2 4 6 7

Getting Started on Your LEED Green Associate Credential Exam Content Practice Questions and Study TIps Exam Day TIps

G.reen Building Green Building Green Building Green Building Green Building Overview Review Learning Activities Practice Questions Key Terms to Know

10 16

18 19

USGBC and Its Programs Overview USGBC USGBC USGBC USGBC Review Learning Activities Practice Questions Key Terms to Know

22 43 44
45 47

Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sustainable Sites Sites Sites Sites Sites Overview Category Review Learning .Activities Practice Questions Key Terms to Know

50 58 59


60 62

Water Water Water Water Water Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Overview Review Learning Activities Practice Questions Key Terms to Know

74 75 76


Energy and Energy and Energy and Energy and Energy and Atmosphere I\tmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Overview Review Learning Acti.vities Practice Questions Key Terms to Know

80 90
91 92 93


Matenals and Resources Overview Materials and Resources Review Mater~als and Resources Learning Activities Mater~als and Resources Practice Questions Matenals and Resources Key Terms to Know •




105 106 107

Indoor Environmental Indoor Environmental Quality Overview Quality Review Indoor Env~ronmental Quality learning Activities Indoor Env~ronmental Quality Practice Questions Indoor Environmental Quality Key Terms to Know

112 120 121 122 123


Innovation In Design Overview Innovation in Design Review Innovat~on in DeSign Learning Activities Innovation in DeSign Practice Questions

128 130 131 132

Practice Sample Sample USGBC Question Answer Key Checklists Credit Policies

133 139 140 141

, If you have decided that the LEED Green Associate credential is right for you, then you may already understand that by pursuing this credential you will be exposed to a world of opportunities. Your LEED Green Associate credential will help you stay competitive across business disciplines. as organizations seek more

knowledgeable employees for workforces grounded in sustainability principles that can be applied

Congratulations on your decision to pursue the LEED GreenAssociate credential. Best of luck on the exam!


Getting Started on Your lEED Green Associate Credential
Earning the LEED Green Associate Credential requires passing a two-hour exam composed of 100 questions. This exam attests to your knowledge of good environmental practice and skill and reflects your understanding and SUpport of green design, construction, and operations.
s . T with the content of the U . S . Green Building Counci'1'1 0 *Note: You should also be fami tar . , d t LEED Project Registration, LEE . luding but not limite 0 il's Website, www.usgbc.org, me 0 I' The U.S. Green Building CounCl, pose of LEED nine. ED Certification content, and the pur ess to LEED Rating Systems, LE . b Ileed also has free ace LEED Website, www.usgc.org.kl. t beyond those Iisted above. ltd ctions and Chec IS S Reference guide n ro u , . the LEED for Homes Rating . . f bbreviations and acronyms In You will also find a list 0 a . of terms on pages 107-114. .' System on pages 105-106 and a helpful glossary

STEP 1: Read
(Free • • • for req U irements. Be employed


GBCllEEO Green Associate Candidate Handbook.
at Www.gbci.org.) Determine whether you meet the eligibility Exam, you must meet one of the followi ng.


To take the LEEO Green Associate

Have experience in the form of involvement on a LEED-registered project; (or have been previously employed) in a sustainable field of work; or

Ancillary References
• . Energy Performance


f LEED@ for New Construe 2008)

ti n Buifdings:

Final Report, by Cathy


Be enrolled in (or have completed) an education program that addresses green building principles.

• • •

Turner and Mark Frankel ( . t I Design Environmental h'IP.l 'n Energy and EnVironmen a Committee, 2006) . Foundations of the Leaders • (LEED Steering System: A Tool for Market Transformation,. ' ." , • A Guide (www.aia.org) Project Delivery_ '1 ti n for Acceptable E Standard 62. 1-2004: VentI a 10 Review of ANSVASHRA. rk lacegroup.net) AlA Integrated Quality, by Brian Karels (www.wo p . Best Practices 0f ISO - 14021: Self-Declared Haruo Uehara (2003) Bureau of Labor Statistics International Code, ounc. . . .. with Disabilities (www.bls.gov).


STEP 2: Register fc;Jr nd schedule your exam. a STEP 3: Access the reference documents.
The Candidate for purchase Handbook lists the primary and ancillary references references that are the Sources Guide" is avai la ble on the GBCI and available .for the exam questions. through for free download The "Green 8 u i Id ing and LE EO Core Concepts USGBC, and the remaining the LEED Green Associate Candidate

. Indoor AI(

• •

tnvironmen a


t I Claims by Kun-Mo Lee and



are hyperlinked Handbook


website. Exam reference documents are subject to change as the GBCI exams evolve. Always chec'k the candidate handbook for the most up-to-date list.


• • • • •

Primary References*
• • • • • • • • • • •

2009) (available for purchase at wWw.usgbc.org/store)
Green Office Guide: Integrating BUilding Council, 2009) !E£D 2009 for New Construction BUilding Council, 2009) LEED Into Your Le,!sing and Major Renovations

Green Building & !E£D Core Concepts Guide, 1st Edition (US Green BUilding Council, Process, Section 2.4 (US Green Rating System (U.S. Green Reference Reference Guide, Introduction Guide, Glossary

A cessible Design (www.ada.gov A t (ADA)- Standards tor c Americans c . . Administration 2003) . S d. ds (General Services , GSA 2003 Facilities tan ar t' Agency 2004) . r (Environmental Protec Ion , Guide to Purchasing Green Powe . (USGBC, 2009) .LEED 2009 for Operations & Maintenance Ratmg System


if (www iccsafe.org)


LEED for Existing BUildings: Operations & Maintenance (U.S. Green BUilding Council, 2008) £EED for 2008) (USGBC,EXisting Buildings: Operations & Maintenance

'. of the key concepts C ncepts Guide Includes many .. The Green Building and LEED Core 0 ts noted above, but you should stili '11 ference documen th from the primary and anci ary re . th to be adequately prepared for e access all the reference documents and review em

STEP 4: Start studying!

LEED for Homes Rating System (USGBC, 2008) Cost of Green ReViSited, by DaVis Langdon (2007) Sustainable BUilding Technical Manual: Pan II, by Anthony Bernheim and William Reed (1996) The Treatment by LEED@ of the Environmental Impact of HVAC Refrigerants Technical and Scientific Advisory Committee, 2004) Guidance on Innovation & DeSign (10) Credits (USGBC, 2004) (LEED



3 Green Associate Overview

GUidelines for CIR Customers (USGBC, 2007)


USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide

Questions The Green Associate Exam questions are: • • Developed and validated by global work groups of subject matter experts. cause and effect. ASH RAE. _V_L __ S_ta_k_e_h_ol_d_er_. Water Management III. Exam . analyze problems and devise appropriate solutions. Referenced to current standards and resources. Content Areas II. Project Site Factors II. and VQC) although it is still a good idea to know what these acronyms stand for! \ r V· II. Project Surroundings and Publl'c Outreach =.•. Project Systems and Energy Impacts IV. V.lysisquestions test your reasoning and problem-solving abilities._nv_o_. =0 =0 -. Such questions may require you to demonstrate an understanding of how things work. place components or steps into proper sequence. This section may require you to define terms or concepts. and group items into categories.v_e_m_e_nt_i_n _J _. and analyze and solve a problem. Improvements to the Indoor Environment Indoor Environm'ental Qual.e.ABOUT THE EXAM I. Acquisition. o Commonly reference acronyms may be used (i. • Application questions evaluate your knowledge of procedures and performance and may require you to demonstrate how things work. • • Sustainable Sites (55) The questions assess your knowledge at three levels: • Recall questions test your direct knowledge of concepts. Most acronyms are spelled out so that you do not need to memorize all acronyms you learn. because: o o These questions can cause confusion and have overlapping answers.. USG8C LEED Green Associate Study Guide Green Associate Overview 5 ." "none of the above. I. recogn ize or identify components or steps in a process. LEED. troubleshoot a problem' without a checklist.ity (lEO) The exam questions follow consistent formats: • You will likely never see an "all of the above. . Installation and Management of ProJe'ct Materials -e W . Innovation in Design (10) & R'egiona{ Priority CRP} • • You will likely never see a credit number listed by itself. build a conceptual model of a process. The test is intended to be clear and straightforward . and underlying rationale. perform calculations following a formula. Ana. and apply a known process or sequence of actions to accomplish a task (such as troubleshooting a problem using a detailed checklist). describe how a process Wate" Efficiency (WE) Energy and Atmosphere (EA) • Materials and Resources (MR) works. and Designed to satisfy the test development specifications of a job analysis." or "true/false" type of question on this test. recall facts. Any direct reference to a LEED credit will include the full credit name. Innovation o The question language is never intended to be tricky. Developed and monitored through psychometric analysis.

