.1.2.
x (*)
x
4.2.Overall stability (*)
4.2.1.
4.2.2.
4.2.3.
4.2.4.
x
x
x
x
4.3.Local stability (*)
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3.
4.3.9.
x
x
x
x

5.Calculation of axially loaded members and members subjected to
combined axial load and bending

5.1.Axially loaded members
5.1.1.
5.1.2.
x(*)
x(*)
5.2.Members subjected ot combined axial load and bending
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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5.2.1.
5.2.2.
5.2.5.
x(*)
x
x
5.3.Effective length and allowable slenderness ratio (*)
5.4.Local stability of compression members
5.4.1.
5.4.2.
5.4.3.
5.4.4.
5.4.5.
x
x
x
x
x (*)

9.Plastic design
9.1.General requirements
9.1.3.
9.1.4.
x
x
9.2.Calculation of members (*)
9.2.1.
9.2.2.
9.2.3.
9.2.4.
x
x
x
x
9.3.Allowable slenderness and detailing requirements

Appendix 1 Overall stability factor of beams
A1.1.Simply supported beam of uniform welded I section x
A1.2.Simply supported beam of rolled I section x
A1.3.Simply supported beam of rolled channel section x
A1.4.Cantilever beams of doubly symmetric I section x
A1.5.Approximate calculation of overall stability factors x

Appendix 2 Calculation of local stability of girder web
A2.1.Web plate strengthened with transverse stiffeners x(*)
A2.2.Web strengthened with transverse and longitudinal stiffeners
A2.2.Web strengthened with transverse, longitudinal and short
stiffeners


Appendix 3 Stability factor of axially loaded compression members x



Section properties
The influence of the net section is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Shear buckling check
The local compressive stress oc, is considered as 0.0.

Buckling curves
For welded I and PPL sections the default value for the buckling curve about the weak axis is “b”.
This can be changed to “c” on users request.


Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements").

Lateral torsional buckling
The LTB check is supported for the following sections : I section, U section, RHS section, T section,
PPL section.
For the other section type, the factor ¢b = 1.0.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.



Local stability of compressed members
For each intermediary section, the ratio’s are determined. The section classification and the effective
area properties are determined for each intermediary section for performing the section check.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification and the effective area properties
over the member are used to perform the stability check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the
section classification and the effective area properties are determined for each intermediary section
to perform the stability check.

When the web ratio ( dept /thickness) does not conform to the requirements, the web is reduced for
calculating of the section check and stability check. A width of 20 tw sqrt(235/fy) on each side of the
web is taken into account.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
207

y
w
f
235
t 20 d =

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Supported sections


I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
".
The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
208


I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

R
S

E

O

COM

NUM
Plastic (single bending) x x
Compact section (with ¸) x x x x x x
Non-compact section x x x x x x x x x x
Slender section x x x x x x
Normal buckling x x x x x x x x x x x x
LTB x x x x x
Shear buckling x x x
Plastic stability check (single
bending)
x x
References

[1] Chinese Steel Code
GBJ 17-88
(Chinese version)

.[2] National standard of the People’s Republic of China
Code for design of steel structures
GBJ 17-88
Beijing 1995

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Korean steel code check

The Korean steel code check
Material properties
The following design values are used :

Steel fy
t<=40 mm
fy
t>40 mm
SS41
SPS41
SPSR41
240 220
SS50 280 260
SS55 380 380


with fy the yield strength (N/mm²)


The following steel characteristics are valid :

modulus of elasticity 210000 N/mm²
shear modulus 81000 N/mm²
coefficient of linear thermal expansion 12 x 10-6
density 7850 kg/m³

Consulted articles

The section and elements are checked according to part 2 and 3. The shear buckling check is
perfromed using article 7.5.2. The classiffication of sections is based on the rules of part 4.
A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.
The chapters marked with “x” are consulted.


TEXT

2.Allowable stress

2.1.Structural material x
2.1.1.Allowable tensile stress x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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2.1.2.Allowable shear stress x
2.1.3.Allowable compressive stress x
2.1.4.Allowable bending stress
a)
b)
c)
(*)
x
x
x
2.1.5.Allowable bearing stress

3.Load and stresses

3.3.Combined stresses (*)
3.3.1.Compression force and bending moment x
3.3.2.Tensile force and bending moment x (*)
3.3.3.Shear force and tensile stress

4.Width-Thickness ratio of plates (*)
4.1.1.Cantilever plate x
4.1.2.Two side fixed plate x
4.1.3.Effective area x
4.2.CHS section and thickness ratio x

5. Tensile member

6.Compressive member

6.1.Slenderness ratio x
6.2.Buckling length x(*)

7.Beam element

7.5.Stiffener
7.5.2.Buckling verification of the web
a)
x


Section classification
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined..
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification and the effective area properties
over the member are used to perform the code check. However, for non-prismatic sections, the
section classification and the effective area properties are determined for each intermediary section.
When the element properties don’t satisfy the limiting values for the ratios, the section is classified
as slender. The section have to be reduced for the calculation of the stresses. For outstand
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
211
compression elements, the part that is situated on the fixed side, remains. The length of the part b’
is calculated by the equation in which the ratio b’/t is equal on the limiting ratio.


For internal compression elements, the remaining parts are symmetrically divided to the end of the
elements. The length of the part d’ is calculated by the equation in which the ratio d’/t is equal on the
limiting ratio.

The reduced section properties are calculated for I, U, PPL, RHS and Cold formed sections-types.
The slenderness ratios (for buckling and LTB) are calculated with the full section properties.


Section properties
The influence of the bore hole is neglected, i.e. only the gross area is used.

Buckling length
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member(see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
212
Lateral torsional buckling
For I sections, PPL sections, U sections RHS and CHS sections, the formulas from 2.1.4 are used.
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
2
z
2
z
2
EI
GI L
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=


with L LTB length
E modulus of elasticity
G shear modulus
Iw warping constant
It torsion constant
Iz moment of inertia about minor axis

With this moment Mcr, the critical LTB stress oLTB is calculated :

y
cr
LTB
I
M
= o

with Iy moment of inertia about major axis


The slenderness ratio for LTB ìLTB, is given by

LTB
LTB
E
o
t = ì

The allowable LTB stress is calculated using the slenderness LTB with the formulas given in 2.1.3.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
213
Combined stresses
For compression and bending, the following formulas are used:

1
f
t t
1
f
c
f
c
f
t
c by bx
by
by
bx
bx
c
c
s
o ÷ o + o
s
o
+
o
+
o


For tension and bending, the following formulas are used :

1
f
t t
1
f
c
f
c
f
t
by bx t
by
by
bx
bx
bx
t
s
o + o + o
s
o
+
o
+
o
÷


with oc normal compression stress
ot normal tension stress
cob bending compression stress
tob bending tension stress
cobx bending compression stress around x axis
tobx bending tension stress around x axis
coby bending compression stress around y axis
toby bending tension stress around y axis
ft allowable tension stress
fc allowable compression stress
fb allowable bending stress
fbx allowable bending stress around x axis
fby allowable bending stress around y axis


Shear buckling check

Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

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214
Supported sections


I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS)
CHS Circular Hollow Section (CHS)
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RH
S

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Slender
sections
x x x x
x
Allowable
stresses
x x x x x x x x
x x x x
Shear buckling x x x




References

[1] Korean Standard
(Korean Version)
1983

[2] Extracts Korean Standard
(Internal English Version)
Translated by Karam Kim - 19.03.1998

[3] Regulations of Structural Standard of
Building Architecture
(internal english document)
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
215

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
216
BSK 99

BSK 99 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

BSK 99
StalKonstruktioner
Boverket, Byggavdelningen, 2000

Material properties

For standard steel grades, the characteristic yield strength fyk and tensile strength fuk are defined
according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. |1|, tab.2:21a and tab.2:21b)

The standard steel grades are:

Steel
Nam
e
Type E-modulus
(N/mm
2
)
Poisso
n
Unit
mass (kg
/m
3
)
Extensibility
(m/m K)
Ultimate
tensile
strength
(N/mm
2
)
Yield
strength
(N/mm
2
)
S235
S
235
Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10
-6
340 235
S275
S
275
Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10
-6
410 275
S355
S
355
Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10
-6
490 355
S420
S
420
Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10
-6
500 420
S460
S
460
Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10
-6
530 460
S500
S
500
Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10
-6
590 500
S550
S
550
Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10
-6
640 550
S620
S
Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10
-6
700 620
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
217
620
S690
S
690
Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10
-6
770 690

(fyk, fuk in N/mm², t in mm)

Steel grade Thickness fuk fyk
S235, S 235 0 < t <= 16 340 235
16 < t <= 40 340 225
40 < t <= 63 340 215
63 < t <= 80 340 215
80 < t
<=100
340 215
S275, S 275 0 < t <= 16 410 275
16 < t <= 40 410 265
40 < t <= 63 410 255
63 < t <= 80 410 245
80 < t
<=100
410 235
S355, S 355 0 < t <= 16 490 355
16 < t <= 40 490 345
40 < t <= 63 490 335
63 < t <= 80 490 325
80 < t
<=100
490 315
S420, S 420 0 < t <= 16 500 420
16 < t <= 40 500 400
40 < t <= 63 500 390
S460, S 460 0 < t <= 16 530 460
16 < t <= 40 530 440
40 < t <= 63 530 430
S500, S 500 0 < t <= 50 550 500
50 < t <=
100
550 480
S550, S 550 0 < t <= 50 640 550
50 < t <=
100
640 550
S620, S 620 0 < t <= 50 700 620
50 < t <=
100
700 580
S690, S 690 0 < t <= 50 770 690
50 < t <=
100
760 650
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
218

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table.
Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material is defined as
material for the selected code.
Consulted articles
The cross-section is classified according to Table 6:211a . (class 1,2 or 3).
The section is checked for tension (art. 6:22), compression (6:23), bending (6:24), shear force (art.
6:26), torsion (art. 6:27), the combination of bending and axial force (art. 6:25).


A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for part 6:2 in the following table. The
chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary
explanation in the following chapters.

6:2.Calculation of the capacity of construction elements
6:21.Limiting values of slenderness for cross section parts x
6:211.Classes of cross sections x (*)
6:212.Design methods for the different section classes x (*)
6:22.Tensile force x
6:23.Compression force x
6:231. Initial curvature, initial inclination and load eccentricity
6:232.Loss of restraint x (*)
6:233.Reduction factor for flexural buckling x
6:24.Bending moment x
6:241.Cross section classes x (*)
6:242.Shape factors in flexure x (*)
6:243.Bending moment x
6:244.Lateral torsional buckling x (*)
6:2441.Lateral bracing of beam x
6:2442.Reduction factor for LTB x
6:25. Bending and axial force
6:251.Section check x
6:252.Flexural buckling x
6:253.Flexural-torsional buckling x
6:26.Shear force and concentrated load
6:261.Shear force x(*)
6:262.Web crippling under concentrated force
6:263.Local compression
6:27.Torsional moment x
6:271.Pure torsion x
6:272.Warping
6:273.Torsional moment, shear force and bending moment x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
219
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed using the actual internal forces. The classification can change for each intermediary
point.

Effective cross-section properties for class 3 cross-section
The calculation of the effective area properties is performed according to the rules given in [5], part
:23 and :24.

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. Weff is the
effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.
With these properties, the section and stability check is performed.

Section properties
6:22 ; 6:243 ; 6:251 ; 6:261 : The net area properties are not taken into account .

Section check
- Double symmetric I sections (I) use the formula (6:251a) and (6:251b)
- Solid sections (O, RS) and hollow sections (RHS, CHS) use the formula (6:251c)
- For single bending, the sections U, PPL, T use formula (6:251a). For double bending the biaxial
state of stress is consulted.
- All other cases use the biaxial state of stress.

The (bi)axial stress check is given by formula (3:412a) and (3:412c):

yd
2 2
x
yd x
f 3
f
o s t + o
s o


with o=1.1
Compression members

6:232 : For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio". The
buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") .

For class 3 sections, the rules given in [5], part :34 are used, including the calculating of Idef.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
220
Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling
See [5], part :37.
The design buckling resistance for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be obtained using the
following reduction factor ec and slenderness ìc :


with fyk the basic yield strength
ocr the critical stress
ocr,T the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling
ocr,TF the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling
G the shear modulus
E the modulus of elasticity
IT the torsion constant of the gross section
CM the warping constant
iy the radius of gyration about yy-axis
iz the radius of gyration about zz-axis
lT the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling
y0 the position of the shear center
ly the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
221




The calculation of ocr based on [6], part 6.2.3.(5).

Lateral-torsional buckling
Alternatively to the regulations given in 6:2442. for bisymmetric sections, the elastic critical moment
for LTB Mcr for I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections
and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections, can be calculated using the formula given by the
general formula F.2. Annex F Ref. |3|.
For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors
for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
z
2
z
2
EI
L²GI
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=



with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (=
lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
222

See also Ref. |4|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.


For class 3 section, Izdef according to [5], part :44 is used.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.


Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.


Shear force ( shear buckling)
The shear buckling check is using the values for ev from table 6:261 in column 2.

The value for ìw is (according to [5], part :26, (18:26d)) taken as below :

2
w
w
2
w
w
k
yk
w
w
w
a
b
34 . 5 00 . 4 k 1
b
a
if
a
b
00 . 4 34 . 5 k 1
b
a
if
E
f
t
b
k
81 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
+ = <
|
.
|

\
|
+ = >
· · = ì
t
t
t



with Ek the modulus of elasticity
fyk the yield strength
a the field length
bw the field height
tw the web thickness


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
223
a
bw



Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1)
Section check
double bending
x x x x x x x x x x x x
Class 3 support x x x x x x
Buck:ling check x x x x x x x x x x x x
LTB check x x x x x x x x x x x x
Compression + x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
224
bending
double bending
Compression +
bending
single bending
x x x x x x x x
Compression + LTB
double bending
x
Shear buckling x x x x
Torsional check x



(1) sections are classified as class 2 cross section by default.

References

[1] BSK 99
StalKonstruktioner
Boverket, Byggavdelningen, 2000

[2] Swedish Regulations for Steel Structures
BSK
SBI Swedish Institute of Steel Construction, Publication 118, 1989

[3] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

|4| R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[5] Torsten Höglund
K18, Dimensionering av Stalkonstruktioner
Utdrag ur Handboken Bygg, kapitel K18 och K19
C E Fritzes AB, Stockholm

[6] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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IS 800

IS:800 Code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

IS 800 Draft version (for 3
rd
Revision)
Material properties

The following steel grades are supported :

Grade/ Classification Yield stress(Mpa)
Ultimate tensile
stress(Mpa)
A/Fe410WA 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
B/Fe410WB 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
C/Fe410WC 250(<20mm), 240(20mm to 40mm), 230(>40mm) 410
Fe440 300(<16mm), 290(16mm to 40mm), 280(>41mm to
63mm)
440
Fe440B 300(<16mm), 290(16mm to 40mm), 280(>41mm to
63mm)
440
Fe490 350(<16mm), 330(16mm to 40mm), 320(>41mm to
63mm)
490
Fe490B 350(<16mm), 330(16mm to 40mm), 320(>41mm to
63mm)
490
Fe540 410(<16mm), 390(16mm to 40mm), 380(>41mm to
63mm)
540
Fe540B 410(<16mm), 390(16mm to 40mm), 380(>41mm to
63mm)
540


The string in the column ‘Grade/Classification’ is used to determine the proper yield stress
reduction.

Consulted articles

The cross-section is classified according to Table 3.1.
The section is checked for tension (Section 6), compression (Section 7), bending (Section 8) and the
combination of forces (Section 9).

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The chapters marked
with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the
following chapters.


3.7. Classification of Cross Section x(*)

6.1. Tension members x
6.2. Design strength due to Yielding of Gross section

7.1. Design Strength x

8.2. Design strength in bending x
8.2.1. Laterally supported beam
8.2.1.1. Section with slender webs x
8.2.1.2. When factored shear force < 0.6 Vd x
8.2.1.3. When factored shear force > 0.6 Vd x
8.2.2. Laterally unsupported beam x
8.2.2.1. Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling moment x
8.4. Shear x
8.4.1. The nominal plastic shear resistance x
8.4.2. Resistance to shear buckling x

9.1. General x
9.2. Combined Shear and bending x
9.3. Combined Axial Force and Bending Moment x

Appendix F x


Remarks
- the design of slender compression elements is outside the scope of this implementation
- the shear buckling check is only using the Simple Post Critical Method
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section

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The cross sections are classified as
- class 1 : plastic
- class 2 : compact
- class 3 : semi-compact
- class 4 : slender section

The class 4 (slender) section check is not supported. For this sections a class 3 (semi-compact)
section check is performed.

Section properties
The net area properties are not taken into account .

Section check
In the case of high shear for class 3 section, the allowable normal stress is reduced with a factor (1-
µ). When torsional shear stress is present, the VonMisis criterium is checked.

Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio". The buckling
properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see
"Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") .

Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling
The design buckling resistance Nb,Rd for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be obtained
using buckling for buckling around the weak axis, and with relative slenderness given by :

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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with fyb the basic yield strength
ocr the critical stress
ocr,T the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling
ocr,TF the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling
G the shear modulus
E the modulus of elasticity
IT the torsion constant of the gross section
CM the warping constant
iy the radius of gyration about yy-axis
iz the radius of gyration about zz-axis
lT the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling
y0 the position of the shear center
ly the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis







Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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Lateral-torsional buckling
The elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr for I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS
(Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections, can be
calculated using the formula given by Annex F.

For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors
for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
z
2
z
2
EI
L²GI
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=



with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis


Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd
Order Analysis’.



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
230
Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Supported sections

The following standard sections are defined :

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section ( sheet welded, section pairs, …)
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

In the following matrix is shown which sections are supported for the different analysis parts in the
Indian steel Code check :



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E


O

COM

NUM
Section Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4
Stability check class 1 x x x
Stability check class 2 x x x
Stability check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class 4
Shear buckling check x x x

(1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
231

References

[1] IS:800
2005


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232
EAE code check

The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in

Instrucción EAE
Documento 0 de la Instrucción de Acero Estructural
Comisión Permanente de Estructuras de Acero
November 2004

Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to
Capítulo VI of Ref. |1|.

Steel Grade fy
(N/mm²)
fu
(N/mm²)
S 235 235 360
S 275 275 430
S 355 355 510
S 275 N/NL 275 390
S 355 N/NL 355 490
S 420 N/NL 420 540
S 460 N/NL 460 570
S 275 M/ML 275 380
S 355 M/ML 355 470
S 420 M/ML 420 520
S 460 M/ML 460 550
S 460
Q/QL/QL1
460 570
S 235 W 235 360
S 355 W 355 510
S 235 H 235 360
S 275 H 275 430
S 355 H 355 510
S 275 NH/NLH 275 370
S 355 NH/NLH 355 470
S 460 NH/NLH 460 550
S 275 MH/MLH 275 360
S 355 MH/MLH 355 470
S 420 MH/MLH 420 500
S 460 MH/MLH 460 530
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
233

The name of the steel grade (e.g. 'S 355 W') is used to identify the steel grade.

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table

Remark : For cold formed sections, the average yield strength fya can be used (by setting the proper
data flag in the Cross Section input dialog) according to Ref.[4].
The average yield strength is determined as follows :



with fyb the tensile yield strength = fy
fu the tensile ultimate strength
t the material thickness
Ag the gross cross-sectional area
k is a coefficient depending on the type of forming :
k = 0.7 for cold rolling
k = 0.5 for other methods of forming
n the number of 90°bends in the section


Consulted articles
The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in " Instrucción EAE,
Documento 0 de la Instrucción de Acero Estructural, Comisión Permanente de Estructuras de
Acero, November 2004".
The cross-sections are classified according to Artículo 20 of Capítulo V. All classes of cross-sections
are included. For class 4 sections (slender sections) the effective section is calculated in each
intermediary point, according to Artículo 20 of Capítulo V.

The member check is executed according to Capítulo IX. The stress check is taken from art. 34.: the
section is checked for tension (art. 34.2.), compression (art. 34.3.), bending (art. 34.4.), shear (art.
34.5.), torsion (art. 34.6.) and combined bending, shear and axial force (art. 34.7.1., art. 34.7.2. and
art. 34.7.3.).
The stability check is taken from art. 35.: the beam element is checked for buckling (art. 35.1.),
lateral torsional buckling (art. 35.2.), and combined bending and axial compression (art. 35.3.).
The shear buckling is checked according to prEN 1993-1-5:2003, Chapter 5.
For I sections, U sections and cold formed sections warping can be considered.
A check for critical slenderness and torsion moment is also included.

For integrated beams, the local plate bending is taken into account for the plastic moment capacity
and the bending stresses in the section. The out-of-balance loading is checked.


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
234
A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. The chapters marked
with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following
chapters.


Instrucción EAE

20. Clasificación de las secciones transversales
(*)
20.2. Clasificación de las secciones transversales metálicas
x
20.3. Criterios de asignación de Clase en secciones metálicas no rigidizadas
x
20.7. Características de la sección reducida en secciones transversales
esbeltas
x


34. Estado límite de resistencia de las secciones

34.1. Principios generales del cálculo
x
34.1.2. Características de las secciones transversales
x(*)
34.2. Esfuerzo axil de tracción
x
34.3. Esfuerzo axil de compresión
x
34.4. Momento flector
x
34.5. Esfuerzo cortante
x
34.6. Torsión
x(*)
34.7. Interacción de esfuerzos

34.7.1. Flexión y cortante
x
34.7.2. Flexión y esfuerzo axil
x
34.7.3. Flexión, cortante y esfuerzo axil
x
35. Estado límite de inestabilidad

35.1. Elementos sometidos a compresión
x(*)
35.2. Elementos sometidos a flexión
x
35.3. Elementos sometidos a compresión y flexión
x(*)


35.5. Abolladura del alma a cortante
x
35.7. Interacción

35.7.1. Cortante, flexión y esfuerzo axil
x




For cold formed sections EN 1993-1-3 is applied.

6.1.2. Axial tension
x
6.1.3. Axial compression
x
6.1.5. Shear force
x
6.1.6. Torsional moment
x
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
235
Classification of sections
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is
performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point.
For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to
perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load
case/combination.
However, for non-prismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each
intermediary section.

Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section
The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy,k).

For each intermediary section, the classification (and if necessary, the effective area ) is determined
and the proper section check is performed. The classification (and effective area) can change for
each intermediary point. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.

For each load case and combination, the most critical effective area properties are saved :
Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. Weff is the
effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.
eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform
compression.
With these critical properties, the stability check is performed.

For non-prismatic elements, the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary
section, also for the stability check.

Section properties
The net area properties are not taken into account .
The shear lag effects are neglected .
Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'.

Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking
into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ
sections)’.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
236
Compression members
For the calculation of the buckling length, we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio"
The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this
member (see chapter “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).

Lateral-torsional buckling
For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric), RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS
(Circular Hollow Section) sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general
formula F.2. Annex F Ref. |5|. For the calculation of the moment factors C1, C2 and C3 we refer to
"Calculation of moment factors for LTB".
For the other supported sections, the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by

z
2
t
z
2
z
2
EI
L²GI
I
Iw
L
EI
Mcr
t
+
t
=


with E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
L the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (=
lLTB)
Iw the warping constant
It the torsional constant
Iz the moment of inertia about the minor axis

See also Ref. |3|, part 7 and in particular part 7.7. for channel sections.

Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections
(Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent
asymmetric I sections.

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd
Order Analysis’.

Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
237
Combined bending and axial compression
For prismatic members the value My,Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
strong axis in the member. The value Mz,Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the
weak axis in the member.
For non-prismatic sections, the values My,Ed and Mz,Ed are the concurrent bending moments for each
intermediary section.

Interaction Method Calculation of Czz

By default for Czz the formula given in Ref.[1] is used:

ì

ì

In this formula however the position of the factor eLT is incorrect. For exact analysis the formula
according to Ref.[9] can be used:

ì

ì

Shear buckling check
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are
considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Supported sections

I Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….)
RHS Rectangular Hollow Section
CHS Circular Hollow Section
L Angle section
U Channel section
T T section
PPL Asymmetric I shapes
Z Z section
RS Rectangular section
E Cold formed section
COM Composed section in PRIMAWIN
O Solid tube
NUM Numerical section

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for
code check
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
238
". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.



I


RHS

CHS

L

U

T

PPL

RS

Z

E

O

COM

NUM
Classification x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1)
Section check class 1 x x x
Section check class 2 x x x
Section check class 3 x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Section check class 4 x x x x x x
Stability check class
1
x x x
Stability check class
2
x x x
Stability check class
3
x x x x x x x x x x x x x
Stability check class
4
x x x x x x
Shear buckling check x x x x

(1) Sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.



References

|1| Instrucción EAE
Documento 0 de la Instrucción de Acero Estructural
Comisión Permanente de Estructuras de Acero
November 2004

|2| Essentials of Eurocode 3
Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building
ECCS - N°65, 1991

|3| R. Maquoi
ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE
Ulg , Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1988

[4] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[5] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1, 1994
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
239

[6] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 2 : General rules - Structural fire design
ENV 1993-1-2:1995, 1995

[7] Model Code on Fire Engineering
ECCS - N°111
May 2001

[8] Eurocode 1
Basis of design and actions on structures
Part 2-2 : Actions on structures - Actions on structures exposed to fire
ENV 1991-2-2:1995


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240
Calculation of buckling ratio
Introduction to the calculation of buckling ratio

For the calculation of buckling ratio, several methods can be applied.
The general method is described in chapter "Calculation buckling ratio – general formula".
For crossing diagonals, the buckling ratio is explained in chapter "Calculation buckling ratios for
crossing diagonals".
For VARH elements, the critical Euler force is calculated according to the method given in chapter
"Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements".
For lattice tower members, see the chapter "Calculation buckling ratio for lattice tower members".
When using member buckling data the buckling ratio can be calculated from a stability analysis. See
chapter Calculation of buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis.

Calculation buckling ratio – general formula

For the calculation of the buckling ratios, some approximate formulas are used. These formulas are
treated in reference [1], [2] and [3].

The following formulas are used for the buckling ratios (Ref[1],pp.21) :

- for a non sway structure :

24) + 11 + 5 + 24)(2 + 5 + 11 + (2
12)2 + 4 + 4 + 24)( + 5 + 5 + (
= l/L
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ
µ µ µ µ µ µ µ µ


- for a sway structure :

4 +
x
x = l/L
1
2
µ
t



with L the system length
E the modulus of Young
I the moment of inertia
Ci the stiffness in node i
Mi the moment in node i
Fi the rotation in node i




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
241

µ µ µ µ t
µ t µ µ
2 1 2 1
2
1
2
2 1
8 + ) + (
+ 4
= x

EI
L
C
=
i
i
µ

|
i
i
i
M
=
C

The values for Mi and |i are approximately determined by the internal forces and the deformations,
calculated by load cases which generate deformation forms, having an affinity with the buckling
form. (See also Ref.[5], pp.113 and Ref.[6],pp.112).

The following load cases are considered:
- load case 1 : on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used, on
the columns the global distributed loads Qx = 10000 N/m and Qy =10000 N/m are used.
- load case 2 : on the beams, the local distributed loads qy=-1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used, on
the columns the global distributed loads Qx = -10000 N/m and Qy= -10000 N/m are used.


In addition, the following limitations apply (Ref[1],pp.21):
- The values of ρi are limited to a minimum of 0.0001
- The values of ρi are limited to a maximum of 1000
- The indices are determined such that ρ1 ≥ ρ2
- Specifically for the non-sway case, if ρ
1
≥ 1000 and ρ
2
≤ 0,34 the ratio l/L is set to 0,7


The used approach gives good results for frame structures with perpendicular rigid or semi-rigid
beam connections. For other cases, the user has to evaluate the presented bucking ratios. In such
cases a more refined approach (from stability analysis) can be applied.

 The following rule applies specifically to ky: in case both the calculation for load case
1 and load case 2 return ky = 1,00 then ky is taken as kz. This rule is used to account
for possible rotations of the cross-section.

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242
Calculation buckling ratios for crossing diagonals

For crossing diagonal elements, the buckling length perpendicular to the diagonal plane, is
calculated according to Ref.[4], DIN18800 Teil 2, table 15. This means that the buckling length sK is
dependent on the load distribution in the element, and it is not a purely geometrical data anymore.
In the following chapters, the buckling length sK is defined,

with sK buckling length
l member length
l1 length of supporting diagonal
I moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the member
I1 moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the supporting diagonal
N compression force in member
N1 compression force in supporting diagonal
Z tension force in supporting diagonal
E elastic modulus


Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous
tension diagonal
N
N
Z
Z
l/2
l1/2



l 5 . 0 s
l I
l 1 I
1
l N 4
l Z 3
1
l s
K
3
1
3
1
K
· >
·
·
+
· ·
· ·
÷
=


See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 1.
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243
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned tension
diagonal
N
N
Z
Z
l/2
l1/2


l 5 . 0 s
l N
l Z
75 . 0 1 l s
K
1
K
· >
·
·
÷ =


See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 4.

Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous tension
diagonal
N
N
Z
Z
l/2
l1/2


) 1
l Z
l N
(
4
l Z 3
) I E (
1
l Z
l N
l 5 . 0 s
1
2
2
1
d 1
1
K
÷
·
·
t
· ·
> ·
s
·
·
· =

See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 5.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
244
Continuous compression diagonal, supported by continuous
compression diagonal
N
N
N1
N1
l/2
l1/2

l 5 . 0 s
l I
l 1 I
1
l N
l N
1
l s
K
3
1
3
1
1
K
· >
·
·
+
·
·
+
=


See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 2.

Continuous compression diagonal, supported by pinned
compression diagonal
N
N
N1
N1
l/2
l1/2

1
1
2
K
l N
l N
12
1 l s
·
·
·
t
+ =

See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 3 (2).
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
245
Pinned compression diagonal, supported by continuous
compression diagonal
N
N
N1
N1
l/2
l1/2


)
N
l N
12
(
l
l N
) I E (
l 5 . 0 s
1
1
2
1
2
3
d
K
·
+
t
· t
·
> ·
· =


See Ref.[4], Tab. 15, case 3 (3).


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246
Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements
Definitions

A VARH element is defined as follows :

The member has the properties of a symmetric I secion (formcode=1), where only the height is
linear variable along the member. The system length for buckling around the local yy axis (strong
axis), is equal to member length.
For this non-prismatic section, the critical Euler force is given in Ref[7].


Calculation of the critical Euler force

For a VARH element (form node i to node j), we can define:

L beam length
Ii, Ij moment of inertia at end i and j
Ai,
Aj
sectional area at end i and j
E modulus of Young
Ncr critical Euler force
Ri,
Rj
beam stiffness at end i and j


The stiffness R and R' is given by:

EI
L
R
=
R
EI
L
R
=
R
M
= R
i
j j
i
i i
'
'
u

I
I
=
i
j
ç
The critical Euler force is given by

L
EI
=
N
2
i 2
cr o

To calculate o, the next steps are followed :
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
247

1. Calculate L, Ii, Ij, Ri, Rj, R'i, R'j, ξ

2. We suppose that

2
1
>
1 - ç
o

3. Calculate a, b, c and d as follows


)] ln cotg( +
2
1
(
1) - (
+ [1
1
= d
]
1 -
) ln ( sin
- [1
1
= c = b
)] ln cotg( -
2
1
1)( - ( + [1
1
= a
4
1
-
) 1 - (
=
2
2
2
2
2
ç | |
ç
ç
o
ç
ç
ç |
|
o
ç | | ç
o
ç
o
|


4. For a beam in non-sway system, we solve

0 =
R R
bc) - (ad +
R
d +
R
a + 1
j i j i ' ' ' '

For a beam in sway system, we solve

0 = bc)) - (ad - d + c - b - (a
R R
+ - ) d - (1
R
+ ) a - (1
R
2
j i
2 2
j
2
i o o o o ' ' ' '


5. When a solution is found, we check if


2
1
>
1 - ç
o


6. If not, then recalculate a,b,c en d as follows :

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
248

]
) - (
) ) +
2
1
( - ) -
2
1
1)(( - (
+ [1
1
= d
]
) - (
1) - ( 2
- [1
1
= c = b
]
-
) ) +
2
1
( - ) -
2
1
1)(( - (
+ [1
1
= a
-
-
2
- 2
-
2
ç ç ç
ç | ç | ç
o
ç ç ç
ç |
o
ç ç
ç | ç | ç
o
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |


and resolve the proper equation of 4.

Calculation buckling ratio for lattice tower members
When the national code EC-ENV is selected, the following buckling configuration can be selected.
For each configuration, the critical slenderness ì to be considered, is defined.
The values are taken from Ref.[8].
y
y
z z
v
v



We define :

iyy radius of gyration around yy axis
izz radius of gyration around zz axis
ivv radius of gyration around vv axis

With the option 'Bracing members are sufficiently supported', the effective slenderness may be
reduced as follows:
- for vv-axis : vv 7 . 0 35 . 0 ì · + = ì
- for yy-axis : yy 7 . 0 50 . 0 ì · + = ì

The buckling curve 'b' is used.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
249
Leg with symmetrical bracing


vv
i
L
= ì

Leg with intermediate transverse support


yy
i
L
= ì


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
250
Leg with staggered bracing


vv
yy
i
52 . 1 ) 2 a , 1 a max(
i
L
·
= ì
= ì



Single Bracing


vv
i
L
= ì





Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
251
Single Bracing with SBS (Secondary Bracing System)



yy
2
vv
1
i
L
i
L
= ì
= ì


Cross bracing


yy
com
com
y
E
E
com
com
com
com
1
1
1 b
1
com
sup
1 b
2 b com b
'
2
zz
'
2
yy
'
2
vv
1
i
L
f
E
58 . 0 70 . 0 K
L
L
K
1
1 25 . 0 K
0 . 1 5 . 0
K
1
1 25 . 0
F
F
K
1
1 38 . 0 75 . 0 K
L K L K L
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
= ì
t = ì
ì
ì
= ì
ì + =
= o
|
.
|

\
|
+ o >
s +
|
.
|

\
|
+ o +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ o ÷ =
· = · =
= ì
= ì

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
252

with Lcom Length of compressed member (L2 from figure)
Fcom Force in compressed member (L2 from figure)
Fsup Force in supporting member (member crossing member L2)
E Modulus of Young
fy Yield strength




Cross bracing with SBS



3 b com b
'
3
zz
'
3
yy
'
3
zz
2
yy
2
vv
1
L K L K L
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
· = · =
= ì
= ì
= ì



with Lcom Length of compressed member (L3 from figure)
Fcom Force in compressed member (L3 from figure)
Fsup Force in supporting member (member crossing member L3)
Kb See Chapter 'Cross bracing'







Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
253
K Bracing



zz
3
yy
3
zz
2
yy
2
vv
1
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
,
i
L
i
L
= ì
= ì
= ì


Horizontal Bracing

L


1 R 0
P
P
R
73 . 0 R 316 . 0 R 085 . 0 k
i
L
k
1
2
2
vv
s s
=
+ · ÷ · =
= ì



with P1 Compression load
P2 Tensile load



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
254
Horizontal Bracing with SBS

L


1 R 0
P
P
R
73 . 0 R 316 . 0 R 085 . 0 k
i
L
k
1
2
2
yy
s s
=
+ · ÷ · =
= ì



with P1 Compression load
P2 Tensile load


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
255
Discontinuous Cross bracing with horizontal member

N1 N2
N1 N2
F F
a
a


( ) o + =
·
= ì
cos ) 2 N 1 N ( , F max F
i
a
,
i
a 2
Sd
vv yy



with F normal force to check
FSd actual compression force in horizontal member
N1 tensile force in diagonal
N2 compression force in diagonal



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
256
Calculation of buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis
When member buckling data from stability are defined, the critical buckling load Ncr for a prismatic
member is calculated as follows:

Ed cr
N N · = ì

Using Euler’s formula, the buckling ratio k can then be determined:

t

¬

t

With: ì Critical load factor for the selected stability combination
NEd Design loading in the member
E Modulus of Young
I Moment of inertia
s Member length

 In case of a non-prismatic member, the moment of inertia is taken in the middle of the
element.


References


[1] Handleiding moduul STACO VGI
Staalbouwkundig Genootschap
Staalcentrum Nederland
5684/82

[2] Newmark N.M. A simple approximate formula for effective end-fixity of columns
J.Aero.Sc. Vol.16 Feb.1949 pp.116

[3] Stabiliteit voor de staalconstructeur
uitgave Staalbouwkundig Genootschap

[4] DIN18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten : Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
November 1990

[5] Rapportnr. BI-87-20/63.4.3360
Controleregels voor lijnvormige constructie-elementen
IBBC Maart 1987

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
257
[6] Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies
NEN 6770, december 1991

[7] Y. Galéa
Flambement des poteaux à inertie variable
Construction Métallique 1-1981

[8] NEN-EN 50341-3-15
Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV - Part 3: Set of National Normative Aspects
Number 15: National Normative Aspects (NNA) for The Netherlands



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
258
Calculation of moment factors for LTB

Introduction to the calculation of moment factors

For determining the moment factors C1 and C2 for lateral torsional buckling (LTB), we use the
standard tables which are defined in Ref.[1] Art.12.25.3 table 9.1.,10 and 11.

The current moment distribution is compared with several standard moment distributions. These
standard moment distributions are moment lines generated by a distributed q load, a nodal F load, or
where the moment line is maximum at the start or at the end of the beam.

The standard moment distribution which is closest to the current moment distribution, is taken for the
calculation of the factors C1 and C2.

The factor C3 is taken out of the tables F.1.1. and F.1.2. from Ref.[2] - Annex F.

Calculation moment factors
Moment distribution generated by q load



For ENV 1993, IS800 and CM66

if M2 < 0

C1 = A
*
(1.45 B
*
+ 1) 1.13 + B
*
(-0.71 A
*
+ 1) E
*

C2 = 0.45 A* [1 + C* e
D*
(½ | + ½)]

if M2 > 0

C1 = 1.13 A
*
+ B
*
E
*

C2 = 0.45A
*


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
259
For DIN18800 and ONORM4300

if M2 < 0

C1 = A
*
(1.45 B
*
+ 1) 1.12 + B
*
(-0.71 A
*
+ 1) E
*

C2 = 0.45 A
*
[1 + C
*
e
D*
(½ | + ½)]

if M2 > 0

C1 = 1.12 A
*
+ B
*
E
*

C2 = 0.45A
*


with :
l
+q | M2 | 8
l
q
= A
2
2
*

ql
| M2 | 94
= C
2
*



l
+q | M2 | 8
| M2 | 8
= B
2
*
)
ql
| M2 |
-72( = D
2
2
*



For DIN18800 / ONORM 4300

| 0.77 - 1.77 = E
*


For ENV 1993 and IS800

2.70 < E*
0.52 + 1.40 - 1.88 = E*
2
| |

For NEN6770/6771, SIA263

E*=1.75-1.05*|+0.30*|² and E*<2.3

For CM66

2.70 < E*
0.52 + 1.40 - 1.88 = E*
2
| |


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
260
Moment distribution generated by F load


F
M2 M1 = Beta M2
l


M2 < 0

C1 = A
**
(2.75 B
**
+ 1) 1.35 + B
**
(-1.62 A
**
+ 1) E
**

C2 = 0.55 A
**
[1 + C
**
e
D**
(½ | + ½)]

M2 > 0

C1 = 1.35 A
**
+ B
**
E
**

C2 = 0.55 A
**


with :
+Fl | M2 | 4
Fl
= A
* *

+Fl | M2 | 4
| M2 | 4
= * * B

Fl
| M2 | 38
= C
* *

)
Fl
| M2 |
-32( = D
2 * *


The values for E
**
can be taken as E
*
from chapter "Moment distribution generated by q load".

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
261
Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam

M2 M1 = Beta M2
l


C2 = 0.0

For DIN18800 / ONORM 4300

| 0.77 - 1.77 = 1 C


For ENV 1993 / IS800

2.70 < 1 C and
0.52 + 1.40 - 1.88 = 1 C
2
| |


For CM66

For NEN6770/6771, SIA263 Code

E*=1.75-1.05*|+0.30*|² and E*<2.3


References

[1] Staalconstructies TGB 1990
Stabiliteit
NEN 6771 - 1991

[2] Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
262
LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order
Analysis
Introduction to LTBII

For a detailed Lateral Torsional Buckling analysis, a link was made to the Friedrich + Lochner LTBII
application Ref.[1].


The FriLo LTBII solver can be used in 2 separate ways:

1) Calculation of Mcr through eigenvalue solution

2) 2
nd
Order calculation including torsional and warping effects



For both methods, the member under consideration is sent to the FriLo LTBII solver and the
respective results are sent back to Scia Engineer.

A detailed overview of both methods is given in the following chapters.


Eigenvalue solution Mcr

The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam, with:
- Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping
- End and begin forces
- Loadings
- Intermediate restraints (diaphragms, LTB restraints)

The end conditions for warping and torsion are defined as follows:

Cw_i Warping condition at end i (beginning of the member)
Cw_j Warping condition at end j (end of the member)
Ct_i Torsion condition at end i (beginning of the member)
Ct_j Torsion condition at end j (end of the member)

To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams, see chapter “Linked Beams”.

For this system, the elastic critical moment Mcr for lateral torsional buckling can be analyzed as the
solution of an eigenvalue problem:
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
263



Wi
th
q Critical load factor
Ke Elastic linear stiffness matrix
Kg Geometrical stiffness matrix




For members with arbitrary sections, the critical moment can be obtained in each section, with: (See
Ref.[3],pp.176)



Wi
th
q Critical load factor
Myy Bending moment around the strong axis
Myy(x) Bending moment around the strong axis at position x
Mcr(x) Critical moment at position x

The calculated Mcr is then used in the Lateral Torsional Buckling check of Scia Engineer.

For more background information, reference is made to Ref[2].
0 K K
g e
= · q +
( ) ) x ( M x M
M max M
yy cr
yy cr
· q =
q =
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
264
2
nd
Order analysis

The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam, with:
o Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping
o End and begin forces
o Loadings
o Intermediate restraints (diaphragms, LTB restraints)
o Imperfections

To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams, see chapter “Linked Beams”.

For this system, the internal forces are calculated using a 2
nd
Order 7 degrees of freedom
calculation.

The calculated torsional and warping moments (St Venant torque Mxp, Warping torque Mxs and
Bimoment Mw) are then used in the Stress check of Scia Engineer (See chapter “Warping Check –
Stress Check”).

Specifically for this stress check, the following internal forces are used:
o Normal force from Scia Engineer
o Maximal shear forces from Scia Engineer / FriLo LTBII
o Maximal bending moments from Scia Engineer / FriLo LTBII

Since Lateral Torsional Buckling has been taken into account in this 2
nd
Order stress check, it is no
more required to execute a Lateral Torsional Buckling Check.

For more background information, reference is made to Ref[2].




Supported National Codes
The following codes are supported for the analysis of Mcr.

- EC3 - ENV
- EC3 - EN
- DIN18800
- ONORM
- NEN
- SIA
- IS
- EAE

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
265
For the following national codes, the 2nd Order analysis approach is supported.

- EC3 - ENV
- EC3 - EN
- DIN18800
- ONORM
- NEN
- SIA
- EAE
Supported Sections

The following table shows which cross-section types are supported for which type of analysis:

FRILO LTBII CSS Scia Engineer CSS Eigenvalue
analysis
2
nd

Order
analysis
Double T I section from library x x
Thin walled geometric I x x
Sheet welded Iw x x
Double T unequal IPY from library x x
Thin walled geometric asymmetric I x x
Haunched sections x x
Welded I+Tl x x
Sheet welded Iwn x x
HAT Section IFBA, IFBB x x
U cross section U section from library x x
Thin walled geometric U x x
Thin walled Cold formed from library x x
Cold formed from graphical input x x
Double T with top flange
angle
Welded I+2L x
Sheet welded Iw+2L x
Rectangle Full rectangular from library x
Full rectangular from thin walled
geometric
x
Static values double
symmetric
all other double symmetric CSS x
Static values single
symmetric
all other single symmetric CSS x

Remark: Haunched sections are replaced by equivalent asymmetric I sections, by ignoring the
middle flanges.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
266

The following picture illustrates the relation between the local coordinate system of Scia Engineer
and FriLo LTBII. Special attention is required for U sections due to the inversion of the y and z-axis.



For more information, reference is made to Ref[2]

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
267
Loadings

The following load impulses are supported:

- Point force in node (if the node is part of the exported beam)
- Point force on beam
- Line force in beam
- Moment in node (if the node is part of the exported beam)
- Moment on beam
- Line moment in beam (only for Mx in LCS)

The supported load impulses and their eccentricities are transformed into the local LCS of the
exported member.


The dead load is replaced by an equivalent line force on the beam.

Load eccentricities are replaced by torsional moments.

The forces in local x-direction are ignored, except for the torsional moments.

 In Frilo LTBII a distinction is made between the centroid and the shear center of a
cross-section. Load impulses which do not pass through the shear center will cause
additional torsional moments.