Move on and find success With other questions. format. o Don't let more difficult . The answer that comes to mind tirs IS a do Nervously reviewing questions and changing answers can more harm than good. . concentration. . Plan how you will use the allotted time. • • • This process will increase your concentration.PRACTICE QUESTIONS Practice questions in this guide were written by subject-matter experts trained by Prometric. These practice questions will allow you to become familiar with the exam expectations. o o • This brief time period will boost your confidenc~~ . Maintain a positive attitude. Read all the choices before choosing your answer. Plan to finish early and have time for review. period of time. Take notes and highlight key points. Noticing that the last four ans VOl b ck and break are "c" is not a good reason to stop. your va Iua ble time . Review the other reference materials that apply to the category. Group learning activities are provided throughout this guide to give you ideas for how to study as a group. go a . Daily in long • o . mutes you will need to finish each test Estimate how many rru section. t l ften correct . and question type. " Always arrive early and take a mo ment to relax and reduce your anxiety. Multiple Choice Strategies • Formulate your own answer before reading the options. Read the corresponding section in this study guide appendix. wers A 'd watching for patterns. Make sure you answered all questions. o o Return to difficult questions you marked for review. Focus on In I help of the alternative options.' f ding an answer without the without looking at the options. 6 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Green Associate Overview 7 . studying in shorter sessions is more effective for most people than "cramming" sessions at the last minute. Reread the category. Here's a step~by-step approach for using your study resources: • Read the Green Building and lEED Core Concepts Guide one category at a time. guide. Don't try to learn everything on the first pass. o the answer options and see if you can answer the question Cover up .' Use this time to f ocus your mind and think positive thoughts. This approach should improve your testing skills and alleviate stress on test day. STUDY TIPS You will learn best if you establish a regular study schedule over a. • Keep reviewing and rereading until you are confident you know the material. questions raise your anxiety and use . I t the whole Determine a pace that will ensure that you camp e e test on time. and practice questions in this o • • • • o o . • Rely on your first impressions. to use the same guidelines as the item writers for the actual examinations. allowing you to focus on core information. EXAM DAY TIPS General Strategies • . . Don't spend too much time on each question. • • Utilize the review questions. the testing company that administers the GBCI lEED exams. Doing this will help you exercise your memory. learning activities. o o Studying with a partner or a group can help you stay on schedule and give you opportunities to quiz and drill with each other.

ask yourself whether this assumption is obvious enough that everyone would make it. • 'Consider the answers carefully. it's probably not the right answer. but not at Denver's altitude. o '" Eliminating two alternatives quickly may increase your probability to 50-50 or better. If not. o It is easy for the examiner to add a false part to an otherwise true statement. One of them is correct. ignore that answer. • Look for any factor that will make a statement false. the other is disguised. o • Beware that similar answers provide a clue. In most cases. o This is likely not a trick. "Water boils at 212 degrees in Denver'.• Eliminate unlikely answers first. 8 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Green Building 9 . and try to avoid imagining detailed scenarios in which the answer could be true. make sure you're not reading too much into the question. o If the answer is only partly true or is true only under certain narrow conditions. • If you suspect that a question is a trick item. o The test questions will include only relevant content and are not intended to trick you or test your reading ability. Test takers often read an answer and see some truth and quickly assume that the entire statement is true." Water does boil at 212 degrees. but make sure you know the exact content being asked. For example. "trick questions" are only tricky because they're not taken at face value. o If you have to make a significant assumption in order for the answer to be true. If more than one answer seems correct for a single-answer question: o Ask yourself whether the answer you're considering completely addresses the question.

Consider things like where building materials come from and where rheywill go after use. project teams to create social. healthier. redu~e liability. water consumption and solid waste generation. providing positive environmental. built. LIFE CYCLE OF BUILT ENVIRONMENTS This section discusses both the life cycle of the building itself and the life cycle of the cost of the building. and operation of bUII. Integrative approach.. Life-cycle cost analysis looks atthe cost of green building and what types of advantages are discovered when initial investments are made in more durable products and efficient building systems. This concept takes green building to the next level and encourages environments that truly regenerate their surroundings. . GREEN BUILDING OVERVIEW In this chapter. Create th~se built environments while reducing energy co~sumptlon. and sustainable built environments. construction. construction. greenhouse gas emissions. and economic impacts. and operated to: • • Create more comfortable. increase value. and Green building costs and benefits. When considering the life cycle of a building. and achieve more pr~dlcta~le results In the design.t environments has profound implications for human health.Green Buildings Can Reduce .. and how the building users will • Th~ cum~'atjve impact of the design. Three key issues were discussed in this section: . • • • Life cycle of built environments. and the economy. think about the building in a holistic sense. and ' Red~ce costs. 10 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Green Building 11 . and operation of built environments. the environment. you have learned about how green building transforms the way buildings are designed. get to and from the building. whatthe energy and water sources are and how those affect the building's surroundings.

.nt. systems. and selecting the site. cess of the project. with the intent to establish an agreed-upon project layout and scope of work. Occupancy occurs after the certificate of occupancy has been received and is continued throughout the lite ofthe building.vil Engineer Landscaperchil. but each is responsible for a system or components that impact nearly all others. Therefore. Think about areas or opportunity for integration and syner~ throughout the design and construcimpacts are Over the duration of the design and construction has and how their partnership. • BuUding users are occupants and users of the COlT)pleted. spaces. construction. electrical systems. Keep in mind that many design decisions associated with environmental of the design team is essential before schematic design begins. The concept of integrative design emphasizes connections and communication between professionals and throughout the life of a project. making deciand integrated approach rna! playa role in the suc- sions and affecting the project in different ways. communication. once the systems have been installed and are operable. Think about the responsibility each of these roles Players Involved • • • • • • The project owner defines the intended function of the building and selects the primary members of the project team. The commissioning authority leads and oversees the commissioning process. Integrative Approach: Key Stakeholders. involves the actual construction of the project. or construction administration (CA).ing their b needs should be a primary focus of the design.INTEGRATIVE. the landscape architect might be able to tie the irrigation system into a rainwater collection system. Design development (DO) begins the process of spatial refinement and usually involves the first design of a project's energy systems. Owner Building Users Community Members tion process. first 10% of the design process. process. greatly reducing the amount of potable water needed. uilding. recognizing stakeholder needs. • o o Architect Slructural Engineer Planning Stall facilities O&M Stall EP Subcontractors General contractor Construction Manager Product Manufacturers Cost Estimator o Construction documents (CD) carry the design into the detail level for all Mechanical Enllineer Electrical Engineer Ci.ect A Daylighling &: Energy Modeler Commissioning Authority o SUbstantial completion is a contractual benchmark that usually corresponds to the point at which a client could occupy a nearly completed space. Commissioning takes place near the end of construction. and plumbing. o • Certificate of occupancy is the official recognition by a local building department that a building conforms to applicable building and safety codes . the civil designer works on a way to ensure that all stormwater is directed away from the building to a storm system. Green Building 12 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide 13 . while the landscape architect works on an irrigation design for all the new plantings. particularly since 70% of the decisions associated with anvlronrnentat Impacts are made dur~n~ the. o Final completion. and operations efforts. The general co. Design Schematic design (SO) explores several design options and alternatives. made in the first part of the design process. with little communication. recommissioning along with occupant surveying (via a post-occupancy evaluation) should take place at regular intervals. Additionally. APPROACH In conventional design ·and construction processes.ractor is responsible for constructi?n of the building and the work of the subcontractor-so Facilities staff maintain the buildi~g once it is complete and ~re often engaged . During occupancy. Inpu~ from ~II key stakeholders and members of the design team is essential before s~hematlc design begl~s. Meet. If those two disciplines were better coordinated. Engineers are responsible for the design of building systems and othertechnical elements. during the design and construction process to ensure that their operational needs are met. The architect holds the primary responsibility for the design of the building as a whole and is responsible for coordinating all of the design team. Construction. such as mechanical systems. For example. and materials so that construction can take place. • • Bidding is when costs are established and contracts for construction services are signed. periodic maintenance must occur. project team members move through each phase relatively independently of the other design disciplines. establishing project goals. input from all key stakeholders and members Construction Phases • Predesign entails gathering information. several parties are involved. Not all of the team members indicated In this diagram participate In all LEED projects.

As "The Cost of Green Revisited. the contracting community has embraced sustainable design and no longer sees sustainable-design as additional burdens to be priced in their bids. The outc m J is that each piece may be working according to its specifications. GREEN BUILDING COSTS AND BENEFITS B u i Iding green doesn't cost more! Studies demonstrate an actual average marginal cost ofless than 2% associated with green building. the systems may be chosen and installed independently. many project teams are building green buildings with little or no added cost. but. INTEGRATIVE DESIGN PROCESS Integrative design of: • HVAC • Insulation • Smaller HVAC system • More effective insulation • High performance windows Lower first cost and operating costs 14 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Green Building 15 .• • • CONVENTIONAL BUILDING PROCESS construction consulting firm Davis Langdon. the pi ces don't work as optimally as they could. and with budgets well within the cost range of non-green buildingswith similar programs. The study also found that. Independent design of: • HVAC • Insulation • Window systems • Large HVACsystem • Minimal insulation • Less effective insulation Higher first cost and operating costs vs. requirements • • • Be sure to check out the websites listed in the primary references for more information on the cost of building green .rnlonal design process.II It " nv ." a 2007 study by --. put together. points out. in many areas of the country.

try to put them in orde.r fro~ most important to least important. and what benefits offset these costs? DISCUSS IN A GROUP Find an image of a green building. then. Write down every benefit you can think of. Identify those that overlap.GREEN BUILDING CAT What factors motivate gree~ buildi. or a store you visit frequently). or social. work to identify which category the strategies fit best in: environmental. Review each ad and identify which claims are legitimate and which are illegitimate or unsubstantiated. 16 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Green Building 17 . your place of work. Take five minutes to I?o~ over the. How does this exercise make you think differently about green building? What are the differences between conventional design and integrative design? THINK ABOUT IT (such as your home. Then. image and independently identify or visualize as many green building strategies as you can.ng? ORYREVIEW ARNINGAC WRITE IT DOWN IVITIES List the benefits of green building that are important to you. a school. What are the added costs of building green. Write down your ideas on these questions: • What about them makes them green? What makes them not so green? Think of three buildings with which you are familiar • • In what ways could each of these buildings become greener? What costs or other challenges would have to be addressed to make them greener? How can green buildings address environmental issues? INVESTIGATE Find the "greenwash. economic." Locate two advertisements that make claims relative to the sustainable attributes of the product or service being advertised. Share these as a group.

) Balance of natural cycles such as the hydrologic cycle b. chemical and physical processes. materials.) Reduced energy use c.) Reduced water use d. and indoor environmental quality d.) Expected environmental performance A measure of greenhouse gas emissions associated with an activity.) Linear b. includes building construction.) Reduced hours of occupancy b. What are the three dimensions of sustainability often described as the triple bottom line or the three-legged stool? a.) Environmental aspects and potential impacts of a given product c. water efficiency. high-efficiency mechanical systems.) Reduced maintenance costs c.) Reduced life-cycle costs A basic unit of nature that includes a Ecosystem community of organisms and their nonliving environment linked by biological. cultural agendas.) Reduced imminent costs Environmental Sustainability components and functions for future generations.) Water heating KEY TERMS TOK ~@W>)f 5~ When is the best time to incorporate an integrative approach for a building project? a. High-Performance Green B\uilding energy.) Schematic design c. 18 USGBC LEED GreenAssociateStudy Guide Green Building 19 . and create a healthful indoor environment. Carbon Footprint operation. and building practices 7.) Tiered 6. building-related water.) Economic theory.) Life span of a building and its components d.) Space heating c.~~O~~ rEE1 W ~(LJJ'iJ ''''''.) Construction Cover up the left side of the page and test yourself to see If you can surnrnanze the defi nitions of the followi ng key terms. energy use.) Integrat ive d.) Design development d.) Reduced first costs b.) Increased occupant productivity e. What constitutes the largest use of energy in buildings in the United States? a. environmental stewardship.) Space cooling' b. minimize construction waste.) Economic prosperity.) Electric lighting d. make flash cards. A comprehensive carbon footprint transportation.) Relative costs and benefits of each credit b. solid waste. and the embodied energy of materials.1. Long-term maintenance of ecosystem 4.) Environmental systems affected over the life of a building Answer Key on Page 133 B. Life-cycle assessment is used to determine the ? d. Capable of decomposing under natural conditions.) Predesign b. and global variety c. Implementation of green building strategies such as daylighting.m. and stack ventilation contributes to what type of cost savings? a. and construction 3.) Reduced end-of-life costs e. (EPA) 2.) Government standards. passive cooling."" LP®Il@ ~ ~ Biodegradable . and resources efficiently. Or better yet.) Construction documents e.) Carbon footprint and embodied energy d. OW: oo. building codes. use space. and social responsibility b.) Reduced stormwater runoff A structure designed to conserve water and . Green building emphasizes using what type of design process? a.) Environmental impacts and human benefits c.) Multistage c.) Energy efficiency.PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. (EPA) a.. The installation of low-flow faucet aerators at hand washing stations will result in which of the following (select two)? a. Credit weightlngs are based on _? a.

. process. and the general contractor and su bcontractors.the needs of the present without Sustainability compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. rgy comparati~e performance information through S~stainable ?1~nS for built environments that Improve exlsti ng conditions. buildi . For example EPA's ENERGY STAR program has shifted' Market Transformation the performance of homes . Regenerative Regenerative Design design goes beyond reducing impacts to create positive change in the local and global environments. Systematic improvements in the per f ormance of a market or market segment. the owner's representatives. An analysis of the environmental aspects and Life-Cycle Assessment potential Impacts associated with a pro d uct.Ings. or service ..the individuals involved in a build' Ing project from early in the design process. (Brundtland Commission) USG8C and LEED USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide 21 . All . ff . and appliances toward higher levels of ene e rciency by providing recognition and Its ENERGY STAR labels. Meetin~ . Integrated Design Team Including the design professionals.

and prosperous environment that improves the quality of life. 22 USGBCLEEDGreenAssociateStudy Guide USGBCand LEED 23 . Certification The Green Building Institute (GBell. as the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI).S. • Provides and develops LEED-based education and research programs.GREEN BUILDINGe CERTIFICATION INSTITUTE DOD DOD DOD ODD GBCI USGBC Organizational Overview The U. as well . and operation of highperformance green buildings. Green Building Council (USGBC) is a 50 l(c)(3) nonprofit entity composed of leaders from every sector of the building industry working to promote buildings and . the certificaIt is important to undertion process. both have. Green Building Council and its mission. the various LEED rating systems and their structure. and healthy places to live and work. healthy. you've learned about the U.communities that are environmentally responsible. and operated. established in January 2008. provides th ird-party project certification and professional credentials recognizing excellence in green building performance and practice. Mission "To transform the way buildings and communities are designed. Provides third-party LEED professional credentials. profitable. built. USGBC AND ITS PROGRAMS IN REVIEW In this chapter." "To support a high level of competence in building methods for environmental efficiency through the development and administration of a formal and program of certification recertification. enabling an environmentally and socially responsible. The • • Provides thirdparty LEED project certification. construction. " : Primary Functions • Developed the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED).' and credit interpretations.. - stand how USGBC and GBCI operate and the responsibilities they .S. LEED Green Building Rating System is the nationally accepted benchmark for the design.

Remember that prerequisites are I I Y of a Prerequisite and Credit Ulsite an . Calculations. t ere are . Resources. di I has at II t' main sustainabillty goal or benefit. f one point • All LEEDcredits are worth a rmnrrnurn 0 here no fractions or negative values. tlons) and Reglona non Y (or Opera Ions '. drawing on their most effective aspects. • All LEEDcredits are POSitive.W hole numbers' . static weig .' ht in each rating system. -. ime line and team.. • Credits are optional. I III' 1 nts available. le credit in the appendiX 0 t 1S gui . II. . required and credits are optional strategies that project teams pursue to achieve certification.ng SYI sp. . lliltnti -quirementsj -neflts and issues to consider. The prerequisites and credits fall within each of these categories: dit has an " intent. USGBC and LEED 25 24 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide . ' d r quisite and credit in the LEED 2009 reference guides contains . each LEED ratl. .' . but they don't count toward point totals . For each certification level. f hi 'de) t. E~chprerequlSl~i:::::ecr::its:dthe . 0 bon us poi nts.. There are exceptions to t e tot a .Review of the Organization of the LEED Rating Systems To successfully LEED rating work on a LEED project. ferenced standardsj Implementation. there are no • All LEtD credits receive a Single. • Prerequisites: All must be met before a project can be certified. wing components: Cr~dlt name and point value. Each rating system comprises the following categories. a team must achieve a certain amount of credits in addition to all prerequisites. systems are structured it is critical to understand how the and organized. . individualized scorecards based on project location.. t " which specifies the criteria that satisfy the prereq 'II III 'llurremen . The prerequisites and credits from all the LEED rating systems have been aligned. Regional variations. location and Linkages (ll) LEED for Homes Rating System only Awareness and Education (AE) LEED for Homes Rating System only Smart Location and Linkage (SlL) LEED for Neighborhood Development Rating System only Neighborhood Pattern and Design (NPD) LEED for Neighborhood Development System only Rating Certification Levels Infrastructure and Buildings (GIB) LEED for Neighborhood System only Development Rating . Innovation In DeSign Typically. it credits provide opportunities for up to . . for example. meeting them adds points toward certification. • • • • Exemplary performance. Refer to the appendix of this guide for a sample checklist for each of the LEED rating systems. h I amount of points possible. . and Definitions. i Innovation in Design (10)1 Innovation in Operations (10) LEED for Homes offers a total of 125 points. R. Requirements • Sustainable Sites (SS) o • 0) Water Efficiency (WE) Energy and Atmosphere (EA) Materials and Resources (MR) 8) • O Green " e W ft W ..." which identifies the prerequIsite S cre . R lated credits. except where noted. Examples. They are consistent across all LEED rating systems. • Documentation guidelines. tem has 100 base points. Operations and maintenance considerations. Indoor Environmental Quality IiEQJ . (Please see the samp ..

• • • • • id Reference gl. off the h 0 Certified 40-49 pOints. Each credit was assigned its value based on how well the credit addresses these concerns. The chart below shows how the rating systems are covered m each te Rating System LEEDfor New Construction and Major Renovations -- IMPACT CATEGORIES - LEED for Core & Shell LEED for Schools lEED for Healthcare* LEED for Retail" LEED for Cornrnercial lnterinrs . lEED Reference Guide for Green Neighborhood Development . ' LEED for Relail lnteriors" LEED for ExistingBuildings:Operations Maintenance & LEED for Existing Schools* - LEED Reference Guide for Green Building Operations and Maintenance LEED for Homes · lEED for Neighborhood Development . building design and construction .. ~diti~n LEED Reference GUides. especially those strategies that promote increased energy efficiency and reduced carbon dioxide (COz) emissions.The LEED Rating Systems LEED addresses the different project development and delivery proces~es that exist in the U. such as smog formation and ozone depletion. while the right column depicts their relative weighting in the LEED rating systems. LEED for Homes Reference Guide ------ ""'" . In the graphic below. sectors.S. and project scopes: • LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance LEED for Commercial Interiors LEED for Core & Shell LEED for Homes LEED for Schools LEED for Retail LEED for Healthcare LEED for Neighborhood Development and understanding . I t *These rati~~p~~~~n1. LEED awards the most points for strategies that will benefit climate change and indoor environmental quality.m~rket through rating systems for specific building typologies. with the highest value given to those credits that offer the greatest potential benefit. specific rating systems. Silver 50-59 points Gold 60-79 points Pfatinum 80+ points • • • LEED Credit We1ightings The weighting and level of importance of a LEED credit depends on the credit's ability to address various environmental and human health concerns. USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide USGBC and LEED 27 . the left column illustrates the issues LEED addresses.ll es h ave been developed to aid in the implementation reference guides.~iln~e~O~~vf~~r~e~00a~ 26 f 0 tober 2009 Once they are available.