Imperfections

In the 2
nd
Order LTB analysis the bow imperfections v0 (in local y direction) and w0 (in local z
direction) can be taken into account.


v0
y, v0
z
y
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
268

For DIN, ONORM, EC-EN and EAE the imperfections can be calculated according to the code. The
codes indicate that for a 2
nd
Order calculation which takes into account LTB, only the imperfection v0
needs to be considered.

The sign of the imperfection according to code depends on the sign of Mz in Scia Engineer.
Initial bow imperfection v0 for DIN and ONORM

The imperfection is calculated according to Ref.[6] article 2.2

For prismatic uniform members:

Resistance check Section Bucking curve v0
EE
(Elastic)
any a0 L/1050
any a L/900
any b L/750
any c L/600
any d L/450

EP
PP
(Plastic)
I section a0 L/700
I section a L/600
I section b L/500
I section c L/400
I section d L/300

For non-uniform members, the bow imperfection is considered at the centre of the buckling system
length L.

Initial bow imperfection v0 for EC-EN and EAE

The imperfection is calculated according to Ref.[4] article 5.3.4(3)

0 0
e k v · =

With k Factor taken from the National Annex of EC-EN
Factor taken as 0,5 for EAE
e0 Bow imperfection of the weak axis
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
269
The value of e0 is taken from following table:

Buckling
curve
eo /L – elastic
analysis
eo/L – plastic
analysis

a0 1/350 1/300
a 1/300 1/250
b 1/250 1/200
c 1/200 1/150
d 1/150 1/100

With L Member system length


Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0 for other supported codes

For all other supported codes (EC-ENV, NEN and SIA) as well as DIN, ONORM, EC-EN and EAE
the user can manually input the imperfections v0 and w0.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
270
LTB Restraints
LTB restraints are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.[2] p22), with horizontal elastic restraint Cy:

Cy = 1e15 kN/m

The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the LTB restraint (top/bottom).


The use of an elastic restraint allows the positioning of the restraint since this is not possible for a
fixed restraint. (Ref.[2] p23)

Specifically for U-sections, an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of U-
sections in the FriLo LTBII solver. (see Chapter “Supported Sections”)

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
271
Diaphragms
Diaphragms are transformed into 'Elastic Foundations' of type ‘elastic restraint’ (Ref.[2] p25). Both a
horizontal restraint Cy and a rotational restraint Cu are used.

The elastic restraint Cy [kN/m^2] is calculated as follows (Ref.[2] p52 and Ref.|5| p40):

2
|
.
|

\
|
· =
L
S Cy
t


Wi
th
S Shear stiffness of the diaphragm
L Diaphragm length along the member

The above formula for Cy is valid in case the bolt pitch of the diaphragm is set as ‘br’. For a bolt
pitch of ‘2br’ the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0,2 S (Ref.|5| p22).

The shear stiffness S for a diaphragm is calculated as follows (Ref.|7|,3.5 and Ref.|8|,3.3.4.):

L
K
+
K
10
a.
= S
s
2
1
4


With a Frame distance
Ls Length of the diaphragm
K1 Factor K1 of the diaphragm
K2 Factor K2 of the diaphragm

The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the diaphragm.

Specifically for U-sections, an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of U-
sections in the FriLo LTBII solver. (see Chapter “Supported sections”)
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
272


The rotational restraint Cu [kNm/m] is taken as vorhC
u
(see Chapter “Adaptation of Torsional
Constant”)


Linked Beams

Linked beams are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.[2] p22), with elastic restraint.
The direction of the restraint is dependent on the direction of the linked beam:

If the linked beam has an angle less then 45°with the local y-axis of the beam under consideration,
the restraint is set as Cy. In all other cases the restraint is set as Cz.


The position of the restraint z(Cy) or y(Cz) is depending on the application point of the linked beam
(top/bottom).

The position is only taken into account in case of a flexible restraint (Ref.[2] p23).


The end forces of the linked beam are transformed to point loads on the considered 1D member,
- in z -direction for linked beams considered as y-restraint
- in y- direction for linked beams considered as z-restraint


Specifically for U-sections, if the linked beam has an angle less then 45°with the local y-axis of the
beam under consideration, the restraint is set as Cz. In all other cases the restraint is set as Cy. This
is due to the rotation of U-sections in the FriLo LTBII solver. (see Chapter “Supported Sections”)

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
273
Limitations and Warnings

The FRILO LTB solver is used with following limitations

o Only straight members are supported
o LTBII analysis is done for the whole 1D member, not for a part of the member, not for
more members together
o When a LTB system length is inputted which differs from the member length, a warning
will be given.
Intermediate lateral restraints should be defined through LTB restraints, diaphragms and
linked beams.

During the analysis, the FriLo LTBII solver may return a warning message. The most important
causes of the warning message are listed here.

Eigenvalue solution Mcr

- Lateral Torsional Buckling is not governing – relative slenderness < 0,4

Due to the low relative slenderness, no LTB check needs to be performed. In this case it is not
required to use the FriLo LTBII solver.

- Design Torsion! Simplified analysis of lateral torsional buckling is not possible.

Due to the torsion in the member it is advised to execute a 2
nd
order analysis instead of an
eigenvalue calculation.


- Bending of U-section about y-axis!

The program calculates the minimum bifurcation load only.


2
nd
Order Analysis

- Load is greater then minimum bifurcation load (Error at elastic calculation – system is instable in
II.Order )

The loading on the member is too big, a 2
nd
order calculation cannot be executed.

- You want to calculate the structural safety with Elastic-Plastic method. This analytical procedure
cannot be used for this cross-section. It is recommended to use the Elastic-Elastic method.

Plastic calculation is not possible, use imperfection according to code elastic instead of plastic.

For more information, reference is made to Ref[1] and [2].
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
274
References

[1] FriLo LTBII software
Friedrich + Lochner Lateral Torsional Buckling 2
nd
Order Analysis
Biegetorsionstheorie II.Ordnung (BTII)
http://www.frilo.de

[2] Friedrich + Lochner LTBII Manual
BTII Handbuch
Revision 1/2006

[3] J. Meister
Nachweispraxis Biegeknicken und Biegedrillknicken
Ernst & Sohn, 2002

[4] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
EN 1993-1-1:2005

[5] J. Schikowski
Stabilisierung von Hallenbauten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der
Scheibenwirkung von Trapez- und Sandwichelementdeckungen, 1999
http://www.jschik.de/

[6] DIN 18800 Teil 2
Stahlbauten
Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken
November 1990

[7] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

[8] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
275
Profile conditions for code check
Introduction to profile characteristics
The standard profile sections have fixed sections properties and dimensions, which have to be
present in the profile library.
The section properties are described in chapter "Data for general section stability check".
The required dimension properties are described in chapter "Data depending On the profile shape".
Data for general section stability check

The following properties have to be present in the profile library for the execution of the section and the
stability check :


Description Property number
Iy moment of inertia yy 8
Wy elastic section modulus yy 10
Sy statical moment of area yy 6
Iz moment of inertia zz 9
Wz elastic section modulus zz 11
Sz statical moment of area zz 7
It* torsional constant 14
Wt* torsional resistance 13
A0 sectional area 1
Iyz centrifugal moment 12
iy radius of gyration yy 2
iz radius of gyration zz 3
Mpy plastic moment yy 30
Mpz plastic moment zz 31
fab fabrication code
0=rolled section (default value)
1=welded section
2=cold formed section
105

The fabrication code is not obligatory.

When the section is made out of 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can be calculated by the
calculation routine in the profile library. When this is not the case, these properties have to be input
by the user in the profile library.

The plastic moments are calculated with a yield strength of 240 N/mm².
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
276
Data depending On the profile shape
I section

Formcode 1
PSS Type .I.


Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
74 W
140 wm1
61 R1
146 o

109 1

B
s
w
t
R
R1
a
H


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
277
RHS


Formcode 2
PSS Type .M.



Property Description
49 H
48 B
67 s
66 R

109 2




B
s
H
R




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
278
CHS


Formcode 3
PSS Type .RO.



Property Description
64 D
65 s

109 3




D
w




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
279
Angle section

Formcode 4
PSS Type .L.


Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
61 R1
66 R


74 W1
75 W2
76 W3

109 4


B
R
R1
w1
w2
t
w3
w1
w2


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
280
Channel section

Formcode 5
PSS Type .U.


Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R



68
41
61 R1
146 o

109 5

B
s
H
t
R
R1
a


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
281
T section

Formcode 6
PSS Type .T.


Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
66 R
61 R1
62 R2
146 o1
147 o2

109 6


B
s
t
R
a1
H
a2
R1
R2


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
282
Full rectangular section


Formcode 7
PSS Type .B.



Property Description
48 B
67 H

109 7




B
H



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
283
Full circular section


Formcode 11
PSS Type .RU.



Property Description
64 D

109 11




D





Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
284
Asymmetric I section

Formcode 101
PSS Type


Property Description
49 H
48
44
47 s
42 Bt
43 Bb
45 tt
46 tb
66 R

109 101


R
H
Bt
Bb
tt
tb


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
285
Z section

Formcode 102
PSS Type .Z.


Property Description
49 H
48 B
44 t
47 s
67 R
61 R1

109 102




B
s
t
H
R
R1


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
286
General cold formed section
Each section is considered as a composition of rectangular parts. Each part represents a plate unit
which is considered as element for defining the effective width. The start and end parts are
considered as unstiffened elements, the intermediate parts are considered as stiffened parts.
This way of definition of the section assumes that the area is concentrated at its centre line. The
rounding in the corners is ignored.


Description Property number Value
form code 109 110

Dy* 22
Dz* 23
CM* 26
buckling curve around yy axis 106 (1)
buckling curve around zz axis 107 (1)
buckling curve for LTB 108 (1)

(1) The values for the buckling curves are defined as follows:
1 = buckling curve a
2 = buckling curve b
3 = buckling curve c
4 = buckling curve d

The conditions are that the section is an open profile. Only the geometry commands O, L, N, A may
be used in the geometry description.

When the section is made out of 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can be calculated by the
calculation routine in the profile library. The properties from the reduced section can be calculated
by the code check.

When the section is made out of more than 1 plate, the properties marked with (*) can NOT be
calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. The properties from the reduced section
can be calculated, except for the marked properties. These properties have to be input by the user
in the profile library.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
287

Formcode 110
PSS Type


Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B
142 sp
143 e2
68 H

109 110

Remark:
r is rounding, special for KLS section (Voest Alpine)
sp is number of shear planes


B
H
e2
s


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
288
Cold formed Angle section

Formcode 111
PSS Type


Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B


68 H

109 111



B
s
H
r


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
289
Cold formed Channel section

Formcode 112
PSS Type


Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B


49 H

109 112



B
s
H
r


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
290
Cold formed Z section

Formcode 113
PSS Type


Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B


49 H

109 113



B
s
H
R



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
291
Cold formed C section

Formcode 114
PSS Type


Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B


49 H
68 c

109 114



B
s
H
r
c


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
292
Cold formed Omega section

Formcode 115
PSS Type


Property Description
44 s
61 r
48 B


49 H
42 c

109 115



B
s
H
c
R



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
293
Cold formed C section eaves beam

Formcode 116
PSS Type


Property Description
49 H
44 t
48 B
61 r1
68 R
163 A

109 116




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
294
Cold formed C Plus section

Formcode 117
PSS Type


Property Description
49 H
44 t
48 B
61 r1
68 R
164 PL
167 APL

109 117



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
295
Cold formed ZED section

Formcode 118
PSS Type


Property Description
49 H
44 t
42 Bt
43 Bb
61 r1
68 R

109 118




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
296
Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips

Formcode 119
PSS Type


Property Description
49 H
44 t
42 Bt
43 Bb
61 r1
68 R
164 PL

109 119




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
297
Cold formed ZED section inclined lip

Formcode 120
PSS Type


Property Description
49 H
44 t
42 Bt
43 Bb
61 r1
68 R
164 PL
165 AL

109 120





Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
298
Cold formed Sigma section

Formcode 121
PSS Type


Property Description
48 B
166 B1
49 H
50 H1
51 H2
68 R
44 t
61 r1

109 121




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
299
Cold formed Sigma section stiffened

Formcode 122
PSS Type


Property Description
48 B
166 B1
49 H
50 H1
51 H2
68 R
44 t
61 r1
164 PL

109 122





Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
300
Cold formed Sigma Plus section

Formcode 123
PSS Type


Property Description
48 B
166 B1
49 H
50 H1
51 H2
68 R
44 t
61 r1
164 PL
167 APL

109 123



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
301
Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam

Formcode 124
PSS Type


Property Description
48 B
166 B1
49 H
50 H1
51 H2
68 R
44 t
61 r1
163 A

109 124




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
302
Cold formed Sigma Plus section eaves beam

Formcode 125
PSS Type


Property Description
48 B
166 B1
49 H
50 H1
51 H2
68 R
44 t
61 r1
163 A
164 PL
167 APL

109 125




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
303
Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined

Formcode 126
PSS Type


Property Description
49 H
44 t
42 Bt
43 Bb
61 r1
68 R
164 PL
165 AL

109 126




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
304
Cold formed I-Plus section

Formcode 127
PSS Type

Property Description
49 H
44 t
48 B
61 r1
68 R
164 PL
167 APL
168 a

109 127




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
305
Cold formed IS-Plus section

Formcode 128
PSS Type

Property Description
48 B
166 B1
49 H
50 H1
51 H2
68 R
44 t
61 r1
164 PL
167 APL
168 a

109 128




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
306
Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric
Formcode 129
PSS Type

Property Description
42 Bt
43 Bb
166 B1
49 H
50 H1
51 H2
68 R
44 t
61 r1
164 PL

109 129




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
307
Rail type KA

Formcode 150
PSS Type .KA.


Property Description
148 h1
149 h2
150 h3
151 b1
152 b2
153 b3
154 k
155 f1
156 f2
157 f3
61 r1
62 r2
63 r3
158 r4
159 r5
160 a

109 150

r1
r2
r4
r3
r5
b3
k
b2
b1
f3
f2
f1
h1
h3
h2

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
308
Rail type KF

Formcode 151
PSS Type .KF.


Property Description
48 b
154 k
49 h
153 b3
155 f1
157 f3
148 h1
149 h2
61 r1
62 r2
63 r3

109 151


r1
r2
r2
r2
r2
r3
k
b
b3
f3
f1
h
h1
h2


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
309
Rail type KQ

Formcode 152
PSS Type .KQ.


Property Description
48 b
154 k
49 h
153 b3
155 f1
149 h2
150 h3
61 r1

109 152





b
k
b3
r1
h3
h2
f1
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
310
Warping check

Stress check

In cross sections subject to torsion, the following is checked:

Ed , w Ed , t Ed , Vz Ed , Vy Ed , tot
Ed , w Ed , Mz Ed , My Ed , N Ed , tot
M
y 2
Ed , tot
2
Ed , tot
0 M
y
Ed , tot
M
y
Ed , tot
f
1 . 1 3
3
f
f
t + t + t + t = t
o + o + o + o = o
¸
s t + o
¸
s t
¸
s o


with fy the yield strength
otot,Ed the total direct stress
ttot,Ed the total shear stress
¸M = ¸M0 (class 1,2 and 3 section)
= ¸M1 (class 4 section)
¸M0 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is
caused by yielding
¸M1 the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is
caused by buckling
oN,Ed the direct stress due to the axial force on the relevant effective cross-
section
oMy,Ed the direct stress due to the bending moment around y axis on the
relevant effective cross-section
oMz,Ed the direct stress due to the bending moment around z axis on the
relevant effective cross-section
ow,Ed the direct stress due to warping on the gross cross-section
tVy,Ed the shear stress due to shear force in y direction on the gross cross-
section
tVz,Ed the shear stress due to shear force in z direction on the gross cross-
section
tt,Ed the shear stress due to uniform (St. Venant) torsion on the gross cross-
section
tw,Ed the shear stress due to warping on the gross cross-section

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
311
The warping effect is considered for standard I sections and U sections, and for E (= “cold formed
sections”) sections. The definition of I sections and U sections, and E sections are described in
‘Profile conditions for code check’.

The other standard sections ( RHS, CHS, Angle section, T section and rectangular sections) are
considered as warping free. See also Ref.[2], Bild 7.4.40.


Calculation of the direct stress due to warping

The direct stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[3])

m
M w
Ed , w
C
w M
= o


with Mw the bimoment
wM the unit warping
Cm the warping constant


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
312
I sections
For I sections, the value of wM is given in the tables (Ref. [2], Tafel 7.87, 7.88). This value is added
to the profile library. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure:


The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).
The value for wM can be calculated by (Ref.[5] pp.135) :

m M
h b
4
1
w · · =


with b the section width
hm the section height (see figure)


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
313
U sections

For U sections, the value of wM is given in the tables as wM1 and wM2 (Ref. [2], Tafel 7.89). These
values are added to the profile library. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure :


The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).

E sections

The values for wM are calculated for the critical points according to the general approach given in
Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3 and Ref.[8] Part 27.


The critical points for each part are shown as circles in the figure.
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
314
Calculation of the shear stress due to warping

The shear stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[3])

}
= t
s
0
M
m
xs
Ed , w
tds w
t C
M



with Mxs the warping torque (see "Standard diagrams for
warping torque, bimoment and the St.Venant
torsion")
wM the unit warping
Cm the warping constant
t the element thickness

I sections

The shear stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure)


For I sections, we have the following :

A
4
w t b
tds w
M
2 / b
0
M
=
· ·
=
}

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
315
U sections, E sections
Starting from the wM diagram, we calculate the value


}
s
0
M
t ds w

for the critical points.
The shear stress due to warping is calculated in these critical points (see circles in figures)




Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
316
Plastic Check
For doubly symmetric I sections of class 1 and class 2 (plastic check), the interaction formula given
in Ref.[10] is used.

b
tw
tf
h H
y y
z
z


Used variables

Section Properties
A sectional area
b width
H heigth of section
tf flange thickness
tw web thickness
h = H - tf
Aw = 1.05 (h+tf) tw for rolled section
Aw = h tw for welded sections
f f
t b 2 A · · =

A
A
f
f
= o

f w
1 o ÷ = o

Wz,pl plastic section modulus around z axis
Wy,pl plastic section modulus around y axis

Material Properties
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
317
fy,d yield strength
ty,d shear strength

Internal forces
NSd normal force
My,Sd bending moment around y axis
Mz,Sd bending moment around z axis
Mw,Sd bimoment
Vy,Sd shear force in y direction
Vz,Sd shear force in z direction
Mxp,Sd torque due to St. Venant
Mxs,Sd warping torque

Plastic capacities
Npl,Rd = A fy,d
Mz,pl,Rd = Wz,pl fy,d
Vz,pl,Rd = Aw ty,d
d , y
2
w 2
f Rd , pl , xp
2
t
h bt M t
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

My,pl,Rd = Wy,pl fy,d
2
h
M M
Rd , pl , z Rd , pl , w
=

Vy,pl,Rd = Af ty,d
2
h
V M
Rd , pl , y Rd , pl , xs
=


Rd , pl
Sd
N
N
n =

Rd , pl , y
Sd , y
y
M
M
m =

Rd , pl , z
Sd , z
z
M
M
m =

Rd , pl , w
Sd , w
w
M
M
m =

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
318
Rd , pl , y
Sd , y
y
V
V
v =

Rd , pl , z
Sd , z
z
V
V
v =

Rd , pl , xp
Sd , xp
xp
M
M
m =

Rd , pl , xs
Sd , xs
xs
M
M
m =


Shear force reduction





Sign
p=sign ( Mz,Sd x Mw,Sd)



|
|
.
|

\
|
o
÷ ì ÷ o ì = o
w w
s w w s
s
n
p 1 s 4



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
319
Unity checks:

Remark: the values between {} must be > 0.


Standard diagrams for warping torque, bimoment and
the St.Venant torsion

The following 6 standard situations are given in the literature (Ref.[2], Ref.[3]).
The value ì is defined as follows :

m
t
C E
I G
·
·
= ì

with Mx the total torque
= Mxp + Mxs
Mxp the torque due to St. Venant
Mxs the warping torque
Mw the bimoment
IT the torsional constant
CM the warping constant
E the modulus of elasticity
G the shear modulus
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
320
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, local torsional loading Mt







Mx

L
a M
M
L
b M
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=


Mxp for a side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
÷ · = ) x cosh(
) L sinh(
) b sinh(
L
b
M M
t xp

Mxp for b side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
+ ÷ · = ) ' x cosh(
) L sinh(
) a sinh(
L
a
M M
t xp

Mxs for a side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
· = ) x cosh(
) L sinh(
) b sinh(
M M
t xs

Mxs for b side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
÷ · = ) ' x cosh(
) L sinh(
) a sinh(
M M
t xs

Mw for a side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
·
ì
= ) x sinh(
) L sinh(
) b sinh( M
M
t
w

Mw for b side
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
ì
·
ì
= ) ' x sinh(
) L sinh(
) a sinh( M
M
t
w


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
321
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, local torsional loading Mt







Mx

L
a M
M
L
b M
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=


Mxp for a side
|
.
|

\
|
÷
ì
÷ + ì
· = 3 D
L
1 k 2 k b
M M
t xp

Mxp for b side
|
.
|

\
|
÷
ì
÷ ì ÷
· = 4 D
L
1 k a 2 k
M M
t xp

Mxs for a side
3 D M M
t xs
· =
Mxs for b side
4 D M M
t xs
· =
Mw for a side
1 D
M
M
t
w
·
ì
=
Mw for b side
2 D
M
M
t
w
·
ì
=

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
322


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
323
Torsion fixed ends, warping free ends, distributed torsional loading
mt







Mx

2
L m
M
2
L m
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=


Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
+ ÷ ì ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh(
) x
2
L
(
m
M
t
xp

Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh( m
M
t
xs

Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì + ì
÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x sinh( ) x sinh(
1
m
M
2
t
w



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
324
Torsion fixed ends, warping fixed ends, distributed torsional loading
mt







Mx

2
L m
M
2
L m
M
t
xb
t
xa
·
=
·
=


Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
÷ + ÷ ì ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh(
) k 1 ( ) x
2
L
(
m
M
t
xp

Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ÷ ì
÷ ÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x cosh( ) x cosh(
) k 1 (
m
M
t
xs

Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì + ì
÷ ÷ ·
ì
=
) L sinh(
) ' x sinh( ) x sinh(
) k 1 ( 1
m
M
2
t
w


)
2
L
tanh(
2
L
1 k
ì
ì
÷ =

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
325
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, local torsional
loading Mt







Mx

t xa
M M =


Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
÷ · =
) L cosh(
) ' x cosh(
1 M M
t xp

Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
· =
) L cosh(
) ' x cosh(
M M
t xs

Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì
÷ ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) ' x sinh( M
M
t
w



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
326
One end free, other end torsion and warping fixed, distributed
torsional loading mt







Mx

L m M
t xa
· =

Mxp
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ì ì +
+ ì ì ÷ ì ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) x sinh( )) L sinh( L 1 (
) x cosh( L ' x
m
M
t
xp

Mxs
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ì ì +
÷ ì ì ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) x sinh( )) L sinh( L 1 (
) x cosh( L
m
M
t
xs

Mw
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
ì ì ì +
÷ ì ì + ·
ì
=
) L cosh(
) x cosh( )) L sinh( L 1 (
) x sinh( L 1
²
m
M
t
w

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
327
Decomposition of arbitrary torsion line
Since the Scia Engineer solver does not take into account the extra DOF for warping, the
determination of the warping torque and the related bimoment, is based on some standard
situations.

The following end conditions are considered:

- warping free


- warping fixed


This results in the following 3 beam situations :

- situation 1 : warping free / warping free

- situation 2 : warping free / warping fixed


- situation 3 : warping fixed / warping fixed






Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
328
Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3
The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:

- n number of torsion lines generated by a local torsional loading Mtn
- one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt
- one torsion line with constant torque Mt0

The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loadings
Mtn and the distributed loading mt. The value Mt0 is added to the Mxp value.

Decomposition for situation 2

The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:

- one torsion line generated by a local torsional loading Mtn
- one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt

The values for Mxp, Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loading
Mt and the distributed loading mt.

References

[1] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules – Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members
and sheeting
CEN 1996

[2] Stahl im Hochbau
14. Auglage Band I/ Teil 2
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf 1986

[3] Kaltprofile
3. Auflage
Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf 1982

[4] Roik, Carl, Lindner
Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dünnwandiger Stäbe
Verlag von Wilhem ernst & Sohn, Berlin 1972

[5] Dietrich von Berg
Krane und Kranbahnen – Berechnung Konstruktion Ausführung
B.G. Teubner, Stuttgart 1988

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
329
[6] DASt-Richtlinie 016
Bemessung und konstruktive Gestaltung von Tragwerken aus dünnwandigen
kaltgeformten Bauteilen
Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft, Köln 1992

[7] Esa Prima Win
Steel Code Check Manual
SCIA
EPW 3.10

[8] C. Petersen
Stahlbau : Grundlagen der Berechnung und baulichen Ausbildung von Stahlbauten
Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1988

[9] Eurocode 3
Design of steel structures
Part 1 - 1 : General rules and rules for buildings
ENV 1993-1-1:1992, 1992

[10] I. Vayas,
Interaktion der plastischen Grenzschnittgrössen doppelsymmetrischer I-Querschnitte
Stahlbau 69 (2000), Heft 9



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
330
Check of numerical sections

Stress check
The stress calculation for a numerical section is as follows:


with ovm the VonMises stress, the composed stress
otot the total normal stress
ttot the total shear stress
oN the normal stress due to the normal force N
oMy the normal stress due to the bending moment Myy
around y axis
oMz the norma stress due to the bending moment Mzz
around z axis
tVy the shear stress due to shear force Vy in y direction
tVz the shear stress due to shear force Vz in z direction
Ax the sectional area
Ay the shear area in y direction
Az the shear area in z direction
Wy the elastic section modulus around y axis
Wz the elastic section modulus around z axis

z
z
Vz
y
y
Vy
z
zz
Mz
y
yy
My
x
N
Vz Vy tot
Mz My N tot
2
tot
2
tot vm
A
V
A
V
W
M
W
M
A
N
3
= t
= t
= o
= o
= o
t + t = t
o + o + o = o
t + o = o
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Use of diaphragms
Adaptation of torsional constant

See Ref.[1], Chapter 10.1.5., Ref.|2|,3.5 and Ref.|3|,3.3.4..

When diaphragms (steel sheeting) are used, the torsional constant It is adapted for
symmetric/asymmetric I sections, channel sections, Z sections, cold formed U, C , Z sections.

The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms:

12
³ s
I
) t h (
I E 3
C
200 b 125 if
100
b
C 25 . 1 C
125 b if
100
b
C C
s
EI
k C
C
1
C
1
C
1
vorhC
1
G
l
vorhC I I
s
s
k , P
a
a
100 k , A
a
2
a
100 k , A
eff
k , M
k , P k , A k , M
2
2
t id , t
=
÷
· ·
~
< <
(
¸
(

¸

· =
s
(
¸
(

¸

=
=
+ + =
t
+ =
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
0



with l the LTB length
G the shear modulus
vorhC
u
the actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm
C
uM,k the rotational stiffness of the diaphragm
C
uA,k the rotational stiffness of the connection between the diaphragm and the beam
C
uP,k the rotational stiffness due to the distortion of the beam
k numerical coefficient
= 2 for single or two spans of the diaphragm
= 4 for 3 or more spans of the diaphragm
EIeff bending stiffness of per unit width of the diaphragm
s spacing of the beam
ba the width of the beam flange (in mm)
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
332
C100 rotation coefficient - see table
h beam height
t thickness beam flange
s thickness beam web


References

[1] ENV 1993-1-3:1996
Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures
Part 1-3 : General rules
Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting
CEN 1996

[2] E. Kahlmeyer
Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90)
Werner-Verlag, Düsseldorf

[3] Beuth-Kommentare
Stahlbauten
Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
333
Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4, 1.Auflage
Beuth Verlag, Berlin-Köln 1993

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
334
Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB,
THQ sections)
Introduction

For the national codes EC-ENV, EC-EN, NEN6770/6771, DIN18800 and SIA263, special checks are
performed for built-in beams, according to Ref.[1].
Reduction of plastic moment capacity due to plate
bending

bu
e1
e2=bo
bo
tu
0.5 q 0.5 q


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
335
bu
e1
e2=bo
bo
tu
0.5 q 0.5 q
to



bu
e1
bo
tu
0.5 q 0.5 q
e2=0
to


When the lower plate is loaded by q-load (uniform distributed load), the effective area of the loaded
plate (flange) for the calculation of the plastic capacity is reduced as follows :

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
336
- for THQ and IFB beams :



- for SFB beam :

o o u u eff
A A A ¢ + ¢ =


with e1, e2, tu, bu see the figures above
q load on flange, plate (as N/m)
fy yield strength
¸M partial safety factor
¢ see formula
¢u = ¢
¢o analog to ¢u, but with
bu=bo
e1=bo
tu=to
e2=tw



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
337
Plastic interaction formula for single bending and shear
force

The following plastic interaction formula can be used, when single bending around yy-axis My,Sd, in
combination with shear force Vz,Sd, is acting :

y , pl
f m
Rd , z , pl
Sd , z
m
v
Rd , y , pl
Sd , y
W 2
h A
0 . 1
V
V
A
A
M
M
= |
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
· +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|






with My,Sd, Vz,Sd internal forces
Mpl,y,Rd plastic bending capacity around yy axis
Vpl,z,Rd plastic shear capacity in z direction
Av shear area (see figure)
Am = A - | Ao,x - Au,x | (see figure)
hf = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure)
Wpl,y plastic section modulus around yy axis - reduced if necessary


Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
338
Plastic check for plate in bending

The following condition for the plate in bending must be verified:


with e1, e2, tu see figures
q load on flange, plate (as N/m)
= qmax+qmin
ç (Ksi)
q
q q
min max
÷
=
fy yield strength
¸M partial safety factor


0.5 q (1+Ksi) 0.5 q (1-Ksi)



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
339
Stress check for slim floor beams



Normal stress check
At the edges of the bottom plate, the following composed stress check is performed:


Shear stress check in plate
In the middle of the bottom plate, transverse shear stress is checked:

u
min max
M
y 2
x
t
) q , q (
2
3
f
² 3
= t
¸
s t + o

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
340
Torsion check due to unbalanced loading

- for IFB and SFB beams:

12
b Et
EI
GI
EI
h 2 L
L
L
tanh
2
QeL
M
h t b
M
2
3
L
L
L
L
tanh
1
2
QeL
M
I
t M
3
f
3
o o
o
t
o
f k
k
k
max , w
f o o
max , w
max , w
k
k
max , t
t
o max , t
max , t
M
y
max , w max , t
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
± =
= t
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ± =
= t
¸
s t + t


with to, bo see figures
hf = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure)
It torsional constant for complete section
E modulus of Young
G shear modulus
L system length for Lyz
Q,e see figure

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
341
Q
e



- for THQ beams :

2
V
b
e
1
4
qL
Rd , z , pl
f
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
ç ±


with e, bf see figure
hf = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure)
q load on flanges, plate (as N/m)
= qmax+qmin
ç (Ksi)
q
q q
min max
÷
=

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
342
q max q min
bf
e e



References

[1] Multi-Storey Buildings in Steel
Design Guide for Slim Floors with Built-in Beams
ECCS N°83 - 1995



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
343
Effective cross-section properties for lattice
tower angle members
Effective cross-section properties for compressed
lattice tower angle members
The effective cross-section properties shall be based on the effective width beff of the leg. See Ref.[1],
Chapter J.2.3.


b


The effective width shall be obtained from the nominal width of the leg, assuming uniform stress
distribution:

b b
f
235
43 . 0 K
K 4 . 28
t
b
eff
y
c
c
p
p
p
µ =
= c
=
c
ì
= ì
= ì



Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background
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For a rolled angle:

2
p
p
p
p
p
98 . 0
213 . 1
91 . 0
2 213 . 1 91 . 0
0 . 1 91 . 0
ì
= µ ¬ > ì
ì
÷ = µ ¬ s ì <
= µ ¬ s ì


For a cold formed angle:

2
p
p
p
p
p
98 . 0
213 . 1
3
404 . 0
5
213 . 1 809 . 0
0 . 1 809 . 0
ì
= µ ¬ > ì
|
|
.
|

\
|
ì
÷
= µ ¬ s ì <
= µ ¬ s ì

with t the thickness
b the nominal width
fy the yield strength in Mpa


References

[1] EN 50341-1:2001
Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV Part 1: General requirements

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Introduction
Welcome to the Steel Code Check – Theoretical Background. This document provides background information on the code checks according to different national and international regulations.

Version info
Documentation Title Release Revision Steel Code Check – Theoretical Background 2012.0 03/2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... iv
Version info ....................................................................................................................... iv

EC3 – ENV 1993 .................................................................................................................. 2
EC3 – ENV code check ............................................................................................................... 2 Material properties ................................................................................................................... 2 Consulted articles .................................................................................................................... 3 Classification of sections .................................................................................................... 4 Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ............................................... 5 Section properties .............................................................................................................. 5 Bending moment ................................................................................................................ 5 Bending, shear and axial force........................................................................................... 5 Torsion check..................................................................................................................... 5 Built-in beams .................................................................................................................... 6 Compression members ...................................................................................................... 6 Lateral-torsional buckling ................................................................................................... 6 Use of diaphragms ............................................................................................................. 7 Shear Buckling check ........................................................................................................ 7 Shear buckling check for cold formed sections .................................................................. 7 Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling .................................. 8 Bending and axial compression ....................................................................................... 10 Battened compression members ..................................................................................... 10 EC3 – ENV Fire Resistance ...................................................................................................... 12 Fire actions effect Efi ........................................................................................................ 12 Material properties ........................................................................................................... 12 Temperature analysis - Thermal actions .......................................................................... 13 Nominal temperature-time curve ...................................................................................... 13 Net heat flux ..................................................................................................................... 14 Steel Temperature ........................................................................................................... 15 Calculation model ............................................................................................................ 16 Code Check ..................................................................................................................... 16 Supported sections ................................................................................................................... 17 References ................................................................................................................................. 18

EC3 – EN 1993 .................................................................................................................. 19
EC3 – EN Code check ............................................................................................................... 19 Material properties ................................................................................................................. 19 Consulted articles .................................................................................................................. 20 Classification of sections .................................................................................................. 22 Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ............................................. 23 Section properties ............................................................................................................ 23 Bending, shear and axial force......................................................................................... 23 Torsion check................................................................................................................... 24 Built-in beams .................................................................................................................. 24 Compression members .................................................................................................... 24 Lateral-torsional buckling ................................................................................................. 25 Use of diaphragms ........................................................................................................... 30

Combined bending and axial compression ...................................................................... 31 Shear buckling check ....................................................................................................... 31 Battened compression members ..................................................................................... 32 Plate girders with sinusoidal corrugated webs ................................................................. 34 Moments on columns in simple construction.................................................................... 39 Scaffolding ....................................................................................................................... 41 EC3 – EN Fire Resistance ......................................................................................................... 47 Fire actions effect Efi .............................................................................................................. 47 Material properties ................................................................................................................. 48 Temperature analysis - Thermal actions ............................................................................... 48 Nominal temperature-time curve ...................................................................................... 48 Net heat flux ..................................................................................................................... 49 Steel Temperature ................................................................................................................. 50 Calculation model .................................................................................................................. 52 Code Check ........................................................................................................................... 52 EC3 – EN Cold-Formed ............................................................................................................. 53 Consulted articles .................................................................................................................. 53 Material properties ........................................................................................................... 55 Initial Shape ..................................................................................................................... 56 Geometrical Proportions .................................................................................................. 57 Effective Shape ................................................................................................................ 58 Section Checks ................................................................................................................ 64 Stability Checks ............................................................................................................... 76 Use of Diaphragms .......................................................................................................... 80 Special considerations for Purlins .................................................................................... 84 Supported sections ................................................................................................................... 91 References ................................................................................................................................. 92

DIN18800 ........................................................................................................................... 96
DIN18800 Code check ............................................................................................................... 96 Material properties ................................................................................................................. 96 Consulted articles .................................................................................................................. 97 Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 100 Net area properties ........................................................................................................ 100 Plastic interaction formula for RHS section .................................................................... 100 Plastic interaction formula for CHS section .................................................................... 104 Torsion check................................................................................................................. 105 Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 105 Calculation of the buckling length .................................................................................. 106 Torsional buckling .......................................................................................................... 106 Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 107 LTB Check ..................................................................................................................... 108 Combined flexion for check method 2 ............................................................................ 111 Battened compression members ................................................................................... 112 Effective area properties ................................................................................................ 113 Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 114 Shear buckling check with buckling influence ................................................................ 114 Cold formed thin gauge members ....................................................................................... 114 Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 115

References ............................................................................................................................... 116

ONORM B 4300 ............................................................................................................... 118
ONORM B 4300 Code check ................................................................................................... 118 Material properties ............................................................................................................... 119 Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 119 Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 120 References ............................................................................................................................... 121

NEN .................................................................................................................................. 123
NEN6770/6771 Code check..................................................................................................... 123 Material properties ............................................................................................................... 123 Consulted articles ................................................................................................................ 124 Section properties .......................................................................................................... 126 Classification of sections ................................................................................................ 126 Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ........................................... 126 Torsion check................................................................................................................. 127 Built-in beams ................................................................................................................ 127 Buckling length............................................................................................................... 127 Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................................................................... 127 Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................... 128 Battened compression members ................................................................................... 129 Shear buckling check ..................................................................................................... 130 Shear buckling check with buckling influence ................................................................ 130 NEN6072 - Fire Resistance ..................................................................................................... 131 Fire actions effect ................................................................................................................ 131 Material properties ............................................................................................................... 131 Nominal temperature-time curve ......................................................................................... 132 Steel Temperature ............................................................................................................... 132 Calculation model ................................................................................................................ 135 Code Check ......................................................................................................................... 135 Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 136 References ............................................................................................................................... 137

AISC – ASD : 1989 .......................................................................................................... 138
AISC - ASD Code check .......................................................................................................... 138 Classification of sections ..................................................................................................... 140 Section properties ................................................................................................................ 140 Buckling length .................................................................................................................... 140 Flexural Torsional Buckling.................................................................................................. 140 Lateral-torsional buckling ..................................................................................................... 140 Shear buckling check .......................................................................................................... 141 Supported sections ................................................................................................................. 142 References ............................................................................................................................... 142

AISC – LRFD : 2001 ........................................................................................................ 144
AISC - LRFD Code check ........................................................................................................ 144 Classification of sections ..................................................................................................... 146 Section properties ................................................................................................................ 146

............................................................................................................................................................... 174 Lapped Purlin Design .................................... 151 Buckling length ......................................... 180 Compression members ..................................................................... 147 Supported sections .................................................. 155 Dimensional limits ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 149 ANSI/AISC 360-05 Code check ............................................................................................................................................................... 181 References ................................Buckling length ................................................................................................................... 178 Section properties ...... 181 Supported sections ......................................................Additif 80 Code check ....... 176 CM66 ..................................................................................... 180 Plastic coefficient .................................................................................................................................................... 151 Lateral-torsional buckling ..................................................... 151 Supported sections ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 178 CM66 Code check ............................................................................................................................................................................ 156 Effective Widths ................................................................................................. 170 Use of diaphragms ................................................................................................................... 152 References ................................................................................ 147 Shear buckling check ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 157 Tension Members .......................................... 183 ................................................................................................................................................................. 148 ANSI/AISC 360-05:2005 ........... 183 CM66 ...................... 175 References ...................................................................................................... 180 Use of diaphragms ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 152 AISI NAS S100-2007 ................ 151 Section properties .................................................. 149 Classification of sections ...................................... 158 Flexural Members ......................................................................... 182 CM66 ................... 146 Use of diaphragms ........................................................................................................................................ 181 Shear buckling check .................................. 151 Use of diaphragms ......................... 146 Lateral-torsional buckling .................................................................................. 180 Factor kf .............................................................................................. 180 Combined flexion ..................... 147 References ........Additif 80 ......................................................................................... 153 Initial Shape ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 156 Properties of Sections ......................................................................................... 178 Consulted articles ........................................................................................................................... 153 AISI NAS S100-2007 Code check ................................ 151 Shear buckling check ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 167 Combined Compression and Bending ....................................................................................... 158 Compression Members ...................................... 153 Consulted articles ................................................................... 170 nd 2 Order using Appendix 2 ..................................................................................................................... 180 LTB Check ...

....................................... 185 References ....................................................... axial force............................................................................. 186 Consulted articles ................................................................................ 195 Section classification ...... 198 Shear buckling ....Consulted articles ............... 191 Compression member ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 194 SIA263 ................................................................................................................................... 183 Classification of sections ... 198 Torsion check................................................................................. 197 Use of diaphragms ........................................................................................................................... 194 BS5950-1:2000 Code Check ................................................................. 198 Fire actions effect Efi ......................... 186 Material properties ........................................................................ 199 Temperature analysis ..................... 192 References .............................. 200 Calculation model ............. 189 Bending moment ..................................................... 185 BS5950-1:1990 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 191 Shear buckling check ......... 184 Use of diaphragms .................................................. 184 Lateral-torsional buckling ............................. 197 Sections properties ...................................................................................... 198 Stability check .............................................................................................................. 199 Net heat flux ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 191 Supported sections ..................................................................................................................................Thermal actions ................................................. 184 Supported sections ... 195 Material properties ... 201 ................................................................ 199 Steel Temperature ................................. 190 Use of diaphragms ................. 184 Compression members .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 197 Slender cross-section ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 189 Slender cross-section ...................................................................................................................................................................................... shear............................................................................................................................... 199 Nominal temperature-time curve ................................... 192 BS5950-1:2000 ......................................................................................... 201 Code Check .......................................... 198 Built-in beams ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 187 Classification of sections ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 198 Material properties ............................................................... 190 Lateral torsional buckling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 186 BS5950-1:1990 Code Check .......................................... 197 Lateral torsional buckling ............................ 190 Bending........................................................................................................ 195 Consulted articles ........................................................... 184 Section check.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 195 SIA263 Code check ........................................................................................................Fire Resistance............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 189 Section properties .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 198 SIA263 .

.................................................................................. 211 Lateral torsional buckling ...................................................... 206 Lateral torsional buckling .............. 209 The Korean steel code check .......................................................................................................... 224 IS 800 ....................................................... 209 Material properties ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 225 Consulted articles .................................................... 206 Shear buckling check ............................................................................................ 219 Effective cross-section properties for class 3 cross-section .................................. 216 BSK 99 Code check.................. 219 Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling ........ 207 References ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 223 References ................................................. 201 References ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 213 Supported sections .................................................................. 219 Section properties .................................................................................................... 218 Classification of sections ............................................ 225 IS:800 Code check ........................................... 222 Supported sections ........................................................................................................... 219 Section check...................................................... 204 Section properties .................. 219 Compression members ................................................................................ 214 BSK 99 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 214 References .................................. 206 Local stability of compressed members .................................................... 203 The GBJ 17-88 code check ............................................... 202 GBJ 17-88 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 207 Supported sections ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 206 Buckling length........................Supported sections ................................................................................................. 216 Consulted articles ........................................................................ 211 Buckling length.................................................................................................... 212 Combined stresses .......................................................................... 220 Lateral-torsional buckling ........................... 226 ................................................................................................................. 203 Consulted articles ........................................................................................................................ 205 Shear buckling check ...................... 209 Section classification ...................................................... 203 Material properties ........................ 221 Use of diaphragms ......................................................................................................................................................... 225 Classification of sections ................................................................................................................................................................ 222 Shear force ( shear buckling) .............................................................................................................................................. 225 Material properties ................................................................... 213 Shear buckling check ............ 209 Consulted articles ...................................... 206 Buckling curves .......................................................... 208 Korean steel code check .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 210 Section properties ......................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 236 Combined bending and axial compression .................. 235 Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section ................................................. 250 Single Bracing ...... 251 Cross bracing with SBS ................................................................................................. supported by continuous compression diagonal ............................................................................. 242 Continuous compression diagonal........................................... 227 Section check..................................................................................... 235 Compression members ......... 253 Horizontal Bracing ...........................................................................................................................Section properties .................................................... 227 Compression members .................................................. 240 Calculation buckling ratio – general formula.............................................................................................................................................. 231 EAE code check .......................................................... 237 Supported sections .............................................................. 238 Calculation of buckling ratio ..... 249 Leg with intermediate transverse support .................................................... 246 Calculation of the critical Euler force ...................................................................... 230 References ............................................... 237 Shear buckling check ................................................................................................................................................................... 244 Pinned compression diagonal........................... 242 Continuous compression diagonal......... 235 Torsion check..................... 240 Calculation buckling ratios for crossing diagonals ................................................................................................................................................................ 237 References ......................... 232 Material properties ............................................. 227 Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling .................................................................................................... 240 Introduction to the calculation of buckling ratio ..................... 235 Section properties ..... 233 Classification of sections ...... 249 Leg with staggered bracing.............................................................................................................. 253 ......... 227 Lateral-torsional buckling ............................................ 251 Cross bracing ..... 230 Supported sections .......................................................................................................................... supported by pinned compression diagonal ......................... 245 Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements ..... 243 Pinned compression diagonal............................................................... 252 K Bracing ........................................................... supported by continuous tension diagonal .. 246 Definitions ..................................................................... supported by continuous tension diagonal .............................................................................................................................................................................. 250 Single Bracing with SBS (Secondary Bracing System) ..................................................................................................................................... supported by pinned tension diagonal .................................................................................... 246 Calculation buckling ratio for lattice tower members ......................... 235 Built-in beams ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 243 Continuous compression diagonal........................................................................................................................ 236 Lateral-torsional buckling .............................................................................................. 229 Use of diaphragms ............................ 244 Continuous compression diagonal................................................................ 232 Consulted articles ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 248 Leg with symmetrical bracing ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 236 Use of diaphragms .............................................................. supported by continuous compression diagonal .....