Must Comply With Minimum Building. Core & Shell. If it is on a campus. 'Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance: Must be in a state of typical physical occupancy. Commercial Interiors: the LEED project boundary. The project boundary must not include land that is owned by a party other than that which owns the LEED projects. or major renovation of at least New Construction. These are critical! If non-compliance is discovered at any point. energy and water usage data for a period of at least 5years. 28 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide' USGBC and LEED 29 . it must not unreasonably exclude sections ofland to create boundaries in unreasonable shapes for the sole purpose o~ . Commercial Interiors: You must serve one or more Full Time Equivalent (FTE) occupants. No moving allowed! If a building is designated to move at any point in its lifetime they cannot pursue LEED certification. . Core & Shell. III You must include any land disturbed for the purpose of undertaking the LEED project located and at the time of design and construction. state. to a single building. a permanent location on already existing land. ground-up design & construction one building in its entirety. Schools: You must incI. Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance: LEED projects must include at least one existing building in its entirery. Schools. You must design for. New Construction. must comply with all applicable federal. . Core & Shell. t 0 shar·l· g with USGBC and/or GBCI all available actual whole project .no less than 2% of the gross land area within the LEED project Must Use a Reasonable Site Boundary: New Construction. n. . Commercial Interiors: You must have at lease 250 square feet (22. square meters) of gross floor area.:. and all building systems must be operating at a capacity necessary to serve the current occupants. Core & Shell.' a project risks losing its certification and all associated fees that were paid! Must Comply With Environmental Laws: New Construction. Existing BUildings: Operations & Maintenance: 1. and local environmental become LEED certified then 100% of the gross land area on the campus would be included in the LEED boundary.What Project Types Are Eligible for LEED? A project must adhere to the LEED Minimum Program Requirements (MPRs). state. Schools. construct and operate on. .. You must commit. Permanent Building or Space: ALL Rating Systems: . Existing Buildings:' Operations & Maintenance: Reasonable site boundary means that the LEED project must include all contiguous land. Area to Site Area Ratio: ALL Rating Systems: boundary.000 You must have at lease square feet (93 square meters) of gross floor area. Not only the project. complying with prerequisites or credits. . but also all normal building operations. Schools.only be attnbuted . Must Comply With Minimum Occupancy Rates: New Construction. Commercial Interiors: Do you know the environmental laws in your area? You must cornplywith all applicable laws and regulations in place where the project is federal. This commitment will carry forward if the building changes ownership and commences when occupancy occurs. it must have project boundaries such that if all buildings on campus . Core & Shell. Must Be A Complete. or party wall separation. management. Schools. lease. Gross floor areas mustbe. and local building-related LEED Certification. Commercial Interiors: The LEED project scope has to be distinct from all other spaces within the building with regards to at least one of the following: ownership. environmental laws and regulations in place where the project is located from performance period through expiration date of the .de new. Must Commit to Sharing Whole Building Energy and Water Usage Data: ALL Rating Systems: . an d anyparce I 0f prop erty may . Must Comply With Minimum Floor Area Requirements: Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance: .

• The owner or tenant must occupy mote than 50% of the building's leasable square footage. but it has been applied to many other building types. or dormitories. and the like). churches. e project IS a viable candidate . ~ _ • When to Use LEED for Healthcare The LEED for Healthcare Green Building Rating Systemwas developed to meet the unique needs of the healthcare market. LEED for Existing Buildings. m app ies. museums. llI- * When to Use LEED for Schools LEED for Schools addresses design and construction activities for both new school buildings and major renovations of existing school buildings. licensed out-patient care facilities. including offices.When to Use Each Rating System As t you learn about the application of each LEED rat'Ing system keep' ind hat some projects clearly fit the defined scope f I ' In m~n system. • Other projects on a school campus may qualify under two or more LEED rating system project scopes. Operations & Maintenance is more appropriate . others may be eligible for t 0 on y one LEED rating wo or more Th ' . • All commercial buildings. and major interior rehabilitation.New Construction and Major Renovation or LEED for Schools. A major renovation involves major HVAC renovation. institutional buildings (libraries. and hotels. or major renovation of an ~ II- f- * ~ for Commercial Interiors LE E O® for Existing Buildings Total Possible Points** 110* 26 14 35 lD 15 • • * ~ l- * ~ ~ -i- l- ~ o • • • Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources Indoor Environmental Quality -I- ~ o I- I- -~ _. including the following: • In-patient care facilities. for example. . such as administrative offices. Sf/ver 50+ points. as well as residential buildings of four or more habitable stories are el igible. Projects involving postsecondary academic buildings or prekindergarten buildings may choose to use either LEED for New Construction and Major Renovation or LEEO for Schools. the project team can decide LEEO® for Neighborhood Development LEEO® for Homes • II • * LE E D® for Schools II LEEO®.for LEEO® LEEO® Core & Shell • l- * ~ i- for New Construction II II ~ lII- I. significant envelope modifications. If the project scope does not involve significant design and construction activities and focuses more on operations and maintenance activities. as well. Platinum 80+ ponts" • Innovation & Design 6 4 _fol Q Regional Credit USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide USGBC and LEED 31 . han one rari t e rmmmum pomts required . nonacademic buildings on a school campus. n meet a prerequisites and achieve he rni . and medical education and research centers. Gold 60+ pomts. are eligible for either LEED for . 111 a given rating system If . • LEED for tlealthcare addresses issues such as increased sensitivity to chemicals and pollutants. • The activities must be performed in the construction academic building on K-12 school grounds.. When to Use LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations LEED for New Construction and Major Renovation was designed primarily for new commercial office buildings. . • Design and construction activities for both new buildings and major renovations of existing buildings.. *Out of a possible 100 points + 10 bonus points "Certified 4Q+ points. as well as medical offices. and licensed long-term care facilities. assisted-living facilities. more t an one ratmg syste li which to pursue. for LEED certification if it ca 11 . Projects in which 50% or less of the building's leasable square footage is occupied by an owner or tenant should pursue LEED for Core & Shell certification. and access to natural spaces. traveling distances from parking facilities. maintenance facilities.

schools. Core & Shell Energy Modeling Guidelines. • • Interiors addresses the specifics of tenant spaces primarily in ofand institutional buildings. It is a whole-building rating system. including offices. The Rati ng system can be used for projects in which the developer controls the design' and construction of the entire core and shell base building (such as the mechanical. each must certify individually. Projects in which more than 50% of the building's tenant space is' occupied by an owner should pursue LEED for New Construction and Major Renovation certification. Tenants who lease their space or do not occupy the entire building are eligible.e. and fire protection systems). and hotels. types of spaces retailers • need for their distinctive Buildings such as commercial office buildings. Tenant Lease or Sales Agreement. these. regardless • • The rating system addresses a variety of project types and a broad project range.. If there are multiple buildings on the same campus. as well as residential buildings of four or more habitable stories' are eligible. the LEED Core & Shell Rating System provides guidance & procedures to follow. is a market-specific in which project application developed all to serve the speculative development teams do not control When to Use LEED for Retail LEED for Retaii: 2009 recognize New Construction the unique nature 2009 and LEED for Retail: Commercial Interiors of the retail environment product and address the different lines. or multiple-building campus projects. retail. individual tenant spaces are ineligible. and ongoing indoor environmental quality. churches.. but has no control over the design and construction of the tenant fit-out. The rating system encourages owner. •' 32 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide USGBC and LEED 33 . whether owner-occupied. Core & Shell Project Scope. waste-stream management. retail and service establishments. multitenanted. water and energy use. The owner must occupy 50% or less of the building's leasable square footage. and lab facilities can qualify. • When to Use LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance LEED for Existing sustainability buildings. The rating system is targeted to single buildings. of their control over the building envelope. museums. environmentally preferred products and practices for cleaning and alterations. Buildings: Operations operations &_Maintenance was designed to certify the of the ongoing of existing commercial and institutional • o o Default Occupancy Counts. • • LEED for Retail: Commercial Interiors allows tenants to certify their build-out. as well as default figures that must be used. etc. Depending on how the project is structured. Also.11 building are also eligible for certification under LEED for Commercial Interiors. retail centers. from project LEED for Retail: New Construction allows for the whole-building freestanding retai I buildings. what the occupancy rate of the future tenant will be. The rating system addresses exterior building site maintenance programs. and LEED for Core & Shell Precertification Guidance. • o o o • When to Use LEED for Commercial Interiors LEED for Commercial fice. plumbing.). medical office buildings. . warehouses. Because there are many unknowns in a core and shell project type (i. Tenant spaces that are not within a LEED for Core & Sh~.s and operators of existing buildings to implement sustainable practices and reduce the environmental impacts of their buildings over their functional life cycles. libraries. sustainable purchasing policies. electrical.When to Use LEED for Core & Shell The lEED for Core & Shell Rating System market. this scope can vary significantly to project. -. The system is designed to work hand in hand with the LEED for Core & Shell certification system . who the tenant will be. include: • Existing freestanding retailers can green their real estate portfol io through LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance. certification of scopes of a whole building's • design and construction. • All commercial and institutional buildings.