........................................... 262 Eigenvalue solution Mcr ..................................................................... 284 Z section ......................................................................... 279 Channel section ..............................................Horizontal Bracing with SBS ................................................................................... 268 Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0 for other supported codes ......... 256 Calculation of moment factors for LTB .......................................................... 286 Cold formed Angle section........................... 262 Introduction to LTBII ........................................... 272 Limitations and Warnings ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 265 Loadings ............ 282 Full circular section .................................................................................. 276 RHS ....................................... 255 Calculation of buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis ............................................................................................................................................ 267 Initial bow imperfection v0 for DIN and ONORM .................................................................. 264 Supported National Codes ...................................................................................................................................................... 254 Discontinuous Cross bracing with horizontal member ....................................................... 280 T section .. 283 Asymmetric I section ..... 258 Moment distribution generated by F load....................... 285 General cold formed section ............................................................................... 275 Data for general section stability check ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 277 CHS ............................................................ 288 Cold formed Channel section ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 262 2 nd Order analysis ................................................................................................... 270 Diaphragms .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 275 Data depending On the profile shape .................................................................. 278 Angle section .......................................... 274 Profile conditions for code check ................................................................................................ 261 LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis ........ 258 Introduction to the calculation of moment factors ..................................................................................................... 273 References .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 264 Supported Sections ................................................................................................................................................ 271 Linked Beams ............................................................ 275 Introduction to profile characteristics ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 269 LTB Restraints ................ 289 .................... 258 Calculation moment factors ........................................... 256 References .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 258 Moment distribution generated by q load ................................................................................................................... 267 Imperfections............... 276 I section .................................................................................................................................... 261 References ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 268 Initial bow imperfection v0 for EC-EN and EAE ...................... 260 Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam .................. 281 Full rectangular section.................

.................................................................................................................................. 331 Adaptation of torsional constant .................................................................. 319 Torsion fixed ends..................................Cold formed Z section ........................................... distributed torsional loading mt ....................................................................................................................................... other end torsion and warping fixed............................ distributed torsional loading mt ............................................................................................................................................ 316 Standard diagrams for warping torque...................................Venant torsion .............................................................................................................. 293 Cold formed C Plus section ......................................................................... 323 Torsion fixed ends......................................................................................................................... 325 One end free......................................................................................... 292 Cold formed C section eaves beam .............. 310 Calculation of the direct stress due to warping ......................................................................................... distributed torsional loading mt ................ 296 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip ....................................................................... 311 Calculation of the shear stress due to warping ......................................................................... 328 References . 305 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 302 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined ................................................................................ 307 Rail type KF ........................................................................ local torsional loading Mt ............................... 330 Use of diaphragms ........... 327 Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3 ......................................... 304 Cold formed IS-Plus section ......................................... 314 Plastic Check .. 326 Decomposition of arbitrary torsion line ...... 295 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips ......................................................................... warping fixed ends................................... 299 Cold formed Sigma Plus section ........................................................................................ 332 Section check for built-in beams (IFB......................................................... 294 Cold formed ZED section............. warping fixed ends............ bimoment and the St....... 303 Cold formed I-Plus section...................................... 321 Torsion fixed ends................ 330 Stress check ..................................................................................................................... 301 Cold formed Sigma Plus section eaves beam .................................................. local torsional loading Mt ..... 337 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 320 Torsion fixed ends..................................................................................... 334 Plastic interaction formula for single bending and shear force ........ 334 Introduction .................................................................................... warping free ends......................................... THQ sections) ............ 324 One end free.......... SFB........................................................................................................................... 308 Rail type KQ ....................................... 291 Cold formed Omega section ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 306 Rail type KA .......................................... other end torsion and warping fixed...................................... local torsional loading Mt ......................................................... 334 Reduction of plastic moment capacity due to plate bending ............................................ 328 Check of numerical sections ........................................ 310 Stress check ......................................................... warping free ends........................ 298 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened .................. 328 Decomposition for situation 2 ............................................ 297 Cold formed Sigma section.. 300 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam ....................... 290 Cold formed C section ............................................................................................. 309 Warping check .............................................. 331 References ...........

............................ 339 Shear stress check in plate.......... 340 References ................................. 339 Torsion check due to unbalanced loading ..................................................................................... 339 Normal stress check ..................................................................... 338 Stress check for slim floor beams .................. 344 ......................................................................................................... 343 References ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 342 Effective cross-section properties for lattice tower angle members................................................. 343 Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower angle members ..Plastic check for plate in bending ........................................................................................................................................................

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 1 .

The average yield strength is determined as follows: 2 . t in mm) t<=40 fy S235 S 235 S275 S 275 S355 S 355 S420 S 420 S460 S 460 235 275 355 420 460 t<=40 fu 360 430 510 520 550 40<t<=100 fy 215 255 335 390 430 40<t<=100 fu 340 410 490 520 550 100<t<=250 fy 175 205 275 100<t<=250 fy 320 380 450 Remark : For cold formed section.2. the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. art.1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Material properties For standard steel grades.) (fy. the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table Remark : For cold formed sections. 1.2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background EC3 – ENV 1993 EC3 – ENV code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . the average yield strength f ya can be used (by setting the proper data flag in the Cross Section input dialog). fu in N/mm².3.1.

4.5.4. 5.5.9. compression (art.5. Section properties 5.5. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. For the stability check. Resistance of cross-sections 5.4. 5. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.3.3. General 5. the beam element is checked according to art.3.6. 5.5. Basis 5. A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for part 5.6. Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis 5.2.4. Tension 5.3.3.5.6. 5.2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background with fyb fu t Ag k the tensile yield strength = fy the tensile ultimate strength the material thickness the gross cross-sectional area is a coefficient depending on the type of forming : k = 0..4.1.4.4.) and the combination of bending.3. for lateral torsional buckling : art. 5.2.6.3. for bending and axial compression : art.. 5.1. The shear buckling resistance is checked using the simple post-critical method from art. The section is checked for tension (art. shear (art. Effects of transverse forces on webs 5.4.4..3. 5.).3. Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section 5. 5. Classification of cross sections 5.4. in the following table. 5.1.).1.4.2.3. shear and axial force (art. The following criteria are considered :    for compression : art.4. Classification 5.5. Compression x (*) x x x (*) x x 3 .). 5. Cross-section requirements when elastic global analysis is used 5.7 for cold rolling k = 0.3.4. and 5. (class 1.3 or 4).5 for other methods of forming the number of 90° bends in the section n Consulted articles The cross-section is classified according to Table 5.3. 5.3.4.

Second moment of inertia 5. Tension field method 5. Transverse forces on webs 5. Intermediate transverse stiffeners 5.9.3.4. Buckling resistance of chords 5.6.5. Bending moment 5.9.3.7.4.5.4. bending moment and axial force 5. Shear 5. Lateral-torsional buckling 5. Welds 5.6.3. shear and axial force 5.6. the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed.5. Bending and axial tension 5.9.4.9.7. Bending. Built-up compression members 5. Design methods 5.4.5. Application 5.3. Bending and axial force 5.6.4. Bending and shear 5.5.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 5.10.5.9. Basis 5.6.1. the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination. Simple post-critical method 5.6.5. So. For each load case/combination.4. Constructional details 5. Bending and axial compression 5. Battened compression members 5.9.2. Buckling resistance of members 5.3.3. Moments and shear due to battening x x x x x(*) x x x x (*) x (*) x (*) x (*) x x x x (*) Classification of sections For each intermediary section.6.9.3. Shear buckling resistance 5.2.9.3.8. However.5.1. The classification can change for each intermediary point. Chord forces ar mid-length 5.4. 4 .3. Interaction between shear force. Compression members 5.6. for non-prismatic sections. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability check. the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section.4.1.6.9.6.6.3.2.

Bending moment 5.2. shear and axial force. For each load case and combination.4. Bending. For angle sections.4. Section properties 5. the most critical effective area properties are saved : Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. the effective area ) is determined and the proper section check is performed.3 : The shear lag effects are neglected . Ref. The most critical check is displayed on the screen.17. 5 . the classification (and if necessary. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform compression. the stability check is performed. shear and axial force The reduced design plastic resistance moment for the interaction of bending. In all other cases the net area properties are not taken into account.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy. With these critical properties. Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis. see chapter 'Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower angle members'. the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary section.5. For each intermediary section. 2 Torsion check For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping. For non-prismatic elements.2.4. is taken from Table 5.2 : The net area properties are only taken into account in the Tension Check in case of lattice tower angle sections with bolted diagonal connections if the LTA functionality has been activated. also for the stability check. The classification (and effective area) can change for each intermediary point. 5. reference is made to the Theoretical Background Bolted Diagonal Connections.3 : The holes for fasteners are neglected. For more information.k). we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'.

part 7 and in particular part 7. 6 . C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB". I+2PL+rail. Annex D.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Built-in beams For built-in beam sections (IFB. SFB.5. I+rail. SFB. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by Mcr   2 EI L 2 z Iw  L²GI t  2 EI z Iz with E G L Iw It Iz the modulus of elasticity the shear modulus the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB) the warping constant the torsional constant the moment of inertia about the minor axis See also Ref. Iw+Iwvar. For the calculation of the moment factors C1. Iw+Ivar. I+2L+rail. 3. for channel sections. The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.1. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. 1.5 For the calculation of the buckling length. proper section checks are performed. Annex F Ref. I+PL+rail. For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis. Haunched sections (I+Ivar. THQ sections)’ Compression members 5.2. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula F. For the other supported sections.7. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio" The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see chapter “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).[5]. taking into account the local plate bending. Lateral-torsional buckling For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric). see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis’. THQ sections). Iwn+rail. Iw+Plvar. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB. RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections.

Iwn+rail. I+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.Rd  sw  t  fy  M0 3 with w fyb fy sw t E fbv M0 M1 the relative web slenderness the basic yield strength the average yield strength the web length the web thickness the modulus of elasticity the shear buckling strength the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is caused by yielding (=1. I+PL+rail. Shear buckling check for cold formed sections See Ref.1) the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is caused by buckling (=1.Rd.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.Rd and the plastic shear resistance Vpl.Rd is given by Vb.[4] 5.Rd is given by Vp l.Rd shall be taken as the lesser of the shear buckling resistance Vb.Rd  sw  t  f bv  M1 The plastic shear resistance Vpl.83  _ f yb  M 0 f y  M1 sw t f yb E  w  0. The shear resistance of the web should be checked if: _  w  0.8 : The shear resistance of the web Vw. I+2L+rail. I+2PL+rail. Shear Buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail.1) 7 .346 The shear buckling resistance Vb.

2.Rd for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be obtained using buckling curve b.[4] 6.Rd and Vpl.Rd is taken as the sum of resistance of each web. The design buckling resistance Nb.3.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The value for fbv is given by : _ w <1.40 fbv 0.48 fyb w 1. the total Vb. where the angle  (teta) is larger than 45° (see figure) The basic yield strength is taken equal to the average yield strength. Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling See Ref.67 _ yb w ² Remarks: For an arbitrary composed section.40 f 0. and with relative slenderness given by : 8 .

[1] 5.T cr.5) the basic yield strength the critical stress the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling the shear modulus the modulus of elasticity the torsion constant of the gross section the warping constant the radius of gyration about yy-axis the radius of gyration about zz-axis the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling the position of the shear center the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis 9 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background with A fyb cr cr.TF G E IT CM iy iz lT y0 ly the ratio Aeff/A (see Ref.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Bending and axial compression When the torsional buckling and/or the torsional-flexural buckling is governing. is applied.5. article 6.2. 10 . the formula (6.[4]. Battened compression members The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member : (1) 2I (2) 2Uo (3) 2Uc Two links (battens) are used.12) from Ref.

SD VG  Vs 2 Va MG  s 4 - section check of single batten. using the internal forces : T  M Vs a h0 2 Vs a 4 For the calculation of Vs. ho a l 11 . using internal forces : N G  N f.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The following additional checks are performed: - buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with N f.Sd section check of single chord. the value of Ms is increased with the value of the internal force Mzz.

jQ k .d. table III. Ea The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength k y.[7].2.  f y .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background EC3 – ENV Fire Resistance Fire actions effect Efi The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi. fy E a .j Af(d) GA 1. and modulus of elasticity kE.  k p . proportional limit kp. It is recommended to use the accidental combination rules.t are taken from the results of the analysis.1 Qk. table 3.1   2. is given by tables in Ref. j  A d (f ) with Gk Qk. The accidental combination is given by  GA G k  1. For cold formed members ky. fy f p . Strength and deformation properties : k y .j characteristic values of permanent actions characteristic value of the (main) variable action characteristic values of the other variable actions design values of actions from fire exposure partial safety factor for permanent actions in the accidental situation combination coefficients Material properties The material properties are depending on the steel temperature. is taken from Ref.  k E . for calculating the internal forces used in the fire resistance check.1 2..[6].5.1Q k .1. 12 .

Section 4. Nominal temperature-time curve The following temperature-time curves can be selected : with t g c time in [min] gas temperature in [°C] the coefficient of heat transfer by convection  ISO 834 curve  external fire curve 13 . See Ref. the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are described.2.[8]. II.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background In the simplified calculation method.[7]. the following default properties are considered to be constant during the analysis: unit mass thermal elongation thermal conductivity a l/l a 7850 kg/m³ 14 x 10 (a-20) 45 W/mK -6 Temperature analysis .Thermal actions In this part. and Ref.2.

c   n .c h net.625] = g gas temperature in [°C] surface temperature of member in [°C] coefficient of heat transfer by convection 14 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background  hydrocarbon curve  smoldering fire curve during 21 minutes.d hnet.r the net heat flux the convective heat flux the radiative heat flux factor depending on NAD [1.r with hnet. followed by the standard ISO 834 curve Net heat flux h net.0] with  res f m r m c configuration factor [1.0] factor depending on NAD [1.0] resultant emissivity = f m emissivity related to fire compartment = [0.800] emissivity related to surface material = [0.r n.d   n .c hnet.r h net.c n.

t  with Am / V h net.t  0.t in an insulated steel member during a time interval t with Ap V ca cp dp t a p a. we refer to the NEN specifications.t g.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Steel Temperature The increase of temperature a. Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.t in an insulated steel member with intumescent coating.d t c a a Am V ca hnet.t p the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m] the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m] the specific heat of steel [J/kgK] the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK] the thickness of the fire protection material [m] the time interval [seconds] The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds the unit mass of steel [kg/m³] the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³] the steel temperature at time t the ambient gas temperature at time t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK] The value a.0 For the increase of temperature a.t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval t a . 15 .d t a the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m] the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m] -1 The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m the specific heat of steel [J/kgK] the net heat flux per unit area [W/m²] the time interval [seconds] The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds the unit mass of steel [kg/m³] The increase of temperature a.t g.

2) : art.2.2. resistance for compression members (class 1.2.4.2.5.2. 4.5.1 resistance for compression members (class 1.t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e. resistance for members (class 1. critical temperature : art.5.d. 16 .5. 4. The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in the temperature/time domain. From this critical temperature.d is computed. critical temperature : art. For each member.2.2 or 3) : art.3. 4.4.3. III.3. 4. III. 4.5.4.g. resistance for members (class 4) : art.2) : art. Torsional buckling and shear buckling are not considered. strength after 45 min).5. resistance for beams (class 1.6.5.2. the classification of the cross section. resistance for members (class 1. In the temperature/time domain. resistance for tension members : art.2 or 3) : art.4. resistance for beams (class 1. ECCS Model Code on Fire Engineering resistance for tension members : art. the fire resistance time t fi.2. Code Check The section and stability checks (buckling.ECCS N° 111'. resistance for beams (class 3) : art. III. III.2.2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation model The calculation can be performed in 2 domains : strength domain temperature/time domain In the strength domain. III. the strength Rfi..7. III.2.3.3. The following checks are executed : EC3-1-2 : classification of cross section : art.5. III. the section check and the stability check are performed. lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the regulations given in 'ENV 1993-1-2:1995' and/or 'Model Code on Fire Engineering . the critical steel temperature cr.3) subject to bending and compression : art. resistance for beams (class 3) : art.3. 4.8.2.5.3) subject to bending and compression : art.d is calculated (the time domain).3.

17 . HEA.) Rectangular Hollow Section Circular Hollow Section Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Z section Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ".Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL Z RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. HEB. I Classification Section check class 1 Section check class 2 Section check class 3 Section check class 4 Stability check class 1 Stability check class 2 Stability check class 3 Stability check class 4 Shear buckling check x x x x x x x x x x RHS x x x x x x x x x CHS x x x x L x U x T x PPL x RS x Z (1)  x O (1) COM (1) NUM (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default. …. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

Actions on structures exposed to fire ENV 1991-2-2:1995 2 3 [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] 18 .N° 65. 1994 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .Structural fire design ENV 1993-1-2:1995. Faculté des Sciences Appliquées.2 : General rules . 1988 ENV 1993-1-3:1996 Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures Part 1-3 : General rules Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting CEN 1996 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background References 1 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .N° 111 May 2001 Eurocode 1 Basis of design and actions on structures Part 2-2 : Actions on structures . 1992 Essentials of Eurocode 3 Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building ECCS .1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1. Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg . 1991 R. 1995 Model Code on Fire Engineering ECCS .1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992.

1.) Within the material properties the rules for reduction of the yield strength in function of the thickness can be edited. the reductions of the yield strength in function of the thickness are not applied. table 3. the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the thickness of the element (see Ref.1: General rules and rules for buildings EN 1993-1-1:2005 Corrigendum EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2006 Corrigendum EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009 Material properties For standard steel grades. Remark: For cold formed sections. 19 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background EC3 – EN 1993 EC3 – EN Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in: Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .1.

2.2.2.3 Tension 6. For I sections. 6.10.7 Torsion 6.2.: the section is checked for tension (art. 6.2. shear and axial force 6. The out-of-balance loading is checked.6. The stability check is taken from art.).3. 6. 6.2.).6. Ultimate limit states 6.2.) and battened compression members (art. torsion (art. combined bending and axial compression (art. lateral torsional buckling (art. 6. the local plate bending is taken into account for the plastic moment capacity and the bending stresses in the section.1.10 Bending. 6. shear (art.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Consulted articles The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in "Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures . Chapter 5.2.5.1 Uniform members in compression 6.2. EN 1993-1-1 5. 6.3. Basis 5.2.2.3.2.5 Bending moment 6.).4.1 General 6.EN 1993-1-1:2005".2.1.Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings . Chapter 4. Resistance of cross-sections 6. General 6. The shear buckling is checked according to EN 1993-1-5:2006.3.6.4 Compression 6.. 6.2.9 Bending and axial force 6.5 Classification of cross section 5.4 . A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table.5.6 Shear 6.2.).5.1.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression x x x(*) x x x x x(*) x x x x(*) x x(*) (*) x x 20 . 6. The cross-sections are classified according to Table 5. For integrated beams.2.3.).4). A check for critical slenderness and torsion moment is also included.3.2.8. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. according to prEN 1993-1-5:2003.3.) and combined bending.3.). Buckling resistance of members 6. U sections and cold formed sections warping can be considered.2.). Classification 6.2. bending (art. shear and axial force (art.2 Uniform members in bending 6.2.3.2.2 Section properties 6.9.3.6.2. The stress check is taken from art. compression (art.2. For class 4 sections (slender sections) the effective section is calculated in each intermediary point.7. 6. art.: the beam element is checked for buckling (art. All classes of cross-sections are included. 6.8 Bending and shear 6. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following chapters. and art.

5.4.3.1.3.4. Design resistance 5. Basis 5.3.3.1.1.4. bending moment and axial force x x x x x x x 21 . Plate elements without longitudinal stiffeners 5.3 Battened compression members Annex A:Method 1:Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in 6.(4) x x EN 1993-1-3 6. Shear force 6.1.1.4.4 Uniform built-up compression members 6. Contribution from webs 5. Axial compression 6. Verification 7.2.1. Torsional moment x x x x EN 1993-1-5 4.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 6. Interaction between shear force.6.2. Axial tension 6.3. Resistance to shear 5.5.1 General 6. Contribution from flanges 5.(4) Annex B:Method 2:Interaction factors kij for interaction formula in 6.3.

for class 1. the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section. in case of bending combined with a tensile axial force the crosssection is less subjected to compression thus leading to an  value smaller than 0.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Classification of sections For each intermediary section. Note that only sections on the actual member are used so in case the system length spans multiple members. The classification according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 5. The classification can change for each intermediary point. only the sections of the actual member are used to determine the critical classification.2 is done using the general formulation for ‘parts subjected to bending and compression’. depending on the geometry of the section the cross-section is less subjected to compression thus leading to an  value smaller than 0. This in turn leads to higher classification limits than the case for ‘part subject to bending’. For example. all sections in the Ly and Lz system lengths of the buckling system are checked and the worst classification is used as the critical. For each load case/combination.5. in case of an asymmetrical section in bending. To determine this critical classification.5. For non-prismatic sections. For example. - Specifically for sheet welded Iw and Iwn cross-sections the weld size as inputted in the crosssection is accounted for in the classification as follows: With: Hw a Web height Weld size 22 . the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed. for class 1. This in turn leads to higher classification limits than the case for ‘part subject to bending’. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability check since stability effects are related to the whole member and not to a single cross-section. In this way the beneficial effect of tension is also accounted for.

Ref. This is used specifically for the following cross-sections: Angle section (Form code 4) U-section (Form code 5) T-section (Form code 6) Asymmetric I-section (Form code 101) In case these sections are classified as class 1 or 2 and no normal force is present the combined interaction is checked according to formula (6.[11] specifies an interaction formula for CHS sections. For each load case and combination.9.41) is only executed for I-sections. the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary section. Table 5. the classification (and if necessary. Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis. However.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy. the stability check is performed.41) with Alpha and Beta set to 1.2.1 formula (6. The classification (and effective area) can change for each intermediary point. the most critical effective area properties are saved : Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. In addition for CHS sections the resultant shear force and resultant moment are determined. full rectangular and RHS sections since Eurocode only gives formulas to reduce the plastic bending resistance of these sections in case of a normal force. The unity check then becomes the following: Plastic Interaction for other sections By default the plastic combined interaction check according to EN 1993-1-1 article 6. 23 . For non-prismatic elements.17. Section properties The net area properties are not taken into account. The shear lag effects are neglected. the effective area ) is determined and the proper section check is performed. The most critical check is displayed on the screen. With these critical properties. shear and axial force Plastic Interaction for CHS The 2009 correction sheet to EN 1993-1-1 Ref. The moment resistance is determined taking into account this resultant shear force. For each intermediary section. This formula however does not include the influence of shear. 15 specifies the full interaction formula including also shear. Bending.k). in case there is no normal force. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform compression. no reduction of the plastic bending resistance for normal force is needed and thus the plastic interaction can be used also for other cross-sections. also for the stability check.00.

2. proper section checks are performed. In case the cross-section of the member is not listed in this table. Compression members For the calculation of the buckling length. THQ sections).2 all generated sections will receive the user inputted values of the buckling curves of the first section in the span. we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio" The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see chapter “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”). Built-in beams For built-in beam sections (IFB. For non-prismatic members with cross-sections that are not listed in Table 6. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB. taking into account the local plate bending. we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'. THQ sections)’. SFB. SFB. Buckling curves are determined according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 6. the buckling curves are taken from the user inputted values in the cross-section properties.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Torsion check For the cross section check including torsion and warping. 24 .

For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis. I+PL+rail. Circular hollow sections (CHS) are taken as non-susceptible to Lateral Torsional Buckling.00. Iw+Plvar. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. and Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS). For any other section. the elastic critical moment for Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mcr is given by: With E G L Iw It Iz C1 Modulus of elasticity Shear modulus Length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= l LTB) Warping constant Torsional constant Moment of inertia about the minor axis Moment factor which by default is taken as 1. I+rail. the elastic critical moment for Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mcr is given by the general formula F. Iw+Ivar. Iwn+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. 25 . 4. Within the Steel setup it can be set to use the calculated value of C1 instead of 1.2.00.  With: h b Height of RHS section Width of RHS section Relative slenderness for weak axis flexural buckling  Haunched sections (I+Ivar. I+2PL+rail. I+2L+rail.7.[9] pp. for channel sections. part 7 and in particular part 7. Rectangular hollow sections are classified as non-susceptible to Lateral Torsional Buckling if the following condition is fulfilled (Ref.119). see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis’. 10.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Lateral-torsional buckling For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric). See also Ref. Annex F Ref. Iw+Iwvar.

[28]. C2 and C3 The coefficients C1.[9].[9].[9] tables 63 and 64 For all cases the factor C3 is taken from ECCS 119 Annex B Ref.[28] are overruled by the values from ECCS 119 Annex B Ref. is taken for the calculation of the factors C1 and C2. The actual moment distribution is compared with several standard moment distributions. Serna By default the method according to ECCS 119/Galea is applied. ENV 1993-1-1 Annex F When this setting is chosen. These standard moment distributions are moment lines generated by a distributed q load. the moment factors are determined according to ECCS 119 Annex B Ref. Point Loading In case of Point loading the coefficients C1 and C2 are calculated using tables 5-8 of Galea Ref.00 the C1 and C2 values determined from Galea Ref. Yong. Linear Moment In case of a linear moment diagram the C1 coefficient is determined using formula (301) of ECCS 119 Annex B Ref. a nodal F load. The standard moment distribution which is closest to the actual moment distribution.[9] tables 63 and 64. Line Loading In case of Line loading the coefficients C1 and C2 are calculated using tables 1-4 of Galea Ref.[28] which in fact also gives the tabulated values of those figures as well as an extended range. ECCS 119/Galea When this setting is chosen. the moment factors are determined according to ENV 1993-1-1 Annex F Ref. A double interpolation is used for intermediate values. The C3 value is determined based on the case of which the C1 value most closely matches the table value. The figures given in this reference for C1 and C2 in case of combined loading originate from Ref. C2 and C3 can be calculated according to three different methods: ENV 1993-1-1 Annex F ECCS 119/Galea Lopez. A double interpolation is used for intermediate values. The following paragraphs give information on these methods.[10].Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Determination of the moment factors C1. or where the moment line is maximum at the start or at the end of the beam. Detailed information can be found in chapter "Calculation of moment factors for LTB". In case k differs from 1. 26 .[28]. The coefficient C2 is taken as zero in this case.

5 * tt – 0.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The table for C3 uses the value f which is taken as 0 by default. This method differentiates between ‘warping prevented’ and ‘warping free’ at the fixed end. This method uses the value f which is calculated as specified above. The cross-section is an I-section (Form code 1) or Asymmetric I-section (Form code 101). These coefficients are used only in case the following conditions are met: The member concerns a cantilever.t Form Code 101: H – 0. A cantilever is defined as a member at the end of a buckling system which has free ends for both buckling about the y-y and z-z axis. For asymmetrical I-sections (Form code 101) f is calculated as follows: Ifc and Ift concern the moments of inertia of the compression ( c ) and tension ( t ) flange about the minor axis. This method uses the coefficient which is defined as follows: With: L E G Iz It hs System length for LTB Modulus of Young Shear modulus Inertia about the weak axis Torsion constant Distance defined as follows: Form Code 1: H . In addition. C2 and C3 for I-section cantilevers. For this method f should be within the following range:  When this is not the case f is set to the respective limit and a warning is given. I-section Cantilevers ECCS 119 Annex B Ref. This setting is taken from the buckling system. the LTB length should correspond to the full system length of the buckling system. For this method f should be within the following range:  When this is not the case f is set to the respective limit and a warning is given.5 * tb 27 .[9] tables 65 to 68 give values for C1.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background should be within the following range: When this is not the case is set to the respective limit and a warning is given. In addition this method should be used in combination with k equal to 2.00 and kw equal to 1.00 When this is not the case an additional warning is given. 28 .

The coefficient C1 is calculated as follows: With: k1 k2 M1. Yong. These moments are determined by dividing the beam into 10 parts (11 sections) and interpolating between these sections. Serna When this setting is chosen. Yong.  This method is only supported in case both k and kw equal 0.50 or 1. M2. M4. M3. M5 Taken equal to kw Taken equal to kw The moments My determined on the buckling system in the given sections as shown on the above figure. the moment factors are determined according to Lopez. When using this method the coefficients C2 and C3 are set to zero.[29].Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Lopez. Serna Ref.00 29 . Mmax The maximal moment My along the LTB system.

kc can be determined from C1 as follows Ref.3 the correction factor kc can be determined in two ways: By default kc is taken from Table 6. 30 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Modified design rule for LTB of Channel sections In case this setting is activated within the Steel Setup.[30]: Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'. the reduction factor for Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Channel sections is determined according to Ref. More specifically the calculation is done as follows: This Modified design rule is applied only in case the following conditions are met: The section concerns a Channel section (Form Code 5) The General Case is used for LTB (Not the Rolled and Equivalent Welded Case) 15 <= Lltb/h <= 40 (with Lltb the LTB length and h the cross-section height) Correction factor kc In case Lateral-Torsional Buckling curves for the ‘Rolled and equivalent welded’ case are used according to EN 1993-1-1 article 6.3.2.[22].6 Alternatively.

Rectangular hollow sections are classified as non-susceptible to torsional deformations if the following condition is fulfilled (Ref. The value Mz. I+2PL+rail.00 are classified as non-susceptible to torsional deformations.62) is taken as the minimum of z and TF.Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the weak axis in the member. Interaction Method 1 – Annex A For Czz the corrected formula given in correction sheet EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009 Ref. I+2L+rail.119).[9] pp. For non-prismatic sections. I+rail. I+PL+rail.[11] is used:   Interaction Method 2 – Annex B Doubly symmetric I sections which have a reduction factor for Lateral Torsional Buckling LT equal to 1.Ed and Mz. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Combined bending and axial compression For prismatic members the value My. Circular hollow sections are classified as non-susceptible to torsional deformations.Ed are the concurrent bending moments for each intermediary section. 31 . Iwn+rail. the values My.  When Torsional(-Flexural) buckling is governing the z value in equation (6.Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the strong axis in the member.  With: h b Height of RHS section Width of RHS section Relative slenderness for weak axis flexural buckling  Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail.

Ed VEd 2 V a M G  Ed 4 VG  With: Nch. cold-formed pair sections are not supported.1 and 6. Battened compression members are evaluated according to EN 1993-1-1 article 6.1 using the following internal forces: N G  N ch.1 & 6.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Battened compression members The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member: (1) 2I (2) 2Uo (3) 2Uc  This specifically concerns hot rolled sections i. The following additional checks are performed: Section check of chord as beam in field between battens This check is executed according to articles 6.4.3.4.e.9.4.3. For U-sections always an elastic interaction is made. 32 . Two links (battens) are used.70) Distance between battens For I-sections a classification is made which thus supports both an elastic or plastic interaction.69) Shear force in the built-up member according to formula (6.Ed VEd a Chord force according to formula (6.2.

70) Distance between battens Distance between centroids of chords ho a l 33 .3.2.Ed.2 & 6.1 & 6.6 using the following forces: T  M With: VEd a h0 2 VEd a 4 VEd a h0 Shear force in the built-up member according to formula (6. Section check of single batten An elastic section check of a single batten is executed according to articles 6.3.4.2.1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Buckling check of chord This concerns a weak axis buckling check of a single chord according to articles 6.3. 6.4.9.1.1 using chord force Nch.

The following angles are defined: α = the slope of the lower chord against the upper chord β = the angle between the centre line and chords. These chord forces are still parallel to the member axis while the shear force is orthogonal to the axis. The shear force Vz is decomposed into a corrugation-parallel component V* and an axis-parallel component N(V)*.[16].[33]. The corrugations are taken to be perpendicular to the upper flange.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Plate girders with sinusoidal corrugated webs Plate girders with sinusoidal corrugated webs (“SIN beams”) are covered in EN 1993-1-5 Annex D. The dimensioning of corrugated web girders is executed for the in plane effects NEd.Ed.Ed and My. The check is executed for sheet welded cross-sections of type Iw c and Iwn c. The method given in this chapter is specified in Ref.ug are found by transformation.og and N. Transformation of internal forces For every point of the plate girder the chord forces N. Background information can be found in Ref. 34 . Vz.

ug Area of the upper flange Area of the lower flange Web height Thickness of the upper flange Thickness of the lower flange From the chord forces the chord-parallel components and the corrugation-parallel components are determined.steg t.ug H.og t. The chord forces can now be determined as follows: With: A.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background N(V)* can be added directly to the calculated normal force N.og A. For the upper chord this becomes: For the lower chord the following intermediate step is used: The actual force in the lower chord is then: The actual component of the shear force can then be written as: 35 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The chord forces Nog* and Nug* are now known.4. By summation of the V* and V(Nog)* and V(Nug)* components the total shear force is obtained. Resistance of sinusoidal corrugated web girders The normal force and bending moment are taken by the flanges while the shear force is taken by the corrugated web. To avoid local buckling the slenderness is limited to 0. By substituting this into the formula for the slenderness the following limit is obtained for the width: For a sinusoidal corrugated web member the total flange width thus becomes: The resistance for local buckling can then be written out as: NRd.748. Flanges For the flanges the following limits are checked: Yielding Local buckling Global buckling Yielding NRd.local = b * tf * fy / M0 36 .yield With: bf tf fy M0 = bf * tf * fy / M0 Flange width Flange thickness Yield strength Partial safety factor Local buckling Local buckling of the compression flange is checked according to EN 1993-1-5 article 4.

3.g. According to Ref.2: Where c is taken as the lesser of the reduction factors for local buckling c.[34] it was found by testing and FEM that no local buckling occurs for all actually produced beams with sinusoidal corrugated webs.2.l and global buckling c.6 The design value can then be written out as: NRd.g needs to be accounted for.global With: M1 = NRk / M1 Partial safety factor Web For the web the shear resistance is determined according to EN 1993-1-5 Annex D article D2. Therefore only the reduction factor for global buckling c.4: This is written out to the following resistance for the compression flange: With: b t fy E Lc kc Flange width Flange thickness Yield strength Modulus of Young Length between lateral restraints (LTB length) Correction factor according to EN 1993-1-1 Table 6. 37 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Global buckling Global buckling of the compression flange (Lateral-Torsional Buckling) is checked according to EN 1993-1-1 article 6.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background With: fy E  tw hw Iz Yield strength Modulus of Young Poisson ratio Web thickness Web depth Second moment of area of one corrugation of length w. calculated as: a3 Height of a sinus wave Taken as 40 mm for tw < 3 mm Taken as 43 mm for tw ≥ 3 mm w s Length of the projection of a half wave Unfolded length of a half wave Taken as 178 mm for tw < 3 mm Taken as 182 mm for tw ≥ 3 mm 38 .

e. These two connected beams must have the same X-axis direction of their LCS. This method is intended for braced frames with nominally pinned joints. Gable column or Secondary column The column is uniform i.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Moments on columns in simple construction This NCCI presents a method for determining the moments on columns in simple construction due to the eccentricity of the beam-to-column joints. - Additional moments When the above conditions are satisfied the additional moments are calculated in the following way: With: Rb1. There can maximally be two connected beams in the same plane in the same node. does not have arbitrary sections or haunches Only connected beams with structural type Beam or Rafter are accounted for.Ed Shear force in the considered plane in the connected beam at the specified distance Profile height for an I-section Profile height or width for an RHS-section h tw Web thickness for an I-section 39 . Conditions In case the setting is activated in the Steel Setup the additional moments will be calculated on columns in which the following conditions are satisfied: The column cross-section concerns an I-section (Form code 1) or RHS section (Form code 2) The column has structural type Column.[31] and [32]. The method is detailed in Ref. In addition these beams should have a hinge at the side where they are connected to the column.

In case however an actual member eccentricity is defined on the column member the above procedure will not be used since additional moments will already be generated during the analysis. when the moments may be shared equally.5. except where the ratio of the stiffnesses (I/L) does not exceed 1.  The simplified procedure given in this chapter allows to account for eccentricities without specifically adding these eccentricities in the calculation model. 40 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The distribution of the additional moments to the upper and lower column sections is carried out in proportion to their stiffness. This is illustrated on the following picture: With: MU ML IU IL LU LL Distributed moment to the upper column section Distributed moment to the lower column section Inertia in the considered plane of the upper column section Inertia in the considered plane of the lower column section System length in the considered plane of the upper column section System length in the considered plane of the lower column section These additional moments are then added to the sections in the column just above and just below the connected beam.

3. However.2. The following paragraphs give detailed information on these checks. the EN 12811-1 only gives an interaction equation in case of a low shear force. The interaction equations are summarised as follows: Conditions Interaction for tubular member and and and and 41 .[23].Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Scaffolding The scaffolding member and coupler check are implemented according to EN 12811-1 Ref. Since the EN 12811-1 is based entirely on DIN 4420-1 Teil 1 Ref. The check is executed according to Equation 9 given in EN 12811-1 article 10.3.[26] the interaction formulas according to Tabelle 7 of DIN 4420-1 Teil 1 are applied in case of a large shear force. Scaffolding member check for tubular members The check is executed specifically for circular hollow sections (Form code 3) and Numerical sections in case the proper setting is activated in the Steel Setup.

[25] & 12811 Ref. 42 . In case these conditions are not set the default EN 1993-1-1 check should be applied instead.[23] the scaffolding check for tubular nd members assumes the use of a 2 order analysis including imperfections.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background With: M V Npld Vpld Mpld A Wel Wpl N Vy Vz My Mz fy Area of the cross-section Elastic section modulus Plastic section modulus Normal force Shear force in y direction Shear force in z direction Bending moment about the y axis Bending moment about the z axis Yield strength of the material Safety factor taken as M0 of EN 1993-1-1  As specified in EN 12810 Ref.

The interaction check of the couplers is executed according to EN 12811-1 article 10.[23] are provided by default within Scia Engineer.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Scaffolding coupler check The scaffolding couplers according to EN 12811-1 Annex C Ref.3. The interaction equations are summarised as follows: Coupler type Right angle coupler Interaction equation Friction sleeve With: Fsk Characteristic Slipping force Taken as Nxk and Vzk of the coupler properties 2Fsk = Nxk + Vzk Fpk MBk N Vy Vz My Characteristic Pull-apart force Taken as Vyk of the coupler properties Characteristic Bending moment Taken as Myk of the coupler properties Normal force Shear force in y direction Shear force in z direction Bending moment about the y axis Safety factor taken as M0 of EN 1993-1-1 for steel couplers Safety factor taken as M1 of EN 1999-1-1 for aluminium couplers 43 .5.3.

specific manufacturer couplers are provided within Scia Engineer.[35]. Z-8.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Manufacturer couplers In addition to the scaffolding couplers listed above. The interaction checks of these couplers are executed according to the respective validation reports.22208 Ref. Cuplock The cuplock coupler which connects a ledger and a standard is described in Zulassung Nr. The interaction equations are summarised as follows: Cuplock Coupler Interaction 1 Interaction equation Interaction 2 With: Nxk Myk Mxk N My Mx Nv  Taken from the coupler properties Taken from the coupler properties Taken from the coupler properties Normal force in the ledger Bending moment about the y axis Torsional moment about the x axis Normal force in a connecting vertical diagonal Angle between connecting vertical diagonal and standard Safety factor taken as M0 of EN 1993-1-1 for steel couplers Safety factor taken as M1 of EN 1999-1-1 for aluminium couplers 44 .

2264 Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Layher Variante II & K2000+ The Layher coupler which connects a ledger and a standard is described in Zulassung Nr. Z-8.R.R.[36].d = Mxk / With Mxk taken from the coupler properties 45 .d = Myk / With Myk taken from the coupler properties MT.d = Nxk / With Nxk taken from the coupler properties My. Both Variante II and Variante K2000+ are provided. Layher Coupler Interaction 1 Interaction equation Variante II: Variante K2000+: Interaction 2 With: NR.

30 cm for Variante K2000+ = 5.d = Vzk / With Vzk taken from the coupler properties Normal force in the ledger This index indicates a tensile force Shear force in y direction Shear force in z direction Bending moment about the y axis Torsional moment about the x axis Normal force in a connecting vertical diagonal Angle between connecting vertical diagonal and standard = 2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Vz.7 cm for Variante II and Variante K2000+ = 1.75 cm for Variante II = 3.R.41 cm for Variante K2000+ Safety factor taken as M0 of EN 1993-1-1 for steel couplers Safety factor taken as M1 of EN 1999-1-1 for aluminium couplers N (+) Vy Vz My Mx Nv  e eD  46 .26 cm for Variante II = 1.

It is recommended to use the accidental combination rules.l Qk.l+ 2.i Ad 1. The accidental combination is given by (see EN 1990 – Ref[5]) Eq.j + P + Ad+ (1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background EC3 – EN Fire Resistance The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .l characteristic value of permanent action j relevant representative value of prestressing action characteristic value of leading variable action l characteristic value of accompanying variable action i design value of the accidental action combination coefficients 47 . for calculating the internal forces used in the fire resistance check.l is done by the user.j P Qk.d. with Gk.i The choice between 1.l 2. Default is 1.2 : General rules – Structural fire design EN 1993-1-2:2005 Corrigendum EN 1993-1-2:2005/AC:2005 Corrigendum EN 1993-1-2:2005/AC:2009 Fire actions effect Efi The design effects of actions for the fire situation Efi. 6.l)Qk.t are taken from the results of the analysis.l or 2.iQk.11b Gk.l.l or 2.

and Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Material properties The material properties are depending on the steel temperature. See Ref. the following default properties are considered to be constant during the analysis : unit mass thermal elongation thermal conductivity a l/l a 7850 kg/m³ 14 x 10 (a-20) 45 W/mK -6 Temperature analysis .[7]. For cold formed members ky. table III. fy E a .[7]. Ea The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength k y.5. Section 3. and modulus of elasticity kE. fy f p .  k p . the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are described.  f y . II. is given by tables in ref.2. In the simplified calculation method.. Nominal temperature-time curve The following temperature-time curves can be selected : with t g c time in [min] gas temperature in [°C] the coefficient of heat transfer by convection 48 .[8].2.  k E . table 3.1.2. is taken from Ref. proportional limit kp. Strength and deformation properties : k y .[6].Thermal actions In this part.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background  ISO 834 curve  external fire curve  hydrocarbon curve  smoldering fire curve during 21 minutes.r the net heat flux the convective heat flux the radiative heat flux 49 .c hnet. followed by the standard ISO 834 curve  user defined temperature-time curve Net heat flux hnet.d  hnet.c  hnet.r with hnet.d hnet.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background with  res f m r m c configuration factor [1.00] emissivity related to surface material = [0.0] resultant emissivity = f m emissivity related to fire compartment = [1.0] The correction factor is calculated for I sections only The increase of temperature a.d t ca  a with Am V ca hnet.d t a ksh the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m] the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m] -1 The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m the specific heat of steel [J/kgK] the net heat flux per unit area [W/m²] the time interval [seconds] The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds the unit mass of steel [kg/m³] correction factor for the shadow effect [1.70] = g gas temperature in [°C] surface temperature of member in [°C] coefficient of heat transfer by convection Steel Temperature The increase of temperature a.t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval t  a .t  k sh Am / V hnet.t in an insulated steel member during a time interval t 50 .

0 For the increase of temperature a. 51 .t in an insulated steel member with intumescent coating.t g.t p the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m] the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m] the specific heat of steel [J/kgK] the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK] the thickness of the fire protection material [m] the time interval [seconds] The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds the unit mass of steel [kg/m³] the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³] the steel temperature at time t the ambient gas temperature at time t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK] The value a.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background with Ap V ca cp dp t a p a. we refer to the NEN specifications.t g.t  0. Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.

the fire resistance time t fi.d.5. Code Check The section and stability checks (buckling.d is computed.3.g..4. From this critical temperature. the strength Rfi.1 resistance for compression members (class 1. 4.2. the critical steel temperature cr. the section check and the stability check are performed.2) : art. lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the regulations given in 'EN 1993-1-2:2005'.3.2. resistance for tension members : art. 4. Torsional buckling and shear buckling are not considered. 4. resistance for members (class 1. resistance for beams (class 3) : art.3. For each member.2.d is calculated (the time domain).2. The following checks are executed : classification of cross section : art.3. check for class 4 sections : Annex E 52 .2. the classification of the cross section.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation model The calculation can be performed in 2 domains : strength domain temperature/time domain In the strength domain. In the temperature/time domain. resistance for beams (class 1.2.3.2 or 3) : art.t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e. The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in the temperature/time domain.4.2.2. 4. strength after 45 min). 4.3) subject to bending and compression : art.2.3.

Article 1 2 3 3.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background EC3 – EN Cold-Formed The members are checked according to the regulations given in: Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .2 5 5. The articles marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following paragraphs.1 3. The articles marked with “x” are consulted.1 Title Introduction Basis of design Materials General Structural Steel Structural Analysis Influence of rounded corners X(*) X X(*) X X 53 .5: Plated Structural elements EN 1993-1-5:2006 Corrigendum EN 1993-1-5:2006/AC:2009 Consulted articles An overview for the used articles is given in the following table.3: Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting EN 1993-1-3:2006 Corrigendum EN 1993-1-3:2006/AC:2009 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .

1.3 Plane elements with edge or intermediate stiffeners 5.5. liner trays and sheetings Beams restrained by sheeting 10.3 Torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling 6.6 Torsional Moment 6.1.1.2 Calculation methods 10.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 5.2 Axial Tension 6.2 Plane elements with edge stiffeners 5.9 Combined Compression and Bending 6.1 Elastic and elastic-plastic resistance with yielding at the compressed flange 6.1 Lateral spring stiffness X(*) X(*) X X X(*) X X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X X(*) X(*) X 54 .1 General 10.5 Geometrical proportions Structural modelling for analysis Local and distortional buckling 5.1.2 Buckling Resistance 6.1.3.1.5.11 Combined Bending moment and local load or support reaction 6.5.2.1.1 Ultimate Limit States Resistance of cross-sections 6.1 General 5.5.1.3 Axial Compression 6.5 Rotational restraint given by sheeting 10.4 Design resistance 10.1.1.5.4 Lateral Torsional buckling of members subject to bending 6.2.2 5.5 Bending and axial compression 6.3 Design criteria 10.1.10 Combined shear force.1 General 6.3 10 10.1.7 Local Transverse Forces 6.5.1.1.2 Flexural buckling 6.2.1.8 Combined Tension and Bending 6.1.3.1.3 5.4.3 Plane elements with intermediate stiffeners 6 6.1 General 6.1 Bending and axial tension Special considerations for purlins.2.5.3.5 Shear Force 6.2. axial force and bending moment 6.4 Bending moment 6.1 General 5.2 Plane elements without stiffeners 5.1.

1b are available in the default Material Library of Scia Engineer.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background  As specified in EN 1993-1-3: 1. arbitrary members and cross-sections without initial shapes are not supported for the EN 1993-1-3 code check.5. Material properties The steel grades given within EN 1993-1-3 Table 3. 2CFUc. 2CFCo. 1. 2CFLT) The ranges for the core thickness are set ‘for sheeting and members’.1(4) NOTE except where stated otherwise.2.1(3) the code does not apply to cold -formed CHS (FC 3) and RHS (FC 2) sections. In this case the default EN 1993-1-1 code check is executed. 3.2. 3.  Haunches. 55 . The average yield strength is applied in the following resistance calculations: Axial Tension Axial Compression Bending Moment Torsional moment Flexural Buckling Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling Purlin design – Cross-section resistance The average yield strength is calculated using Ag of the Initial shape. For these form codes the default EN 1993-1-1 provisions apply.  Steel Core Thickness The steel core thickness is supported according to EN 1993-1-3 art.  Form codes 172 & 128 are not supported for the Steel Core Thickness.4. 2CFCc. The steel core thickness is only available for the following sections: Cross-section which have form code FC 111 – FC 126 & FC 129 Cold-formed pair sections (2CFUo.  The checks are executed according to the principal axis in accordance with EN 1993-13 art.2. Average Yield Strength The average yield strength is supported according to EN 1993-1-3 art.

the Initial Shape can be defined. The thin-walled cross-section parts can have the following types: F I SO UO Fixed Part – No reduction is needed Internal cross-section part Symmetrical Outstand Unsymmetrical Outstand Parts can also be specified as reinforcement: None RUO RI DEF Not considered as reinforcement Reinforced Unsymmetrical Outstand (edge stiffener) Reinforced Intermediate (intermediate stiffener) Double Edge Fold (edge stiffener) ROU and DEF reinforcement types can be set only to elements of type SO or UO. RI types can be set only to elements of type I or UO or SO. For general cross-sections neighbouring elements of type RI are seen as one stiffener for the calculation of the stiffener area and inertia. For a General cross-section the ‘Thin-walled representation’ has to be used to be able to define the Initial Shape.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Initial Shape For a cross-section with material Steel and fabrication set to Cold-Formed. The initial shape is supported for the following cross-section types: Standard profile library cross-sections Cold formed Pair cross-sections of profile library sections General thin-walled sections General sections with thin-walled representation Thin-walled geometric sections 56 .

The limits for edge stiffeners (c) and double edge folds (d) are checked in case the correct stiffener type (RUO or DEF) has been set in the initial shape. the initial shape is based on the centreline dimensions i.2(2) are checked.2(1) Table 5. Lip dimensions c and d are however always accounted for and will not be ignored. UO and SO using their respective part lengths. the geometrical proportions are checked for elements I. The limit ratio’s given in EN 1993-1-3 art. In addition the limit for the internal radius given in EN 1993-1-3 art. the flat parts are taken between the roundings.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background All other sections which support the centerline and do not have roundings For standard profile library cross-sections. For predefined sections without roundings.1.  For general sections. Within this automatic generation the stiffeners are handled as follows: o For the following form codes edge stiffeners are automatically set as RUO FC 114 Cold formed C-section FC 115 Cold formed Omega section FC 116 Cold formed C-Section eaves beam FC 118 Cold formed ZED section FC 119 Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips FC 120 Cold formed ZED section inclined lip FC 121 Cold formed Sigma section FC 124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam FC 126 Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined FC 129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric For the following form codes edge stiffeners are automatically set as DEF FC 117 Cold formed C-Plus section FC 122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened FC 123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section FC 125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam FC 127 Cold formed I-Plus section FC 128 Cold formed IS-Plus section For the following form codes internal stiffeners are automatically set as RI FC 121 Cold formed Sigma section FC 124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam FC 122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened FC 123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section FC 125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam FC 128 Cold formed IS-Plus section FC 129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric o o Geometrical Proportions The Geometrical proportions are checked according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 57 . 5. For standard profile library cross-sections and pair sections the Initial Shape is generated automatically. The roundings are set as fixed parts. 5.e.1(6) is checked. the flat parts are taken between the intersection points of the centrelines. Flanges including RI stiffeners are thus considered part by part and not as one whole flange. 5.

sin ( right / 2) ] 58 . 5.right With gr.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Effective Shape Influence of rounded corners Within Scia Engineer the exact method is applied i.1(3) and following is thus not supported.1. for each element the centerline length lc is determined as follows:  For an internal element (I) lc = bp + gr.e. 5. SO) bp = w + rm * sin (  / 2) In addition to the notional with bp.e.1 and Figure 5. The initial shape elements are taken between the roundings (i.sin ( left / 2)] gr.left + gr. all properties and dimensions are determined including the influence of rounded corners. The notional widths bp are then calculated as follows:  For an internal element (I) bp = w + rm * sin ( left / 2) + rm * sin ( right / 2)  For an outstand element (UO. internal dimensions w). The approximate procedure given in EN 1993-1-3 art.left = rm * [tan ( left / 2) .right = rm * [tan ( right / 2) . Notional widths The notional widths are specified in EN 1993-1-3 art.

EN 1993-1-3 specifies that the stress f (com. SO) l c = bp + gr With gr = rm * [tan (  / 2) .  beg : normal stress at start point of rectangular shape – compression stress is positive  end : normal stress at end point of rectangular shape – compression stress is positive If the rectangular shape is completely under tension.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background  For an outstand element (UO.Ed) to be used for the effective section calculation should be taken as fyb/M0 The reduction of an element is in general given by: beff = p * b With: beff p b  Effective width Reduction factor Full width Step 1: For the given stress f the normal stress over the rectangular plate element of the initial geometrical shape is calculated.sin (  / 2)] General procedure for one element By default.0 59 .e.  beg and  end are both tensile stresses. These stresses are calculated based on the nominal width bp. i. no reduction is needed. p = 1.

4. This applies to elements of type I. When activating the checkbox “Use Annex E E. Internal Compression Elements The effective width of internal compression elements is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5 art.1. Depending on the stress gradient and the element type. else the element is under stress gradient.e.1(1)” the formulas given in Annex E are used to determine the reduction factor .4 and Table 4.Ed as the maximal compressive stress f1 f2 in the element. the effective width can be calculated as specified in the following paragraphs. The notional width bp is used as Outstand Compression Elements The effective width of outstand compression elements is calculated according to EN 1993-1-5 art.4 and Table 4.2 concerning the plastic reserve of the tension flange is not supported i. always an elastic stress distribution is used.p.1. 60 .4. 6.4(4)” the reduced slenderness is determined using com.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background  Step 2: Determine f1 and f2: in case   f1 =  beg f2 =  end in case  f1 =  end f2 =  beg   Step 3: Calculate the stress gradient :  Step 4: If  = 1 the element is under uniform compression.2.  EN 1993-1-3 art. 4.red 4. This applies to elements of type UO and SO The notional width bp is used as   When activating the checkbox “Use Lambda.

For Sigma sections. In case of more complex cross-sections. General Cross-section: In case there are more than two edge stiffeners The same logic is followed as for a single stiffener. This applies to elements of type RUO and DEF General remarks regarding the stiffness K of the edge stiffener given in formula (5. 5. This is referenced as the ‘Advanced Procedure’ given in art. 5. 5. the only exact procedure is to perform a numerical analysis (finite strip method) to determine the critical stresses for local and distortional buckling.e.1(7). (i.5. (i.2 and art. This concerns the following form codes: FC 121 Cold formed Sigma section FC 124 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam FC 122 Cold formed Sigma section stiffened FC 123 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section FC 125 Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam FC 128 Cold formed IS-Plus section FC 129 Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric  General Cross-section: hw for stiffener: o o o  Elements connected to the stiffener are not accounted for since they are considered as flanges Elements connected to those flanges are all accounted for in case they are of type I and the summation is made of the lengths of these elements Roundings are not accounted for  General Cross-section: In case there is only one edge stiffener kf is taken as zero. General Cross-section: In case there are two edge stiffeners kf is determined by default. The factor kf is thus taken as zero. 61 .Ed = fyb/M0.   The reduced effective area of the stiffener As.2(11) is calculated using com.5. For typical cross-sections. Adjacent elements are those elements connected to the flange.3.  hw is taken as lc (centreline length) of the biggest adjacent element.10b) .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Plane Elements with Edge Stiffeners The procedure for determining the effective width/thickness of elements with edge stiffeners is given in EN 1993-1-3 art.e. there is only one adjacent element.5.red according to art 5. Critical stresses for local and distortional buckling obtained from a numerical analysis can be inputted in the cross-section manager. no interaction between two flanges since there is only one flange). interaction between the two flanges is accounted for). the web. hw is taken as the sum of the centreline lengths of the web elements.5.3.    The formula for K given in the EN 1993-1-3 is based purely on simple sections with two flanges.3.1.

3.3.5.3(9).3.3. 5.5.2(3) and art.11):   The reduced effective area of the stiffener As.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Plane Elements with Intermediate Stiffeners The procedure for determining the effective width/thickness of elements with intermediate stiffeners is given in EN 1993-1-3 art. This includes the optional iterative procedure for the intermediate stiffeners as specified in art.3.3. 5. 5.red according to art 5. This procedure can be written out as follows:  Step 1: The effective width of the flanges and edge/intermediate stiffeners within the flanges are calculated based on gross section properties. This applies to elements of type RI The stiffness K of the internal stiffener is determined from formula (5. 5.3(10) is calculated using com.5. 5. Step 4: This process can now be optionally iterated using the stress ratio based on the effective cross-section in place of the gross cross-section.5. General procedure of Effective Shape calculation The general procedure which combines the effective section calculation of plane elements without and plane elements with stiffeners is given in EN 1993-1-3 art.3(9).5.2(10) and art.3.5.5.   Step 3: The end result of the previous two steps is the effective cross-section and its properties can be calculated.Ed = fyb/M0.5. 62 . 5. This includes the optional iterative procedure for the edge/intermediate stiffeners as specified in art. Both iteration procedures (iteration of stiffeners and iteration of the full cross-section) can be set in the Steel Setup.  Step 2: This partially effective shape of the previous step is used to determine the stress gradient and effective width of the web.3 and art. 5.1.

z My.y Mz+ [mm] Ieff.[mm^4] Weff.[mm^3] eM.z Mz+ [mm^4] Weff.z Mz.y My.[mm^3] eM.[mm] Description Steel grade for which the effective properties have been derived Effective Area for compression Shift of centroid in y direction for compression Shift of centroid in z direction for compression Effective moment of inertia about the y-y axis for a positive moment My Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the y-y axis for a positive moment My Shift of centroid in z direction for a positive moment My Effective moment of inertia about the y-y axis for a negative moment My Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the y-y axis for a negative moment My Shift of centroid in z direction for a negative moment My Effective moment of inertia about the z-z axis for a positive moment Mz Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the z-z axis for a positive moment Mz Shift of centroid in y direction for a positive moment Mz Effective moment of inertia about the z-z axis for a negative moment Mz Effective section modulus to the extreme fiber about the z-z axis for a negative moment Mz Shift of centroid in y direction for a negative moment Mz  In case the yield strength used for the cross-section does not match any of the yield strengths defined in the Effective Section Library the default EN 1993-1-3 calculation will be used.y My+ [mm^4] Weff.z My+ [mm] Ieff.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Manufacturer provided effective section properties In case in the Steel Setup the option ‘Use manufacturer provided effective section properties’is activated.y [mm] eN.z [mm] Ieff.y Mz.z Mz+ [mm^3] eM. effective section properties from the manufacturer are taken from the Effective Section Library instead of calculated by EN 1993-1-3.y My+ [mm^3] eM. The following properties can be defined in the Effective Section Library: Property fy [MPa] Aeff [mm^2] eN.[mm^4] Weff. 63 .z Mz.[mm] Ieff.y My.

. 6.3) is made by comparing the gross area Ag from the initial shape with the effective area Aeff of the effective shape for compression.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Section Checks Axial Tension The Axial Tension Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 64 . The gross area Ag used in the formulas is taken from the cross-section manager.  This comparison using the initial shape property is of importance for the following reasons: . …) and are mostly rounded off. The net section resistance Fn.3. Axial Compression The Axial Compression Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. tables.1. 6.For general cross-sections the gross shape can differ from the initial shape since the initial shape concerns a thin walled representation. All other elements are seen as ‘plane’.2) and (6. The choice between formula (6.1.Rd is taken as: With Anet taken equal to Ag since bolt holes are not accounted for.2.Profile Library sections can have different gross properties compared to the initial shape since the gross properties come from certain sources (books. Each element on which a distortional buckling reduction factor d is applied is seen as ‘stiffened’.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Bending Moment The Bending Moment Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art.  In case formula (6. The elastic section modulus Wel used in the formulas is taken from the cross-section manager.  Note: This comparison using the initial shape property is of importance for the following reasons: .e. As indicated in EN 1993-1-3 art.00 There is no Lateral Torsional buckling i. The angle  between the web and flange exceeds 60°. TF = 1.5) is made by comparing the elastic section modulus Wel from the initial shape with the effective section modulus Weff of the effective shape for bending. they should not be in compression. all reinforcement types of the crosssection elements should be ‘none’ or. The choice between formula (6.2 concerning the plastic reserve of the tension flange is not supported i.4.e.1.1.3 concerning the effects of shear lag is not supported.e. Mx = 0 There is no Torsional (-Flexural) buckling i.e. 6. 6.4. EN 1993-1-3 art. .4.For general cross-sections the gross shape can differ from the initial shape since the initial shape concerns a thin walled representation. An element of type I is seen as ‘plane’. 6. 6.1(2) formula (6. always an elastic stress distribution is used. 65 . in case there are stiffeners. …) and are mostly rounded off.5) is only applied in case:      There is only single bending i.4) and (6.1.4.1.e. tables. LTB = 1.00 There is no Distortional buckling i. An element of type UO or SO is seen as ‘outstand’. EN 1993-1-3 art.6) is applied.1. formula (6.e. My OR Mz There is no torsion i.Profile Library sections can have different gross properties compared to the initial shape since the gross properties come from certain sources (books.5) should be applied but the above conditions are not fulfilled.

The relative web slenderness for each element i is determined according to formula (6. 66 .10a).i is taken as the notional width bp. Only elements with element types I.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Shear Force The Shear Force Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art.i for each element i is taken from the Initial shape. The slant height sw.i of the element under consideration as indicated on the following picture.1. UO and SO are accounted for.5. General The shear resistance is calculated for each ‘web’ element separately and the cross-section resistance is taken as the sum of these element resistances. elements with stiffener type RUO or DEF are not accounted for. Elements without Internal stiffeners The centreline length lc.8) is rewritten as follows for both directions: With: i = Angle of element i related to the principal y-y axis lc. In addition. The angle i for each element i is determined as the angle related to the principal y-y axis.i = Centreline length of element i  By default the Shear Check is executed ‘without stiffening at the support’ In case Local Transverse Forces data are inputted which have the checkbox ‘No Local Transverse Forces Check’ activated. 6. Formula (6. the Shear Check in those sections is executed ‘with stiffening at the support’.

This ‘composed’ web is seen as ‘one’ element i in the shear calculation.i of the last element in the web. The slant height sp concerns the notional width bp.i of the largest plane web element. . the different distances are determined as follows:  The slant height sw is taken as the distance between .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Sections with Internal stiffeners Special considerations are required for cross-sections with internal stiffeners (Type RI).i of the first element in the web. The inertia of the stiffener(s) Is is taken from the Initial shape 67 . The following picture illustrates a web with internal stiffener: The internal stiffener and connected elements are seen as ‘one web’. The total developed slant height sd is taken as the sum of the nominal widths bp.The starting point of the nominal width bp.   The relative web slenderness is determined according to formula (6.The end point of the nominal width bp. For such a ‘composed’ web.i of all the elements in the web.10b).

The Flange Condition depends on the definition of the initial shape. Torsional Moment The Combined Stress Check including Torsion and Warping is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art.z = Wel. Weff.end With gr. Mz) the average yield strength may be used (Aeff = Ag .end taken as gr at the end point of the last element. The check is executed on the positions where there is a jump in the Vz shear force diagram. gr is taken as gr at the starting point of the first element. A typical example of this is a sigma section: the web has two internal stiffeners which both are connected to the same internal element.1. gr. If the last element is an outstand. My.sin (  / 2)] If the first element is an outstand.first taken as gr at the starting point of the first element. Remarks:  The shear force diagram of both the actual member as well as adjacent members is evaluated.  In case both the first and last element of the composed web has element type I: lc = sw + gr. (6.11a).y = Wel. gr is taken as gr at the end point of the last element. As such they are recognized as forming one web.1. Regarding warping reference is made to Warping check.first + gr.6. Local Transverse Forces The local transverse forces check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art 6. Weff. The average yield strength fya in all three formulas (6.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The centreline length lc of this composed web is calculated as follows:  In case the first or last element of the composed web has element type SO or UO: l c = s w + gr With gr = rm * [tan (  / 2) . The angle  of the ‘composed’ web concerns the angle of the centreline length lc relative to the principal y-y axis. (6.11b).z).7 and following.  68 .y .  Neighboring connected elements are seen as one ‘web’. In case there is an element with reinforcement type ROU or DEF the setting is taken as ‘Stiffened ’.11c) will only be used in case for all three force components separately (N. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same buckling system. Reference is made to Notional widths. 6.

the local transverse resistance Rw.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background  The distances for One-flange/Two-flange and End/Interior are evaluated taking into account adjacent members.6. only elements with an angle i ≥ 45° are accounted for.e. for determining the load condition the maximal web height is used. As opposed to EN 1993-1-3 art. In addition elements with stiffener types RUO and DEF are not accounted for.7.  In case the cross-section has any element with stiffener type RI.Rd.Rd. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same buckling system.i is read from the Initial shape For each of those elements i the angle i is determined as the angle of the element relative to the horizontal axis (based on Figure 6.7a 6.6. the local transverse force resistance is taken relative to the support. the local transverse resistance Rw.2 The final cross-section resistance is taken as the sum of the individual element resistances. As indicated on EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6. the local transverse forces check is not supported for the cross-section. By default.1. In case the cross-section has multiple webs.7b 6.1. The following table shows the relation between the loading conditions and the cases defined in the tables. the simplification of using the minimal length for both opposing loads is not supported. For each of those elements i the centreline length lc.i is determined using EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6. Loading Condition End One Flange (EOF) Interior One Flange (IOF) End Two Flange (ETF) Interior Two Flange (ITF) Table 6.7. the exact inputted bearing length ss will be used at all times i.7b Case a) i) a) ii) b) i) b) ii) 69 . not according to the principal z-axis. Therefore FEd.7a & 6.2(4).7b.7a 6. the procedure for stiffened webs is applied first. In addition.6.6). When hw. The web height for each element i is calculated as:    In case none of the cross-section elements fulfil the above conditions. In a first step the web height hw is determined for each ‘web’ element:    Only elements of type I are accounted for.i for each of those elements is determined based on EN 1993-1-3 art. is determined according to the LCS axis system and not according to the principal axis system!    General Procedure This paragraph specifies the general procedure to determine the local transverse web resistance which is applied for any type of cross-section except for FC 115 (Cold formed Omega).i is determined.

9 does not directly specify ETF. The value of  in EN 1993-1-3 art. 70 . Loading Condition End One Flange (EOF) Interior One Flange (IOF) End Two Flange (ETF) Interior Two Flange (ITF) Category 1 1 1 2  Figure 6.7.2(4) Case a) i) a) ii) b) i) b) ii) Omega Sections Specifically for FC 115 (Cold formed Omega) cross-sections the special procedure for sections with two or more unstiffened webs is applied.2(4) art.7b the formulas given in EN 1993-1-3 art.1.  According to [27] to use la = 10 mm for the end support reaction force (category 1) results in a very conservative resistance.7. Loading Condition End One Flange (EOF) Interior One Flange (IOF) End Two Flange (ETF) Interior Two Flange (ITF) Article art. 6. the combined condition of ETF is considered as category 1. The following table shows the relation between the loading conditions and the categories defined in EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6. However since two flange loading is specified as category 1 and End loading is also specified as category 1.1.7.1. 6.7.7a & 6.1.9: la = c + Ss. The local transverse resistance Rw.  Other cross-sections with two or more unstiffened webs will always be calculated according to the General Procedure.18)” this modification is applied.2(4) art.2(4) are used. 6.2(4) art. By activating the setting “Use la correction in (6.i for each of those webs is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 6.1.7.1. 6.3.9.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background In case Web rotation prevented was set using Local Transverse Forces data instead of EN 1993-1-3 Figure 6.7. 6. 6.7.3(5) is taken for ‘liner trays and hat sections’. A modification is given for case 2 and 3 of Figure 6.1. The following table shows the relation between the loading conditions and the cases defined in this article.Rd. not this special procedure.

it is at both sides connected to other elements signifying it’s a fold instead of a stiffener). Step 1: Creating ‘composed’ webs In a first step. Section C contains several RI stiffeners however not all match the requirements (one is an outstand. Composed webs which meet all requirements are further evaluated in step 4. The web thus does not meet the requirements. others are connected etc). The web thus does not meet the requirements. This includes the determination of the centreline length lc. The special article applies. each ‘composed’ web is evaluated to see if it meets the following requirements:    There is one or more elements with stiffener type RI Each RI element should have element type I (i. Section A contains two RI stiffeners which are connected. Section D has a composed web which contains two RI stiffeners. 6.1. This method is used only in case there are one or more elements with stiffener type RI The procedure consists of four steps. Step 2: Evaluation of ‘composed’ webs The special procedure outlined in EN 1993-1-3 art. This stiffener is thus a ‘true’ two fold stiffener so the special article applies.e.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Stiffened Webs This paragraph outlines the special procedure in case of stiffened webs according to EN 1993-1-3 art. Composed webs which do not meet these requirements are further evaluated in step 3. Example: All four sections have ‘composed’ webs. 6. Therefore.7.1. elements forming ‘one’ big stiffener. 71 .e.4.7. Both meet all the requirements and are thus ‘true’ two fold stiffeners. ‘composed’ webs are created using the same procedure as outlined in Sections with Internal stiffeners.4 is only valid under certain conditions. Section B contains a single RI stiffener which meets all the requirements. Elements connected to this RI element should not have stiffener type RI. This implies that the procedure is not applied in case of neighbouring stiffener elements i.i of those ‘composed’ webs.

6. RI stiffeners of element Type UO or SO are always ignored. The data is then used to determine a. 6. For such a web the procedure outlined in step 3 is applied. The bending resistances are determined using the section moduli Weff of the effective shapes for bending. then bd is considered as zero.Rd.i value of the composed web is then calculated as: Rw. The ‘system line’ of this web is taken as the centre line length lc.s * Rw.Rd. The Rw.Rd. the special procedure outlined in EN 1993-1-3 art.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Step 3: Composed webs which do NOT meet the requirements For composed webs which do not meet the requirements.Rd.i of the composed web is used in the determination of hw.s. the centre line length lc. 72 .i. Connected flange elements which have a relative angle > 135° are accounted for as „one‟ flange for the determination of bd.i = a. In case the limit specified in formula (6. the special article is not valid.general calculated according to the General Procedure The value of hw.i of the composed web as outlined in step 3. Combined Tension and Bending The Combined Tension and Bending Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. The eccentricity e is determined at each end of an RI within the ‘composed’ web.general With Rw. The angle i is determined as the angle of the centre line length relative to the horizontal axis. independent of their angle.1. the special article is not applied and the composed web is considered as a web which does not meet all requirements. Practically this implies that there is no limit for a. Step 4: Composed webs which meet all requirements For composed webs which meet all requirements. for example when using a general section.i for this composed web is calculated using the centre line lc.21) is not fulfilled. Eccentricity emin and emax are then taken as the min and max value for the considered composed web. In case there is no connected flange.s according to formula (6.i.4 is applied. The local transverse force resistance of these webs will be determined according to the General Procedure In this case.8.1.i.7. For the developed width of the loaded flange bd any RI stiffeners of element Type I are always included.22).

In the following paragraphs formula (6. Additional moments due to the shift in neutral axis are calculated at the beginning of the check and added to the internal forces.1 (5) specifies Mf.) Shear Vz In case of shear Vz formula (6.1. the moment resistance of this flange is negligible.10.27) is written out as follows: Remarks:  Mf. In addition. in case of more webs like in a box section EN 1993-1-5 art. 6. Axial Force and Bending Moment The Combined Shear Force. The bending resistances are determined using the section moduli Weff of the effective shapes for bending.Rd is taken as 0. 6.9.  This ensures specific bending checks are executed also in case there is no initial moment but only an additional moment.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Combined Compression and Bending The Combined Compression and Bending Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 7. The shifts in neutral axis eNy and eNz are read directly from the effective shape for compression. Axial Force and Bending Moment Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art.27) is written out for both directions. as a general conservative approach for Vy the value of Mf. As specified in EN 1993-1-3 art. Combined Shear Force.Rd = 0.Rd is taken as zero in case of Vy (In case of weak axis bending.3(3) additional moments are only accounted for in case they lead to an unfavourable check result.1. Shear Vy In case of shear Vy formula (6.27) is written out as follows: 73 . Since there is only a single ‘flange’ in that case. 6. the ‘web’ becomes a ‘flange’.1. Therefore.

f) g) h) Of these elements. Af = beff * t with t the thickness of the considered element. with lc the centreline length of the element. Next only elements which have an angle  with the principal y-y axis which is > 45°are considered. In case there are no such elements. hf = lc * sin() Mf. The width beff concerns the effective with of this element. Mf.Rd is now be calculated as: d) e)  According to [Ref.Rd is calculated as follows: This is generalised in the following way: a) b) Only elements with element types I. 74 .16] pp70 Mf. set Mf. the one with the highest value of lc * sin() is considered.Rd is calculated as follows: with Wpl read from the gross section properties. c) Of these elements. the one with the lowest beff is considered.Rd = 0. read from the effective shape for bending.16] pp70 Mpl.Rd = 0. UO and SO are accounted for Only elements which have an angle  with the principal y-y axis which is  45° are considered In case there is only one or none of such element.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Remarks:  According to [Ref.

6.1. In formula (6.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Combined Bending Moment and local Load/Support Reaction The Combined Bending Moment and local Load/Support Reaction Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. not the moment at the edge of the support. 75 .28c) the internal force MEd is taken as the actual moment in the section considered.11.

2(3) Closed section rule 6. 6.3 regarding the buckling curves is revised as follows: Form code 1 101 114 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 Description I section Asymmetric I section Cold formed C section Cold formed C-Section eaves beam Cold formed C-Plus section Cold formed ZED section Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips Cold formed ZED section inclined lip Cold formed Sigma section Cold formed Sigma section stiffened Cold formed Sigma-Plus section Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined Cold formed I-Plus section Cold formed IS-Plus section Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric 2CFCo with a = 0 2CFCc with a = 0 2CFUo with a = 0 2CFUc with a = 0 2CFLT with a = 0 Any other section about axis y-y z-z y-y z-z any any any any any any any any any any any any y-y z-z y-y z-z any y-y z-z y-y z-z any any Curve a b a b b b b b b b b b b b b b a b a b b a b a b c c Closed section rule 6.1.3. For the calculation of the buckling length.2. we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio" 76 .2 and EN 1993-1-1 art.2.2(3) All other sections fall in the ‘other cross-section’ case of curve c for any axis. 6.2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Stability Checks Flexural Buckling The Flexural Buckling Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. Table 6.

4.2.T The elastic critical load Ncr.[17]. The value of the elastic critical load Ncr is taken as the smallest of Ncr.1.  With: E G It Iw lT y0 and z0 iy iz Modulus of Young Shear modulus Torsion constant Warping constant Buckling length for the torsional buckling mode Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid radius of gyration about the strong axis radius of gyration about the weak axis 77 .TF (Torsional-Flexural buckling).3. 6.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling The Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art.T for torsional buckling is calculated according to Ref.T (Torsional buckling) and Ncr.3 and EN 1993-1-1 art. The buckling curve for torsional (-flexural) buckling is taken as the z-z buckling curve according to the table given in Flexural Buckling. 6. Calculation of Ncr.

3 using interaction factors from Annex A & B.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation of Ncr.5(2) The choice between these two methods is set in the Steel Setup.z Ncr. For additional information reference is made to Lateral-torsional buckling. 6.TF The elastic critical load Ncr.2.2.TF is taken as the smallest root of the following cubic equation in N: 0 With: Ncr. 6.Rd is taken as the lowest value of    the flexural buckling resistance about the y-y axis the flexural buckling resistance about the z-z axis the torsional (-flexural) buckling resistance 78 .3. 6.2. Nb.3.3. Bending and Axial Compression For determining the Combined Bending and Axial Compression check according to EN 1993-1-3 art.2.[17].5 EN 1993-1-3 allows two possibilities:   Use the EN 1993-1-1 interaction according to article 6.T Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the y-y axis Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the z-z axis Critical axial load for torsional buckling Lateral Torsional Buckling The Lateral Torsional Buckling Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art.5(2). Alternative interaction according to EN 1993-1-3 The interaction is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. For information regarding the influence of diaphragms on the Lateral Torsional Buckling Check reference is made to Use of Diaphragms. 6.formed sections are seen as ‘class 3 or 4’. 6. Interaction according to EN 1993-1-1 The interaction is executed according to EN 1993-1-1 art.2.3 Use the alternative according to EN 1993-1-3 article 6.4 and EN 19931-1 art.y Ncr.2. Ncr.TF for torsional flexural buckling is calculated according to Ref. In both Method 1 (Annex A) and Method 2 (Annex B) the cold .

In the AISI NAS 2007 Ref. The moment resistance for the compression fiber in case of Mz.Rd The Lateral Torsional Buckling resistance.[18] code the following formula is given in article C5: This formula is rewritten using EC-EN notations as follows: With: Mb.36) includes the strong axis bending resistance Mb.z. These interaction equations are however not fully valid in case of tension. Therefore.Rd. There is however no indication for a weak axis bending moment.3.com Nt. in case a weak axis bending moment is present. The Tension Resistance 79 . The code specifies that the same equations as for compression should be used.y.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background  Formula (6.Rd Mc. 6. The purpose of the interaction check for bending and tension is to check the stresses at the compression fiber.Rd. Bending and Axial Tension The Combined Bending and Tension Check is executed according to EN 1993-1-3 art. this interaction cannot be applied and the general interaction according to EN 1993-1-1 is applied.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Use of Diaphragms The influence of a diaphragm is outlined in the following diagram. 80 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background First of all the lateral stiffness S of the diaphragm is determined and compared to the required stiffness Serf.4. 81 . the Lateral Torsional Buckling check is executed using the augmented torsional stiffness It.3.id  I t  vorhC  l2 2G l G vorhC The LTB length The shear modulus The actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm with  As specified in art. The lateral stiffness S is calculated according to Ref.1. In this case. Reference is made to Adaptation of torsional constant.1.1 the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0.2 S in case the diaphragm is connected every second rib only.19. a first test is executed to evaluate if the special purlin checks according to EN 1993-1-3 Chapter 10 can be applied. when the diaphragm is located on the compression side. 10. 104 K2 K1 + Ls with a Ls K1 K2 The frame distance The length of diaphragm Diaphragm factor K1 Diaphragm factor K2 The required stiffness Serf is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. I t .20.1 In case S < Serf the member is seen as Inadequately braced. In this case.3. In case S ≥ Serf the member is seen as Fully braced.5 and Ref. S= a.3. 10.

Vz. For example the free flange geometry is described only for Z.1(1) are satisfied The section is only loaded by N. in case of other loading components. the special articles are not valid and the default checks will be applied.  or U section: Form code 5 102 112 113 114 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 129 Description Channel section Rolled Z section Cold formed channel Cold formed Z Cold formed C section Cold formed C-Section eaves beam Cold formed C-Plus section Cold formed ZED section Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips Cold formed ZED section inclined lip Cold formed Sigma section Cold formed Sigma section stiffened Cold formed Sigma-Plus section Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric  The code specifies that the chapter is also valid for hat (Omega) sections however in all further paragraphs.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background More specifically. Since the member is seen as fully braced. Therefore.1. Omega sections are not supported for this special chapter. no specific formulas are given for Omega sections. Therefore. C. In case the cross-section does match the list of set form codes. My  Chapter 10 specifies only checks related to in plane effects N. a second test is executed. In case the cross-section does not match any of the above. this chapter is applied only in case the cross-section concerns a Z. the default checks are executed. C and  sections. the special purlin checks according to EN 1993-1-3 Chapter 10 can be applied only in case:   The dimensional limits of article 10. no Lateral Torsional Buckling check needs to be executed in case the diaphragm is located on the compression side. not for Omega sections. 82 . Vz and My. More specifically.

The flexural buckling check is executed for y-y buckling in accordance with EN 1993-1-3 art.1. The combined stability checks are not executed since they are replaced by the special purlin checks. My. 83 .1.11 Article 6.1.4.5 NOT 6.e.3(2) the Local Transverse Load Check and its interaction with the bending moment is executed even if the support reaction is a tensile force.3 6.2.10 6. The compression in the free flange is included in the special purlin checks. Torsional buckling and Lateral-torsional buckling are prohibited by the fully braced diaphragm. The combined axial and bending checks are not executed since they are replaced by the special purlin checks.2(2).3. 10.1. Special purlin checks according to Chapter 10 More specifically.  In contrast to art.1. axial force and bending moment Combined Bending and Local Transverse Force Stability Check Flexural buckling only for y-y Torsional and Torsional-Flexural buckling Lateral-Torsional buckling Bending and axial compression Bending and axial tension Article 6. not all default checks will be executed.2 NOT NOT NOT NOT The Torsional moment check will never occur in this case since the prerequisite is to have only N.1. the following ‘default’ checks will be executed: Section Check Axial tension Axial compression Bending moment Shear force Torsional moment Local Transverse Forces Combined tension and bending Combined compression and bending Combined shear.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For a section which meets all requirements.1.7 NOT NOT 6. the following is done:   Reduced default Checks are executed i. 10. Vz.2 6.1.1.4 6.

2 Resistance of Cross-Section The Resistance of the Cross-Section is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art.1 In case of compression in the free flange also Stability of the free flange according to EN 1993-1-3 art. 10.4. Since this check concerns a separate formula for each flange (10. 10. Definition of the free flange geometry The dimension h is taken as the full cross section height. My) the average yield strength may be used (Aeff = Ag .y is determined for each flange separately. 10. 10.2 Diaphragm on the tension side   Cross-section resistance according to EN 1993-1-3 art.1 Stability of the free flange according to EN 1993-1-3 art. Form code 5 102 112 113 114 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 Description Channel section Rolled Z section Cold formed channel Cold formed Z Cold formed C section Cold formed C-Section eaves beam Cold formed C-Plus section Cold formed ZED section Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips Cold formed ZED section inclined lip Cold formed Sigma section Cold formed Sigma section stiffened Cold formed Sigma-Plus section Contributing web 1/5 h 1/5 h 1/5 h 1/5 h 1/5 h 1/5 h 1/5 h 1/5 h 1/5 h 1/5 h 1/6 h 1/6 h 1/6 h 84 .1.3a) and (10.4. The following table shows the supported cross-sections including the contributing web height.1.1. special purlin checks according to EN 1993-1-3 Chapter 10 will be executed: Diaphragm on the compression side   Cross-section resistance according to EN 1993-1-3 art.1.y).4. Weff.4.1. 10.4. The average yield strength will only be used in case for both force components separately (N.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Special considerations for Purlins As outlined in Use of Diaphragms for a section which meets all requirements.y = Wel. The properties of the free flange are calculated according to the z-z axis of the full cross-section.3b) the effective section modulus Weff.1.

Determination of the lateral bending moment Table 10. the vertical loading is assumed to be positioned at the outside of the web. the values of Mfz.C or  sections is applied.  For kh0. for sigma sections the rounding which leads to the web depression is also accounted for in the height of the free flange.1 provides the formulas to determine Mfz.. the general equations have been derived using the theory of beams on an elastic Winkler foundation. For any given moment diagram. 10. within Scia Engineer the rounding between the flange and the web is always accounted for in the free flange height (for all section types).3.Ed need to be known in each section.Ed is determined from the vertical load qEd on the purlin using formula (10.1(7). The factor kh is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 Figure 10. In case of a symmetrical Z section this distance will become a.2. For Uplift loading the vertical loading is assumed to be positioned exactly in the middle of the flange width. For Uplift loading the general formula including the shear center distance f is used. The load qh.4). 85 .Ed is given a positive sign in case it follows the same convention as shown in the code. Therefore. Therefore. the general formula for Z. For Gravity loading. The load is given a negative sign in case it points in the other direction. Determination of the equivalent lateral load The equivalent lateral load on the free flange qh. to generalize this principle.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 124 125 126 129 Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam Cold formed Sigma-Plus section eaves beam Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric 1/6 h 1/6 h 1/5 h 1/6 h  As the code indicates in Figure 10. Within Scia Engineer however.1. as indicated in the code in EN 1993-1-3 art. the equivalent vertical line load qEd is determined as the line load which results in approximately the same bending moment diagram.4. The formula for a simple Z-section is not supported. For Gravity loading the general formula including the shear center distance e is used. the check is executed in different sections.Ed for specific positions within the beams: at the ends (e) and at the position of the maximal moment (m). To this end.

1. taken as La Line load.Ed is obtained and leads to the following solutions: 86 . taken as qh.[21]: With: E I L q K  Section modulus Bending stiffness Member length.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The differential equation for the displacement of a beam on elastic foundation loaded by a line load is written out as follows Ref.B.Ed Foundation stiffness.C. Using the beam equation with the second derivative of the displacement the equation for the bending moment Mfz. taken as lateral spring stiffness K A.D Integration constants The integration constants are determined depending on the boundary conditions for the cases given in Table 10.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Solution for a beam on elastic Winkler foundation with Hinged end conditions Solution for a beam on elastic Winkler foundation with Hinged-Fixed end conditions Solution for a beam on elastic Winkler foundation with Fixed end conditions 87 .

4.1.Ed / Weff. In case this stress results in compression. LTB restraints are thus seen as anti-sag bars.1(6) does not apply since the general Winkler theory is used instead of table 10. The dimension bmod depends on the direction of the equivalent horizontal load qh. The internal points of the buckling system for Ly are considered as fixed.Ed is taken equal to zero. the free flange is considered to be in tension. the length La is taken as the length between these restraints. The developed height of the purlin web hd is taken as the total developed slant height sd used in the Shear Check.1(4). the ends of the buckling system for Ly are considered as hinged.Ed is done as follows:  A single span member is always considered to have hinged ends. 88 . 10. In case there are no LTB restraints defined at the free flange.free flange) + (Ned / Aeff) In case this stress results in tension. 10.   As specified in EN 1993-1-3 art.1(5) in case the free flange is in tension Mfz.1. 10. According to the code this depends if the load brings the purlin into contact with the sheeting at the purlin web or at the tip of the purlin flange. A single span member is defined as a member with only one part in the buckling system for Ly. Determination of the lateral spring stiffness The lateral spring stiffness K is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. La is read from the buckling system. In case LTB restraints are defined at the free flange.Ed determines the tension/compression side of the free flange and thus determines which Wfz is used in the check. To determine if the free flange is in tension or compression the following stress is calculated: (My. as described in Shear Force. For multi-span members.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The determination of a hinged or fixed end for Mfz. the rotational stiffness of the diaphragm.1.4.5.y. the free flange is considered to be in compression. The rotational restraint CD is taken as vorhC. Determination of the distance between anti-sag bars The code defines anti-sag bars as bars which provide lateral rigid support to the free flange. An LTB restraint is always considered as a fixed end. as described in Adaptation of torsional constant.Ed and the type of cross-section.1.  The limit of R  40 given in art. The sign of Mfz. Within Scia Engineer.

Gravity Loading In case of downward –z loading the buckling length of the free flange is determined according to formula (10.2a.  Art. The i factors are determined according to EN 1993-1-3 Table 10. For determining the buckling length lfz of the free flange a difference is made between gravity loading (downward –z loading) and uplift loading (upward +z loading). To determine if the free flange is in tension or compression the following stress is calculated: (My.2(4) is not supported. the free flange is considered to be in compression. In case this stress results in compression. 89 . 10. 10.1.4.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background This is clarified in the following picture: The distance a i. Buckling Resistance of the Free Flange The Buckling Resistance of the Free Flange is determined according to EN 1993-1-3 art. The fastener is thus assumed to be positioned in the middle of the flange.4.5 b.9).1. For a free flange in tension the buckling resistance does not need to be checked.Ed / Weff.y. the free flange is considered to be in tension. position of the fastener is taken as 0.2.free flange) + (Ned / Aeff) In case this stress results in tension.e.

2a does not specify ‘simple span’.1.1. Within Scia Engineer this is quantified using a limit value. 10. Only LTB restraints at the side of the free flange are accounted for in this ‘number’. General Notes For both loading types. 10.9).Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Uplift Loading In case of upward +z loading the buckling length of the free flange is determined according to formula (10. The values for a ‘simple span’ are taken equal as an ‘end span’.2a & b concerns the number of LTB restraints defined on the actual member.2(5) is applied. The i factors are determined according to EN 1993-1-3 Table 10.2b respectively.2(6) & (7) is not supported. For a multi-span.2a & b differentiate between ‘simple span’.2(5) specifies a method for the buckling length in case of a ‘relatively large axial force’. 90 . EN 1993-1-3 art. Sections located in the other parts are considered as ‘intermediate span’.2b.4.4. 10. sections located in the first or last part of the system length are considered as ‘end span’.  Table 10. the method described in EN 1993-1-3 art.2a and 10. ‘end span’ and ‘intermediate span’.  The method according to art.4. The ‘number of anti-sag’ bars used in Tables 10. In case the axial load is considered as large. When the member has more parts for Ly it is considered as multi-span. Tables 10. which is set in the Steel Setup.1. This is based on the Ly system length. This procedure applies to both gravity and uplift loading using Table 10. In case the member under consideration has only one part for Ly then it is considered as ‘simple span’.

) Rectangular Hollow Section Circular Hollow Section Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Z section Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". …. HEB. 91 . The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL Z RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. I Classification Section check class 1 Section check class 2 Section check class 3 Section check class 4 Stability check class 1 Stability check class 2 Stability check class 3 Stability check class 4 Shear buckling check x x x x x x x x x x RHS x x x x x x x x x CHS x x x x L x U x T x PPL x RS x Z (1)  x O (1) COM (1) NUM (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) Sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default. HEA.

Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg . Faculté des Sciences Appliquées.Actions on structures exposed to fire prEN 1991-1-2:2002 Rules for Member Stability in EN 1993-1-1 Background documentation and design guidelines ECCS .5 : Plated structural elements EN 1993-1-5 : 2006 R.2 : General rules .Structural fire design EN 1993-1-2:2005 Model Code on Fire Engineering ECCS . 1988 EN 1990 Eurocode – Basis of structural design EN 1990:2002 E Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .N° 111 May 2001 Eurocode 1 Actions on structures Part 1-2 : General Actions .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background References 1 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .1 : General rules and rules for buildings EN 1993-1-1:2005 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1-3: General rules Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting EN 1993-1-3:2006 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1.N° 119 2006 [2] 3 4 [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] 92 .