It is a ~se. and quality of life of our communities. When. The rating system focuses specifically on single-family and small multifamily homes. including buildings. • • Single family homes and multi-family buildings up to.rfriendly system that walks you through all the steps in the review and certification process. LEED Online LEED Online is the required resource that project teams with registered projects use to manage the LEED certification you can: • • • • • • Manage project details. street design. such as transit or walking. and open space. Within LEED Online. sleeping. infrastructure. natural environment. you'll find the required submittal templates and other LEED management resources. or the LEED for Homes Mid-Rise Pilot. Eligible projects successfully protect and enhance the overall health. Focus areas include the • • • LEED 0 34 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide USGBC and LEED 35 .3 stories can be certified under LEED for Homes. projects may use LEED NC. eating. The Online system provides status updates and time lines for your LEED :roje~t team. process. and sanitation. and green building." Every participating home must have a cooking area and a bathroom. are viable. following: • • The principles of smart growth. new urbanism best practices. the following conditions: • A dwelling unit must include "permanent provisions for living. Submit applications for review. the project must include a residential component (new or existing). With LEED Online. This requirement includes. The land-use planning of an entire neighborhood. Current participants 'are in areas with significant previous development and existing infrastructure. requirements for LEED credits and prerequisites. but is not limited to.When to Use LEED for Homes Any project that participates in LEED for Homes must be defined as a "dwelling unit" by all applicable codes. A large variety of project sizes is eligible.to Use LEED for Neighborhood Development LEED for Neighborhood Development has been designed to be the first national standard for neighborhood design and mixed-use communities. However. . Complete documentation Upload supporting gfiles. and Ultimately earn LEED certification. Receive reviewer feedback. cooking. as well as areas with more compact development forms where alternative transportation modes. Above 3 stories.

the project team will receive comments and clarification requests back after the preliminary review.S review G8& • "Achieyed" IYr "Deniel1" • hrfolrn ~rel1mllllllry raling 5ubmll CIRs yerilication • Sha royour success • Pfe[l'aTe DllJabiIiQ Plro • Prelnr! CGl1!lruction durabllity'inspettions tasks Rater's work USGBC {optional) • Trades • Provider submits • Prepare tan1TllciwHhl SCGPes01warks lor Indes dllllulIII!nlS sign off on cnmplaleu documentation to • Complete Accountability Forms 36 USGBC LEEO Green Associate Study Guide USGBC and LEEO 37 . 3. 2.se review • . Certification LEED-Online. Once a project team submits design and construction for review to phase documentation Is LEED right for you? I- Registra tion I- Prepare Application - Submit Application - Application Review _. Appeal Review: If you haven't been awarded a credit after the preliminary and final reviews.-Begin doclJmenla. LEED for Homes has five steps and different project team players. the following. The fee is paid when the project team submits documentation via LEED Online. 2. Final Review: This is when the project team will have the chance to directly address the comments from the preliminary review. third-party certification process takes place: 1. . 2. Whether or not the creditlprerequisite is a design or construction phase credit. it will undergo a preliminary review first. 3. Certification Obtaining LEED certification entails the following steps: Exceptions LEED for Homes and LEED for Neighborhood LEED for Neighborhood Assess value Evaluate/document condition treatment recommendations Set goals Determine prelim'inary LEEDscore Register project • Identify pa rtn e rs • App. • • Determine green bllildill1gpractices . Fill o~t an online registration form at the LEED Online website. orglDlsplayPage. you are done! If it isn't awarded and there are questions or missing documents.gbci. https:llwww. You will be required to enter basic project details.a. which can take years or decades to complete: 1. The review occurs prior to completion of the permitting The certification process. Development has three.! documentation • USG. You can submit new documents and provide a response in order to demonstrate that your team has achieved the prerequisite or credit. • • • • • applies to an approved development plan.Preliminary Review: Complete your LEED Online documentation and submit the credit/prerequisite for review. you have another chance to achieve it and submit new documentation in the appeal review.Allticipaled" IIr "lIeni ell" Design • Prepare inlltlls rod • • • • • • Contact LE'ED Homes Provider for Establish projectgoal's Register project with USGB& Identijy partners Apply for incentives Construction • Green Rater perform thermal bypass ins~eclion • Green R3ter performs Verification • Green Rater completes • Provider reviews Green Certification • U. If the credit/ prerequisite is awarded at this stage.tion process Construction • Assemble documentation • Submit documentation • USGBC construction phase review • "Achieved" or "Denied" Certification • Assemble desil!~ phase documentalion • Submi. There is an additional fee associated with the appeal review. The review encompasses the completed neighborhood development.ly incentives for Development have different certification processes steps that depend on the actual from the other rating systems. Registration Registering for LEED certification entails two steps: 1. This fee is discounted for USGBC members.aspx?CMSPageID=174.. broad-reaching neighborhood development processes.Project Registration and Certification Process Certification Fee The LEED certification fee is based on the rating system that the project is certifying under and the size of the project. You will be required to pay a flat registration fee up front at the time 'of registration.BC tlesign pll. which can be edited at a later time if they change.

the location and surrounding area of the building. The project may contain noncontiguous parcels.. LEED GREEN ASSOCIATE FELLOW LEED o The LEED boundary is the portion of the project site submitted for LEED certification. Tier I Tier III '" o The project boundary is the platted property line of the project defining land and water within it.their perimeters are no farther apart than a quarter-mile walk. details for submitting Cl Rs are available online at www. These are universal requirements meant to provide an explanation of your project scope and highlights: • Project narrative: The team should submit a short narrative (one to three pages) that describes the background/history of the project. Credential logos use~ with permission from GBCI 38 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide USGBC and LEED 39 . and any other project attributes the team would like to highlight. • • • • Project photographs or renderings. but such enclaves can't exceed 2% of the total project area and can't be described as certified.. and . • It is important to distinguish the property boundary: between the project boundary. or CI R.. and extraordi nary levels of knowledge: • • • LEED Green Associate..gbci. Project details also must be provided and applied consistently across all LEED credits. including constructed and non constructed areas. the use(s) of the building in some detail. the LEED project boundary. There is a fee for submitting a eIR.org. single-building the site boundary. For multiple-building For developments.. o The property boundary and/or property area is the total area within the legal property boundaries of a site. Elevations. it encompasses all areas of the site. and LEED Fellow. Projects may also have enclaves of nonproject properties that are not subject to the rating system.· LEED Accredited Professional with specialty. Documentation Guidelines When you submit a project for LEED certification.Credit Interpretation Requests A Credit Interpretation Request. the LEED project boundary may be a portion of the development as determined by the project team. this is the entire project scope and is generally limited to developments. These include the gross square footage of the building and the number of occupants.---. Typical floor plans. advanced. is a formal question asked of GBCI Ruling. Teams submit a LEED Professionals There are three tiers of LEED Professional Credentials which distinguish professionals with basic. The phrase "project site" is equivalent to the land and water inside the project boundary. from the project team. ( you are required to submit GBel Professional Credentials Tier II some general documents . Projects located on publicly owned campuses that do not have internal property lines shall delineate a sphere-of-influence line to be used in place of a property line. and each separate parcel must independently comply with rating system requirements. GBCI responds with a Credit Interpretation eIR when they require clarification on their approach to achieving a specific prerequisite or credit. as long as.

org. You must document your involvement in support of LEED OR be employed in a sustainable field of work OR be engaged in an education program in green building principles and tEED. or client. There are no specialties within the LEED-Green Associate tier. construction. and • Encourages the growth of knowledge and understanding of the LE. Strengthens qualifications LEED-AP. Candidates who successfully pass the LEED Green Associate Exam must complete 15 continuing education (CE) hours biennially.gbci. and operations. Homes. and Supports and facilitates transformation of the built environment.gbci. you will not have to take that exam again. You must have previous experience with a LEED Registered Project within three years of your application submittal date. ' tEED Fellow What: This level is currently under development. • Employer benefits: • Establishes eligibility LEED AP.org. Candidates who successfully pass the LEED AP specialty exam must complete 30 CE hours biennially. when responding to requests for proposals (RFPs) requiring a for projects on which owners are mandating the participation of a Industry benefits: ' • • Encourages and promotes a higher understandi ng of LEED. prospective employer. You will be notified immediately if you are chosen for an audit and will be notified of your eligibility within 14 days. How: LEED Professional Credentialing. • • Tier III (currently under development): This tier will distinguish an elite class of leading professionals. • • Tier I: as You must agree to the Disciplinary Policy and Credential Mainte~ance Requirements outlined at www. • You should submit to an application audit. andlor Neighborhood Development (ND). The Green Associate Exam is Part 1 of the LEED AP with specialty exams. and reflects an understanding and support of green design. Fellows will contribute to the standards of practice and body of knowledge for achieving continuous improvement in the green building field. You must document your involvement in support of tEED OR be employed in a sustainable field of work OR be engaged in an education program in green building principles and LEED. Operations + Maintenance (O+M): Interior Design + Construction (ID+Cl. How: LEED Professional Credentialing.ED certification process. How: LEED Professional Credentialing. . and process. The Green Associate credential also serves as the first step for professionals pursuing a LEED Accredited' Professional specialization. Why Seek lEED Credentials? Individual benefits: • • • • Provides arnarketable credential to an employer. • Recognizes the i nd ividual for involvement in the LEED certification lEED Accredited Professional W:ith Specia:lty What: A LEED Accredited Professional (AP) with specialty credential signifies an advanced depth of knowledge of green building practices. • • 40 • USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide USGBC and LEED 41 . Provides a listing on the GBCI website directory of LEED Professionals.LEED Green Associate What: A Green Associate credential attests to the candidate's knowledge of good environmental practice and skill. • • Tier II: You must agree to the Disciplinary Policy and Credential Maintenance Requirements as outlined at www. Awards a LEED Professional certificate. 5% to 7% of all applications will be audited. LEED APs will earn their credentials in one (or more) of the following five specialties: • • • • • Building Design + Construction (BD+C). if you passed and maintained your Green Associate credential.