.2 : General rules .ECCS.1 : General rules and rules for buildings EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009 Corrigendum Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . Düsseldorf [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] 93 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [10] Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .Structural fire design EN 1993-1-2:2005/AC:2009 Corrigendum Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1-3: General rules Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting EN 1993-1-3:2006/AC:2009 Corrigendum Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1.access-steel.1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1. SN001a-EN-EU NCCI: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes Access Steel. Kahlmeyer Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.90) Werner-Verlag.. 2007. 2006 www.N° 65. 1994 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . JRC . Sedlacek G...com [18] AISI S100-2007 North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members 2007 edition [19] E. 1991 Commentary and Worked Examples to EN 1993-1-5 “Plated Structural Elements” Johansson B. Maquoi R.. Müller C. Beg D.5 : Plated structural elements EN 1993-1-5 : 2006/AC:2009 Corrigendum Essentials of Eurocode 3 Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building ECCS .

n° 2-2002.berekeningvanconstructies.und Schutzgerüste Allgemeine Regelungen. Galéa CTICM. Prüfungen Dezember 1990 Corrections and amendments to EN 1993-1-3 Meeting of ECCS-TWG 7.9 O-2007. Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen. 1. Y.21 Karin de Louw 2007 EN 12811-1 Temporary works equipment Part 1: Scaffolds – performance requirements and general design 2004 EN 12810-1 Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components Part 1: Products specifications 2004 EN 12810-2 Façade scaffolds made of prefabricated components Part 2: Particular methods of structural design 2004 DIN 4420 Teil 1 Arbeits. Construction Métallique.Auflage Beuth Verlag. Höglund 2010 Déversement élastique d’une poutre à section bi-symétrique soumise à des moments d’extrémité et une charge répartie ou concentrée. Vandepitte Berekening van Constructies Boekdeel 1 pp522 www. Berlin-Köln 1993 D.5 T. [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] 94 .be Design rule for Lateral Torsional Buckling of Channel Sections A-2007.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [20] Beuth-Kommentare Stahlbauten Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4.

Z-8. Yong.22-208 Modulsystem "CUPLOK" Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik. 2008. Zulassung Nr. SC001a-EN-EU Code commentary: Collection No. Serna Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures.22-64 Modulsystem "Layher-Allround" Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik. G. 2005. A. [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] 95 . Z-8. Robra. Dubrovnik. Kubieniec IABSE-FIB Conference. New proposals for EN 1993-1-5. A. Zulassung Nr. López. 2007. 2006. Annex D: Plate girders with corrugated webs. 2006. M. J. SN005a-EN-EU Determination of moments on columns in simple construction Access-Steel. Steel Building Design Medium Rise Braced Frames SCI PUBLICATION P365. GmbH Wien. Pasternak. D. J. 1 Access-Steel. 2006.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [29] Lateral-Torsional buckling of steel beams: A general expression for the moment gradient factor. Target specification Dimensioning Profiles ZEMAN & CO. 2010. H.

fu in N/mm². t in mm) t<=40 fy S235 S 235 St 37-2 S275 S 275 S355 S 355 St 52-3 240 t<=40 fu 360 40<t<=80 fy 215 40<t<=80 fu 360 280 360 430 510 255 325 430 510 96 . Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken DK 693. Tab. 1.1) The standard steel grades are : (fy. Plattenbeulen DK 693.073.5.074.014. November 1990 DIN 18800 Teil 2 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle.814.2. November 1990 Material properties For standard steel grades. the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the thickness of the element (see Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background DIN18800 DIN18800 Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in DIN 18800 Teil 1 Stahlbauten Bemessung und Konstruktion DK 693.814.1.814. November 1990 DIN 18800 Teil 3 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle.

(716).(719) Element (725).(17). For the stability check.. the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3.(309) Element (313). (748). 97 . EL/EL (elastic/elastic). The following criteria are used :     compression : lateral torsional buckling : bending and axial compression : Element (304).(729) For the shear buckling check. The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2. (504). (750) are used.(712).(708). The following criteria are used : Element (113).(726). the section is checked as slender section. Element (758). Table (16). The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I. Depending on this classification.(17).14. the following criteria are used :    calculation of effective area : buckling check : LTB check : Element (705).(321).15 and 18. Element (756). The PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I. lateral torsional buckling and bending and compression. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters. the cross section is classified according to DIN18800 Teil I. (749).(713) Element (715). Table 12. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. (747).(709).Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background t<=40 fy S420 S 420 S460 S 460 420 460 t<=40 fu 520 550 40<t<=100 fy 390 430 40<t<=100 fu 520 550 Consulted articles For the section check. (602). Element (746).(322) bending (LTB) and compression : Element (320).(323) For slender sections. DIN18800 Teil I.(706). as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or as PL/PL (plastic/plastic).13. Element (715). For the EL/EL check.(728).(718).(306) Element (311). (757) and Table (16) . the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for buckling.(603) A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts following table.

Nachweis des Druckgurtes als Druckstab 3.3.4. Biegedrillknicken (320) ……………………………………………………………………………… 3.5.2.4.3.5. Biegedrillknicken (311) ……………………………………………………………………………… 3.2.2. Allgemeines (307) ……………………………………………………………………………… 3. Behinderung der Verformung (309) ……………………………………………………………………………… 3.1. Einachsige Biegung ohne Normalkraft 3.2.2.5.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Teil 1 7. Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch (745)……………………………………………………………………………… (746) ……………………………………………………………………………… (747) ……………………………………………………………………………… (748) ……………………………………………………………………………… (749) ……………………………………………………………………………… (750) ……………………………………………………………………………… Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Elastisch-Plastisch (753) ……………………………………………………………………………… (756) ……………………………………………………………………………… (757) ……………………………………………………………………………… Nachweis nach dem Verfahren Plastisch-Plastisch (758) ……………………………………………………………………………… Teil 2 3. Stäbe mit geringer Normalkraft (312) ……………………………………………………………………………… 3.3.3.1. Planmässig mittiger Druck 3. Verfahren beim Tragsicherheitsnachweis Nachweise 7.3.3.1.2. Zweiachsige Biegung mit oder ohne Normalkraft 3.1.5. Biegeknicken (314) ……………………………………………………………………………… 3.4. Biegeknicken (321) ……………………………………………………………………………… (322) ……………………………………………………………………………… 3.5. Einachsige Biegung mit Normalkraft 3.4.2. Biegedrillknicken (323) ……………………………………………………………………………… x x (*) x x x x x x x x x x x(*) x x x x x (*) x x (*) x x x x x (*) (*) (*) x x x x x x x x x x x x x 98 .5.1. Biegeknicken (304) ……………………………………………………………………………… 3. Biegedrillknicken (306) ……………………………………………………………………………… 3.2.3.4. Abgrenzungskriterien und Detailregelungen 7.

3.2. (409)………………………………………………………………………………. (408)……………………………………………………………………………….5.1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 4. Berechnungsgrundlage (705) ……………………………………………………………………………… (706) ……………………………………………………………………………… (707) ……………………………………………………………………………… (708) ……………………………………………………………………………… (709) ……………………………………………………………………………… 7. Allgemeines (701) ……………………………………………………………………………… (702) ……………………………………………………………………………… (704) ……………………………………………………………………………… 7.1. Biegeknicken 7. Mehrteilige. Wirksame Breite beim Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch (711) ……………………………………………………………………………… (712) ……………………………………………………………………………… (713) ……………………………………………………………………………… 7.5.2.5. Wirksame Breite beim Verfahren Elastisch-Plastisch 7. einfeldrige Stäbes 4. Allgemeines 4. Planmässig gerade Stäbe mit ebenen dünnwandigen Quenschnittsteilen 7.2.1.6. 7. Ausweichen rechtwinklig zur stofffreien Achse (405) ……………………………………………………………………………… (406)………………………………………………………………………………. Häufig verwendete Formelzeichnen (404) ……………………………………………………………………………… 4. Nachweise (504) ……………………………………………………………………………… (*) x x x x x x x x x x(*) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (*) x x x x x x x x 99 .3. Biegedrillknicken (722) ……………………………………………………………………………… (723) ……………………………………………………………………………… (725) ……………………………………………………………………………… (726) ……………………………………………………………………………… (728) ……………………………………………………………………………… (729) ……………………………………………………………………………… Teil 3 5. Vereinfachte Nachweise (716) ……………………………………………………………………………… (718) ……………………………………………………………………………… (719) ……………………………………………………………………………… (721) ……………………………………………………………………………… 7. Spannungsnachweis beim Verfahren Elastisch-Elastisch (715) ……………………………………………………………………………… 7.4.

The holes for fasteners are neglected. The classification can change for each intermediary point. So. the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination. the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed. For each load case/combination. for non-prismatic sections. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability check. Plastic interaction formula for RHS section AG AS/2 h s/2 b 100 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 6. Abminderungsfaktoren (601) ……………………………………………………………………………… (602) ……………………………………………………………………………… x x x Classification of sections For each intermediary section. Net area properties The net area properties are not taken into account . the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section. However.

pl.Sd b else  z  1    Vz .d Vz.Sd MT.0 Wel.y Wel.pl.z fy.Rd = AS y.Sd normal force bending moment around y axis bending moment around z axis shear force in y direction shear force in z direction torsional moment elastic section modulus around y axis elastic section modulus around z axis yield strength shear strength Used variable : sectional area M   Vz . the plastic interaction formula according to Ref.Rd       1   1.Sd  T . classified as Plastic-Plastic or Elastic-Plastic.Sd  T .Rd   101 .[13].Sd Vy.0  4 z         2 M   Vz .d NSd My.pl.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For RHS section.Sd Mz.Sd b if   Vz . can be selected.d Vy.Sd Vz.pl.  A AS = s h AG = (A-AS)/2.d y.Rd = 2AG y.

pl.Sd  T .Rd .Rd  min  bN pl.Sd h else  y  1    Vy .d 2  M y.pl.Rd = Ar fy.pl.1.Rd  min  hN pl.Sd M y .pl.Sd M z .1.Sd  T .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background M   Vy .25Wel.Rd   Ar= zAS + 2yAG  z AS Ar Npl.25Wel.pl.z f yd   4  n N Sd N pl.0  4 y         2 M   Vy .Rd my  mz  M y .Sd h if   Vy .y f yd   4  1  M z.Rd  The following interaction formula are checked : 102 .pl.Rd M z .Rd .Rd       1   1.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 103 .

Tafel 6.74.1.Q  A r  s d  M pl. classified as Plastic-Plastic or Elastic-Plastic.Mz s d.25Wel s    2 with Qy.Qz Nv My.[14]. the plastic interaction formula according to Ref.Q 1  N   cos v   N 2  plQ  1 Qv  Q2  Q2 y z Mv  M2  M2 y z Q pl  2dt s 3 Qv 1  :1 Q pl 4 Q  Qv 1  :   1  v  Q  Q pl 4  pl  A r  dt N pl. is used : Mv M pl.Q .Q  min  N pl.t Wel internal shear force internal normal force internal bending moments yield strength dimensions from CHS elastic section modulus 104 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Plastic interaction formula for CHS section For CHS section.

w N  ky  z k z  1.50 In case there is no compression force kz is taken as 1. 259) : My M  M z .y . taking into account the local plate bending.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background t d Torsion check For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping. The stability check (DIN 18800 T2.d M pl. THQ sections)’ 105 .0 N pl. bimoment and the St. pp.Venant torsion') = 1.y .d  M M pl. THQ sections). proper section checks are performed.d M pl.d My M  M z .d (28) (30) with Mz. formula 28 & 30) for doubly symmetric I section becomes (Ref.z .w N  ky  z k z  1. Built-in beams For built-in beam sections (IFB.d M pl. 270). pp. SFB.0  z N pl.z .[9]. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB.[9].00 (Ref.w  2M w h Mw kz bimoment (see chapter 'Standard diagrams for warping torque. SFB. we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'.

The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”). the reduction factor  is calculated. 106 .[10]. Annex D.6 . refers to the input value for the system length lyz the system length for buckling around zz-axis Remark : the z-axis refers to the axis which goes through the shear force centre. we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio". 7. z refers to the buckling ratio around the zz-axis Remark : the z-axis refers to the axis which goes through the shear force centre. Torsional buckling The slenderness for torsional buckling vi is given by (see Ref. 0 zM iy iz i p² iM² Iw Iz It refers to end warping and is input by the value kxy the shear center the radius of gyration around major axis the radius of gyration around minor axis = iy² + iz² = ip² + zM² the warping constant the moment of inertia around minor axis the torsional constant With this slenderness vi and the buckling curve c. The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref.5): with l0 lz the torsional buckling length.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation of the buckling length For the calculation of the buckling length.

3.8.) The shear stiffness S for diaphragm is calculated as follows: S= a.4.5 and Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Use of diaphragms (see also Ref.id  I t  vorhC  l2 2G with l G vorh C the LTB length the shear modulus the actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm 107 .3. 104 K2 K1 + Ls with a Ls K1 K2 the frame distance the length of diaphragm factor K1 factor K2 The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms: I t .3.7.

DIN formula (19) : with l.2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background LTB Check For aysmmetric I sections. Annex F Ref. 4. Carl. Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dünnwandiger Stäbe.[11] "Roik. Annex F Ref. RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections. Lindner. For the calculation of the moment factors C1. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula F. or by formula according to Ref. 4.2. refers to end warping the point of load application the warping constant the moment of inertia around minor axis the torsional constant the sectional area the modulus of elasticity the slenderness for torsional buckling ( see above) the moment factor ( equivalent for factor C1) 108 . C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB". 1972". by the DIN formula (19). Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn.l0 z 0 zp Iw Iz It A E vi  the LTB length refers to rotational end-restraint ‘in plan’ (about the z-z local axis). Mcr for symmetric I sections is given by the general formula F. Depending on the input of the basic data.

23.14.20.27.25. y  M cr   z  l²   I  0.28.26.19. 5.21. Carl. 5. 5. 5. negative value is on top and has negative influence warping constant torsional constant l z p I w I t The factor  is supported for the following cases (described in Ref. 5. 5.13. 5. 5. 5. 5.24. Carl & Lindner  EI ² M ki. 5. 5.22. 5.33) : Linear moment distribution : Moment line according to distributed loading 109 .18.30.15. 5.[11].29. 5. tables 5. Lindner modulus of elasticity moment of inertia around weak axis zz system length for LTB application point for loading.039  l²  I t c w Iz with  E I z 2 5z   5z p     c²  p   ²  ²     moment factor according to Roik.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Roik. 5.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Moment line according to concentrated loading 110 .

for channel sections. For non-prismatic sections. Iw+Iwvar. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis’.5 according to Ref. I+2L+rail. Iwn+rail. For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis. part 7 and in particular part 7.[8] pp 175. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. 111 . I+PL+rail. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by M cr   2 EI z L2 L2 GI Iw  2 t Iz  EI z with E G L Iw It Iz the modulus of elasticity the shear modulus the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB) the warping constant the torsional constant the moment of inertia about the minor axis See also Ref. Haunched sections (I+Ivar.7. 5. Iw+Ivar. I+rail.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For the other supported sections. I+2PL+rail. The value Mz is the maximum value of the bending moment around the weak axis in the member. Iw+Plvar. the values My and Mz are the concurrent bending moments for each intermediary section. Combined flexion for check method 2 The value My is the maximum value of the bending moment around the strong axis in the member. For full rectangular sections the value of n according to DIN 18800-2 tabelle 9 is taken as 1.

88-95) : T  M maxV y a hy2 Te 2 For the calculation of maxVy.[7]. pp. The following additional checks are performed : - buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with NG section check of single chord. pp. 112 .[7]. the value of Mz is increased with the value of the internal force Mzz. using internal forces (Ref.88-95) : NG  VG  N a A  max M z sin(  ) G 2 l Wz* maxV y 2 maxV y a 4 MG  - section check of single batten. using the internal forces (Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Battened compression members The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member : (1) 2I (2) 2Uo (3) 2Uc Two links (battens) are used.

For non-prismatic elements.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background hy a l e Effective area properties The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy. the stability check is performed. The most critical check is displayed on the screen. The classification (and effective area) can change for each intermediary point. the classification (and if necessary. The most critical effective area properties are the effective area properties on the position where the appropriate moment of inertia is the minimum. the effective area ) is determined and the proper section check is performed.). 113 . 7. For each intermediary section.k) according to the El-El procedure (DIN18800 T2.3. also for the stability check. the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary section. the most critical effective area properties are saved. For each load case and combination. With these critical properties.

[2]) element. See also Ref. Biegemomententragfähigkeit 404 4. is neglected when there is a bending moment present.3. Biegedrillknicken biegebeanspruchter Bauteile 4.5.Richtlinie 016 3. Iwn+rail. Shear buckling check with buckling influence The influence of the buckling effect into the shear buckling control. Supported elements from DASt . I+2PL+rail.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail. Allgemeines 429 430 431 432 Covered by DIN 18800 T2 elements Remarks Tab. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.4.5.26 712 712 Tab. Cold formed thin gauge members The following table includes a list of DASt-Richtlinie 016 (Ref.1.[12]) elements which are implemented in Scia Engineer by using the related DIN18800 T2 (Ref. Allgemeiner Nachweis 421 422 423 4.9. Grenzzustand der Tragfähigkeit 328 329 330 333 335 4.1.27 706 715 311 311 725. I+rail. I+PL+rail.1. 726 708-710 708-710 708-710 708-710 114 . It means that k=1 if <0. I+2L+rail. Element 503. Druckbeanspruchte einteilige Stäbe 4.[3].7.4.3.

5. HEB.5. HEA. ….3.) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". Einachsige Biegung mit Druck 440 441 442 4.5. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 433 434 4. Zweiachsige Biegung mit Druck 443 444 445 707 721 729 A D ef 708-710 708-710 D ef 716 A is not used manual input / input in profile library for KSL 723 723 707 718 728 is not used Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. 115 .3.2. Planmäig mittiger Druck 435 436 437 438 4.

References 1 DIN 18800 Teil 1 Stahlbauten Bemessung und Konstruktion DK 693.90) Werner-Verlag.074.1. Plattenbeulen DK 693. Faculté des Sciences Appliquées.1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992. 1988 G. Hünersen.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  x O COM NUM Classification Section check PL-PL Section check EL-PL Section check EL-EL Section check slender section Stability check Stability check slender section Shear buckling check x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) (1) (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) sections are classified as EL-EL cross section by default.814. Düsseldorf 1991 2 3 [4] [5] [6] 116 .814.073. 1992 R. Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken DK 693. E. November 1990 DIN 18800 Teil 3 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle. Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg . November 1990 DIN 18800 Teil 2 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle.814.2. November 1990 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .5. Fritzsche Stahlbau in Beispielen Berechnungspraxis nach DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 3 (11.014.

90) Werner-Verlag. Düsseldorf [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] 117 . 1. Verlag Stahleisen mbH. Berlin-Köln 1993 Stahlbau Kalender 1999 DSTV Ernst & Sohn. 6/1978 Stahl im Hochbau 14. Kahlmeyer Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11. 1994 Roik.Auflage Beuth Verlag. Lindner Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dünnwandiger Stäbe Verlag von Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn 1972 DASt-Richtlinie 016 Bemessung und konstruktive Gestaltung von Tragwerken aus dünnwandigen kaltgeformted Bauteilen Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft . 1999 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . Interaktionsbeziehungen für doppeltsymmetrische I.und Kasten-Querschnitte bei zweiachsiger Biegung und Normalkraft Der Stahlbau 5/1978. Auflage. Band I / Teil 2 1986.1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1.1992 H. Düsseldorf Beuth-Kommentare Stahlbauten Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [7] E. Rubin. Carl.

4.014.014.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background ONORM B 4300 ONORM B 4300 Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in ÖNORM B 4300-1 Stahlbau Berechnung und Konstruktion der Tragwerke Bemessung nach Grenzzuständen DK 624.814.075. Plattenbeulen DK 693.2.2.014.2.2.046. Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken DK 693.074. März 1994 ÖNORM B 4300-2 Stahlbau Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 2 und ÖNORM B 4300-1 DK 624. November 1990 DIN 18800 Teil 3 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle.5. November 1990 118 .1.2. April 1994 ÖNORM B 4300-3 Plattenbeulen Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 3 und ÖNORM B 4300-1 DK 624.814. November 1990 DIN 18800 Teil 2 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle.814.075. April 1994 DIN 18800 Teil 1 Stahlbauten Bemessung und Konstruktion DK 693.014.073.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. 1, 2.1. and Ref. 4, Tab.1) The standard steel grades are: (fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm) t<=40 fy St 360 S235 S 235 St 430 S275 S 275 St 510 S355 S 355 240 t<=40 fu 360 40<t<=80 fy 215 40<t<=80 fu 360

280

430

255

430

360

510

325

510

t<=40 fy S420 S 420 S460 S 460 420 460

t<=40 fu 520 550

40<t<=100 fy 390 430

40<t<=100 fu 520 550

Consulted articles
For the section check, the cross section is classified according to ONORM B 4300-1 Tab.3,4,5 and to DIN18800 Teil I, Table 15,18. Depending on this classification, the section is checked as slender section, EL/EL (elastic/elastic), as EL/PL (elastic/plastic) or as PL/PL (plastic/plastic). For the EL/EL check, ONORM B 4300-1 Art. 5.2. is used. (The 7% increase of the moment of inertia is taken into account for rolled I section - see Ref. 1, Art. 5.2.5.4.). The EL/PL check takes the rules from DIN18800 Teil I, Element (756), (757) and Table (16) ,(17). The PL/PL check is done according to DIN18800 Teil I, Element (758), Table (16),(17). The slender cross section is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2, Element (715).

119

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For the stability check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 2 for buckling, lateral torsional buckling and bending and compression. The following criteria are used :     compression : Element (304),(306) Element (311),(309) Element (313),(321),(322)

lateral torsional buckling : bending and axial compression :

bending (LTB) and compression : Element (320),(323)

For slender sections, the following criteria are used :    calculation of effective area : buckling check : LTB check : Element (705),(706),(708),(709),(712),(713) Element (715),(716),(718),(719) Element (725),(726),(728),(729)

For the shear buckling check, the beam element is checked according to DIN18800 Teil 3. The following criteria are used : Element (113), (504), (602),(603) A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in "DIN18800 Code check".

Supported sections
I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical sections

The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.

120

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

I Classification Section check PL-PL Section check EL-PL Section check EL-EL Section check slender section Stability check Stability check slender section Shear buckling check x x x x x x x x

RHS x

CHS x

L x

U x

T x

PPL x

RS x

 x

O (1)

COM (1)

NUM (1)

x x x x x

x

x x

x x x x x

x

x x

x

x x

x

x

x

x

x x

x

x x x

x

x x

x

x

x

(1) sections are classified as EL-EL cross section by default.

References
1 ÖNORM B 4300-1 Stahlbau Berechnung und Konstruktion der Tragwerke Bemessung nach Grenzzuständen DK 624.014.2.046, März 1994 ÖNORM B 4300-2 Stahlbau Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 2 und ÖNORM B 4300-1 DK 624.014.2.075.2, April 1994 ÖNORM B 4300-3 Plattenbeulen Bedingungen für die gemeinsame Anwendung von DIN 18 800 Teil 3 und ÖNORM B 4300-1 DK 624.014.2.075.4, April 1994 DIN 18800 Teil 1 Stahlbauten Bemessung und Konstruktion DK 693.814.014.2, November 1990 DIN 18800 Teil 2 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle, Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken DK 693.814.074.5, November 1990

2

3

[4]

[5]

121

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [6] DIN 18800 Teil 3 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle, Plattenbeulen DK 693.814.073.1, November 1990

122

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

NEN
NEN6770/6771 Code check
The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Staalconstructies TGB 1990 Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies NEN 6770, december 1991 Staalconstructies TGB 1990 Stabiliteit NEN 6771, december 1991-januari 2000

Material properties
For standard steel grades, the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to the thickness of the element (see Ref. 1, art.9.1.2.1.1.) The standard steel grades are : (fy, fu in N/mm², t in mm)

t<=40 fy S235 S 235 S275 S 275 S355 S 355 S420 S 420 S460 S 460 235 275 355 420 460

t<=40 fu 360 430 510 520 550

40<t<=100 fy 215 255 335 390 430

40<t<=100 fu 340 410 490 520 550

100<t<=250 fy 175 205 275

100<t<=250 fy 320 380 450

Remark : For cold formed section, the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table.

123

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Consulted articles
The cross section is classified according to NEN 6771 Table 1. (Class 1, 2, 3 or 4). The section is checked on following criteria:     Tension: Compression: Shear: Bending, shear and axial force: NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.1., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.1. NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.2., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.2. NEN 6770 Art. 11.2.4., NEN 6771 Art. 11.2.4. NEN 6770 Art. 11.3., NEN 6771 Art. 11.3.

For the stability check, the element is checked on following criteria:     Compression: Lateral torsional buckling : Bending and axial compression: Shear buckling : NEN 6771 Art.12.1.1.1/ 12.1.2./12.1.3. NEN 6771 Art.12.2. NEN 6771 Art.12.3. NEN 6771 Art.13.8. / 13.9.

A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for NEN6770 part 11,12 and NEN6771 part 10,11,12,13. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters. NEN6770 11.Toetsing van de doorsnede 11.1. Algemeen 11.2. Enkelvoudige krachten en momenten 11.2.1. Axiale trek 11.2.2. Axiale druk 11.2.3. Buiging 11.2.4. Afschuiving 11.2.5. Torsie 11.3. Combinaties van krachten en momenten 11.3.1. Enkele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving 11.3.2. Dubbele buiging met normaalkracht en afschuiving 11.4. Vloeicriterium 11.5. De invloed van de boutgaten NEN6771 10.2.4. Doorsneden 11.Toetsing van de doorsnede 11.1. Algemeen 11.2. Enkelvoudige krachten en momenten 11.2.1. Axiale trek 11.2.2. Axiale druk x (*) x x x x x x x x x x x (*) x x x x x

124

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 11.2.3. Buiging 11.2.4. Afschuiving 11.2.5. Torsie 11.3. Combinaties van krachten en momenten 12. Toetsing van de stabiliteit 12.1. Op druk belaste staven 12.1.1. Knikstabiliteit 12.1.2. Torsiestabiliteit 12.1.3. Torsieknikstabiliteit 12.1.4. Verend gesteunde staven 12.1.5. Staven in vakwerken 12.1.6. Samengestelde staven 12.1.6.1 Algemeen 12.1.6.2. Benodigde grootheden 12.1.6.3. Toetsing van het middenveld van de samengestelde staaf 12.1.6.4. Toetsing van de eindvelden van de samengestelde staaf 12.1.6.4.2 Staven met raamwerkverband 12.2. Op buiging belaste staven(kipstabiliteit) 12.2.1. Toepassingsgebied 12.2.2. Toetsingsregel 12.2.3. Ongesteunde lengte 12.2.4. Opleggingen en zijdelingse steunen 12.2.5. Het theoretisch elastische kipmoment 12.3. Op druk en buiging belaste staven 12.3.1. Knikstabiliteit 12.3.2. Torsiestabilteit 12.3.3. Torsieknikstabiliteit 12.4. Op trek en buiging belaste staven 13. Toetsing van de plooistabiliteit 13.1. Algemeen 13.2. Geometrie van het verstijfde en onverstijfde plaatveld 13.3. Geometrie van de verstijvingen 13.4. Belasting in het vlak van het plaatveld 13.4.1. Normaalspanning in langsrichting 13.4.2. Schuifspanningen 13.4.3. Normaalspanningen in dwarsrichting 13.4.4. Platen in en loodrecht op hun vlak belast 13.5. Belasting op verstijvingen 13.6. Ideële kritieke plooispanning van een onverstijfd plaatveld 13.7. De plooispanning van een onverstijfd plaatveld 13.7.1. Bepaling van de relatieve slankheid van het plaatveld x x x x x x x x x x (*) x x x x x(*) x x x x x xx x x x x x x (*) x x x

125

3. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability check. Classification of sections For each intermediary section. the stability check is performed. the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed.en dwarsverstijvingen 13.1.7.1.4.9. The classification (and effective area) can change for each intermediary point.8.4. Doorsnedecontrole voor langs.9. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform compression. De plooispanning voor een onverstijfd plaatveld met als opleggingen dwarsverstijving(en) en/of randen 13. De plooispanning voor een onverstijfd plaatveld met ten minste een langsverstijving als oplegging 13.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 13. Interactie tussen plooi en knik 13. for non-prismatic sections.7.8. Algemeen 13. Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy.9. Constructies opgebouwd uit plaatvelden al of niet verstijfd met dwarsverstijvingen 13.k). the effective area ) is determined and the proper section check is performed.8.9.9.8. For each load case/combination. Dwarsverstijvingen 13.3. For each intermediary section. the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination. 126 . Berekeningen van de dwarsverstijvingen x (*) x x x x x Section properties The influence of the bore hole is neglected. So. Stijfheidseisen te stellen aan langs. Constructies opgebouwd uit plaatvelden verstijfd met langsverstijvingen en/of niet verstijfd met dwarsverstijvingen 13. the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section. the classification (and if necessary.2. Eisen waaraan plaatvelden en verstijvingen moeten voldoen 13.8. Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.en dwarsverstijvingen 13.5.3.2. The most critical check is displayed on the screen. However. The classification can change for each intermediary point. For each load case and combination. the most critical effective area properties are saved : Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. With these critical properties. Onverstijfd plaatveld 13. Langsverstijvingen 13.2.8.

Torsion check For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping. F.2. When the factor  > 5000. SFB. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the formula of Ref 2.[7]. Annex F. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula in EC3. also for the stability check. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB. For asymmetric I sections. Ref 3.2. 10 and 11. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula in EC3. proper section checks are performed. Annex D. Annex F.5. For the other supported sections. For the calculation of the moment factors C1. THQ sections) Buckling length For the calculation of the buckling length. part 12. F. SFB. we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'. see chapter 'Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower angle members'. For angle sections. The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).2.. The buckling curves for steel grade S420 and S460 are taken from Ref. C2 and C3 we refer to Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For non-prismatic elements. tables 9 (case 1). Lateral-torsional buckling For symmetric I sections and RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections. Ref 3.[5]. taking into account the local plate bending. we refer tochapter "Calculation of buckling ratio". the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary section. Built-in beams For built-in beam sections (IFB. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by M cr   2 EI z L2 Iw L2 GIt  2 Iz  EI z with E G L Iw It Iz the modulus of elasticity the shear modulus the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= l LTB) the warping constant the torsional constant the moment of inertia about the minor axis 127 . THQ sections).

Iwn+rail. I+2PL+rail. Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'. see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis’. for channel sections. 128 . Iw+Ivar. I+2L+rail. I+rail. I+PL+rail.7. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. part 7 and in particular part 7. Iw+Iwvar. 4.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background See also Ref. Haunched sections (I+Ivar. Iw+Plvar. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis.

s.d  Q f.s.s.s.d a 4 M k.s.s.s.s.d a 4 MG  - section check of single batten.d 2 Q f. using the internal forces : Vk. using internal forces : N G  N f.d. the value of My.d section check of single chord.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Battened compression members The following section pairs are supported as battened compression member : (1) 2I (2) 2Uo (3) 2Uc Two links (battens) are used.d is increased with the value of the internal force Mzz.d a h0 2 Q f.s. 129 . The following additional checks are performed : - buckling resistance check around weak axis of single chord with N f.d  For the calculation of Qf.d VG  Q f.s.

i. I+2L+rail. if <0.e.9. I+PL+rail. Iwn+rail. is neglected when there is a bending moment present. I+2PL+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. Shear buckling check with buckling influence The influence of the buckling effect into the shear buckling control. 130 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background ho a l Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail. I+rail.

NEN6702 6.d  f y.a I characteristic values of permanent actions characteristic value of the variable action design values of special action (from fire exposure) partial safety factor for permanent actions in the special combination =1.rep f.g f..[10].0 the 'momentaaan' factor for the variable action Material properties The yield strength is depending on the steel temperature : f y. for calculating the internal forces used in the fire resistance check.0 partial safety factor for special actions in the special combination =1. Fire actions effect The design effects of actions for the fire situation are taken from the results of the analysis.[8].Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background NEN6072 .0 when a  400° C - when 400°C < a  1200° C 131 .2.2. Ref.a Fa .rep with Grep Qi Fa..[9]. This special combination is given by  f .Fire Resistance For more info. reference is made to to Ref.d The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength  is given by : =1. It is recommended to use the special combination rules according to Ref.q  i Qi.0 partial safety factor for variable actions in the special combination =1.g G rep   f .q f.rep   f .

.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background with   a  482 39.d fy.2 a fy.d steel temperature in °C design value for yield strength at room temperature design value for yield strength at increased temperature The following default properties are considered to be constant during the analysis : unit mass thermal elongation thermal conductivity a l/l a 7850 kg/m³ 14 x 10 (a-20) 45 W/mK -6 Nominal temperature-time curve The standard temperature-time (ISO 834) curve is used : g  20  345 log10 (8t  1) with t g time in [min] gas temperature in [°C] Steel Temperature The increase of temperature a in an unprotected steel member during a time interval t with Am V P t the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m] the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m] = Am/V gas temperature in [°C] 132 .

ef the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m] the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m] = Ap/V the specific heat of steel [J/kgK] the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK] the thickness of the fire protection material [m] the time interval [seconds] The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds the unit mass of steel [kg/m³] the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³] the steel temperature at time t the ambient gas temperature at time t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK] 133 .5 coefficient of heat transfer by convection = 25 W/(m²K) The increase of temperature a in an insulated (non intumescent coating) steel member during a time interval t with Ap V Pi ca ci di t a i a t t i.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background a ca t a r c steel temperature [°C] the specific heat of steel [J/kgK] the time interval [seconds] the unit mass of steel [kg/m³] resultant emissivity = 0.d.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The increase of temperature a in an insulated (intumescent coating) steel member during a time interval t with Ap V Pi ca Kd.ef the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m] the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m] = Ap/V the specific heat of steel [J/kgK] coefficient of heat transfer of the intumescent coating the time interval [seconds] The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds the unit mass of steel [kg/m³] the steel temperature at time t the ambient gas temperature at time t the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK] 134 .ef t a a t i.d.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation model The calculation can be performed in 2 domains : strength domain temperature/time domain In the strength domain.85 for beams. the critical steel temperature a.70 for beams. From this critical temperature.cr is computed. The checks are performed in the resistance domain or in the temperature/time domain. statically determined.20 for compression elements (inclusive the buckling check) = 1. statically undetermined. statically undetermined. the fire resistance time is calculated (the time domain). The critical steel temperature a. In the temperature/time domain. 4 side exposure = 0. strength after 45 min). statically determined.00 for tension elements = 1. Shear buckling is not considered.60 for beams. lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the regulations given in NEN6770/6771. 3 side exposure = 1. 135 .cr is given by : with   degree of utilization at time t=0 correction factor = 1. 4 side exposure = 0.20 for compression and bending elements (inclusive the buckling and LTB check) Code Check The section and stability checks (buckling.00 for beams.g. 3 side exposure = 0. the strength (unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e. adapted with the yield strength for the increased temperature and the correction factor.

I Classification Section check class 1 Section check class 2 Section check class 3 Section check class 4 Stability check class 1 Stability check class 2 Stability check class 3 Stability check class 4 Shear buckling check x x x x x x x x x x RHS x x x x x x x x x x CHS x x x x L x U x T x PPL x RS x Z (1)  x O (1) COM (1) NUM (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) Sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Z section Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". HEA.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL Z RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. HEB. 136 . The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. ….

januari 2000 NEN 6072 Rekenkundige bepaling van de brandwerendheid van bouwdelen Staalconstructies December 1991 NEN 6072/A2 . december 1991 Staalconstructies TGB 1990 Stabiliteit NEN 6771.Wijzigingsblad Rekenkundige bepaling van de brandwerendheid van bouwdelen Staalconstructies December 2001 NEN 6702 Belastingen en vervormingen TGB 1990 December 1991 2 3 [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] 137 . 1988 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1. Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background References 1 Staalconstructies TGB 1990 Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies NEN 6770. 1992 R.1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992. december 1991 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . Faculté des Sciences Appliquées. 1994 ENV 1993-1-3:1996 Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures Part 1-3 : General rules Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting CEN 1996 Staalconstructies TGB 1990 Stabiliteit NEN 6771.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background AISC – ASD : 1989 AISC . DESIGN REQUIREMENTS B1.H2 A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table. Rotational Restraint at Points of Support B7. Gross Area B2. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. Stability B5. E3 flexural members : F1. B. or slender section). Proportions of Beams and Girders B11. Simple Spans B9.F3.F2.ASD Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Manual of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design Part 5 : Specification and Codes AISC. End Restraint B10. Proportioning of Crane Girders x (*) x x x (*) 138 . The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters. (compact.Classification of Steel Sections 2.1.F4 plate girders : G2 combined forces : H1. Net Area B3. The member is checked on following criteria:      tension : D1 compression : E2.Slender Compression Elements B6. Local Buckling 1. Limiting Slenderness Ratios B8. 1989 The cross section is classified according to Table B5. Effective Area B4. Ninth Edition. non compact.

Web Slenderness Limitations G2. PLATE GIRDERS G1. Built-up members D3. Pin-Connected Compression Members E6. Allowable Stress : Strong Axis Bending of I-Shaped Members and Channels 1. Allowable Shear Stress F5. Effective Length and Slenderness Ratio E2. Allowable Stress : Bending of Box Members. TENSION MEMBERS D1. Allowable Shear Stress with Tension Field Action G4. Column Web Shear F. Allowable Bending Stress G3.Members with Non-Compact Sections 3. Transverse Stiffeners F6.Members with Compact Sections 2. Pin-Connected Members E. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS F1. Allowable Stress : Weak Axis Bending of I-Shaped Members.Members with Compact Sections 2. Allowable Stress E3.Members with Compact Sections 2. Allowable Stress D2. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS E1.Members with Non-Compact Sections F4. Built-up Members F7.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background D. Web-tapered Members G.Members with Compact or Non-Compact Sections with Unbraded Length Greater then Lc F2. Rectangular Tubes and Circular Tubes 1. Solid Bars and Rectangular Plates 1. Built-up Members E5. Axial Compression and Bending H2. Transverse Stiffeners G5. Flexural-torsional Buckling E4. COMBINED STRESSES H1. Axial Tension and Bending x x x (*) x x x x x x x x x x x x (*) x x (*) x (*) 139 .Members with Non-Compact Sections F3. Combined Shear and Tension Stress H.

For RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) . we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio". The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”). Lateral-torsional buckling For I sections and channel sections. the allowable LTB stress is given in F1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background APPENDIX B. pp. 1. the classification is determined. Flexural Torsional Buckling The slenderness ratio for flexural torsional buckling (KL/r) e is given by E  KL     r e Fe  See Ref. Appendix E. 2. i. the allowable LTB stress is given in F3. the allowable LTB stress is given in Ref. “Specification for allowable stress . Local Buckling x Classification of sections For each intermediary section. The calculation of Fe is given in Ref. Section properties The influence of the bore hole is neglected. For each load case/combination. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS B5. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the code check. the section classification is determined for each intermediary section. Commentary Chapter E1. However.. for non-prismatic sections. 1.Design of single-angle members”. 140 .309-314. only the gross area is used. For angle sections with symmetrical legs.e. Buckling length For the calculation of the buckling length.

Iwn+rail. the critical LTB stress LTB is calculated :  LTB  M cr Iy Iy the moment of inertia about the major axis with The slenderness ratio for LTB LTB. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. Iwn+rail. See also Ref. Bijlage E. E2.1. I+PL+rail. I+rail. I+PL+rail. With this moment Mcr. I+2L+rail. 5. Iw+Ivar. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by M cr   2 EI z L2 Iw L2 GIt  2 Iz  EI z with E G L Iw It Iz the modulus of elasticity the shear modulus the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= l LTB) the warping constant the torsional constant the moment of inertia about the minor axis See also Ref. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. Iw+Plvar.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For the other supported sections. is given by  LTB   E  LTB The allowable LTB stress is calculated using the slenderness LTB with the formulas given in Ref. 4. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. 141 . I+2PL+rail. I+rail. Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail. Haunched sections (I+Ivar. I+2L+rail. Iw+Iwvar. I+2PL+rail. part 7.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. …. HEB. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. Ninth Edition. First Edition. References 1 Manual of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design AISC.) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". HEA. 1989 Manual of Steel Construction Load & Resistance Factor Design AISC. I Classification Compact section Non-compact section Slender section Shear buckling check x x x x x RH S x x x x CH S x x x L x U x x T x PP L x x R S x O  (1 x ) x x x CO M (1) NU M (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) sections are classified as non-compact section by default. 1986 2 142 .

April 1977 [4] [5] 143 . Faculté des Sciences Appliquées. 1988 NBN B 51-001 Stalen Bouwconstructies BIN. 5e uitg.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 3 Manual of Steel Construction Load & Resistance Factor Design AISC. Second Edition. Volume I. Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg . 1995 R.

Stability B5. Limiting Slenderness Ratios B8.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background AISC – LRFD : 2001 AISC . Simple Spans x (*) x x x x (*) 144 . Appendix E3 flexural members : F1.Slender-Element Compression Sections B6. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. Appendix G5 combined forces : H1. Local Buckling 1.LRFD Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in AISC – Manual of steel construction Load and Resistance Factor Design Part 16 Specifications and Codes Third Edition 2001 The cross section is classified according to Table B5. Appendix F2 plate girders : Appendix G2. The member is checked on following criteria :      tension : D1 compression : E2. or slender section). Effective Area for Tension Members B4. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.Appendix F1. Bracing at Support B7. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS B1. Appendix G3. non compact.1.H2 A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table. B. Net Area B3. Gross Area B2.Slender Compression Elements 3. E3.Classification of Steel Sections 2. (compact.

Design Compressive Strength for Flexural Buckling E3. Design for Flexure F2. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS E1. Built-up members D3. Symmetric Members Subject to Bending and Axial Force H2. Web-tapered Members F4. Design for Shear x x x x x x x (*) x x x x x x (*) x x x (*) 145 .Lateral-Torsional Buckling F2. MEMBERS UNDER COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION H1.Yielding 2. Effective Length and Slenderness Limitations 1. Design for Shear F3. Design for Flexure 1. Flexure.Effective Length 2. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS F1. Unsymmetric Members and Members under Torsion and Combined Torsion. TENSION MEMBERS D1. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS B5. Proportions of Beams and Girders D. Shear and/or Axial Force H3. Design Tensile Strength D2. Local Buckling APPENDIX E. Built-up Members E5. Pin-Connected Members and Eyebars E. End Restraint B10. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural-Torsional Buckling E4.Design by Plastic Analysis E2. Alternative Interaction Equation for Members under Combined Stress APPENDIX B. BEAMS AND OTHER FLEXURAL MEMBERS F1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background B9. Design Compressive Strength for Flexural-Torsional Buckling APPENDIX F. COLUMN AND OTHER COMPRESSION MEMBERS E3. PLATE GIRDERS H. Pin-Connected Compression Members F. Beams and Girders with Web Openings G.

. rectangular sections. pp. However. the critical LTB moment is given in Ref. channel sections. PLATE GIRDERS G1. the classification is determined. for non-prismatic sections. Flexure-Shear Interaction x(*) x(*) x(*) Classification of sections For each intermediary section. RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections. Design Flexural Strength G3. Web-tapered Members APPENDIX G. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by M cr   2 EI z L2 Iw L2 GIt  2 Iz  EI z with E G L Iw It Iz the modulus of elasticity the shear modulus the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= l LTB) the warping constant the torsional constant the moment of inertia about the minor axis 146 . Buckling length For the calculation of the buckling length. only the gross area is used.e. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the code check. Design Shear Strength with Tension Field Action G4. the section classification is determined for each intermediary section. 1. we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".281-288. Section properties The influence of the bore hole is neglected. the critical LTB moment is given in F1 and Appendix F1. Lateral-torsional buckling For I sections. For the other supported sections. For angle sections with symmetrical legs. i. Transverse Stiffeners G5. The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”). For each load case/combination. T sections. “Specification for Load and Resistance Factor Design of Single-Angle members”. and asymmetric I sections. Limitations G2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background F3.

2. HEA. Haunched sections (I+Ivar. …. I Classification Compact section Non-compact section Slender section Shear buckling check x x x x x RH S x x x x CHS x L x U x x T x PP L x x RS x x x  x O (1) COM (1) NUM (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 147 . I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. I+2PL+rail. Iwn+rail. I+2L+rail. Iw+Plvar. I+PL+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. I+2PL+rail. part 7. I+PL+rail. I+rail.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background See also Ref. Iwn+rail. I+rail. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. Iw+Ivar.) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". I+2L+rail. Iw+Iwvar. Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'. Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. HEB. Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail.

1988 148 . References 1 AISC – Manual of steel construction Load and Resistance Factor Design Third Edition 2001 2 R.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background (1) sections are classified as non-compact section by default. Faculté des Sciences Appliquées. Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg .

Required Strength 2. or slender section).Design for Strength using LRFD 4. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS B2. (compact. Slenderness Limitation D2. Tensile Strength D3.Limit States 3. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.1. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR TENSION D1. Area Determination x x x(*) x x x x 149 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background ANSI/AISC 360-05:2005 ANSI/AISC 360-05 Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in ANSI/AISC 360-05 Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings 2005 The steel code check can be executed according to either ASD or LRFD provisions. The cross section is classified according to Table B4. Loads and Load Combination B3. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. The member is checked on following criteria:      tension : Chapter D compression : Chapter E flexural members :Chapter F shear : Chapter G combined forces : Chapter H A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table. B. non compact. Design Basis 1. Classification of Sections for Local Buckling D.Design for Strength using ASD B4.

Round HSS F9. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR SHEAR G1. Weak Axis Shear in Singly and Doubly Symmetric Shapes H. Tees and Double Angle Loaded in Plane of Symmetry F10. Single Angle F11. General Provisions G2. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMPRESSION E1. Doubly and Singly Symmetric Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force H2. Members with Unstiffened or Stiffened Webs G4. Round HSS G7. Members Under Torsion and Combined Torsion and Combined Stress x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x(*) x x x 150 . Reactangular Bars and Rounds F12. General Provisions E2. Square and Rectangular HSS and Box-Shaped Members F8. DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR COMBINED FORCES AND TORSION H1. Compressive Strength for Flexural Buckling of members without Slender Elements E4. I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent about Their Minor Axis F7. Compressive Strength for Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling of members without Slender Elements E7. Doubly Symmetric Compact I-Shaped Members and Channels Bent about their Major Axis F3. Members with Slender Elements F. Unsymmetric and Other Members Subject to Flexure and Axial Force H3. Other I-Shaped Members with Compact or Noncompact Webs Bent about Their Major Axis F5. Single Angles G5. Doubly Symmetric and Singly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Slender Webs Bent about Their Major Axis F6. DESIGN FOR MEMBERS FOR FLEXURE F1. General Provisions F2. Unsymmetrical Shapes G. Slenderness Limitations and Effective Length E3.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background E. Rectangular HSS and Box Members G6. Doubly Symmetric I-Shaped Members with Compact Webs and Noncompact or Slender Flanges Bent about Their Major Axis F4.

the classification is determined. only the gross area is used. Section properties The influence of the bore hole is neglected. For each load case/combination. Iwn+rail.e. Iw+Ivar. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail. I+2PL+rail. the section classification is determined for each intermediary section. I+PL+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. Lateral-torsional buckling Haunched sections (I+Ivar. I+PL+rail. Buckling length For the calculation of the buckling length.. I+2L+rail. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the code check. I+2L+rail. Iw+Plvar. However. I+rail. Iwn+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”). 151 . i. we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio". I+rail. Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'. Iw+Iwvar.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Classification of sections For each intermediary section. I+2PL+rail. for non-prismatic sections.

I Classification Compact section Non-compact section Slender section Shear buckling check x x x x x RH S x x x x x CHS x L x U x x T x PP L x x RS x x x  x O (1) COM (1) NUM (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) Sections are classified as non-compact section by default. References 1 ANSI/AISC 360-05 Specifications for Structural Steel Buildings 2005 152 . HEA.) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. HEB.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. ….

The Canadian LSD method is not supported. 2008 Amended September 25. 2007 edition February. 1 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. 2009 AISI S100-07/S2-10 Supplement No. 2007 edition August. 2009 AISI S100-07/S1-09 Supplement No. 2 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. 2008 Amended June 4. The articles marked with “x” are consulted. The articles marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following paragraphs. Consulted articles An overview for the used articles is given in the following table.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background AISI NAS S100-2007 AISI NAS S100-2007 Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in: AISI S100-2007 North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members 2007 edition AISI S100-07-E1 Errata to North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members 2007 edition February 20. Article A A4 A5 B B1 Title General Provisions Allowable Strength Design Load and resistance Factor Design Elements Dimensional Limits and Considerations X(*) X X 153 . 2010 The steel code check is supported for the United States provisions and can be executed according to either ASD or LRFD principles.

5 Combined Bending and Web Crippling C3.1 Flexural Members Having One Flange ThroughFastened to Deck of Sheeting D6.2.3 Compression Members Having One Flange Through-Fastened to Deck of Sheeting X(*) X(*) 154 .1 Purlins.2 Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending D D6 Structural Assemblies and Systems Metal Roof and Wall Systems D6.1.1 uniformly Compressed Unstiffened Elements B3.1 Nominal Section Strength C3. FlexuralTorsional and Torsional Buckling C4.4.1.1 Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending C5.1 Bending C3.4 Distortional Buckling Strength C3.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background B2 Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements B2.1 Uniformly Compressed Stiffened Elements B2.2 Unstiffened Elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient B4 Effective Width of Uniformly Compressed Elements with a Simple Lip Edge Stiffener X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) C C1 C2 C3 Members Properties of Sections Tension Members Flexural members C3.1.2 Distortional Buckling Strength C5 Combined Axial Load and Bending C5.1. Girts and Other Members D6.1.1 Nominal Strength for Yielding.1 Web Crippling Strength of Webs without Holes C3.1. Flexural.1 Shear Strength of Webs without Holes C3.3 Combined Bending and Shear C3.6 Combined Bending and Torsional Loading X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) X(*) C4 Concentrically Loaded Compression Members C4.4 Web Crippling C3.3 Flexural Strength of Closed Cylindrical Tubular Members C3.2 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength C3.3 Webs and Other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient B3 Effective Widths of Unstiffened Elements B3.2 Shear C3.

The roundings are set as fixed parts. arbitrary members and cross-sections without initial shapes are not supported for the AISI NAS S100-2007 code check. In this case the default AISC 2005 code check is executed. For a General cross-section the ‘Thin-walled representation’ has to be used to be able to define the Initial Shape. 155 . the flat parts are taken between the intersection points of the centrelines.e. For predefined sections without roundings.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Appendix 2 Second-Order Analysis 2. The initial shape is supported for the following cross-section types: Standard profile library cross-sections Cold formed Pair cross-sections of profile library sections General thin-walled sections General sections with thin-walled representation Thin-walled geometric sections All other sections which support the centerline and do not have roundings For standard profile library cross-sections. The thin-walled cross-section parts can have the following types: F I SO UO Fixed Part – No reduction is needed Internal cross-section part Symmetrical Outstand Unsymmetrical Outstand Parts can also be specified as reinforcement: None RUO Not considered as reinforcement Reinforced Unsymmetrical Outstand (edge stiffener) ROU reinforcement types can be set only to elements of type SO or UO.1 General requirements X(*)  Haunches. the flat parts are taken between the roundings. the initial shape is based on the centreline dimensions i. the Initial Shape can be defined. Initial Shape For a cross-section with material Steel and fabrication set to Cold-Formed.

Article B1. this concerns elements of type I with stress gradient  = 1 Serviceability Determination is not supported. this concerns elements of type I with stress gradient  ≠ 1 Serviceability Determination is not supported.2 (a) is checked for web elements under stress gradient. More specifically.3 (a) Strength Determination.1 (a) Strength Determination.1 (a) (1) for a simple lip is checked for an internal element (I) connected to a stiffener (RUO). Article B1. Effective Widths Uniformly Compressed Stiffened elements The effective width of Uniformly Compressed Stiffened elements is calculated according to article B2.1 (b) concerning flange curling and (c) concerning shear lag effects are not supported.1 (a) Strength Determination. this concerns elements of type SO or UO (with or without reinforcement type RUO) with stress gradient  = 1 Serviceability Determination is not supported.1 (a) (3) is checked for an outstand element (UO or SO). Webs are defined as elements perpendicular (tolerance +/-45°) to the axis of bending. Article B1.1 and B1.1 (a) (2) is checked for an internal element (I).2. Webs and Other Stiffened Elements under Stress Gradient The effective width of Webs and Other Stiffened elements under stress gradient is calculated according to article B2. Articles B1. More specifically. More specifically.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Dimensional limits Dimensional limits are supported according to article B1. 156 . Article B1. Uniformly Compressed Unstiffened elements The effective width of Uniformly Compressed Unstiffened elements is calculated according to article B3.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Unstiffened elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient The effective width of Unstiffened elements and Edge Stiffeners with Stress Gradient is calculated according to article B3. More specifically. 157 .2 (a) Strength Determination. Properties of Sections Deductions for holes. Effective width of Uniformly Compressed elements with a Simple Lip Edge Stiffener The effective width of Uniformly Compressed elements with a Simple Lip Edge Stiffener is calculated according to article B4 (a) Strength Determination.  Effective section properties can never be bigger than gross section properties (for example in case of manually inputted gross section properties which have been rounded down). this concerns elements of type SO or UO (with or without reinforcement type RUO) with stress gradient  ≠ 1 The alternative methods for unstiffened C-sections are not supported. More specifically. Serviceability Determination is not supported. Serviceability Determination is not supported. this concerns elements of type I with stress gradient  = 1 which are connected to a fixed element (rounding) which in turn is connected to an element of type UO or SO with reinforcement type RUO. openings and cut-outs are not supported.

2. The simplified formulas of article C3.1 (a). Lateral Torsional Buckling Open Section The Lateral Torsional Buckling strength for open sections is determined according to article C3.1.1 (b) are not supported.Based on Initiation of Yielding is applied. 2CFUc. 2CFCo. openings … are not supported An = Ag.2.1. Doubly symmetric sections For Doubly symmetric sections formula (C3. For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.1-4) is used for either axis.1.1.1.2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Tension Members The tensile strength is determined according to article C2. For yielding in the gross section:  For rupture in the net section:  With: Fy Fu Ag An Yield strength Tensile strength Gross area of cross-section Net area of cross-section Since deductions for holes. 2CFCc 158 . Flexural Members Nominal Section Strength The nominal section strength is determined according to article C3. This applies to the following form codes: 1 (Symmetric I shape) 7 (Rectangular section) 11 (Solid tube) In addition this applies to the cold formed pair sections 2CFUo. More specifically Procedure I .

1-6) Cb for y-y bending is taken as unity. 159 .2. For y-y bending Kx is taken as the buckling ratio about the x-axis and Lx the system length for buckling about the x-axis.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Formula (C3.1.1-4) is rewritten as follows: Remarks:    For x-x bending the LTB length is used instead of the effective length KyLy.1.2. The equation for r0 is expanded to allow any type of cross-section:   Cb for x-x bending is calculated according to formula (C3.

This applies to the following form codes: 5 (Channel section) 112 (Cold formed Channel section) 114 (Cold formed C section) 117 (Cold formed C-Plus section) 121 (Cold formed Sigma section) 122 (Cold formed Sigma section stiffened) 123 (Cold formed Sigma-Plus section) Formulas (C3. This applies to the following form codes: 102 (Z section) 113 (Cold formed Z section) 118 (Cold formed ZED section) 119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips) 120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip) 126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined) Formula (C3.2.2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Point symmetric sections For Point symmetric sections formula (C3.2. Singly symmetric sections For Singly symmetric sections formula (C3.1.1.1.1-10) for bending about the y-y axis.2.1-10) are written as follows: 160 .1-5) is rewritten as follows: The same remarks are valid as for doubly symmetric sections.2.1.1-4) and (C3.1-4) is used for bending about the x-x axis and formula (C3.1.1.1-5) is used for either axis.2.

441 E/Fy the check is not executed and a warning is issued on the output. The parameter j is calculated using the formula for C-sections given in Ref. except for the following form codes: 2 (Rectangular Hollow Section) 3 (Circular Hollow Section) Lateral Torsional Buckling Box Section The Lateral Torsional Buckling strength for box sections is determined according to article C3.3.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The same remarks are valid as for doubly symmetric sections.2.1.1.2-2) are rewritten as follows: The same remarks are valid as for open doubly symmetric sections.2. [4]. Flexural Strength Closed Cylindrical Tubular members The Flexural Strength of Closed Cylindrical Tubular members is determined according to article C3.2.2.2-1) and (C3.1. This applies to the following form code: 3 (Circular Hollow Section)  In case the diameter to thickness ratio D/t exceeds the limit 0.1. 161 . Other section types All other cross-sections which are not covered by the previous paragraphs are considered to be doubly symmetric. This applies to the following form code: 2 (Rectangular Hollow Section) In addition this applies to the cold formed pair sections 2CFUc and 2CFCc with distance a = 0 mm Formulas (C3.

 For calculating the compression flange properties. CHS section ). Remarks:   The unbraced length Lm is taken as the LTB length and this for both bending axis. with the xaxis measured positive to the right from the centroid and the y-axis positive up from the centroid) The elastic section modulus of the full unreduced section relative to the extreme fiber in first yield Sfy is taken as Sfy. Flanges are defined as elements with angle < 45° to the horizontal axis. the member is regarded as continuously restrained and Lm = Lcr. For a general section this is taken as the summation of the Internal (I) parts of the flange. In determining the stress gradient in the web. is taken as the  In case a diaphragm is located on the compression side.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Distortional Buckling Strength For both bending axis the distortional buckling strength is determined according to article C3. In case a diaphragm is positioned on the compression side and the diaphragm provides full bracing. distortional buckling is not checked. the default Scia Engineer axis convention is used (x-y axis system located at the centroid of the flange. The distance b0 for a standard profile library section is taken as the width property. The rotational stiffness of the restraining element is by default taken as zero. pure symmetrical bending is assumed. The distance h0 for a standard profile library section is taken as the height property. Web elements are defined as elements with an angle > 45° to the horizontal axis. For a general section this is taken as the maximal height of the ‘web’ elements. Connected flange elements which have a relative angle > 135° are accounted for as ‘one’ flange for distortional buckling.1. if the stiffener is in compression distortional buckling can occur (even if the flange itself is partially in tension).e. This implies that for x-x bending this parameter equals 2 and for y-y bending this parameter equals zero. For a Sigma section (Form Code 121 – 125) this is taken as the (full) height property. rotational stiffness vorhC of the diaphragm. [9].y for y-y bending.1. For diaphragms reference is made to Use of diaphragms. The check is executed in case the following conditions are met:   The cross-section has at least one element with reinforcement type RUO For the given bending moment in the section.x for x-x bending and Sfy. When there is no ‘web’ element (i.       162 . at least one of these elements is in compression More specifically this implies that. More specifically the general Procedure (a) is followed using formula (C3. This is in accordance with the distortional buckling shapes for weak axis bending of typical C-sections obtained using numerical analysis Ref.4-6).4.

i of the related elements. the flange/web junction is taken to be at the intersection between the flange/web rounding and the flat part of the flange.  AISI NAS S100-2007 does not give provisions to calculate the shear resistance for circular hollow sections (Form Code 3). UO and SO are accounted for. for each element i the nominal shear stress Fv.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background    For cross-sections with roundings. In addition. elements with reinforcement type ROU are not accounted for. Begin position of element i. Combined Bending and Shear The combined bending and shear check is determined according to articles C3. For Omega sections (Form Code 115) the top flange is not seen as flange for distortional buckling.i The nominal shear strength Vn for the cross section is taken as the sum of the Vn. The shear strength of the element then becomes Vn. The thickness t is taken as the smallest thickness of the cross-section elements.1 and C3. Angle of element i to the horizontal x-x axis In addition. Transverse stiffeners are not supported. End position of element i .3. therefore the equations for unreinforced webs are used. In the calculation of Aw only elements with element types I.2.i is calculated. 163 . Therefore the default AISC 2005 provisions are used in this case. For each element i the shear area Aw. Transverse stiffeners are not supported.3.2.1. Thickness of element i.i * Fv. Shear The shear strength is determined according to article C3.i is calculated as follows: With: i= xend = xbeg = t= = The number (ID) of the element.34. therefore the shear buckling coefficient kv is taken as 5.i = Aw.

1. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same buckling system. This applies to cold formed pair sections 2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a = 0 mm and the following form codes: 127 (Cold formed I-Plus section) 128 (Cold formed IS-Plus section) Since these pair sections consist of two webs the resistance of the full section is obtained by adding the values of each web. The alternative given in equation (C3. Remarks:  The shear force diagram of both the actual member as well as adjacent members is evaluated.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Web Crippling Strength The web crippling strength is determined according to article C3. In case there is an element with reinforcement type ROU the setting is taken as ‘Stiffened or Partially Stiffened Flanges’. Built-Up Sections For built-up sections table C3.1-2) is not supported.    The following paragraphs specify the supported cross-section types.1-2 is used. The distances for One-flange/Two-flange and End/Interior are evaluated taking into account adjacent members.4.4. The web crippling check is executed on the positions where there is a jump in the Vy shear force diagram. The angle  between the plane of the web and the plane of the bearing surface is taken as 90°.1-1 is used.4. More specifically the general equation (C3. Single Web Channel and C-Sections For single web channel and C-sections table C3. The Flange Conditions depend on the definition of the initial shape.4.1-1) is applied.4. Adjacent members are defined as members which are in the same buckling system. This applies to the following form codes: 5 (Channel section) 112 (Cold formed Channel section) 114 (Cold formed C section) 116 (Cold formed C section eaves beam) 117 (Cold formed C-Plus section) In addition this applies to the following pair sections: 2CFUc and 2CFCc 2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a > 0 mm 164 .

This applies to the following form codes: 102 (Z section) 113 (Cold formed Z section) 118 (Cold formed ZED section) 119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips) 120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip) 126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined) Single Hat Sections For single hat sections table C3. In addition table C3.1-4 is used. 165 . Other Sections For any other cross-section types as those listed in the previous paragraphs no web crippling check is executed.4.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Since the pair sections consist of two webs the resistance of the full section is obtained by adding the values of each web.1-3 is used.1-5 is not supported. This applies to the following form code: 115 (Cold formed Omega section) Since these sections consist of two webs the resistance of the full section is obtained by adding the values of each web.4.4. Single Web Z-Sections For single web Z-sections table C3.

5.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Combined Bending and Web Crippling The combined bending and web crippling check is determined according to articles C3. Requirement (a) is applied to the following form codes/sections: 5 (Channel section) 112 (Cold formed Channel section) 114 (Cold formed C section) 116 (Cold formed C section eaves beam) 117 (Cold formed C-Plus section) 102 (Z section) 113 (Cold formed Z section) 118 (Cold formed ZED section) 119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips) 120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip) 126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined) 115 (Cold formed Omega section) 2CFUc and 2CFCc 2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a > 0 mm Requirement (b) is applied to the following form codes/sections: 2CFUo and 2CFCo with distance a = 0 mm Requirement (c) is applied to the following form codes/sections in case the check is executed within a lapped zone: 102 (Z section) 113 (Cold formed Z section) 118 (Cold formed ZED section) 119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetrical lips) 120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip) 126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined) Remarks:    The exception given for requirement (a) is not supported.1 and C3. (3) & (4) are fulfilled. For requirement (c) it is assumed that conditions (1).2. (2).5. 166 . In case a lapped Z section does not meet the limits for requirement (c) the provisions of requirement (a) are applied instead.

Using these stresses. For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.6. In addition the effective length factor ky is set to 1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Combined Bending and Torsion Combined bending and torsion loading is evaluated according to article C3. For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”. In each fiber of the cross-section the bending stresses Sigma Mx and Sigma My are calculated. In addition. this point is seen as a fixed point for weak axis buckling. the R factor is calculated according to equation (C3. These stresses are based on the effective cross-sectional properties and calculated in the fibers of the gross cross-section. it specifies that both the top and bottom flange are held into position.00. reference is made to “Calculation buckling ratio – general formula”.1 using Fn = Fy. The increase of the R factor in case of C-sections is not supported. Flexural Buckling The stress Fe for flexural buckling is determined according to article C4. Compression Members Nominal axial strength The nominal axial strength is determined according to article C4. As such. This implies that the system length Ly is taken between the LTB restraints of type ‘Both’ and the member ends.  In case an LTB restraint of type ‘Both’ is inputted. in each fiber the shear stress due to torsion Tau t is calculated based on gross section properties. 167 .6-1) using the following expressions: f bending = Sigma Mx + Sigma My f torsion = Tau t f bending + f torsion = (composed stress) The critical fiber is taken as the fiber with the biggest composed stress.1. For the calculation of the effective length factor.1.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Torsional (-Flexural) Buckling The stress Fe for torsional (-flexural) buckling is determined according to the general method given in Ref. Doubly symmetric and hollow sections are taken as not subject to torsional (-flexural) buckling.[7].TF Sigma.TF / Ag With: Ncr.t = Ncr. This applies to the following form codes: 1 (Symmetric I shape) 2 (Rectangular Hollow Section) 3 (Circular Hollow Section) For any other section the stress Fe is taken as the smallest of Sigma. [7].T Ncr.TF = Ncr.t and Sigma.T / Ag Sigma.T for torsional buckling is calculated according to Ref.TF Ag Critical axial load for torsional buckling Critical axial load for torsional-flexural buckling Gross section area Determination of Ncr.T The elastic critical load Ncr.  With: E G J Cw lT x0 and y0 rx ry Modulus of Young Shear modulus Torsion constant Warping constant Buckling length for the torsional buckling mode Coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid radius of gyration about the x-x axis radius of gyration about the y-y axis 168 .

The minimal Fd is taken as the limiting value of the cross-section. torsional and torsional-flexural buckling) is used for calculating Fn according to article C4. Ncr. In addition. For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”.5. this procedure allows stiffened flanges of unequal dimensions.1.T Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the x-x axis Critical axial load for flexural buckling about the y-y axis Critical axial load for torsional buckling The smallest value of Fe (flexural.x Ncr. Because of this separate determination.441 E/Fy the check is not executed and a warning is issued on the output.TF for torsional flexural buckling is calculated according to Ref.TF The elastic critical load Ncr. 169 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Determination of Ncr.2.[7].2-6). a diaphragm on only one flange is accounted for in the Fd calculation of that specific flange. The elastic distortional buckling stress Fd is determined for each flange separately. More specifically the general Procedure (a) is followed using formula (C4.y Ncr.TF is taken as the smallest root of the following cubic equation in N: 0 With: Ncr. This applies to the following form code: 3 (Circular Hollow Section)  In case the diameter to thickness ratio D/t exceeds the limit 0. For diaphragms reference is made to “Use of diaphragms”. Distortional Buckling Strength The distortional buckling strength is determined according to article C4. The check is executed in case the cross-section has at least one element with reinforcement type RUO.1. Closed Cylindrical Tubular sections The axial strength for closed cylindrical tubular sections is determined according to article C4. Remarks:   The same remarks are valid as for distortional buckling of flexural members.

11 p22).Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Combined Compression and Bending The combined compression and bending check is executed according to article C5.11.1 concerning purlin and girt design.4.[8]: With E CW L G J Iy h Modulus of Young Warping constant of the purlin LTB length of the purlin Shear modulus Torsion constant of the purlin Second moment or area about the y-y axis of the purlin Height of the purlin 170 .3. For the rotational stiffness vorhC of a diaphragm reference is made to “Adaptation of torsional constant”. The shifts ex and ey of the neutral axis are determined for the required compressive axial strength. The available lateral strength S is compared to the required lateral strength Serf Ref.2. The additional moments due to these shifts are then calculated by multiplying the required compressive axial strength with these respective shifts.12. The special provisions for angle sections apply for the following form codes: 4 (Angle section) 111 (Cold formed Angle section) In case of 2 nd order analysis. The lateral stiffness S for a diaphragm is calculated as follows in case the bolt pitch of the diaphragm is set as ‘br’: (Ref.5 and Ref.3.3. reference is made to “2nd Order using Appendix 2”. Use of diaphragms Diaphragms are used specifically in conjunction with article D6.2 S (Ref.): With a Ls K1 K2 Frame distance Diaphragm length Diaphragm stiffness factor K1 Diaphragm stiffness factor K2 For a bolt pitch of ‘2br’ the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0.

1 is applied.1. Bending Diaphragm on the compression flange The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.[2] pp 47 “Since the distortional buckling has an intermediate buckling half wavelength. As a result no LTB check is required for bending about the x-x axis. For distortional buckling is taken as vorhC. the diaphragm is not providing sufficient stiffness and the purlin is seen as inadequately braced. For distortional buckling is taken as vorhC. As a result the LTB check for bending about the x-x axis is executed by default.  See Ref. In addition. the member is seen as inadequately braced. without an increased torsional stiffness J. The influence of a diaphragm on different checks (bending.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background In case the available lateral strength S is higher than or equal to the required strength Serf. In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced on the tension flange.1. In addition distortional buckling is checked taking as zero.” In case S < Serf the member is seen as inadequately braced. Distortional buckling still needs to be checked. 171 . the distortional buckling still needs to be considered even for braced members. Distortional buckling still needs to be checked.1 are not met. In this case article D6. In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced. As a result the LTB check for bending about the x-x axis is executed using the augmented torsional stiffness J. compression and torsion) is outlined in the following overview. the diaphragm is providing sufficient stiffness and the purlin is seen as fully braced. In case the available lateral strength S is lower than the required strength Serf. no distortional buckling check is required. As a result no LTB check is required for bending about the x-x axis. In case S < Serf or in case the limits of article D6. Reference is made to “Adaptation of torsional constant”. Diaphragm on the tension flange The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf.

Torsion Diaphragm on any flange The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf. the member is seen as inadequately braced . In case S < Serf or in case the limits of article D6. In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced.3 is applied. the member is taken as inadequately braced. In case S ≥ Serf the member is taken as fully braced against torsion. In addition distortional buckling will be checked taking as zero. In this case the reduction due to torsion is not applied. As a result the reduction for torsion is determined by default. As a result no distortional buckling check is required. 172 .1. As a result the default compression checks are executed. Diaphragm on both flanges In this case the specifications of the previous step apply using the largest lateral stiffness S of both diaphragms.1. In this case article D6.3 are not met.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Compression Diaphragm on one flange The lateral stiffness S is calculated and compared to the required stiffness Serf. In case S < Serf.

e. It is assumed that conditions (8). (12) & (13) are fulfilled.1.1. This applies to the following form codes: 114 (Cold formed C-section) 116 (Cold formed C-section eaves beam) 117 (Cold formed C-Plus section) 118 (Cold formed ZED section) 119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips) 120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip) 126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)  For determining the R factor a difference is made between simple span and continuous spans.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Flexural members having one flange through-fastened to sheeting The nominal flexural strength is determined according to article D6.3. (9).1. In addition. A cantilever is defined as a member at the end of a buckling system which has free ends for both buckling about the x-x and y-y axis. This difference is based on the system length Lx. When the member under consideration has only one part for Lx it is taken as simple span.1 are met Remarks:  The article is only valid for C and Z sections with edge stiffeners (i. (11). The article is not applied for cantilevers. The correction factor r for compressed insulation is not supported. the article is not applied for continuous beams in the region between inflection points adjacent to a support.3 are met 173 . elements with reinforcement type ROU).1. When the member has more parts for Lx it is taken as continuous span. (10). This article is only applied in case the following conditions are met:      The member is in compression The diaphragm is located on one or both flanges The diagram is through fastened The lateral stiffness S ≥ Serf The conditions for article D6.     Compression members with one flange through-fastened to sheeting The compressive strength is determined according to article D6. This article is only applied in case the following conditions are met:      The member is in bending about the x-x axis The diaphragm is located on the tension flange The diagram is through fastened The lateral stiffness S ≥ Serf The conditions for article D6.1.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Remarks:  The article is only valid for C and Z sections with edge stiffeners (i. It is assumed that conditions (7) & (8) are fulfilled. 2nd Order using Appendix 2 In case the proper setting is activated in the steel setup.2 is taken as 1. elements with reinforcement type ROU).1 of Appendix 2 are applied.00 y for article C5.e.2 is taken as 1. More specifically.2 is taken as 1.00 Article 2.2 is taken as 1. 174 . when the check is executed for a non-linear combination the following changes are applied:       Effective length factor Kx is set to 1.00 Cmy for article C5. This applies to the following form codes: 114 (Cold formed C-section) 116 (Cold formed C-section eaves beam) 117 (Cold formed C-Plus section) 118 (Cold formed ZED section) 119 (Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips) 120 (Cold formed ZED section inclined lip) 126 (Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined)   The fastener distance x is taken as 0.00 x for article C5. the provisions according to article 2.00 Cmx for article C5.2 of Appendix 2 is not supported.5.00 Effective length factor Ky is set to 1.

the flange resulting in the lowest Fd value. the increased stiffness due to the doubled cross-section within the lap is ignored Ref. no LTB check is executed.e. Combined Strength The strength within the lapped zones is taken as the sum of the strengths of the individual members Ref.e.[5]. at the bottom flange the LTB check depends on the Bottom flange fully braced setting within the Overlap data.[4]. 175 . it is important to specify a sufficient ‘number of sections on average member’ in the Solver Setup when using overlaps. Outside of the lapped zone the LTB length is taken to the end of the lap.  Since the lap length is defined along the member axis. In case this setting is activated it implies the bottom flange within the lapped zone is fully fixed and thus no LTB occurs. in case the bottom flange is in compression. the purlin line is considered prismatic i. This has the following implications: Within the lapped zone. The following equations are then used: Mcrd = (Sfsection 1 + Sfsection 2) * Fd My = (Sfysection 1 + Sfysection 2) * Fy Special considerations for Lateral Torsional Buckling Within a lapped zone. The use of the combined strength of the individual members is applied for the following checks: Nominal Bending Check Shear Check Combined Bending and Shear Check Web crippling Check Combined Bending and Web Crippling Check Bending – Distortional Buckling Check For distortional buckling.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Lapped Purlin Design For the analysis. the distortional buckling stress Fd is calculated for the critical flange i.

M. Since in this case the compression flange is fully braced this article is not applied and the nominal bending strength is used. T.M.com 176 . 2001 [6] A Gerhsi. R. London. 2008 Amended June 4. Murray. Mazzolani Design of Metallic cold formed thin-walled members Spon Press. S. F. 2002 [7] SN001a-EN-EU NCCI: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes Access Steel. 2009 [4] AISI SG03-2 Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual 2002 edition [5] G.1. 2008 Amended September 25.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Diaphragm on the tension flange In case the following conditions are met: Diaphragm on the top flange which provides full bracing Setting Bottom flange fully braced activated in the overlap data The top flange is in tension By default it would imply article D6. UK. References [1] AISI S100-2007 North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members 2007 edition [2] AISI S100-2007-C Commentary on North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members 2007 edition [3] AISI S100-07-E1 Errata to North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members 2007 edition February 20. Hancock. Landolfo. D. J. Inc. Ellifritt Cold-Formed Steel Structures to the AISI Specification Marcel Dekker..access-steel. 2006 www.1 should be applied however this article is only valid in case the compression flange is free.

Orlando. S. 2007 edition February.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [8] EN 1993-1-3:2006 Eurocode 3 . Schikowski Stabilisierung von Hallenbauten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Scheibenwirkung von Trapez.jschik. Eighteenth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures. Düsseldorf [12] Beuth-Kommentare Stahlbauten Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4. 2 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.90) Werner-Verlag. FL.Design of steel structures Part 1-3: General rules .und Sandwichelementdeckungen. Kahlmeyer Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11. 2010 177 . 2009 [14] AISI S100-07/S2-10 Supplement No. Buckling analysis of cold-formed steel members using CUFSM: conventional and constrained finite strip methods. October 2006.. 2006 [9] Schafer.Supplementary rules for cold-formed members and sheeting CEN.de/ [11] E. 1 to the North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members. B. Ádány. 2007 edition August. 1999 http://www. 1. Berlin-Köln 1993 [13] AISI S100-07/S1-09 Supplement No.Auflage Beuth Verlag. [10] J.W.

3.0 Données numériques 3. 3. 3.4.1 Pièces soumises à traction simple 3.5 for lateral torsional buckling : art.).7.21 Flexion simple 3.2 Pièces soumises à flexion simple ou déviée 3. for double bending and axial compression : art. 3.1). for compression and bending : art.6. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters. bending (art.3.) and shear (art. the following criteria are considered:      for compression : art. 3 Règles générales concernant les calculs de résistance et de déformation 3. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. For the stability check.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background CM66 CM66 Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Règles de calcul des constrcutions en acier ITBTP / CTICM Régles CM Decembre 1966 Editions Eyrolles 1982 Consulted articles The cross-section is checked for tension (art.22 Flexion déviée 3.2. 3.3 Effet de l’effort tranchant dans les pièces fléchies x x x (*) x x(*) 178 . 3. 3. for shear buckling : art 5.212 A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for the relevant parts in the following table.

60 Généralités 3.43 Pièces composées a traverses de liaison 3.52 Vérfication des pièces a parois pleines 3.5 Pièces soumises à compression avec flexion dans le plan de flambement 3.50 Principe 3.62 Cas des piéces soumises à deux moments différents au droit des appuis 3.61 Pièces symétriquement chargées et appuyées 3.643 Coefficient B 3.44 Conditions spéciales imposées aux éléments comprimés a parois minces 3.4 Pièces soumises à la compression – flambement simple 3.73 Formules enveloppes pour les pièces à parois pleines 3.612 Poutres à treilis 3.51 Coefficient d’amplification des contraintes de flexion 3.53 Vérification des pièces composées à treilis 3.42 Pièces composées a treilis 3.6 Déversement en flexion simple 3.641 Coefficient D 3.41 Pièces comprimées a parois pleines 3.8 Flambement dans les systémes hyperstatiques 3.7 Flexion composée 3.642 Coefficient C 3.212 Poutres composées à âme pleine – âmes x x x x x x (*) x x(*) x(*) x(*) x(*) x x x (*) x x x(*) x 179 .64 Coeffcients utilisés pour la détermination de kd 3.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 3.71 Notations 3.9 Déformations 5 Règles spéciales à certains éléments 5.63 Cas des poutrelles en console parfaitement encastrées 3.611 Poutres à äme pleine 3.72 Principe des vérifications 3.40 Généralités 3.70 Domaine d’application 3.54 Vérification des pièces composées à traverses de liaison 3.

Compression members For the calculation of the buckling length. The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”). For the calculation of the coefficient C. I+2L+rail. I+rail. Factor kf The factor kf is calculated using the formula given in Ref[1]. and using the calculated C value with table for C given in Ref[1] 3.25   1. 13.3 2 If Mmed ≈ 0.643. Iwn+rail.721   M med l    kf    1.[1]. For other cross sections the factor kd=1.0.212 (Valeurs du coefficient ψ d’adaptation plastique). we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio". Iw+Plvar. the formula 3. Iw+Ivar. The coefficient B is calculated by interpolating the table for B given in Ref[1] 3.642. Iw+Iwvar. 180 . I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'. Plastic coefficient The plastic coefficients are calculated according to the Ref.0. Haunched sections (I+Ivar.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Section properties The net area properties are not taken into account . I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.516  AM     0.25  1.3 LTB Check The LTB check is performed for symmetric I sections. 3.513 is used : k f    0. we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB". I+2PL+rail. I+PL+rail.

….) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". I+2L+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. in each intermediary section) bending stresses. I Section check Buckling check Slender section buckling check LTB Check Shear buckling check x x x x x RHS x x x CHS x x L x x x U x x x T x x x PPL x x x R S x x x  x x x O x x COM x x NUM x x x x x 181 . Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Combined flexion The values fx is the maximum value of the bending stress in the member for the bending around the strong axis. Iwn+rail. For non-prismatic sections the values fx and fy are the local (i. I+PL+rail. HEA.e. HEB. I+rail. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. The value fy is the maximum value of the bending stress in the member for the bending around the weak axis. Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail. I+2PL+rail.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background References 1 Règles de calcul des constrcutions en acier ITBTP / CTICM Régles CM Decembre 1966 Editions Eyrolles 1982 182 .

The section is checked for tension and compression (art. 4.Additif 80 Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Additif 80 Consulted articles The cross-section is classified according to art.32 A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background CM66 . for compression and bending : art.2. 4. (classification 'plastic' or 'elastic'). bending (art 4. the following criteria are considered:    for lateral torsional buckling : art.22 Moment ultime de déversement en flexion simple 5. 5. effort normal et effort tranchant 5 Stabilité des éléments 5. the combination of bending and axial force (art. 4.32 Eléments comprimés et fléchis 5. 5.3 Moment de flexion 4.5 and art 4.3).2 Résistance au déversement des poutre fléchies 5.4 Effort tranchant 4.4).12. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following chapters.6 Momens de flexion.3 Résistance au flambement 5. shear force (art.2 Effort normale 4.6). The chapters marked with “x” are consulted.2).24 Résistance au déversement en flexion déviée 5. 5. 5.23 Dimensionnement des entretoises 5.1 Règle générale 4.31 Eléments simplement comprimés 5.1 Conditions de non voilement local 5.31.33 Longueur de flambement x x (*) x x (*) x (*) (*) x x x x x 183 . For the stability check. 4 Resistance des sections 4.21 Règles de contreventement latéral au voisinage des sections plastifiées 5.5 Moment de flexion et effort normal 4. for compression : art.Additif 80 CM66 .

Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'. I+2PL+rail. 184 . If a torsional moment is present. Iw+Ivar. Iw+Plvar. the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination. I+rail. for non-prismatic sections.[2]. The classification can change for each intermediary point. 5. I+2L+rail. So. Iwn+rail. the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section. Compression members For the calculation of the buckling length. the sections are checked according to the regulations given in Ref. Haunched sections (I+Ivar. the sections are checked according to the regulations given in Ref. we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB". the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability check. I+PL+rail. we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio". using the EC3 values. For each load case/combination.[2]. the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed. However.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Classification of sections For each intermediary section. Lateral-torsional buckling For the calculation of the moment factors C1 and C2. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”).1. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. Section check If the sections are not according to the conditions specified in art. Iw+Iwvar.

The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  O COM NUM Classification Add 80 Plastic section check Add 80 Buck:ling check Add 80 LTB check Add 80 Compression + bending Add 80 x x x x x x x x x x References [1] 2 Additif 80 Règles de calcul des constrcutions en acier ITBTP / CTICM Régles CM Decembre 1966 Editions Eyrolles 1982 185 . HEA. HEB.) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". ….Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE.

The standard steel grades are : Grade 43 : yield strength defined between 245 and 275 N/mm² Grade 50 : yield strength defined between 325 and 355 N/mm² Grade 55 : yield strength defined between 415 and 450 N/mm² (pY in N/mm². Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction:hot rolled section British Standard distribution BS5950 Part1 1990 revised in 1992 Material properties For standard steel grades. t in mm) Steel grade Thickness limits t16 mm PY 275 N/Mm² 265 N/mm² 255 N/mm² 245 N/mm² 355 N/mm² Grade 43 t40 mm t63 mm t100 mm t16 mm 186 . the yield strength py is defined according to the thickness of the element (see Table 6 Art.3.1.1.).Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background BS5950-1:1990 BS5950-1:1990 Code Check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in: British Standard BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building Part1.

4. tension (Art.5. Articles used for this stability check are the following:     for lateral torsional buckling : Art. for bending and axial compression : Art.3.8. The section is checked for bending (Art.).). values for Py are not influenced by the previous table. combined moment and axial force (Art. compression (Art. the beam element is checked for lateral torsional buckling. Consulted articles According to Art.). cross sections are classified in 4 types:     Plastic Compact Semi-compact Slender A reduction factor is applied to the design strength of the material in use for slender sections by following the rules described in Art.4.8. Partial safety factor of design strength is included in py value.7.2.3.9.2. 4. 3.4. and table 7. shear buckling.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Grade 50 t40 mm t63 mm t100 mm t16 mm 345 N/mm² 340 N/mm² 325 N/mm² 450 N/mm² 430 N/mm² 415 N/mm² 400 N/mm² Grade 55 t25 mm t40 mm t63 mm Remark: For cold-formed section.6 and in Table 8.6. for compression : Art. compression and bending with axial compression.4.5. 187 . shear (Art.) and biaxial moments (Art.4.4. shear buckling : Art. 4. A more detailed overview of used articles is given in the following table. 3.). For the stability check.7.).4. 4. Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material is defined as material for the selected code. 4.

Art.5.2.7. Art.4. Member in bending Shear capacity Moment capacity with low shear Moment capacity with high shear 4.3. Art. Plate Girders General Dimensions of webs and flanges Moment capacity Section with slender webs Shear buckling resistance of thin webs Design without using tension field action 4. and Appendix H.7.7.1.2.6.4. 4.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Part. Table 7 Fig.5. 4. Art. Slender cross section Art.5. 4. 4.2.4.2.7.4. v Factors m. (a) Art.7.5.3.2. Appendix B.3 3.4. 4. 3. Art.5. 3. 4.6. 4. Art.3. n Equal flanged rolled section Buckling resistance moment for single angle 4.3.1.4. 4.6.7.1.3.2. 3.4.2.4.3.2.2. 4. . Art.5.3.1.4. 4. Table 8 Part. .3. 3. Art.1.6. Art.3. Art. 4. Art.3. Art. (a) (c) Art. Art.3. Art.4.7. 3 Section properties 3. 4. Art.2. u.1.3.1.5. 4.2. 3. 3. Art. 4.8.2.4. 4.3. 188 .3. Art.4.6.3. Limiting proportions of cross sections Art. Art.-3. Art.4.3.5.7. Art. Axially loaded tension members Art. 4. Lateral torsional buckling Member in bending LTB factor General Equivalent uniform moment Buckling Resistance Bending strength pb Equivalent slenderness LT.6.4.7. 4.6. 4. Art. 4 Design of structural elements 4. 4.6.

the design strength py should be assumed such that the limiting proportions for semi-compact section are met. 4. 4. British Standard code (Art.4. 4. Members with biaxial moments Art.2.8. 4.3.3. 4. The classification can change for each intermediary point. Slender cross-section Slender sections are particularly sensitive to local buckling. Appendix C Art. Classification of sections For each intermediary section. + EC3 5.3.7. Art. However. where a slender outstand is in compression.7. 3.4. the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section. 4.3.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Tension capacity Effective Area of simple tension members 4. For webs subject to moments and axial load and for circular hollow sections. Art.2.8.3.6. Axially loaded members with moments Tension members with moments Compression members with moments Local capacity check Buckling check with exact approach 4.) defines stress reduction factor to prevent this phenomenon. 189 . the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination.1.3.3. So.5. For each load case/combination. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability check.9.&Annex F Art. Art.8. Art.8.3. Art. 4.7. 3.1.7. 4. Art.6.2.6. 4. 4.2. For other sections. 4.3.3.8. Compression member Slenderness Compression resistance Compressive strength 4. Art.9. the design strength should be reduced by the factor given in Table 8.6.8. See 4.2. Shear area of a cross-section is calculated by using Art. Section properties The net area of a section is taken as its gross section neglecting the deduction due to fastener holes: Art. the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed. for non-prismatic sections.

7. we assumed that the moment capacity is calculated by using the same approach than for semi-compact section: the elastic modulus (elastic calculation). For plastic and compact section with high shear load. 4.3. & 4.). we follow conservative recommendation described in Art.7. channel sections and angle section. 4. shear. Bending.6.2.1. (see Ref. and 4. T sections. rectangular sections (solid and hollow). characterised or not by a low shear load. and Annex B2&3.9. it's necessary to determine the shear capacity. Lateral torsional buckling For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric PPL). 190 . In this expression. (b) prescribes a detailed approach to determine the unity check of axially loaded members with moments.2.5. For semi-compact and slender section.2.3. For beam without loading point between points of lateral restraint.8. moment capacity is calculated with the plastic modulus only for I and PLL sections (Art.4.2. BS5950 Art. with plastic or compact section classification. For other sections. Those values are determined by using EC3 Art. the simplified approach is applied following Art.8. axial force For plastic and compact sections.) see Ref [5]. The condition to be satisfied in all the cases is that with Mb=Sxpb and (m is an equivalent uniform moment factor) pb is the bending strength and is related to the equivalent slenderness : in which n is an equivalent slenderness factor. the critical lateral torsional buckling moment is given by the general formula Art.and Art. 4. n=1 and m depends on the ratio of the end moments at the points of restraint.3.2. For other cross-section. 4.1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Bending moment Before any calculation of members in bending. Formula (F.[5]).8.8. 4. we use a reduced moment capacity Mr respectively about the major and the minor axis. (a). The detailed relationship allows a greater economy for plastic and compact section .8. 4.5.3. and calculation proposed in EC3 to determine the elastic critical moment Mcr EC3 Annex F1.