LEED Professional Ethics
Once you have your LEED credential,. you also have a responsibility!
The Disciplinary Policy also establishes a fair process for addressing noncompliance. Hearing Committee. These committees operate independently the final decision maker on behalf of GBCI. GBCI created a Disciplinary Policy that serves as a code of conduct for individuals seeking certification. Matters are investigated by a Disciplinary Review Committee and presented for judgment before a Disciplinary of each other. The GBCI Credential Steering Committee is available to hear appeals of Disciplinary Hearing Committee decisions and is

Explain what OSGBC and GBCI do. How do they interact?


The general principles ind ividuals must:
• • • • • Be truthful, forthcoming,

of the Disciplinary

Policy require that LEEO-certified

and cooperative in their dealings with GBCI;

Be in continuous compliance with GBCI rules (as amended from time to time by GBCI); Respect GBCI intellectual property rights;

What are the differences between a prerequisite and a credit?



Abide by laws related to the profession and to general public health and safety; and Carry out their professional work in a competent and objective manner ..

What categories of concern do the LEED rating systems address?


USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide



Look around your community. Identify as many examples as you can of projects that meet the criteria to be rated under each of the LEED rating systems. . (They don't have to be projects green enough to be certified, just that are of the right type for the rating system.)
LEED lEED LEED LEED LEED lEED LEED lEED LEED for for for for for for for for for New Construction and Major Renovation Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance Commercial Interiors Core & Shell Homes Schools Retail Healthcare Neighborhood Development

1. How many levels of LEEDProfessional Accreditation are available?
a.) 6 . b.) 4


The carbon overlay in LEED is used for what purpose?
a.) To prioritize the rel·ative impact of credits on greenhouse gas emissions b.) To identify the major contributors to environmental degradation c.) To quantify the relative impact of different energy efficiency measures d.) To rank the feasibility of various green building strategies


d.) 3


Which of the following is a primary responsibility of the U.S. Green Building Council?
a.) Developing the LEED Professional



exams LEED project reviews processes education

What is the procedure required to achieve LEEDcertification?
a.) Register a project with GBCI, pay

b.) Administering

Review three or more credits in a LEED reference "guide (or from the
appendix in this study guide). Identify each credit component.

and certification

c.) Establishing- continuing

applicable review fees, and submit documentation. b.) Retain a LEED professional, register the project, and pay applicable tees. c.) Submit documentation, certification fees: innovation, obtain a preliminary rating, and pay applicable

requirements for LEED Accredited Professionals d.) Providing and developing lEED· based education and research programs

Divide i~to.three groups: one each for the economy, the environment, and social Issues. Consider the following events and evaluate Within your small groups
how your topic area is affected.


• A new power plant opens in your town.
• Older housing is demolished to make way for a new condo tower.

• A developer purchases 120 acres of open space for a new retail center. • A new bus route is added to serve your neighborhood.

A development company is designing a seven-story, 100,OOO-squarefoot condominium building. The developers will be responsible for completing the interior finishes, but will not be suppl.yingfurniture or appliances. What LEEDrating system would be most relevant for this project type?
a.) LEED for New Construction and Major Renovation b.) LEE[) for Homes
c.) lEED for Commercial

d.) Register the project with GBCI,
demonstrate environmental and pay applicable fees.


What is the earliest point at which a LEEDfor Schools project can be certified?
a.) After one year of occupancy and

Watch the LEED Version 3 Online demo (a five-minute video) on your computer at www.gbci.org. You may also view the video on a large screen at
www.vimeo .. om (search for "LEED v3 Online Demo"). c

after all commissioning complete.

activities are

b.) After the' project team has Interiors registered and submitted all project . specifications. c.) After final punch-list items are complete and all review fees are paid.

d.) LEED for Core & Shell

Provide an aerial photo of a site. Draw a LEED boundary and provide an
explanation for the area selected.
Answer Key on Page 133

d.) After building completion and once
all submittals and clarifications reviewed. are


USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide



7. The Iicensed-prof.essi·onal exemption
is used by a project team to do what?
a.) Achieve continuing b.) Capture federally credits for the project. c.) Bypass otherwise submittals. d.) Streamline the permitting process in required education tax credit for primary team members. available

Cover up the left side of the page and test yourself to see if you can summarize the defi nitions of the followi ng key terms. Or better yet, make flash cards.

©®W -



~m """M I"'' ' ' '


An optional

LEED Green Building


LEED Credit



whose achievement

many jurisdictions.

results in the earning of points toward certification.

A team is unclear whether a proposed project strategy will achieve a specific LEEDcredit the team is pursuing. The team decides it should submit a Credit Interpretation Request (CIR). Prior to submiHing the CIR for review, which strat,egies should the project team consider (select three)?
a.) Review the credit intent and selfevaluate whether the strategy meets that intent. b.) Contact LEED customer service to determine whether the CIR is likely to be successful. c.) Review past CI Rs to see whether this issue has been addressed past. d.) Consult the appropriate in the .

A formal USGBC process in which a project team experiencing in the application as a Credit difficulties arise addressed of a LEED prerequisite Interpretation when specific or credit can seek

LEED Credit Interpretation Request

and receive clarification,issued Ruling. Typically,

issues are not directly arises.

by LEED reference guides or a confl ict between credit requirements

LEED Intent

The primary goal of each prerequisite

or credit.


reference guide for a more detailed explanation. e.) Contact its local chapter to receive a preliminary ruling. f.) Identify other issues to address with in the CI R.

LEED® Green Building Rating System™

A voluntary, consensus-based, market-driven building rating system based on existing, proven technology. The LEED Green Building Rating System™ represents USGBC's effort to provide a national benchmark for green buildings. Through its use as a design guideline and third-party certification tool, the LEED Green Building Rating System aims to improve occupant well-being, environmental performance, and economic returns using established and innovative practices, standards, and technologies.

A required

LEED Green Building

Rating is

LEED Prerequisite

System™ component mandatory

whose achievement

and does not earn any points.

Answer Key on Page 134


USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide USGBC and LEED 47

more comfortable environment? • How does site design contribute to personal mobility? • How does site design contribute to the protection of habitat or agricultural resources? • Can we create a building that restores natural runoff patterns? • Can we create a building that helps restore an urban fabric? Read' pages 25-36 of the Green Building and LEED Core Concepts Guide.LEED Technical Advisory Group (TAG) A committee consisti ng of industry experts who assist in interpreting credits and developing technical improvements to the LEED Green Building Rating System™. 48 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Sustainable Sites 49 . • Can site design save energy? • Can site design reduce surface-water pollution? • Can site design create a safer.

to climate change. With the incidence of obesity and overweight individuals rising at alarming rates in this country. There are many ways developers encourage and design teams can Photo by Kalpana Kuttaiah this behavior. miles of roads and parking lots not only affect water quality but also require massive amounts of energy to Ec 0 nomy: Beyond the environmental cost of vehicle transportation lies a huge economic cost to build and maintain roads. But perhaps most troublesome in physical activity that has come with the increased use of vehicles. Strategies SUSTAINABLE SITES OVERVIEW In this chapter. The economic cost of purchasing gas and oil to fuel these vehicles represents a significant portion of a household's expenditures. ranking with electricity and clothing. Community: Use cool roof install green roofs. is a key priority for green projects. through simple and intentional steps. and that's the point! Challenge the perception of how much parking is really needed to support the project. either without without driving at all or reducing driving alone. Four key issues help define how a project's location affects the sustainability of the project over its lifetime. of how transportation.ite design and management. Limit-parking. The selection and development of IS Now that we know the the impacts is. and other air quality problems. demand for transportation. and provide the least amount possible. Use paving and provide shade possible. construct. there are plenty of data to support the value of getting out of the car and walking or biking instead. and the number ofvehic1es on the road. acid rain. site has a dramatic impact on the performance of a building over the course of its life. Transportation the economy. and the community. Human health is affected by transportation in numerous ways.acoess to existing infrastructure. including is the reduction climate change and air quality issues. you've learned that a project's location for sustainabillty. question the foundation can the selection of a site change these trends? Making it easy for people to get places. • • • Transportation. thereby a. • Siormwater management. Strategies Locate the project near mass transit. Environment: Vehicle emissions are one of the leading contributors smog. Make it easy on employees to take the bus or train to work by picking a site that is within easy walking distance of bus or train stops.USE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION: Provide easy-access to mass transit Transportation So What? Buildings and the way we develop land generate has profound impacts on the environment. You can't drive there if there's nowhere to park. DEVELOP AN APPROPRIATE Choose a site in high density areas with . Moreover. 50 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Sustainable Sites 51 . Site selection. S. from the way people travel to the building to how the project coexists with the local ecosystem.