However. Iwn+rail. only one method will be admissible. the 'equivalent slenderness method' with m=1 In any given situation. I+rail. taking into account that it is always conservative to use m=n=1.e. as a interim measure. pending clarification ina future version of BS5950. There are thus two methods for dealing with lateral torsional buckling namely: 'm approach' i. Iw+Plvar. doubt has been cast on the correctness of using n factors less than 1 in combination with an effective length L LTB less than the length of the member L in the calculation of LTB. it is recommended that LTB is taken as the smaller of the two following values: By using the settings of BS5950. Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'. I+rail. Haunched sections (I+Ivar. I+2PL+rail. I+2L+rail. Compression member For member submitted to compression. the 'equivalent uniform moment method' with n=1 'n approach' i. I+2L+rail. the user can define which method correspond to his situation or define his choice as the conservative method m=n=1. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail. Iw+Ivar. m=1 and n depend on the ratio of the end moments at the points of restraint and on the ratio of the larger moment to the mid-span free moment. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. Iwn+rail.e. Iw+Iwvar. I+PL+rail. I+PL+rail. Since the publication of BS5950 Part 1 1990.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For beam loaded between point of lateral restraint. 191 . we applied the recommendations given in BS 5950 and Appendix C to determine the compressive strength. I+2PL+rail.

HEB.) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". I Classification Section check class 1 Section check class 2 Section check class 3 Section check class 4 Stability check class 1 Stability check class 2 Stability check class 3 Stability check class 4 Shear buckling check x x x x x x x x x x RHS x x x x x x x x x CHS x x x x x x x x x L x x x x x x x x x U x x x x x x x x x x T x x x x x x x x x PPL x x x x x x x x x x RS (1)  x x x O (1) COM (1) NUM (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1)sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default References [1] British Standard BS5950 Part 1 : 1990+Revised text 1992 Structural use of steel work in building Part1 Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction: hot rolled sections 192 . …. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. HEA.

A. 1988 [3] [4] [5] [6] 193 . Davies & B.M.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [2] Plastic design to BS5950 J.1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992 R.N° 65. 1991 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . Faculté des Sciences Appliquées. Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg . Brown The steel Construction institute Steelwork design Guide to BS5950: Part 1: 1990 Volume 2 Worked examples (revised edition) Essentials of Eurocode 3 Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building ECCS .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background BS5950-1:2000 BS5950-1:2000 Code Check The background to this code check can be found within the document “BS 5950-1:2000 steel code check Theory” 194 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

SIA263
SIA263 Code check
The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in SIA263 Construction en acier SIA263:2003

Material properties
The most common steel grades are used in SIA263. Their mechanical properties are described in table 1 SIA263. The following table gives the yield strength for each type of grade commonly used in function of the nominal web thickness:

t<=40 fy
S235 S 235 S275 S 275 S355 S 355 S460 S 460 235 275 355 460

t<=40 fu
360 430 510 550

40<t<=100 fy
215 255 335 430

40<t<=100 fu
340 410 490 530

Consulted articles
The classification described in SIA263 is based on the calculation method. The calculation method in SIA263 distinguish the method used respectively to determine the internal forces and to perform the section and the stability check. By facility, we can obviously make a parallel between the calculation method of SIA263 and the section classification proposed in EC3.

195

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background According to SIA263 Table 5a-5b , cross sections are classified in 4 types:     PP (plastic-plastic) or class 1 EP (elastic-plastic) or class 2 EE (elastic-elastic) or class 3 EER (elastic-elastic reduced) or class 4

The first letter of the classification denomination is related to the method used to calculate internal forces in the structure. The second letter indicates if we perform the section and the stability check with a elastic or a plastic approach. Finally, we must note that the steel code SIA263 is essentially oriented for symmetrical and bisymmetrical profile like I profiles. In the present modulus, others profiles are calculated by using a classic elastic approach (EE classification) and EC3 prescriptions. The section is checked for tension, compression, shear, combination of bending and axial forces. For the stability check, the beam element is checked for lateral torsional buckling, shear buckling, compression and bending with axial compression. A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table : 4 Analyse structurale et dimensionnement 4.1 Généralités 4.2 Bases de l'analyse structurale et du dimensionnement 4.3 Modélisation 4.3.1 Classification des sections 4.4 Résistance des sections 4.4.1 Effort normal 4.4.2 Flexion 4.4.3 Effort tranchant 4.4.4 Flexion et effort tranchant 4.4.5 Flexion et effort normal 4.4.6 Sollicitations multiaxiales 4.5 Stabilité 4.5.1 Flambage 4.5.2 Déversement des poutres fléchies 4.5.3 Flexion et compression 4.5.4 Voilement des éléments plans comprimés 4.5.5 Voilement des éléments plans cisaillés 4.8 Situtation de projet incendie 4.8.1 PRINCIPES 4.8.2 Propriétés de l'acier en cas d'incendie 4.8.5 Méthode de calcul simplifiée 5 Eléments de construction 5.1 POUTRES ET POTEAUX DES CLASSES DE SECTION 1 ET 2 5.3 Eléments comprimés à section composée 5.3.1 Barres étrésillonées ( à travers de liaison) 5.4 Poutres composées à âme pleine x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

196

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 5.4.1 Résistance à la flexion 5.4.2 Résistance à l'effort tranchant 5.4.3 Interaction entre flexion et effort tranchant Annexe B Moment critique de déversement élastique Mcr Annexe C Echauffement des éléments de construction en cas d'incendie x x x x x

Section classification
For each intermediary section, the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point. For each load case/combination, the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability check. So, the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination. However, for nonprismatic sections, the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section.

Slender cross-section
The design of a section that not satisfies the table 5 of SIA263 is always performed by using a reduced area. This classification correspond to the EER method. The determination of a reduced area is based on the effective width of each compression element in the current section (Art. 4.5.4). The using of a reduced area implies the recalculation of the shear centre position, the inertia and the elastic modulus.

Sections properties
The holes due to fastener are neglected in the area of a section

Lateral torsional buckling
For double symmetric I profile, we don't have to perform any lateral torsional buckling check if NEd/Npl,Rd0.15 and the conditions provided in Table 6 SIA263 are satisfied. For any other case, a LTB check must be perform. Calculations described in Annex B for I,U and PPL can be applied to T sections only if the flange is subjected to compression. Otherwise, as for section not supported by SIA263 in the LTB check, we use prescriptions given in EC3 Annex F. Those rules allow us to determine a elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling for symmetrical (formula F.2 EC3) and non symmetrical (formula F.1. EC3) sections around the minor axis. In the case of I, U, PPL and, T only with compression in flange, characterised by a reduced area or not, we have to determined before any calculation irc, defined as the radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus 1/3 of the compression web area, taken about an axis in the plane of the web. Haunched sections (I+Ivar, Iw+Plvar, Iw+Iwvar, Iw+Ivar, I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis, see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis’.

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Use of diaphragms
See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.

Shear buckling
Composed rail sections (Iw+rail, Iwn+rail, I+rail, I+2PL+rail, I+PL+rail, I+2L+rail, I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.

Stability check
For double symmetric I profile PP or EP, SIA263 provides specific formula to perform the stability check of member submitted to biaxial moment. For other sections, non symmetric or from EE and EER classification, a general formula is provided to design member under mono-axial sollicitations.

Torsion check
For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping, we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'.

Built-in beams
For built-in beam sections (IFB, SFB, THQ sections), proper section checks are performed, taking into account the local plate bending. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB, SFB, THQ sections).

SIA263 - Fire Resistance
Fire actions effect Efi
The design effects of actions for the fire situation E fi,d,t are taken from the results of the analysis. It is recommended to use the accidental combination rules, for calculating the internal forces used in the fire resistance check. The accidental combination is given by Gk + Pk + Ad+ 2,iQk,i with Gk Qk,i Ad 2,j Pk characteristic values of permanent actions characteristic value of the variable action i design values of accidental action from fire exposure combination coefficients characteristic value of prestressing action

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Material properties
The material properties are depending on the steel temperature. Strength and deformation properties:

f y ,  k y , f y , 20 E a ,  k E , E a , 20
The variation in function of the steel temperature of the value for yield strength k y, and modulus of elasticity kE, is given by tables in ref.[1], Figure 15.

In the simplified calculation method, the following default properties are considered to be constant during the analysis : thermal elongation thermal conductivity l/l a 14 x 10 (a-20) 45 W/mK
-6

Temperature analysis - Thermal actions
In this part, the nominal temperature-time curves and the related net heat flux are described. For more info, EC3 Chapter 'Temperature analysis - Thermal actions'

Nominal temperature-time curve
See EC3 Chapter 'Nominal temperature-time curve'.

Net heat flux
See EC3 Chapter 'Net heat flux'

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Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Steel Temperature
See Ref.[1], Annexe C. The increase of temperature a,t in an unprotected steel member during a time interval t

a ,t 

Am / V h net,d t c a a

with

Am V ca hnet,d t a

the exposed surface area per unit length [m²/m] the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m] -1 The factor Am/V should not be taken as less than 10m the specific heat of steel [J/kgK] the net heat flux per unit area [W/m²] the time interval [seconds] The value should not be taken as more than 5 seconds the unit mass of steel [kg/m³]

The increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member during a time interval t

with

Ap V ca cp dp t a p a,t g,t g,t p

the area of fire protection material per unit length [m²/m] the volume of the member per unit length [m³/m] the specific heat of steel [J/kgK] the specific heat of fire protection material [J/kgK] the thickness of the fire protection material [m] the time interval [seconds] The value should not be taken as more than 30 seconds the unit mass of steel [kg/m³] the unit mass of fire protection [kg/m³] the steel temperature at time t the ambient gas temperature at time t the increase of the ambient gas temperature during the time interval the thermal conductivity of the fire protection material [W/mK]

The value a,t  0.0

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Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

For the increase of temperature a,t in an insulated steel member with intumescent coating, we refer to the NEN specifications, Chapter 'Steel Temperature'.

Calculation model
The calculation can be performed in 2 domains : strength domain temperature/time domain In the strength domain, the strength Rfi,d,t(unity check) is calculated after a given time t (e.g. strength after 45 min). In the temperature/time domain, the critical steel temperature cr,d is computed. From this critical temperature, the fire resistance time t fi,d is calculated (the time domain).

Code Check
The section and stability checks (buckling, lateral torsional buckling) are performed according to the regulations given in Ref.[1], 4.8.5. For each member, the classification of the cross section, the section check and the stability check are performed. The following checks are executed : classification of cross section : art. 4.8.5.2. resistance for tension members : art. 4.8.5.4. resistance for compression members (class 1,2 or 3) : art. 4.8.5.5.. resistance for beams (class 1,2,3) : art. 4.8.5.6., art. 4.8.5.7., art. 4.8.5.8. resistance for members (class 4) : art. 4.8.5.9.

Supported sections
I RHS CHS L U T PPL Z Symmetric I shapes (IPE, HEA, HEB, ….) Rectangular Hollow Section Circular Hollow Section Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Z section

201

(2) check according to EN 1993-1-1 (3) check according to ENV 1993-1-1 (4) general formula for Mcr References [1] SIA263 Construction en acier SIA263:2003 SIA263/1 Construction en acier / Spécification complémentaires SIA263/1:2003 [2] 202 . The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background RS  COM O NUM Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS Z  O COM NUM Classification Section check PP Section check EP Section check EE Section check EER Stability check PP Stability check EP Stability check EE Stability check EER Shear buckling check LTB x x x x x x x x x x x x x(2) x(2) x x x x x x x x(3) x(3) x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) x(4) (1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background GBJ 17-88 The GBJ 17-88 code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in : National standard of the People’s Republic of China Code for design of steel structures GBJ 17-88 Beijing 1995 Material properties The used steel grades are:      Grade3 16Mn 16Mnq 15Mn 15Mnq For Steel3. the following groups are defined according to the element thickness (in mm): Group 1 2 3 Diameter or thickness of bars <=40 >40-100 Thickness of L-.and U sections <=15 >15-20 >20 Thickness of Plates <=20 >20-40 >40-80 The design values are (in N/mm²) Steel Steel3 Group 1 2 3 <=16 17-25 26-36 <=16 17-25 26-36 Thickness f 215 200 190 315 300 290 350 335 320 fv 125 115 110 185 175 170 205 195 185 fce 320 320 320 445 425 410 450 435 415 fy 235 235 235 345 345 345 390 390 390 16Mn 16Mnq 15Mn 15Mnq 203 . I.

5.58 x yield strength Consulted articles The section and elements are checked according to part 4 and 5.Overall stability 4.3.2.1.1. 4.Calculation of axially loaded members and members subjected to combined axial load and bending 5.2. the following rule is used f fv = 0.2.2. 4.1. bending (N/mm²) the resistance design value for shear (N/mm²) the bearing resistance (N/mm²) the yield strength (N/mm²) Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material is defined as material for the selected code. 4. 4.2. When plastic design is allowed.2.2.3. 4.Local stability 4.Members subjected ot combined axial load and bending x(*) x(*) x (*) x (*) x x x x (*) x x x x 204 .Axially loaded members 5.3. Calculation of flexural members 4.3. part 9 is supported.2.3. 5.2. 4.1. 4. 5.1.Strength 4.91 x yield strength = 0. If they are not defined as GBJ material. A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table. 4.2. 4.3.1. 4.1.1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background with f fv fce fy the resistance design value for tension.9.3. compression. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted.1.4.1.

3. 9.3.4.4.4.General requirements 9.Local stability of compression members 5.Web strengthened with transverse.1. 5.Cantilever beams of doubly symmetric I section A1.4.1.4.2.4. 205 .Simply supported beam of rolled I section A1. 5. only the gross area is used.1.2.2.Allowable slenderness and detailing requirements Appendix 1 Overall stability factor of beams A1. 9.Web strengthened with transverse and longitudinal stiffeners A2. longitudinal and short stiffeners Appendix 3 Stability factor of axially loaded compression members x x(*) x x x x x x x (*) x x x x x x x x x (*) x(*) x x (*) Section properties The influence of the net section is neglected.1.e. 9.4.2.4.3.4.3.Effective length and allowable slenderness ratio 5. 5.2.5.2.Plastic design 9. 5.1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 5.2.Approximate calculation of overall stability factors Appendix 2 Calculation of local stability of girder web A2. 5.2.2. 9. 9.2.3.3.Calculation of members 9. 9. 5.1.1.Simply supported beam of uniform welded I section A1. 5.2.2.2.5.Web plate strengthened with transverse stiffeners A2. 9.4.5. i.Simply supported beam of rolled channel section A1.1.2.

Lateral torsional buckling The LTB check is supported for the following sections : I section. RHS section. However. Iw+Plvar.0. 206 . Local stability of compressed members For each intermediary section. for non-prismatic sections. Buckling length For the calculation of the buckling length. I+2L+rail. Iw+Ivar. A width of 20 t w sqrt(235/fy) on each side of the web is taken into account. The section classification and the effective area properties are determined for each intermediary section for performing the section check. is considered as 0. Haunched sections (I+Ivar. the section classification and the effective area properties are determined for each intermediary section to perform the stability check. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. For each load case/combination. I+PL+rail. I+2PL+rail. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail.0. I+rail. For the other section type. The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements").Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Shear buckling check The local compressive stress c. the critical section classification and the effective area properties over the member are used to perform the stability check. This can be changed to “c” on users request. When the web ratio ( dept /thickness) does not conform to the requirements. U section. Iwn+rail. Buckling curves For welded I and PPL sections the default value for the buckling curve about the weak axis is “b”. Iw+Iwvar. PPL section. we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio". the factor b = 1. the web is reduced for calculating of the section check and stability check. T section. the ratio’s are determined.

) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ". I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. I+2PL+rail. HEA. HEB. I+2L+rail. I+rail.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background d  20t w 235 fy Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail. I+PL+rail. Iwn+rail. 207 . Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. ….

[2] 208 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background I RHS CHS L U T PPL R S  O COM NUM Plastic (single bending) Compact section (with ) Non-compact section Slender section Normal buckling LTB Shear buckling Plastic stability check (single bending) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x References [1] Chinese Steel Code GBJ 17-88 (Chinese version) National standard of the People’s Republic of China Code for design of steel structures GBJ 17-88 Beijing 1995 .

5. The shear buckling check is perfromed using article 7.Allowable tensile stress x x 209 .1.2. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted.Allowable stress 2. The classiffication of sections is based on the rules of part 4.Structural material 2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Korean steel code check The Korean steel code check Material properties The following design values are used : Steel SS41 SPS41 SPSR41 SS50 SS55 fy t<=40 mm 240 fy t>40 mm 220 280 380 260 380 with fy the yield strength (N/mm²) The following steel characteristics are valid : modulus of elasticity shear modulus coefficient of linear thermal expansion density 210000 N/mm² 81000 N/mm² 12 x 10-6 7850 kg/m³ Consulted articles The section and elements are checked according to part 2 and 3.1. TEXT 2.1. A more detailed overview for the used articles of the relevant parts is given in the following table.

Beam element 7.5.3.1.Tensile force and bending moment 3.3.1. The section have to be reduced for the calculation of the stresses.1.1.CHS section and thickness ratio 5.2.2.2.4.Effective area 4.3.Shear force and tensile stress 4.3. the section classification and the effective area properties are determined for each intermediary section. for non-prismatic sections.3. For outstand 210 .Combined stresses 3.2.1.2.Buckling length 7. However.Allowable compressive stress 2.5.Allowable bending stress a) b) c) 2.Load and stresses 3.. the section is classified as slender. the classification is determined.3.Compression force and bending moment 3.1.1.Compressive member 6. When the element properties don’t satisfy the limiting values for the ratios.Stiffener 7.Width-Thickness ratio of plates 4.Allowable bearing stress 3.2.Slenderness ratio 6.5. Tensile member 6.3.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 2.Buckling verification of the web a) x x x(*) (*) x x x x (*) x x (*) x x (*) x x x Section classification For each intermediary section. the critical section classification and the effective area properties over the member are used to perform the code check.1.1.Allowable shear stress 2.Two side fixed plate 4.Cantilever plate 4.1. For each load case/combination.

RHS and Cold formed sections-types.e. we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio" The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member(see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") . 211 . The length of the part d’ is calculated by the equation in which the ratio d’/t is equal on the limiting ratio. U. the part that is situated on the fixed side. The reduced section properties are calculated for I. PPL.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background compression elements. Section properties The influence of the bore hole is neglected. For internal compression elements. Buckling length For the calculation of the buckling length. only the gross area is used. the remaining parts are symmetrically divided to the end of the elements. remains. The length of the part b’ is calculated by the equation in which the ratio b’/t is equal on the limiting ratio. i. The slenderness ratios (for buckling and LTB) are calculated with the full section properties.

1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Lateral torsional buckling For I sections. the critical LTB stress LTB is calculated :  LTB  M cr Iy Iy moment of inertia about major axis with The slenderness ratio for LTB LTB. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by M cr   2 EI z L2 L2 GI Iw  2 t Iz  EI z with L E G Iw It Iz LTB length modulus of elasticity shear modulus warping constant torsion constant moment of inertia about minor axis With this moment Mcr. I+2PL+rail. U sections RHS and CHS sections. Iw+Plvar.1. Haunched sections (I+Ivar. is given by  LTB   E  LTB The allowable LTB stress is calculated using the slenderness LTB with the formulas given in 2. PPL sections. 212 . the formulas from 2. For the other supported sections. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections.3. Iwn+rail. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. Iw+Iwvar.4 are used. Iw+Ivar. I+2L+rail. I+rail. I+PL+rail.

Iwn+rail. I+rail. I+2PL+rail. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. 213 . I+2L+rail. the following formulas are used:  c c bx c by   1 fc f bx f by t bx  t by   c ft 1 For tension and bending. the following formulas are used :   t c bx c by   1 f bx f bx f by ft 1  t  t bx  t by with c t cb tb cbx tbx cby tby ft fc fb fbx fby normal compression stress normal tension stress bending compression stress bending tension stress bending compression stress around x axis bending tension stress around x axis bending compression stress around y axis bending tension stress around y axis allowable tension stress allowable compression stress allowable bending stress allowable bending stress around x axis allowable bending stress around y axis Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Combined stresses For compression and bending. I+PL+rail.

1998 Regulations of Structural Standard of Building Architecture (internal english document) [2] [3] 214 . …. HEB. I RH S CHS L U T PPL RS  O COM NUM Slender sections Allowable stresses Shear buckling x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x References [1] Korean Standard (Korean Version) 1983 Extracts Korean Standard (Internal English Version) Translated by Karam Kim .) Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) Circular Hollow Section (CHS) Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ".19.03. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. HEA.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 215 .

2:21a and tab.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background BSK 99 BSK 99 Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in BSK 99 StalKonstruktioner Boverket. 1.3 7850 12*10 -6 640 550 Steel 210000 0.3 12*10 -6 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10 -6 590 500 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10 -6 500 420 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10 -6 530 460 Steel 210000 0.2:21b) The standard steel grades are: Steel Type Nam e E-modulus 2 (N/mm ) Poisso n Unit mass (kg 3 /m ) 7850 Extensibility (m/m K) Ultimate tensile strength 2 (N/mm ) 340 Yield strength 2 (N/mm ) 235 S235 S 235 S275 S 275 S355 S 355 S420 S 420 S460 S 460 S500 S 500 S550 S 550 S620 S Steel 210000 0. Byggavdelningen. 2000 Material properties For standard steel grades. tab.3 7850 12*10 -6 490 355 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10 -6 410 275 Steel 210000 0.3 7850 12*10 -6 700 620 216 . the characteristic yield strength fyk and tensile strength fuk are defined according to the thickness of the element (see Ref.

S 275 0 < t <= 16 16 < t <= 40 40 < t <= 63 63 < t <= 80 80 < t <=100 S355. t in mm) Steel grade S235.3 7850 12*10 -6 770 690 (fyk. S 690 0 < t <= 50 50 < t <= 100 fuk 340 340 340 340 340 410 410 410 410 410 490 490 490 490 490 500 500 500 530 530 530 550 550 640 640 700 700 770 760 fyk 235 225 215 215 215 275 265 255 245 235 355 345 335 325 315 420 400 390 460 440 430 500 480 550 550 620 580 690 650 217 . S 550 0 < t <= 50 50 < t <= 100 S620. S 620 0 < t <= 50 50 < t <= 100 S690. S 235 Thickness 0 < t <= 16 16 < t <= 40 40 < t <= 63 63 < t <= 80 80 < t <=100 S275. fuk in N/mm².Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 620 S690 S 690 Steel 210000 0. S 500 0 < t <= 50 50 < t <= 100 S550. S 355 0 < t <= 16 16 < t <= 40 40 < t <= 63 63 < t <= 80 80 < t <=100 S420. S 420 0 < t <= 16 16 < t <= 40 40 < t <= 63 S460. S 460 0 < t <= 16 16 < t <= 40 40 < t <= 63 S500.

initial inclination and load eccentricity 6:232.Section check 6:252.Shear force 6:262.Bending moment 6:241.Torsional moment 6:271. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. Consulted articles The cross-section is classified according to Table 6:211a . compression (6:23).Torsional moment. shear force and bending moment x x x x(*) x x x x (*) x x x (*) x (*) x x (*) x x x x (*) x (*) x x 218 .Shear force and concentrated load 6:261.Compression force 6:231.Pure torsion 6:272. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following chapters.Local compression 6:27. The section is checked for tension (art. (class 1.Shape factors in flexure 6:243.Limiting values of slenderness for cross section parts 6:211.Classes of cross sections 6:212. the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table. Initial curvature. A more detailed overview for the used articles is given for part 6:2 in the following table. 6:25). the combination of bending and axial force (art. shear force (art. Bending and axial force 6:251. 6:26). 6:27).Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Remark : For cold formed section.Reduction factor for LTB 6:25.Calculation of the capacity of construction elements 6:21. bending (6:24).2 or 3). 6:2.Cross section classes 6:242.Flexural buckling 6:253.Web crippling under concentrated force 6:263.Lateral bracing of beam 6:2442. torsion (art.Flexural-torsional buckling 6:26.Loss of restraint 6:233.Design methods for the different section classes 6:22. Remark : The reduction rules from previous table are only valid when the used material is defined as material for the selected code.Bending moment 6:244.Lateral torsional buckling 6:2441.Reduction factor for flexural buckling 6:24. 6:22).Warping 6:273.Tensile force 6:23.

CHS) use the formula (6:251c) For single bending. Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis.1 Compression members 6:232 : For the calculation of the buckling length. 219 . Section check Double symmetric I sections (I) use the formula (6:251a) and (6:251b) Solid sections (O. The classification (and effective area) can change for each intermediary point. For double bending the biaxial state of stress is consulted. The (bi)axial stress check is given by formula (3:412a) and (3:412c):  x  f yd  2  3 2  f yd x with =1. The classification can change for each intermediary point. including the calculating of Idef.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Classification of sections For each intermediary section. Effective cross-section properties for class 3 cross-section The calculation of the effective area properties is performed according to the rules given in [5]. the rules given in [5]. With these properties. the classification (and if necessary. The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") . part :34 are used. part :23 and :24. the section and stability check is performed. the sections U. RS) and hollow sections (RHS. All other cases use the biaxial state of stress. 6:261 : The net area properties are not taken into account . For class 3 sections. the effective area ) is determined and the proper section check is performed. Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. PPL. The most critical check is displayed on the screen. T use formula (6:251a). 6:251 . the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed using the actual internal forces. For each intermediary section. Section properties 6:22 . 6:243 . we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio".

T cr. The design buckling resistance for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be obtained using the following reduction factor c and slenderness c : with fyk cr cr.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling See [5].TF G E IT CM iy iz lT y0 ly the basic yield strength the critical stress the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling the shear modulus the modulus of elasticity the torsion constant of the gross section the warping constant the radius of gyration about yy-axis the radius of gyration about zz-axis the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling the position of the shear center the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis 220 . part :37.

RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections. can be calculated using the formula given by the general formula F.(5). 3. Annex F Ref. For the calculation of the moment factors C1. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr for I sections (symmetric and asymmetric). Lateral-torsional buckling Alternatively to the regulations given in 6:2442.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The calculation of cr based on [6].2. part 6. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by Mcr   2 EI L2 z Iw  L²GI t  2 EI z Iz with E G L Iw It Iz the modulus of elasticity the shear modulus the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB) the warping constant the torsional constant the moment of inertia about the minor axis 221 .3.2. for bisymmetric sections. For the other supported sections. C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB".

34 w   a  2 2 with Ek fyk a bw tw the modulus of elasticity the yield strength the field length the field height the web thickness 222 .81 b w f yk   Ek k tw a 1 bw a 1 bw b  k   5. For class 3 section. 4. Iw+Iwvar.34  4. Izdef according to [5]. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. part :26. I+2L+rail. I+rail. Iwn+rail. (18:26d)) taken as below : w  if if 0.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background See also Ref. part :44 is used. Iw+Plvar.00  5. I+2PL+rail. part 7 and in particular part 7. Iw+Ivar. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'. I+PL+rail. Shear force ( shear buckling) The shear buckling check is using the values for v from table 6:261 in column 2. The value for w is (according to [5].7.00 w   a  b  k   4. for channel sections. Haunched sections (I+Ivar.

I Classification Section check double bending Class 3 support Buck:ling check LTB check Compression + x x x x x RHS x x x x x x CHS x x L x x x U x x x x x T x x PPL x x x RS x x  x x x O (1) x COM (1) x NUM (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 223 . I+2L+rail. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. I+PL+rail. I+2PL+rail. Iwn+rail. …. HEB. I+rail.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background bw a Composed rail sections (Iw+rail. HEA.) Rectangular Hollow Section Circular Hollow Section Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ".

Publication 118. 2000 Swedish Regulations for Steel Structures BSK SBI Swedish Institute of Steel Construction. 1988 Torsten Höglund K18.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background bending double bending Compression + bending single bending Compression + LTB double bending Shear buckling Torsional check x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) sections are classified as class 2 cross section by default. Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg . References [1] BSK 99 StalKonstruktioner Boverket. 1989 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . Faculté des Sciences Appliquées. 1992 R. Stockholm ENV 1993-1-3:1996 Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures Part 1-3 : General rules Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting CEN 1996 [2] [3] 4 [5] [6] 224 .1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992. Dimensionering av Stalkonstruktioner Utdrag ur Handboken Bygg. kapitel K18 och K19 C E Fritzes AB. Byggavdelningen.

1. 240(20mm to 40mm).Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background IS 800 IS:800 Code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in IS 800 Draft version (for 3 Revision) rd Material properties The following steel grades are supported : Ultimate tensile stress(Mpa) 410 410 410 440 440 490 490 540 540 Grade/ Classification A/Fe410WA B/Fe410WB C/Fe410WC Fe440 Fe440B Fe490 Fe490B Fe540 Fe540B Yield stress(Mpa) 250(<20mm). compression (Section 7). The section is checked for tension (Section 6). 330(16mm to 40mm). 225 . 290(16mm to 40mm). 240(20mm to 40mm). 320(>41mm to 63mm) 350(<16mm). 280(>41mm to 63mm) 350(<16mm). 320(>41mm to 63mm) 410(<16mm). bending (Section 8) and the combination of forces (Section 9). 290(16mm to 40mm). 380(>41mm to 63mm) 410(<16mm). 240(20mm to 40mm). 380(>41mm to 63mm) The string in the column ‘Grade/Classification’ is used to determine the proper yield stress reduction. 230(>40mm) 300(<16mm). Consulted articles The cross-section is classified according to Table 3. 280(>41mm to 63mm) 300(<16mm). 390(16mm to 40mm). 330(16mm to 40mm). 390(16mm to 40mm). 230(>40mm) 250(<20mm). 230(>40mm) 250(<20mm).

2.3.6 Vd 8. Design strength in bending 8.6 Vd 8. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation in the following chapters. Shear 8. the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination. When factored shear force > 0.1.2.4. for non-prismatic sections. The nominal plastic shear resistance 8.2. The classification can change for each intermediary point.4.2. Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling moment 8.7.1.2. Design Strength 8.2. Laterally unsupported beam 8. the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section 226 .1.2.1.2. Combined Axial Force and Bending Moment Appendix F x(*) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Remarks the design of slender compression elements is outside the scope of this implementation the shear buckling check is only using the Simple Post Critical Method Classification of sections For each intermediary section.2. Resistance to shear buckling 9.1.2.1.2.4. Laterally supported beam 8. Tension members 6.1.2.1. Design strength due to Yielding of Gross section 7. Classification of Cross Section 6.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table. However. So. General 9.1. When factored shear force < 0. the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed.2.1.3. Section with slender webs 8. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted. Combined Shear and bending 9. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability check. 3. For each load case/combination.

When torsional shear stress is present. Stability check for torsional buckling and torsional-flexural buckling The design buckling resistance Nb. For this sections a class 3 (semi-compact) section check is performed. we refer to "Calculation of buckling ratio". Section check In the case of high shear for class 3 section.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The cross sections are classified as class 1 : plastic class 2 : compact class 3 : semi-compact class 4 : slender section The class 4 (slender) section check is not supported. Compression members For the calculation of the buckling length.Rd for torsional or torsional-flexural buckling shall be obtained using buckling for buckling around the weak axis. Section properties The net area properties are not taken into account . and with relative slenderness given by : 227 . the allowable normal stress is reduced with a factor (1). The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements") . the VonMisis criterium is checked.

T cr.TF G E IT CM iy iz lT y0 ly the basic yield strength the critical stress the elastic critical stress for torsional buckling the elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling the shear modulus the modulus of elasticity the torsion constant of the gross section the warping constant the radius of gyration about yy-axis the radius of gyration about zz-axis the buckling length of the member for torsional buckling the position of the shear center the buckling length for flexural buckling about the yy-axis 228 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background with fyb cr cr.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Lateral-torsional buckling The elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr for I sections (symmetric and asymmetric). 229 . C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB". Iw+Ivar. I+PL+rail. For the other supported sections. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis. I+2PL+rail. see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis’. For the calculation of the moment factors C1. I+rail. Iwn+rail. can be calculated using the formula given by Annex F. Iw+Plvar. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. Iw+Iwvar. RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections. I+2L+rail. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by Mcr   2 EI L 2 z Iw  L²GI t  2 EI z Iz with E G L Iw It Iz the modulus of elasticity the shear modulus the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= l LTB) the warping constant the torsional constant the moment of inertia about the minor axis Haunched sections (I+Ivar.

…) Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check ".Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'.) Rectangular Hollow Section Circular Hollow Section Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Z section Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section ( sheet welded. The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library. HEB. HEA. …. 230 . In the following matrix is shown which sections are supported for the different analysis parts in the Indian steel Code check : I RHS CHS L U T PPL RS Z  O COM NUM Section Classification Section check class 1 Section check class 2 Section check class 3 Section check class 4 Stability check class 1 Stability check class 2 Stability check class 3 Stability check class 4 Shear buckling check x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) x (1) (1) (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default. Supported sections The following standard sections are defined : I RHS CHS L U T PPL Z RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE. section pairs.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background References [1] IS:800 2005 231 .

the yield strength fy and tensile strength fu are defined according to Capítulo VI of Ref. 1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background EAE code check The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in Instrucción EAE Documento 0 de la Instrucción de Acero Estructural Comisión Permanente de Estructuras de Acero November 2004 Material properties For standard steel grades. Steel Grade S 235 S 275 S 355 S 275 N/NL S 355 N/NL S 420 N/NL S 460 N/NL S 275 M/ML S 355 M/ML S 420 M/ML S 460 M/ML S 460 Q/QL/QL1 S 235 W S 355 W S 235 H S 275 H S 355 H S 275 NH/NLH S 355 NH/NLH S 460 NH/NLH S 275 MH/MLH S 355 MH/MLH S 420 MH/MLH S 460 MH/MLH fy (N/mm²) 235 275 355 275 355 420 460 275 355 420 460 460 235 355 235 275 355 275 355 460 275 355 420 460 fu (N/mm²) 360 430 510 390 490 540 570 380 470 520 550 570 360 510 360 430 510 370 470 550 360 470 500 530 232 .

). shear (art. 35.2. lateral torsional buckling (art. the values for fy and fu are not influenced by the previous table Remark : For cold formed sections. Remark : For cold formed section. The average yield strength is determined as follows : with fyb fu t Ag k the tensile yield strength = fy the tensile ultimate strength the material thickness the gross cross-sectional area is a coefficient depending on the type of forming : k = 0. For I sections. 34. and combined bending and axial compression (art. For class 4 sections (slender sections) the effective section is calculated in each intermediary point.: the beam element is checked for buckling (art. The cross-sections are classified according to Artículo 20 of Capítulo V.[4].). U sections and cold formed sections warping can be considered..: the section is checked for tension (art. Documento 0 de la Instrucción de Acero Estructural. 'S 355 W') is used to identify the steel grade. The shear buckling is checked according to prEN 1993-1-5:2003. 35.g. torsion (art. compression (art. Comisión Permanente de Estructuras de Acero.). according to Artículo 20 of Capítulo V. 34.1. 35. 34.5 for other methods of forming the number of 90° bends in the section n Consulted articles The beam elements are checked according to the regulations given in " Instrucción EAE.7. shear and axial force (art. Chapter 5.3.) and combined bending. 233 .). bending (art.7 for cold rolling k = 0. 34. 34.2. For integrated beams.).6. 34. 35. The member check is executed according to Capítulo IX. 34.7.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The name of the steel grade (e.2. A check for critical slenderness and torsion moment is also included.1. the average yield strength f ya can be used (by setting the proper data flag in the Cross Section input dialog) according to Ref.3.5. The out-of-balance loading is checked. 34. and art. The stress check is taken from art. The stability check is taken from art.).3. 34. All classes of cross-sections are included. art. the local plate bending is taken into account for the plastic moment capacity and the bending stresses in the section.4.).).7. November 2004".

6.3.2. The chapters marked with “x” are consulted.1.6. cortante y esfuerzo axil 35.1. Shear force 6.1. Esfuerzo axil de tracción 34. Interacción de esfuerzos 34. Flexión y esfuerzo axil 34. Axial compression 6.3.4.7. Flexión.1. Principios generales del cálculo 34.1. Clasificación de las secciones transversales metálicas 20. Esfuerzo axil de compresión 34. Abolladura del alma a cortante 35.5. Axial tension 6.3. Clasificación de las secciones transversales 20. flexión y esfuerzo axil x x(*) x x(*) x x x x x x(*) x x x x x(*) (*) x x x For cold formed sections EN 1993-1-3 is applied. Torsión 34. Estado límite de resistencia de las secciones 34. Esfuerzo cortante 34.6. Características de la sección reducida en secciones transversales esbeltas 34. Elementos sometidos a compresión y flexión 35. Criterios de asignación de Clase en secciones metálicas no rigidizadas 20. Flexión y cortante 34.1. The chapters marked with (*) have a supplementary explanation the following chapters.7.1.7.2.2.5.7.3.7.1.3. Torsional moment x x x x 234 . Elementos sometidos a flexión 35.2. Cortante.7. Elementos sometidos a compresión 35. Interacción 35.7. Características de las secciones transversales 34. Instrucción EAE 20.2. Estado límite de inestabilidad 35.5.1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background A more detailed overview for the used articles is given in the following table.2. Momento flector 34.

Section properties The net area properties are not taken into account . proper section checks are performed. The classification can change for each intermediary point. the most critical effective area properties are saved : Aeff is the effective area of the cross section when subject to uniform compression. the critical section classification over the member is used to perform the stability check. the stability section classification can change for each load case/combination. The shear lag effects are neglected .k). the effective area properties are calculated on each intermediary section. For each load case and combination. Torsion check For the cross section check inclusive torsion and warping. THQ sections)’. However. we refer to Chapter 'Warping check'. The most critical check is displayed on the screen. for non-prismatic sections. also for the stability check. eN is the shift of the relevant centroidal axis when the cross section is subject to uniform compression. The classification (and effective area) can change for each intermediary point. the stability section classification is determined for each intermediary section. For each load case/combination. THQ sections). Effective cross-section properties for class 4 cross-section The calculation of the effective area is performed with the direct method (sigma_d = fy. See Chapter ‘Section check for built-in beams (IFB. For each intermediary section. the stability check is performed. Weff is the effective section modulus of the cross-section when subject only to moment about the relevant axis. the classification (and if necessary.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Classification of sections For each intermediary section. taking into account the local plate bending. For non-prismatic elements. 235 . So. SFB. the effective area ) is determined and the proper section check is performed. With these critical properties. Built-in beams For built-in beam sections (IFB. the classification is determined and the proper section check is performed. SFB.

3. I+2L+rail. I+rail. I+PL+rail. I+Iwvar) and composed rail sections (Iw+rail. I+2PL+rail. part 7 and in particular part 7. C2 and C3 we refer to "Calculation of moment factors for LTB". Iw+Ivar. Annex F Ref. Lateral-torsional buckling For I sections (symmetric and asymmetric). 236 . For the calculation of the moment factors C1. Iw+Plvar. we refer to chapter "Calculation of buckling ratio" The buckling properties for a VARH element are calculated by using the critical Euler force for this member (see chapter “Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements”). the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by the general formula F.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Compression members For the calculation of the buckling length. Use of diaphragms See Chapter 'Adaptation of torsional constant'. Haunched sections (I+Ivar.2.7. Iw+Iwvar. Iwn+rail. see chapter ‘LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis’. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. 5. the elastic critical moment for LTB Mcr is given by Mcr   2 EI L2 E G L z Iw  L²GI t  2 EI z Iz the modulus of elasticity the shear modulus the length of the beam between points which have lateral restraint (= lLTB) the warping constant the torsional constant the moment of inertia about the minor axis with Iw It Iz See also Ref. for channel sections. RHS (Rectangular Hollow Section) sections and CHS (Circular Hollow Section) sections. For advanced Lateral-torsional buckling analysis. For the other supported sections.

The value Mz. the values My.) Rectangular Hollow Section Circular Hollow Section Angle section Channel section T section Asymmetric I shapes Z section Rectangular section Cold formed section Composed section in PRIMAWIN Solid tube Numerical section The necessary data conditions for these sections are described in chapter "Profile conditions for code check 237 . HEA. Interaction Method Calculation of Czz By default for Czz the formula given in Ref. I+Ud+rail) are considered as equivalent asymmetric I sections. For non-prismatic sections. ….[9] can be used:   Shear buckling check Composed rail sections (Iw+rail.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Combined bending and axial compression For prismatic members the value My. For exact analysis the formula according to Ref. Supported sections I RHS CHS L U T PPL Z RS  COM O NUM Symmetric I shapes (IPE.Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the weak axis in the member.Ed is the maximum value of the bending moment around the strong axis in the member.Ed and Mz.Ed are the concurrent bending moments for each intermediary section. I+2PL+rail. I+rail.[1] is used:   In this formula however the position of the factor eLT is incorrect. I+2L+rail. HEB. I+PL+rail. Iwn+rail.

The COM and NUM sections are not read out of the profile library.1/ A1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1. 1994 2 3 [4] [5] 238 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background ".N° 65. 1991 R. I Classification Section check class 1 Section check class 2 Section check class 3 Section check class 4 Stability check class 1 Stability check class 2 Stability check class 3 Stability check class 4 Shear buckling check x x x x x x x x x x RHS x x x x x x x x x CHS x x x x L x U x T x PPL x RS x Z (1)  x O (1) COM (1) NUM (1) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (1) Sections are classified as class 3 cross section by default. Maquoi ELEMENTS DE CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUE Ulg . References 1 Instrucción EAE Documento 0 de la Instrucción de Acero Estructural Comisión Permanente de Estructuras de Acero November 2004 Essentials of Eurocode 3 Design Manual for Steel Structures in Building ECCS . 1988 ENV 1993-1-3:1996 Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures Part 1-3 : General rules Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting CEN 1996 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . Faculté des Sciences Appliquées.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [6] Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 .Actions on structures exposed to fire ENV 1991-2-2:1995 [7] [8] 239 . 1995 Model Code on Fire Engineering ECCS .N° 111 May 2001 Eurocode 1 Basis of design and actions on structures Part 2-2 : Actions on structures .2 : General rules .Structural fire design ENV 1993-1-2:1995.

Calculation buckling ratio – general formula For the calculation of the buckling ratios. When using member buckling data the buckling ratio can be calculated from a stability analysis.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation of buckling ratio Introduction to the calculation of buckling ratio For the calculation of buckling ratio.pp. See chapter Calculation of buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis. some approximate formulas are used. For lattice tower members. The general method is described in chapter "Calculation buckling ratio – general formula". the buckling ratio is explained in chapter "Calculation buckling ratios for crossing diagonals". several methods can be applied. [2] and [3]. These formulas are treated in reference [1]. The following formulas are used for the buckling ratios (Ref[1]. see the chapter "Calculation buckling ratio for lattice tower members". the critical Euler force is calculated according to the method given in chapter "Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements". For crossing diagonals.21) :  for a non sway structure : l/L = (1 2 + 5 1 + 5 2 + 24)(1 2 + 4 1 + 4 2 + 12)2 (2 1 2 + 11 1 + 5 2 + 24)(2 1 2 + 5 1 + 11 2 + 24)  for a sway structure : l/L = x 2 +4 1 x with L E I Ci Mi Fi the system length the modulus of Young the moment of inertia the stiffness in node i the moment in node i the rotation in node i 240 . For VARH elements.

34 the ratio l/L is set to 0.The indices are determined such that ρ1 ≥ ρ2 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background x= 4 1 2 + 2 1  (1 + 2) + 8 1 2 2 i = Ci L EI Ci = Mi i The values for Mi and i are approximately determined by the internal forces and the deformations. load case 2 : on the beams. 241 . the local distributed loads qy=1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used.  The following rule applies specifically to ky: in case both the calculation for load case 1 and load case 2 return ky = 1.112). In such cases a more refined approach (from stability analysis) can be applied.Specifically for the non-sway case. calculated by load cases which generate deformation forms. on the columns the global distributed loads Qx = -10000 N/m and Qy= -10000 N/m are used. pp.113 and Ref. The following load cases are considered:   load case 1 : on the beams.0001 .[6].The values of ρi are limited to a maximum of 1000 .7 The used approach gives good results for frame structures with perpendicular rigid or semi-rigid beam connections.00 then ky is taken as kz. the local distributed loads qy=-1 N/m and qz=-100 N/m are used. having an affinity with the buckling form. the user has to evaluate the presented bucking ratios.[5]. For other cases. the following limitations apply (Ref[1].pp.The values of ρi are limited to a minimum of 0.pp. In addition. This rule is used to account for possible rotations of the cross-section.21): . on the columns the global distributed loads Qx = 10000 N/m and Qy =10000 N/m are used. if ρ1 ≥ 1000 and ρ2 ≤ 0. (See also Ref.

is calculated according to Ref. and it is not a purely geometrical data anymore.[4]. table 15.[4]. supported by continuous tension diagonal Z l/2 N N l1/2 Z 3  Z  l 4  N  l1 I1  l3 1  3 I  l1 1  sK  l sK  0. Tab. DIN18800 Teil 2. 242 . the buckling length s K is defined. 15. case 1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation buckling ratios for crossing diagonals For crossing diagonal elements. the buckling length perpendicular to the diagonal plane. In the following chapters. with sK l l1 I I1 N N1 Z E buckling length member length length of supporting diagonal moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the member moment of inertia (in the buckling plane) of the supporting diagonal compression force in member compression force in supporting diagonal tension force in supporting diagonal elastic modulus Continuous compression diagonal.5  l See Ref. This means that the buckling length s K is dependent on the load distribution in the element.

supported by continuous tension diagonal Z l/2 N N l1/2 Z sK  0.[4].5  l N  l1  1 Z  l 2 3  Z  l1 N  l1 (E  I1)  (  1) d 42 Z  l See Ref. case 4.75 sK  0. 15. Tab.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Continuous compression diagonal. Zl N  l1 Pinned compression diagonal. Tab. 243 . case 5.[4]. supported by pinned tension diagonal Z l/2 N N l1/2 Z sK  l 1  0.5  l See Ref. 15.

case 2. supported by continuous compression diagonal N1 l/2 N N l1/2 N1 sK N1  l N  l1  l I1  l3 1  3 I  l1 1  sK  0.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Continuous compression diagonal. 244 . case 3 (2). Tab. Continuous compression diagonal. Tab. 15.5  l See Ref. 15.[4].[4]. supported by pinned compression diagonal N1 l/2 N N l1/2 N1 sK 2 N1  l  l 1   12 N  l1 See Ref.

case 3 (3).5  l (E  I)  d N  l1 N  l3 2 (  ) 2   l1 12 N1 See Ref. Tab. 15.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Pinned compression diagonal. supported by continuous compression diagonal N1 l/2 N N l1/2 N1 sK  0.[4]. 245 .

Aj E Ncr Ri. where only the height is linear variable along the member. the critical Euler force is given in Ref[7]. is equal to member length. Rj beam length moment of inertia at end i and j sectional area at end i and j modulus of Young critical Euler force beam stiffness at end i and j The stiffness R and R' is given by: R= M  L EIi L EIi R i = R i R j = R j = Ij Ii The critical Euler force is given by Ncr = 2 EIi L2 To calculate . the next steps are followed : 246 . For this non-prismatic section. Ij Ai. Calculation of the critical Euler force For a VARH element (form node i to node j). The system length for buckling around the local yy axis (strong axis). we can define: L Ii .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation of critical Euler force for VARH elements Definitions A VARH element is defined as follows : The member has the properties of a symmetric I secion (formcode=1).

R'j. we solve Ri (1 .d 2) .1) 1 ( + cotg( ln )]  2 4.bc)) = 0 5.a 2) + R j (1 .2 + Ri R j (a . c and d as follows = a= 1 2 2 4 ( .1 ) 1 2 1 [1 + ( . Calculate L.b .bc) Ri R j = 0 For a beam in sway system.2 (ad . then recalculate a. Ii.cotg( ln )] 2    -1 1 b = c = 2 [1 ] sin( ln )   1  2 d= [1 + ( . Ri. we check if  1 >  -1 2 6. ξ 2.c + d . Calculate a.1)( . We suppose that  1 >  -1 2 3. b. R'i. If not. we solve 1 + a Ri + d R j + (ad . Rj.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 1.b. When a solution is found. Ij. For a beam in non-sway system.c en d as follows : 247 .

1)(( . The values are taken from Ref. is defined. Calculation buckling ratio for lattice tower members When the national code EC-ENV is selected.-)  1 and resolve the proper equation of 4.35  0.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 1 1 ( .)  .[8].( + ) -) 2 2 a = 2 [1 + ]     - 1 b=c= 1  2 [1 - 2( . the effective slenderness may be reduced as follows: for vv-axis : for yy-axis :   0.( + ) ) 2 2 d = 2 [1 + ] ( .1)(( .50  0.) - .7   vv   0.-) ] 1 1 ( . v y z z y v We define : iyy izz ivv radius of gyration around yy axis radius of gyration around zz axis radius of gyration around vv axis With the option 'Bracing members are sufficiently supported'. 248 .1)  ( . For each configuration. the following buckling configuration can be selected.7   yy The buckling curve 'b' is used. the critical slenderness  to be considered.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Leg with symmetrical bracing L i vv  Leg with intermediate transverse support L i yy  249 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Leg with staggered bracing L i yy max( a1.52 i vv   Single Bracing L i vv  250 . a 2)  1.

58 com  com  E    com   com E E fy L com i yy 251 .25 1 1  K   0.38 1 1      F  0.25 1 1    K L 1  1 L com K  0. i yy i zz L' 2  K b  L com  K b  L 2  1   Fsup 1   K b   0.70  0.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Single Bracing with SBS (Secondary Bracing System)   L1 i vv L2 i yy Cross bracing   L1 i vv L' 2 L' 2 .5  1.75  0.0  K   com    1  K b  0.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background with Lcom Fcom Fsup E fy Length of compressed member (L2 from figure) Force in compressed member (L2 from figure) Force in supporting member (member crossing member L2) Modulus of Young Yield strength Cross bracing with SBS   L1 i vv L2 L2 . i yy i zz L'3  K b  L com  K b  L 3 with Lcom Fcom Fsup Kb Length of compressed member (L3 from figure) Force in compressed member (L3 from figure) Force in supporting member (member crossing member L3) See Chapter 'Cross bracing' 252 . i yy i zz L'3 L'3  .

i yy i zz Horizontal Bracing L k L i vv k  0.73 R P2 P1 0  R 1 with P1 P2 Compression load Tensile load 253 . i yy i zz L3 L3 .316  R  0.085  R 2  0.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background K Bracing    L1 i vv L2 L2 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Horizontal Bracing with SBS L k L i yy k  0.73 R P2 P1 0  R 1 with P1 P2 Compression load Tensile load 254 .316  R  0.085  R 2  0.

i yy i vv a F F N2 N1 with F FSd N1 N2 normal force to check actual compression force in horizontal member tensile force in diagonal compression force in diagonal 255 . ( N1  N 2) cos   2a a .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Discontinuous Cross bracing with horizontal member a  N2 N1 F  max FSd .

Sc.1949 pp.4. the critical buckling load Ncr for a prismatic member is calculated as follows: Ncr    N Ed Using Euler’s formula. BI-87-20/63.Aero. the buckling ratio k can then be determined:   With:  NEd E I s Critical load factor for the selected stability combination Design loading in the member Modulus of Young Moment of inertia Member length  In case of a non-prismatic member. A simple approximate formula for effective end-fixity of columns J.16 Feb. Vol.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation of buckling ratio – From Stability Analysis When member buckling data from stability are defined. Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken November 1990 Rapportnr.3360 Controleregels voor lijnvormige constructie-elementen IBBC Maart 1987 [2] [3] [4] [5] 256 .M. the moment of inertia is taken in the middle of the element.116 Stabiliteit voor de staalconstructeur uitgave Staalbouwkundig Genootschap DIN18800 Teil 2 Stahlbauten : Stabilitätsfälle. References [1] Handleiding moduul STACO VGI Staalbouwkundig Genootschap Staalcentrum Nederland 5684/82 Newmark N.

Galéa Flambement des poteaux à inertie variable Construction Métallique 1-1981 NEN-EN 50341-3-15 Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [6] Staalconstructies TGB 1990 Basiseisen en basisrekenregels voor overwegend statisch belaste constructies NEN 6770. december 1991 Y.Part 3: Set of National Normative Aspects Number 15: National Normative Aspects (NNA) for The Netherlands [7] [8] 257 .

or where the moment line is maximum at the start or at the end of the beam.1. Calculation moment factors Moment distribution generated by q load For ENV 1993.1. IS800 and CM66 if M2 < 0 C1 = A (1.2.13 A + B E C2 = 0. from Ref.25.45A * * * * D* * * * * * (½  + ½)] 258 .Annex F.1. The standard moment distribution which is closest to the current moment distribution.1.13 + B (-0.45 B + 1) 1. The current moment distribution is compared with several standard moment distributions.[1] Art.12. These standard moment distributions are moment lines generated by a distributed q load. a nodal F load.45 A* [1 + C* e if M2 > 0 C1 = 1.3 table 9. we use the standard tables which are defined in Ref. is taken for the calculation of the factors C1 and C2.71 A + 1) E C2 = 0. The factor C3 is taken out of the tables F.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation of moment factors for LTB Introduction to the calculation of moment factors For determining the moment factors C1 and C2 for lateral torsional buckling (LTB).[2] .. and F.10 and 11.

88 .40 + 0.12 + B (-0.12 A + B E C2 = 0.40 + 0.30*² and E*<2.1.75-1.3 For CM66 E* = 1.45 A [1 + C e if M2 > 0 C1 = 1.1.52  E* < 2.05*+0. SIA263 2 E*=1.77 For ENV 1993 and IS800 E* = 1.70 2 259 .52  E* < 2.45A * * * * * * D* * * * * * (½  + ½)] with : A* = q l2 8 | M2 | +q l2 C* = 94 | M2 | ql2 B* = 8 | M2 | 8 | M2 | +q l2 D * = -72( | M2 | ql2 )2 For DIN18800 / ONORM 4300 E * = 1.70 For NEN6770/6771.77 .0.45 B + 1) 1.71 A + 1) E C2 = 0.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For DIN18800 and ONORM4300 if M2 < 0 C1 = A (1.88 .

55 A [1 + C e M2 > 0 C1 = 1. 260 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Moment distribution generated by F load F M2 M1 = Beta M2 l M2 < 0 C1 = A (2.35 A + B E C2 = 0.35 + B (-1.75 B + 1) 1.62 A + 1) E C2 = 0.55 A ** ** ** ** ** ** D** ** ** ** ** ** (½  + ½)] with : A ** = 38 | M2 | Fl Fl 4 | M2 | +Fl B** = 4 | M2 | 4 | M2 | +Fl C ** = D ** = -32( | M2 | 2 ) Fl ** * The values for E can be taken as E from chapter "Moment distribution generated by q load".

0 For DIN18800 / ONORM 4300 C1 = 1.0.05*+0.30*² and E*<2.88 .70 For CM66 For NEN6770/6771.1991 Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures Part 1-1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992 [2] 261 .75-1.40 + 0.52 2 and C1 < 2.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Moment line with maximum at the start or at the end of the beam M2 M1 = Beta M2 l C2 = 0.77 For ENV 1993 / IS800 C1 = 1.3 References [1] Staalconstructies TGB 1990 Stabiliteit NEN 6771 .1.77 . SIA263 Code E*=1.

For this system. a link was made to the Friedrich + Lochner LTBII application Ref. see chapter “Linked Beams”. A detailed overview of both methods is given in the following chapters. with: Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping End and begin forces Loadings Intermediate restraints (diaphragms. Eigenvalue solution Mcr The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam.[1].Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background LTBII: Lateral Torsional Buckling 2nd Order Analysis Introduction to LTBII For a detailed Lateral Torsional Buckling analysis. the elastic critical moment Mcr for lateral torsional buckling can be analyzed as the solution of an eigenvalue problem: 262 . The FriLo LTBII solver can be used in 2 separate ways: 1) 2) Calculation of Mcr through eigenvalue solution 2 nd Order calculation including torsional and warping effects For both methods. LTB restraints) The end conditions for warping and torsion are defined as follows: Cw_i Cw_j Ct_i Ct_j Warping condition at end i (beginning of the member) Warping condition at end j (end of the member) Torsion condition at end i (beginning of the member) Torsion condition at end j (end of the member) To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams. the member under consideration is sent to the FriLo LTBII solver and the respective results are sent back to Scia Engineer.

For more background information.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Ke   Kg  0 Wi th  Ke Kg Critical load factor Elastic linear stiffness matrix Geometrical stiffness matrix For members with arbitrary sections. reference is made to Ref[2].[3]. 263 .pp. with: (See Ref.176) M cr   max M yy M cr x     M yy ( x ) Wi th  Myy Myy(x) Mcr(x) Critical load factor Bending moment around the strong axis Bending moment around the strong axis at position x Critical moment at position x The calculated Mcr is then used in the Lateral Torsional Buckling check of Scia Engineer. the critical moment can be obtained in each section.

Order stress check.EN .ENV . For more background information. see chapter “Linked Beams”. nd Order 7 degrees of freedom The calculated torsional and warping moments (St Venant torque Mxp. .SIA .DIN18800 . with: o o o o o Appropriate end conditions for torsion and warping End and begin forces Loadings Intermediate restraints (diaphragms.IS .EAE 264 .EC3 .ONORM . For this system.EC3 . Specifically for this stress check.NEN .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 2nd Order analysis The single element is taken out of the structure and considered as a single beam. the internal forces are calculated using a 2 calculation. it is no Supported National Codes The following codes are supported for the analysis of Mcr. Warping torque Mxs and Bimoment Mw) are then used in the Stress check of Scia Engineer (See chapter “Warping Check – Stress Check”). LTB restraints) Imperfections To take into account loading and stiffness of linked beams. the following internal forces are used: o o o Normal force from Scia Engineer Maximal shear forces from Scia Engineer / FriLo LTBII Maximal bending moments from Scia Engineer / FriLo LTBII nd Since Lateral Torsional Buckling has been taken into account in this 2 more required to execute a Lateral Torsional Buckling Check. reference is made to Ref[2].

IFBB U cross section Thin walled Double T with top flange angle Rectangle U section from library Thin walled geometric U Cold formed from library Cold formed from graphical input Welded I+2L Sheet welded Iw+2L Full rectangular from library Full rectangular from thin walled geometric Static values double symmetric Static values single symmetric all other double symmetric CSS all other single symmetric CSS x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 2 Order analysis x x x x x x x x x x x x x nd Remark: Haunched sections are replaced by equivalent asymmetric I sections. .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For the following national codes.ENV .ONORM .SIA .NEN .EN . the 2nd Order analysis approach is supported. 265 .EC3 . by ignoring the middle flanges.EAE Supported Sections The following table shows which cross-section types are supported for which type of analysis: FRILO LTBII CSS Scia Engineer CSS Eigenvalue analysis Double T I section from library Thin walled geometric I Sheet welded Iw Double T unequal IPY from library Thin walled geometric asymmetric I Haunched sections Welded I+Tl Sheet welded Iwn HAT Section IFBA.EC3 .DIN18800 .

For more information.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The following picture illustrates the relation between the local coordinate system of Scia Engineer and FriLo LTBII. reference is made to Ref[2] 266 . Special attention is required for U sections due to the inversion of the y and z-axis.

except for the torsional moments. Imperfections In the 2 Order LTB analysis the bow imperfections v0 (in local y direction) and w0 (in local z direction) can be taken into account.Line force in beam . The forces in local x-direction are ignored.Point force in node (if the node is part of the exported beam) . Load eccentricities are replaced by torsional moments. nd v0 y z y. Load impulses which do not pass through the shear center will cause additional torsional moments.Moment on beam .Point force on beam . The dead load is replaced by an equivalent line force on the beam.  In Frilo LTBII a distinction is made between the centroid and the shear center of a cross-section.Moment in node (if the node is part of the exported beam) .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Loadings The following load impulses are supported: .Line moment in beam (only for Mx in LCS) The supported load impulses and their eccentricities are transformed into the local LCS of the exported member. v0 267 .

only the imperfection v0 needs to be considered. Initial bow imperfection v0 for DIN and ONORM The imperfection is calculated according to Ref. Initial bow imperfection v0 for EC-EN and EAE The imperfection is calculated according to Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For DIN.4(3) v0  k  e0 With k e0 Factor taken from the National Annex of EC-EN Factor taken as 0.5 for EAE Bow imperfection of the weak axis 268 . ONORM. the bow imperfection is considered at the centre of the buckling system length L. The sign of the imperfection according to code depends on the sign of Mz in Scia Engineer. The nd codes indicate that for a 2 Order calculation which takes into account LTB.3.[4] article 5.[6] article 2. EC-EN and EAE the imperfections can be calculated according to the code.2 For prismatic uniform members: Resistance check EE (Elastic) any any any any EP PP (Plastic) I section I section I section I section a b c d L/600 L/500 L/400 L/300 I section a b c d a0 L/900 L/750 L/600 L/450 L/700 Section any Bucking curve a0 v0 L/1050 For non-uniform members.

NEN and SIA) as well as DIN. 269 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The value of e0 is taken from following table: Buckling curve a0 a b c d With L eo /L – elastic analysis 1/350 1/300 1/250 1/200 1/150 eo/L – plastic analysis 1/300 1/250 1/200 1/150 1/100 Member system length Initial bow imperfections v0 and w0 for other supported codes For all other supported codes (EC-ENV. ONORM. EC-EN and EAE the user can manually input the imperfections v0 and w0.

[2] p23) Specifically for U-sections. an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of Usections in the FriLo LTBII solver. (see Chapter “Supported Sections”) 270 . with horizontal elastic restraint Cy: Cy = 1e15 kN/m The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the LTB restraint (top/bottom). The use of an elastic restraint allows the positioning of the restraint since this is not possible for a fixed restraint.[2] p22). (Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background LTB Restraints LTB restraints are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.

[2] p25).8. Specifically for U-sections.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Diaphragms Diaphragms are transformed into 'Elastic Foundations' of type ‘elastic restraint’ (Ref.3. (see Chapter “Supported sections”) 271 .[2] p52 and Ref.2 S (Ref.5 p22). 104 K2 K1 + Ls a Ls K1 K2 Frame distance Length of the diaphragm Factor K1 of the diaphragm Factor K2 of the diaphragm With The position of the restraint z(Cy) is depending on the position of the diaphragm.4.3. The shear stiffness S for a diaphragm is calculated as follows (Ref. The elastic restraint Cy [kN/m^2] is calculated as follows (Ref.): S= a.5 p40):   Cy  S    L Wi th S L 2 Shear stiffness of the diaphragm Diaphragm length along the member The above formula for Cy is valid in case the bolt pitch of the diaphragm is set as ‘br’.3. For a bolt pitch of ‘2br’ the shear stiffness S is replaced by 0. Both a horizontal restraint Cy and a rotational restraint C are used. an elastic restraint Cz is used with position y(Cz) due to the rotation of Usections in the FriLo LTBII solver.7.5 and Ref.

This is due to the rotation of U-sections in the FriLo LTBII solver. with elastic restraint. In all other cases the restraint is set as Cy. if the linked beam has an angle less then 45° with the local y-axis of the beam under consideration.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The rotational restraint C [kNm/m] is taken as vorhC (see Chapter “Adaptation of Torsional Constant”) Linked Beams Linked beams are transformed into 'Supports' (Ref.direction for linked beams considered as z-restraint Specifically for U-sections. the restraint is set as Cz. . The position is only taken into account in case of a flexible restraint (Ref. The position of the restraint z(Cy) or y(Cz) is depending on the application point of the linked beam (top/bottom).in z -direction for linked beams considered as y-restraint . The end forces of the linked beam are transformed to point loads on the considered 1D member. In all other cases the restraint is set as Cz. the restraint is set as Cy. The direction of the restraint is dependent on the direction of the linked beam: If the linked beam has an angle less then 45° with the local y-axis of the beam under consideration.[2] p23). (see Chapter “Supported Sections”) 272 .[2] p22).in y.

You want to calculate the structural safety with Elastic-Plastic method. Intermediate lateral restraints should be defined through LTB restraints.Order ) The loading on the member is too big. no LTB check needs to be performed. use imperfection according to code elastic instead of plastic. In this case it is not required to use the FriLo LTBII solver.Bending of U-section about y-axis! The program calculates the minimum bifurcation load only. . The most important causes of the warning message are listed here. . 2 nd Order Analysis .Load is greater then minimum bifurcation load (Error at elastic calculation – system is instable in II. nd order analysis instead of an . This analytical procedure cannot be used for this cross-section.Design Torsion! Simplified analysis of lateral torsional buckling is not possible.4 Due to the low relative slenderness.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Limitations and Warnings The FRILO LTB solver is used with following limitations o o o Only straight members are supported LTBII analysis is done for the whole 1D member. not for a part of the member. a warning will be given. Eigenvalue solution Mcr . a 2 nd order calculation cannot be executed. Due to the torsion in the member it is advised to execute a 2 eigenvalue calculation. For more information. 273 . not for more members together When a LTB system length is inputted which differs from the member length. During the analysis. reference is made to Ref[1] and [2]. Plastic calculation is not possible. It is recommended to use the Elastic-Elastic method. the FriLo LTBII solver may return a warning message.Lateral Torsional Buckling is not governing – relative slenderness < 0. diaphragms and linked beams.

jschik.und Sandwichelementdeckungen. 2002 [4] Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . Knicken von Stäben und Stabwerken November 1990 [7] E.de/ [6] DIN 18800 Teil 2 Stahlbauten Stabilitätsfälle. Meister Nachweispraxis Biegeknicken und Biegedrillknicken Ernst & Sohn.Auflage Beuth Verlag. Berlin-Köln 1993 [3] 274 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background References [1] FriLo LTBII software nd Friedrich + Lochner Lateral Torsional Buckling 2 Order Analysis Biegetorsionstheorie II. Düsseldorf [8] Beuth-Kommentare Stahlbauten Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4.Ordnung (BTII) http://www.frilo. Kahlmeyer Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.de [2] Friedrich + Lochner LTBII Manual BTII Handbuch Revision 1/2006 J.1 : General rules and rules for buildings EN 1993-1-1:2005 [5] J. Schikowski Stabilisierung von Hallenbauten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Scheibenwirkung von Trapez. 1.90) Werner-Verlag. 1999 http://www.

which have to be present in the profile library. Data for general section stability check The following properties have to be present in the profile library for the execution of the section and the stability check : Description Iy Wy Sy Iz Wz Sz It* Wt* A0 Iyz iy iz Mpy Mpz fab moment of inertia yy elastic section modulus yy statical moment of area yy moment of inertia zz elastic section modulus zz statical moment of area zz torsional constant torsional resistance sectional area centrifugal moment radius of gyration yy radius of gyration zz plastic moment yy plastic moment zz fabrication code 0=rolled section (default value) 1=welded section 2=cold formed section Property number 8 10 6 9 11 7 14 13 1 12 2 3 30 31 105 The fabrication code is not obligatory. the properties marked with (*) can be calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Profile conditions for code check Introduction to profile characteristics The standard profile sections have fixed sections properties and dimensions. these properties have to be input by the user in the profile library. The section properties are described in chapter "Data for general section stability check". The plastic moments are calculated with a yield strength of 240 N/mm². The required dimension properties are described in chapter "Data depending On the profile shape". When the section is made out of 1 plate. When this is not the case. 275 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Data depending On the profile shape I section Formcode PSS Type 1 . Property 49 48 44 47 66 74 140 61 146 Description H B t s R W wm1 R1  1 109 B t R1 s H R w a 276 .I.

Property 49 48 67 66 109 Description H B s R 2 R H s B 277 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background RHS Formcode PSS Type 2 .M.

Property 64 65 109 Description D s 3 D w 278 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background CHS Formcode PSS Type 3 .RO.

L.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Angle section Formcode PSS Type 4 . Property 49 48 44 61 66 Description H B t R1 R 74 75 76 109 W1 W2 W3 4 R1 t w2 w1 R w2 B w1 w3 279 .

Property 49 48 44 47 66 Description H B t s R 68 41 61 146 R1  5 109 B R1 H s a R t 280 .U.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Channel section Formcode PSS Type 5 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background T section Formcode PSS Type 6 . Property 49 48 44 47 66 61 62 146 147 Description H B t s R R1 R2 1 2 6 109 B R2 s a2 H t R R1 a1 281 .T.

Property 48 67 109 Description B H 7 H B 282 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Full rectangular section Formcode PSS Type 7 .B.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Full circular section Formcode PSS Type 11 .RU. Property 64 109 Description D 11 D 283 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Asymmetric I section Formcode PSS Type 101 Property 49 48 44 47 42 43 45 46 66 109 Description H s Bt Bb tt tb R 101 Bt tt H tb R Bb 284 .

Z. Property 49 48 44 47 67 61 109 Description H B t s R R1 102 B H s R t R1 285 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Z section Formcode PSS Type 102 .

The start and end parts are considered as unstiffened elements. 286 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background General cold formed section Each section is considered as a composition of rectangular parts. The properties from the reduced section can be calculated by the code check. These properties have to be input by the user in the profile library. When the section is made out of 1 plate. A may be used in the geometry description. the properties marked with (*) can be calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. Description form code Dy* Dz* CM* buckling curve around yy axis buckling curve around zz axis buckling curve for LTB Property number 109 22 23 26 106 107 108 Value 110 (1) (1) (1) (1) The values for the buckling curves are defined as follows: 1 = buckling curve a 2 = buckling curve b 3 = buckling curve c 4 = buckling curve d The conditions are that the section is an open profile. The rounding in the corners is ignored. The properties from the reduced section can be calculated. N. Only the geometry commands O. the intermediate parts are considered as stiffened parts. L. the properties marked with (*) can NOT be calculated by the calculation routine in the profile library. Each part represents a plate unit which is considered as element for defining the effective width. except for the marked properties. This way of definition of the section assumes that the area is concentrated at its centre line. When the section is made out of more than 1 plate.

special for KLS section (Voest Alpine) sp is number of shear planes e2 s H B 287 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Formcode PSS Type 110 Property 44 61 48 142 143 68 109 Description s r B sp e2 H 110 Remark: r is rounding.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed Angle section Formcode PSS Type 111 Property 44 61 48 Description s r B 68 109 H 111 H s r B 288 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed Channel section Formcode PSS Type 112 Property 44 61 48 Description s r B 49 109 H 112 H s r B 289 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed Z section Formcode PSS Type 113 Property 44 61 48 Description s r B 49 109 H 113 B H s R 290 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed C section Formcode PSS Type 114 Property 44 61 48 Description s r B 49 68 109 H c 114 c H s r B 291 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed Omega section Formcode PSS Type 115 Property 44 61 48 Description s r B 49 42 109 H c 115 c H s R B 292 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed C section eaves beam Formcode PSS Type 116 Property 49 44 48 61 68 163 109 Description H t B r1 R A 116 293 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed C Plus section Formcode PSS Type 117 Property 49 44 48 61 68 164 167 109 Description H t B r1 R PL APL 117 294 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed ZED section Formcode PSS Type 118 Property 49 44 42 43 61 68 109 Description H t Bt Bb r1 R 118 295 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed ZED section asymmetric lips Formcode PSS Type 119 Property 49 44 42 43 61 68 164 109 Description H t Bt Bb r1 R PL 119 296 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed ZED section inclined lip Formcode PSS Type 120 Property 49 44 42 43 61 68 164 165 109 Description H t Bt Bb r1 R PL AL 120 297 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed Sigma section Formcode PSS Type 121 Property 48 166 49 50 51 68 44 61 109 Description B B1 H H1 H2 R t r1 121 298 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed Sigma section stiffened Formcode PSS Type 122 Property 48 166 49 50 51 68 44 61 164 109 Description B B1 H H1 H2 R t r1 PL 122 299 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed Sigma Plus section Formcode PSS Type 123 Property 48 166 49 50 51 68 44 61 164 167 109 Description B B1 H H1 H2 R t r1 PL APL 123 300 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed Sigma section eaves beam Formcode PSS Type 124 Property 48 166 49 50 51 68 44 61 163 109 Description B B1 H H1 H2 R t r1 A 124 301 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed Sigma Plus section eaves beam Formcode PSS Type 125 Property 48 166 49 50 51 68 44 61 163 164 167 109 Description B B1 H H1 H2 R t r1 A PL APL 125 302 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed ZED section both lips inclined Formcode PSS Type 126 Property 49 44 42 43 61 68 164 165 109 Description H t Bt Bb r1 R PL AL 126 303 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Cold formed I-Plus section Formcode PSS Type Property 49 44 48 61 68 164 167 168 109 Description H t B r1 R PL APL a 127 127 304 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Cold formed IS-Plus section
Formcode PSS Type Property 48 166 49 50 51 68 44 61 164 167 168 109 Description B B1 H H1 H2 R t r1 PL APL a 128 128

305

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Cold formed Sigma section asymmetric
Formcode PSS Type 129

Property 42 43 166 49 50 51 68 44 61 164 109

Description Bt Bb B1 H H1 H2 R t r1 PL 129

306

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Rail type KA
Formcode PSS Type 150 .KA.

Property 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 61 62 63 158 159 160 109

Description h1 h2 h3 b1 b2 b3 k f1 f2 f3 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 a 150

k r1 h3 b3 r3 h1 r4 f1 b2 b1 r5 r2

h2

f2 f3

307

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Rail type KF
Formcode PSS Type 151 .KF.

Property 48 154 49 153 155 157 148 149 61 62 63 109

Description b k h b3 f1 f3 h1 h2 r1 r2 r3 151

k

r1

h1

h2

r2

h r2

f3 r2 f1 r3 b3 b r2

308

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Rail type KQ
Formcode PSS Type 152 .KQ.

Property 48 154 49 153 155 149 150 61 109

Description b k h b3 f1 h2 h3 r1 152

k r1 h3 h2

f1

b3 b

309

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Warping check
Stress check
In cross sections subject to torsion, the following is checked:

tot,Ed  tot,Ed 

fy M fy 3 M0 fy M  Mz,Ed  w,Ed

2 ,Ed  32 ,Ed  1.1 tot tot tot,Ed  N,Ed  My,Ed

tot,Ed  Vy,Ed  Vz,Ed  t,Ed  w,Ed
with fy tot,Ed tot,Ed M M0 M1 N,Ed My,Ed Mz,Ed w,Ed Vy,Ed Vz,Ed t,Ed w,Ed the yield strength the total direct stress the total shear stress = M0 (class 1,2 and 3 section) = M1 (class 4 section) the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is caused by yielding the partial safety factor for resistance of cross-sections where failure is caused by buckling the direct stress due to the axial force on the relevant effective crosssection the direct stress due to the bending moment around y axis on the relevant effective cross-section the direct stress due to the bending moment around z axis on the relevant effective cross-section the direct stress due to warping on the gross cross-section the shear stress due to shear force in y direction on the gross crosssection the shear stress due to shear force in z direction on the gross crosssection the shear stress due to uniform (St. Venant) torsion on the gross crosssection the shear stress due to warping on the gross cross-section

310

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background The warping effect is considered for standard I sections and U sections, and for  (= “cold formed sections”) sections. The definition of I sections and U sections, and  sections are described in ‘Profile conditions for code check’. The other standard sections ( RHS, CHS, Angle section, T section and rectangular sections) are considered as warping free. See also Ref.[2], Bild 7.4.40.

Calculation of the direct stress due to warping
The direct stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[2] 7.4.3.2.3, Ref.[3])

 w ,Ed 

MwwM Cm

with

Mw wM Cm

the bimoment the unit warping the warping constant

311

the value of wM is given in the tables (Ref. 7.87. The value for wM can be calculated by (Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background I sections For I sections. Tafel 7. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure: The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).[5] pp.135) : 1 wM   b  hm 4 with b hm the section width the section height (see figure) 312 . This value is added to the profile library.88). [2].

3. [2].[2] 7. Tafel 7. These values are added to the profile library.89). 313 .3 and Ref.  sections The values for wM are calculated for the critical points according to the general approach given in Ref.[8] Part 27. the value of wM is given in the tables as wM1 and wM2 (Ref.2. The critical points for each part are shown as circles in the figure. The diagram of wM is given in the following figure : The direct stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure).4.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background U sections For U sections.

bimoment and the St.[2] 7.Ed M  xs w M tds Cm t 0  with Mxs the warping torque (see "Standard diagrams for warping torque.2.3.Venant torsion") the unit warping the warping constant the element thickness wM Cm t I sections The shear stress due to warping is calculated in the critical points (see circles in figure) For I sections. we have the following : b/2 w 0 M tds  b  t  wM A 4 314 . Ref.3.4.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Calculation of the shear stress due to warping The shear stress due to warping is given by (Ref.[3]) s  w .

The shear stress due to warping is calculated in these critical points (see circles in figures) 315 . we calculate the value w 0 s M tds for the critical points.  sections Starting from the wM diagram.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background U sections.

the interaction formula given in Ref.pl Wy.[10] is used.05 (h+tf) tw Aw = h tw for rolled section for welded sections sectional area width heigth of section flange thickness web thickness Af  2  b  t f f  Af A plastic section modulus around z axis plastic section modulus around y axis  w  1  f Wz.pl Material Properties 316 .tf Aw = 1.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Plastic Check For doubly symmetric I sections of class 1 and class 2 (plastic check). b tf z tw y y h H z Used variables Section Properties A b H tf tw h = H .

d y.d normal force bending moment around y axis bending moment around z axis bimoment shear force in y direction shear force in z direction torque due to St.Sd Plastic capacities Npl.pl.Rd = Af y.Rd M y .pl.d   y .Rd = A fy.pl.Sd Vy.Sd M y .Rd = W y.d h 2 M xs.Sd Mxp.d Mz.Rd = Aw y.Rd my  mz  mw  M z .pl fy.pl.Rd 317 .pl. Venant warping torque yield strength shear strength  t2 M xp.pl.pl.Sd Vz.pl.Rd Vy.Rd   bt f2  h w  2  My.Sd M z .Rd  M z .pl fy.d Internal forces NSd My.Rd M w .d   M w .Sd Mw.Sd M w .pl.pl.Sd Mxs.Rd = W z.Rd h 2 n N Sd N pl.d Vz.pl.Rd  Vy.Sd Mz.pl.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background fy.

Sd M xs.Sd M xp.pl.Sd x Mw.pl.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background vy  vz  Vy .Rd M xp.Rd Vz .Sd)  n  4 s  w s w 1   s  p  wsw      318 .Sd Vz .Rd m xp  m xs  Shear force reduction Sign p=sign ( Mz.pl.pl.Rd M xs.Sd Vy .

[2]. The value  is defined as follows :  G  It E  Cm Mx Mxp Mxs Mw IT CM E G the total torque = Mxp + Mxs the torque due to St.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Unity checks: Remark: the values between  must be > 0. bimoment and the St.Venant torsion The following 6 standard situations are given in the literature (Ref. Ref. Standard diagrams for warping torque.[3]). Venant the warping torque the bimoment the torsional constant the warping constant the modulus of elasticity the shear modulus with 319 .

warping free ends. local torsional loading Mt Mx Mt  b L M a M xb  t L M xa  Mxp for a side  b sinh(b)  M xp  M t    cosh(x )     L sinh(L)   a sinh(a )  M xp  M t      L sinh(L) cosh(x ' )      sinh(b)  M xs  M t    sinh(L) cosh(x )      sinh(a )  M xs  M t     sinh(L) cosh(x ' )     Mw  Mw  Mt  Mt   sinh(b)    sinh(L) sinh(x )      sinh(a )    sinh(L) sinh(x ' )     Mxp for b side Mxs for a side Mxs for b side Mw for a side Mw for b side 320 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Torsion fixed ends.

warping fixed ends. local torsional loading Mt Mx Mt  b L M a M xb  t L M xa  Mxp for a side  b  k2  k1  M xp  M t    D3 L    k 2  a  k1  M xp  M t    D4  L   Mxp for b side Mxs for a side Mxs for b side Mw for a side M xs  M t  D3 M xs  M t  D4 Mw  Mw  Mt  D1  Mt  D2  Mw for b side 321 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Torsion fixed ends.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background 322 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Torsion fixed ends. warping free ends. distributed torsional loading mt Mx M xa  M xb Mxp mt  L 2 mt  L  2 mt  mt  mt 2  L cosh(x )  cosh(x ' )    (  x )    2  sinh(L)    cosh(x )  cosh(x ' )      sinh(L)    sinh(x )  sinh(x ' )   1     sinh(L)   M xp  M xs  Mw  Mxs Mw 323 .

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Torsion fixed ends. distributed torsional loading mt Mx M xa  M xb Mxp mt  L 2 m L  t 2 mt  mt   L cosh(x )  cosh(x ' )    (  x )  (1  k)   2  sinh(L)    cosh(x )  cosh(x ' )     (1  k )    sinh(L)   M xp  M xs  Mw  Mxs Mw mt  sinh(x )  sinh(x ' )   1  (1  k)   2  sinh(L)    L 2 k  1 L t anh( ) 2 324 . warping fixed ends.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background One end free. local torsional loading Mt Mx M xa  M t Mxp  cosh(x ' )  M xp  M t  1    cosh(L)     cosh(x ' )  M xs  M t    cosh(L)     Mw  Mt   sinh(x ' )    cosh(L)     Mxs Mw 325 . other end torsion and warping fixed.

other end torsion and warping fixed. distributed torsional loading mt Mx M xa  m t  L Mxp M xp  M xs  Mw  mt  mt  mt ²  (1  L sinh(L)) sinh(x )    x'L cosh(x )     cosh(L)    (1  L sinh(L)) sinh(x )    L cosh(x )     cosh(L)    (1  L sinh(L)) cosh(x )   1  L sinh(x )     cosh(L)   Mxs Mw 326 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background One end free.

The following end conditions are considered:  warping free  warping fixed This results in the following 3 beam situations :  situation 1 : warping free / warping free  situation 2 : warping free / warping fixed  situation 3 : warping fixed / warping fixed 327 . the determination of the warping torque and the related bimoment.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Decomposition of arbitrary torsion line Since the Scia Engineer solver does not take into account the extra DOF for warping. is based on some standard situations.

Lindner Biegetorsionsprobleme gerader dünnwandiger Stäbe Verlag von Wilhem ernst & Sohn. Carl. Teubner. Düsseldorf 1982 Roik. References [1] ENV 1993-1-3:1996 Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures Part 1-3 : General rules – Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting CEN 1996 Stahl im Hochbau 14.G. Stuttgart 1988 [2] [3] [4] [5] 328 . Auglage Band I/ Teil 2 Verlag Stahleisen mbH. Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loading Mt and the distributed loading mt. The value Mt0 is added to the Mxp value. Auflage Verlag Stahleisen mbH.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Decomposition for situation 1 and situation 3 The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:    n number of torsion lines generated by a local torsional loading Mt n one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt one torsion line with constant torque Mt0 The values for Mxp. Decomposition for situation 2 The arbitrary total torque line is decomposed into the following standard situations:   one torsion line generated by a local torsional loading Mt n one torsion line generated by a distributed torsional loading mt The values for Mxp. Berlin 1972 Dietrich von Berg Krane und Kranbahnen – Berechnung Konstruktion Ausführung B. Düsseldorf 1986 Kaltprofile 3. Mxs and Mw are taken from the previous tables for the local torsional loadings Mtn and the distributed loading mt.

Interaktion der plastischen Grenzschnittgrössen doppelsymmetrischer I-Querschnitte Stahlbau 69 (2000).10 C. Petersen Stahlbau : Grundlagen der Berechnung und baulichen Ausbildung von Stahlbauten Friedr.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background [6] DASt-Richtlinie 016 Bemessung und konstruktive Gestaltung von Tragwerken aus dünnwandigen kaltgeformten Bauteilen Stahlbau-Verlagsgesellschaft. Braunschweig 1988 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures Part 1 . 1992 I. Vayas.1 : General rules and rules for buildings ENV 1993-1-1:1992. Heft 9 [7] [8] [9] [10] 329 . Vieweg & Sohn. Köln 1992 Esa Prima Win Steel Code Check Manual SCIA EPW 3.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Check of numerical sections Stress check The stress calculation for a numerical section is as follows:  vm   2  3 2 tot tot  tot   N   My   Mz  tot   Vy   Vz N  N Ax M yy Wy M zz Wz Vy Ay Vz Az vm tot tot N My Mz Vy Vz Ax Ay Az Wy Wz the VonMises stress. the composed stress the total normal stress the total shear stress the normal stress due to the normal force N the normal stress due to the bending moment Myy around y axis the norma stress due to the bending moment Mzz around z axis the shear stress due to shear force Vy in y direction the shear stress due to shear force Vz in z direction the sectional area the shear area in y direction the shear area in z direction the elastic section modulus around y axis the elastic section modulus around z axis  My   Mz   Vy   Vz  with 330 .

channel sections. C . When diaphragms (steel sheeting) are used.2. Chapter 10. Z sections. Z sections.k  k C A . cold formed U.3..k  (h  t) s³ Is  12 with l G vorhC CM.5 and Ref.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Use of diaphragms Adaptation of torsional constant See Ref.5.id  I t  vorhC 1 1  vorhC C M .25  C100  a  100  3 E  Is C P .k b   C100  a  100  2 if b a  125 if 125  b a  200 b  C A .1.k CP.k k the LTB length the shear modulus the actual rotational stiffness of diaphragm the rotational stiffness of the diaphragm the rotational stiffness of the connection between the diaphragm and the beam the rotational stiffness due to the distortion of the beam numerical coefficient = 2 for single or two spans of the diaphragm = 4 for 3 or more spans of the diaphragm bending stiffness of per unit width of the diaphragm spacing of the beam the width of the beam flange (in mm) EIeff s ba 331 . the torsional constant It is adapted for symmetric/asymmetric I sections.[1]..k C M .k CA.3. The torsional constant It is adapted with the stiffness of the diaphragms: I t .k  1.k EI eff s l2 2G 1 1   C A .4. Ref.3.3.k C P .

see table beam height thickness beam flange thickness beam web References [1] ENV 1993-1-3:1996 Eurocode 3 : Design of steel structures Part 1-3 : General rules Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting CEN 1996 E.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background C100 h t s rotation coefficient . Düsseldorf Beuth-Kommentare Stahlbauten [2] [3] 332 .90) Werner-Verlag. Kahlmeyer Stahlbau nach DIN 18 800 (11.

Auflage Beuth Verlag.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Erläuterungen zu DIN 18 800 Teil 1 bis Teil 4. Berlin-Köln 1993 333 . 1.

SFB. NEN6770/6771. according to Ref.5 q 0.5 q tu e2=bo e1 bu 334 .[1]. EC-EN. special checks are performed for built-in beams. Reduction of plastic moment capacity due to plate bending bo 0. DIN18800 and SIA263. THQ sections) Introduction For the national codes EC-ENV.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Section check for built-in beams (IFB.

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

bo to

0.5 q

0.5 q

tu e2=bo e1 bu

bo to

0.5 q

0.5 q

e2=0 e1 bu

tu

When the lower plate is loaded by q-load (uniform distributed load), the effective area of the loaded plate (flange) for the calculation of the plastic capacity is reduced as follows :

335

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background  for THQ and IFB beams :

for SFB beam :

A eff   u A u   o A o

with

e 1, e 2, t u, b u q fy M  u o

see the figures above load on flange, plate (as N/m) yield strength partial safety factor see formula = analog to u, but with bu=bo e1=bo tu=to e2=tw

336

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Plastic interaction formula for single bending and shear force
The following plastic interaction formula can be used, when single bending around yy-axis My,Sd, in combination with shear force Vz,Sd, is acting :

 M y ,Sd   A v Vz ,Sd      1.0 M  A V  pl,z ,Rd   pl,y ,Rd   m A h  m f 2Wpl,y

with

My,Sd, Vz,Sd Mpl,y,Rd Vpl,z,Rd Av Am hf Wpl,y

internal forces plastic bending capacity around yy axis plastic shear capacity in z direction shear area (see figure) = A - | Ao,x - Au,x | (see figure) = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure) plastic section modulus around yy axis - reduced if necessary

337

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Plastic check for plate in bending
The following condition for the plate in bending must be verified:

with

e 1, e 2, t u q  (Ksi)

see figures load on flange, plate (as N/m) = qmax+qmin

q max  q min q

fy M

yield strength partial safety factor

0.5 q (1-Ksi)

0.5 q (1+Ksi)

338

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Stress check for slim floor beams

Normal stress check
At the edges of the bottom plate, the following composed stress check is performed:

Shear stress check in plate
In the middle of the bottom plate, transverse shear stress is checked:

 2  3²  x 

fy M

3 (q max , q min ) 2 tu

339

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Torsion check due to unbalanced loading
 for IFB and SFB beams:

 t ,max   w ,max   t ,max  M t ,max t o It

fy M 3

  L  tanh L QeL   k M t ,max   1  L 2   Lk  3 M w ,max  w ,max  2 bo t o h f M w ,max   L k  2h f QeL k 2 EI o GIt   L  tanh L   k 

       

   

Et o b 3 o EI o  12

with

to , b o hf It E G L Q,e

see figures = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure) torsional constant for complete section modulus of Young shear modulus system length for Lyz see figure

340

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background

Q

e

for THQ beams :

qL  e 1    4  bf

 Vpl,z ,Rd   2 

with

e, bf hf q  (Ksi)

see figure = h+tu/2-to/2 (see figure) load on flanges, plate (as N/m) = qmax+qmin

q max  q min q

341

Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background bf q min q max e e References [1] Multi-Storey Buildings in Steel Design Guide for Slim Floors with Built-in Beams ECCS N° 83 .1995 342 .

4 K c 235 fy K c  0.[1]. See Ref.3.43  b eff  b 343 .Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background Effective cross-section properties for lattice tower angle members Effective cross-section properties for compressed lattice tower angle members The effective cross-section properties shall be based on the effective width b eff of the leg. Chapter J. b The effective width shall be obtained from the nominal width of the leg.2. assuming uniform stress distribution: p  p  b t p 28.

0   2 0.213  p 0.98  p  1.98 p 2 0.Scia Engineer Steel Code Check Theoretical Background For a rolled angle:  p  0.91   1.0  p  5    0.404   0.809   1.213  p  1.91 For a cold formed angle:  p  0.91   p  1.809   p  1.213   2 p with t b fy the thickness the nominal width the yield strength in Mpa References [1] EN 50341-1:2001 Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV Part 1: General requirements 344 .213    3 0.

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