with access to existing services and public transportation. Help organize building occupants so they know their options for commuting. Community: Directing development through intentional planning preserves natural areas for enjoyment and recreation. Old buildings offer more than history. om c Strategies Increase density. After Site Redevelopment. Even within a site. consider building up instead of out. Reward employees or shoppers who arrive by bike. Reuse is one of the single most important concepts of sustainability. Leave undeveloped areas with critical habitats undamaged and undeveloped. also help protect buildings from natural disasters such as landslides and floods. minimizing the degradation of greenfield sites. Photos courtesy of Urban-Advantage . Nothing speaks louder than cash. Site Selection So What? Buildings a~d the waywe develop land affect ecosystems in a number of ways and can seriously harm existing wildlife habitats. Protect habitat. it prioritizes potential Promote alternative-fuel vehicles. Instead of a sprawling one-story development. as a token of your appreciation: species not only benefits wildlife. Photo by Shawn Hamlin sites that have been previously developed. Give the best parking spots to those who carpool. Additionally. Envi ron ment: Destruction of wildlife habitats for new development displaces native animals. This will maximize the square footage inside your building while minimizing the amount of land that is being used. Protecting areas with diverse plant and animal 52 USGBC lEED Green Associate Study Guide Sustainable Sites 53 . Economy: Appropriate development of sites away from critical natural habitats can Choose' redevelopment. 'Offer incentives.a bulletin board with carpool groups and bus schedules. Take the next step by providing electric-car charging stations. Support alternative transportation. Provide. attributes is a way to significantly minimize aproject's Focus on elements such as those listed in the chart below.Strategies Encourage earpccling. Selecting sites based on their environmental impact on the environment. consider which portions of it might be best left as open space and focus density in the areas where it makes sense. The loss ofland overtime to development lessens the biodiversity of both plant and animal species. Provide the best parking spots for alternativefuel vehicles. Go even further by actually providing an alternative-fuel vehicle for building occupants' usage. Strategies A sustainable site is one that is located within or near existing development infrastructure to leverage existing and provide basic services to building occupants. which are extremely costly to project owners. They are often well located. threatening their ability to survive. but also provides humans the needed opportunity to connect with their natural surroundings..

A sustainable landscape entails not only designing and creating. minimal hardscape. Maintaining plant species that are not well adapted to an area is costly in terms of watering and the use of fertilizers and pesticides. and contribute to the restoration and regeneration of an area. Sustainable landscapes are those that reduce environmental impacts. Projects that are plunked down on a site without any regard for the local environment can tax local resources and wreak havoc on their surroundings. 54 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Sustainable Sites 55 .. Temperature .Site Design and Management So What? Location isn't everything. but also maintaining the landscape in a sustainable manner. not only star gazers but also nocturnal Make sure that buildings are lit minimally at night and that this lighting is directed downward rather than up into the sky.. Consider using materials that allow water to flow through them. nonreflective pavement and buildings... Don't leave it up to chance that everyone will understand the importance of green. Minimize water usage. and share it with those involved in the maintenance of the facility... Reduce light pollution . such as dark. Write a plan for taking care of the building.. Minimize hardscape.sustainable management plan. use light-colored the overall temperature of an area doesn't rise. ---_ ... materials so that Develop a ... Landscape 'designs that use plants that grow naturally inan area add to people's sense of place and cut down on the amount of water needed to keep the landscape looking good. There are lots of people involved in taking care of a building. When projects ignore the context around them. . Use reflective materials. ... even if you've picked the perfect site. Ever run barefoot across black pavement to get to your car in the summer? Black absorbs heat. Photo by ©Christian Richters Heat Island Effect is caused by the absorption of heat by hardscapes. there are still a lot of issues to consider... Water flows right over hard surfaces Iike paved parking lots. they slowly degrade what makes a place Strategies Sustainable site design and management involves the selection of native and/or adaptive plantings. Photo by Adrain Velicescu Community: Place matters. and optimal exterior lighting design... Efficient spaces are smart and meet people's needs without being excessive.. Think small. . minimize maintenance costs. carrying away a precious resource that is now filled with pollutants. . . Environment: The Economy: introduction of nonnative plant species can require irrigation and chemicals. Lighting from building's pollutes the night sky. water-efficient irrigation systems.. but light colors reflect heat back into the atmosphere. or use the least amount of hard space you can. . and its radiation to surrounding areas. small buildings require less resources than large buildings. . "---"-"iIIII overon a country road . and people seek connections with the natural environment. Instead of using a black roof or asphalt. Gazing up at the night sky in a major metropolitan __ "·-"'~ area is nothing like pulling inhibiting wildlife.. both of which threaten the quantity and quality of available water... Strategies Build small. special.. Not every bui Iding needs a green lawn in front of it.

but only if it's clean. fishing. Such systems carry huge up-front installation costs as w. These. thereby carrying particulates in nearby rivers and streams (which often Strategies Minimize impervious areas. Think of ways to get stormwater to stay on your site rather than directing it away. Nature knows best.· Another way to irnpreve the quality of water leaving Economy: The cost of providing man-made infrastructure to handle stormwater your site is to slow it down.ell as ongoing maintenance costs. Strategies Harvest rainwater. and recreation opportunities provide local water supplies). Community: Surface water provides recreational opportunities in the form of swimming. harvesting rainwater can be as simple as connecting a barrel to a downspout or as advanced as tying the collected rainwater into the pi umbing system to provide water to flush toilets. Photo courtesy of Green Building Services Increased urbanization in turn. such as rivers and streams. Outdoor Filtration System. runoff which can accelerate erosion. because they provide important ecological services. aquatic life. this can jeopardize water quality. Photo by Hillary Platt 56 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Sustainable Sites 57 . Environment: Development frequently disturbs a site's natural ecological system. Rain gardens and bioswales are simply technical terms for landscape features that are designed to capture and slow down water leaving the site after a big storm. What better way to respect the vaIue of ra in than 'by saving it? Depending on the size of your project. that This is due to both a decrease in filtration and the buildup on hardscape areas of contaminants are concentrated in surface runoff during heavy rainfall. The loss of existing plants and animals can be devastating. Ultimately. and other activities. including effective management of stormwater. and plants essentially clean the water of pollutants. Surface-water quality can be improved by properly managing stormwater runoff. and development lead to more hardscapes and impervious surfaces.Stormwater Management So What? The fastest-growing source of surface-water degradation is the expansion of impervious surfaces. Photo by Kalpana Kuttaiah is Significant. Green roofs and pervious pavers are good ways to get water to infiltrate a site. Control stormwater. . increase stormwater and chemicals into nearby water bodies.

or idea that starts with the letter "A" and offer a brief explanation. 58 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Sustainable Sites 59 . and storrnwater management. list the strategies being used at the site in the areas of transportation. Split into three small groups. the first person might say.two sites in your community (these could be your home and place of work)." The next person takes "8. have him or her name a sustainable sites strategy. / When considering community connectivity. issue.ious areas on a project site? GROUP ACTIVITY Find three sample site photos or images. wit~ each group. Within the groups. we refer to basic services. What are their pluses and minuses as sustainable sites?· STRATEGY Access to mass transit ADVANTAGES CHALLENGES What sneuld a sustainable management plan address for buUding landscapes and hardscapes? Support for alternative transportation Minimized hardscape Minimized water usage Reflective materials Storm water control Rainwater harvesting . site design and management.taking one of the sites. Where are the opportunities? Come back together as one large group and share your findings." and so on. "Automobiles-single drivers in automobiles is one of the leading contributors to climate change.Why is it beneficial to develop in high-density areas and use existing i:nfrastructure for a project site? PLAY A GAME Go around the room and play the alphabet game. For example. Starting with the first person. Why do we care about light pollution? Site Iighti ng Heat island effect How can you minimize imperv. site selection. What are these? INVESTIGATE Consider .

What metric is the best indicator of transportation impacts associated with a building project? a.) Adequately illuminates the night sky.ting . d.) Install solar panels to power parking . 3.the owner and design team should confirm that the site is _? a.1.nthe project team reduce the project's transportation impact (select two)? a..) Eliminate sewage piping c.) Compliant with the sustainable building codes c. lot lighting.) Protection of the dark-sky initiative d. A project that specifies exterior surfaces with high solar reflectance index (SRI) values is contributing to which environmental benefit? a.) Decrease percolation rates b. b.) Rainwater harve.) Implement a construction activity poll ution plan.) Reduce stormwater runoff d. Decreasing impervious surfaces on a project site will _? a. 6.) Provide occupants a fuel subsidy.) Reduced heat island effect b.) Parking capacity 5. The team wants to increase the open space on the project site.) Select drought-tolerant plantings. d.) Recreational boating c. c.) Nonpoint-source pollution An industrial facility is located in an area with no public transportation. Which strategies should it consider (select two)? a.) Reduces the need for night-time security.) Compliant with the green design criteria b. d.) Availability of public transportation c.) Removed from other development 4.) Use pervious paving materials for the parking area.) Draining of local aquifers b.) Support for renewable energy c. c. 8.) Increase the floor-to-area ratio of the building.) Upgrade the company cars to hybrids.) Locate parking underground. Prior to final selection of the project site. decorative appearance. e. b.) Vehicle miles traveled d. In which ways ca. 7. the project team installs exterior lighting that_? aJ Provides for tasteful. A project is in the pre-design phase and the site has already been selected. d. A project adjacent to protected forestland that is home to a variety of plant and animal life wants to reduce the impact of its site lighting.) Street grid density b. To achieve this.) Does not trespass onto adjacent properties. b.) Improved stormwater quality Answer Key on Page 134 Answer Key on Page 134 60 ~SGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Sustainable Sites 61 .) Provide a carpooling incentive to building occupants.) Reduce potable water usage c.) Previously undeveloped d. What is acknowledged as' one of the greatest threats to surface-water quality? a.

Bioswale and vegetation to slow and detain stormwater. be contaminated with hazardous waste or damage ~~'11 11·1 II IC. restaurants. and incomes to live in the same neighborhood. The amount of connection between a site and The variety of life in all forms. measured in square feet per acre or units per acre. medical facilities. and reduce peak storm water runoff.Previously used or developed land that may Cover up the left side of the page and test yourself to see if you can summarize the definitions of the following key terms. formed by the mixing in the atmosphere of various industrial pollutants (primarily sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) with naturally occurring oxygen and water vapor. services and amenities. efficient gas-electric hybrid vehicles are included in this group . measured by combinations. W@!JlJ fu pollution. and other nonbuilding facilities are not included in the building footprint. make flash cards. such as electricity. and genetic diversity.. ages. and ethanol. In LEED. species diversity. Or better yet. Community Connectivity proximity of the site to homes. Vehicles that use low-polluting. schools. Once any environmental Brownfield has been remediated. increase groundwater recharge. the land can be reused.. parks.offices. and its. schools. parks. 62 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Sustainable Sites 63 .1!!1f '" "eM Ioc. and other Plant material from trees. Parking lots. soils. including ecosystem diversity.. levels. defined by the perimeter of Alternative Fuel Vehicles or compressed natural gas..Iand while promoting infill arid reducing sprawl. grasses. liquid natural gas. IilI<Wn~"''1 The precipitation of dilute solutions of strong Add Rain mineral acids. Building Footprint the building plan. Diversity of Uses or Housing Types \ The number of types of spaces or housing types per acre. A neighborhood that includes a diversity of uses--. propane The area on a project site that is used by the building structure.. stores. fuels..ensity The total square footage of all buildings within a particular area.. Building Density . combination of an engineered basin. Development D. or crops Biomass that can be converted to heat energy to produce electricity.. residents and visitors are less dependent on personal vehicles. A stormwater control feature that uses a . and Biodiversity the surroundi ng community. sizes. The floor area of the building divided by the total area of the site (square feet per acre). homes. landscapes. nongasoline hydrogen. Redevelopment on brownfields provides an important opportunity to restore degraded urban . methanol. A diversity of housing types allows households of different types. stores-encourages walking.

Native and Adapted Plants Native plants occur naturally ina given location and ecosystem. limiting the amount and boundary of site disturbance can protect surrounding habitat. In green building. and degrading surface water quality. reducing groundwater recharge. On undeveloped sites. Adapted plants are not native to a location but grow rei iably with minimal attention from humans. the objective is to build up rather than out because a smaller footprint means less disruption of the existing or created landscape. The percentage of the surface area of a paving Floodplain Land that is likely to be flooded by a storm of a given size (e. Imperv. thereby increasing runoff. Site Disturbance construction activity.To-Area Ratio area and the allowable land area the building can cover. reduced airflow from tall buildings and narrow streets exacerbates the effect. and The amount of a site that is disturbed by its rad iation to surround ing areas. other sources may include vehicle exhaust. Impervious' surfaces prevent rainwater from infiltrating into the ground. Solar Reflectance " Index (S'RI) A measure of how well a material rejects solar heat.g. Particularly in Heat Island Effect urban areas. . Prime Farmland farmland helps protect agricultural are needed for food production. and street equipment. the index ranges from (least reflective) to 100 (most reflective).Excavated areas that detain stormwater and Dry Ponds slow runoff but are dry between rain events. Using native and adapted plants can reduce the amount of water required for irrigation. material that is open and allows moisture to pass through the material and soak into the ground below. which Floor. and may provide benefits for local wildlife. A lOO-year storm). on a surface. as well as the need for pesticides or fertilizers. is expressed as a percentage of total land area that does not allow moisture penetration. such as paving. Minimizing the number of footcandles of site lighting helps reduce light pollution and protect dark skies and nocturnal animals.. Using "cooler" materials helps prevent the urban heat island effect (the absorption of heat by roofs and pavement and its radiation to the ambient air) and minimizes demand for cool ing of nearby buildings. air-conditioners. Avoiding development on prime lands. Perviousness . Native plants are considered low maintenance and not invasive. such as dark. Wet ponds serve a similar function but are designed to hold water all the time. a 64 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Water Efficiency 65 . The total imperviousness of a surface. Rain Garden The absorption of heat by hardscapes. A footcandle is equal to one Foot Candle lumen per square foot. The relationship between the total building floor Previously undeveloped land with soil su itable for cultivation. The resistance of a material to penetration by a liquid. A measure of the amount of illumination falling A stormwater management feature consisting of an excavated depression and vegetation that collects and filters runoff and reduce peak discharge rates. nonreflective pavement and buildings.iousness .

as well as soi I amendments such as compost and mulches to reduce evaporation. Centerline miles are the length of a road Street Grid Density down its center. interconnected streets is more Iikely to be pedestrian friendly than one with a low street grid density and wide streets.. 66 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Water Efficiency 67 . • Where does drinking water come from? use the • What fixtures or appliances most water in the building? A measure of transportation demand that • Can we have a "zero net water" building? come? • Can you trace where water goes after it lands on your roof? • What's the difference performing . calculated as the number of centerline miles per square mile. most often for single-passenger cars. Xeriscaping adaptable and low-water plants. An indicator of neighborhood density. In highoccupancy autos). All precipitation that leaves project site boundaries on the surface is considered stormwater runoff. when it comes to water? between a • What is the difference storm drain and a sewer? Read pages 37-42 A landscaping method that makes routine irrigation un necessary by using drought- of the Green Building and LEED Core Concepts Guide. A community with high street grid density and narrow. how close can we Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) LEED sometimes uses a complementary metric for alternative-mode miles (e. and a high-performing Wetland Vegetation Plants that require saturated soils to survive or can tolerate prolonged wet soil conditions.g. If not. Transportation Demand Management The process of reducing peak-period vehicle trips.Water from precipitation that flows over surfaces Stormwater Runoff into sewer systems or receiving water bodies.building between a low- estimates the travel miles associated with a project.

dig wells. As you've read. many of which go unnoticed by building occupants.rdingwater use can be relatively simple. This also includes water used for dishwashing or washing machines. Actually.water • Process water - water that is used in building systems to heat and cool air to maintain building. • lrrigation water -:. we build dams. our water resources are strained. and drinking. si nk. clean water for future generations is an imperative that can't be ignored. the primary way to improve the quality and availability of water is to use less of it. • Indoor water - water that is used inside the building for toilet flushlng. the current trend in the demand for water is completely unsustainable.. Economy: Talk about resources that aren't priced according to their true value-water has to be one of the most underpriced commodities. Simple. you also use less energy to heat that water. The built environment increasingly difficult for water to naturally recharge the system.REDUCE PROCESS WATER USE: Reduce the use of chemicals and potable water in cooling towers. as supply dwindles. changing behavior rega.. temperatures. and/or use drip irrigation. threatening both human health and the environment. and shower fixtures. Efficiency measures._ USE SITE WATER EFFICIENTLY: Capture rainwater. In order to keep a supply of water.:----=::::::::. So What? Envi ron ment: environmental The demand for water drives a slew of operations that have negative impacts. it is to our existence. use automatic faucet sensors and metering controls. install irrigation sensors. Another cost -saving measure is that when you use less water. the benefits become more REDUCE INDOOR WATER USE: Use flow restrictors and sensors on lavatory. can significantly and easily reduce the amount of water used in buildings. In short. Waterless Urinal Dual Flush Toilet 68 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Water Efficiency 69 . Ensuring safe. with many cities projecting serious water shortages within 10 years. Between increasing demand and shrinking supply. and/or use low-consumption flush fixtures. EMPLOY INNOVATED WATER TREAMENT TECHNOLOGIES: Treat wastewater on-site apparent. and also makes it make withdrawals from our natural water bodies. you've read a lot about water-something so vital to our daily lives yet often taken for granted. An easy way to organize your thinking about water efficiency is to consider it based on the three areas of usetor a project. and chillers. Co mmunity: fundamental There is no doubt that water i~ different than any other commodity. right? Strategies WATER EFFICIENCY OVERVre:W In this chapter. hand washing. ' that is used outside the building to maintain landscaping. boilers. While the economics of saving water today might not be that impressive. Indoor Water ii_.

faucets. primarily landscaping. Outdoor Water What about outside? Outdoor water uses. Sure. can greatly reduce or even eliminate the need for Use nonpotable water. Low-flow toilets. Photo by James Simmons Ose xeriscaping. It's hard to fix a problem if you don't know what the problem is. Photo by Gary Crawford Install meters. Plants that thrive naturally in an area do so for a reason they have adapted to the soil and climate and therefore require little maintenance. Strategies Improved landscape design and maintenance potable water outdoors. xeriscaping emphasizes soil improvements. and showerheads all provide the same service and use far less water.' Nowadays. and efficient irrigation to maximize any water that is used. it is pretty easy to obtain quality fixtures that use significantly less water than their predecessors.Strategies Use efficient fixtures. 70 USGBC LEEO Green Associate Study Guide Water Efficiency 71 . mulching.. but why not flush your toilet with it? Collecting or harvesting rainwater for use in toilets can take the strain off municipal potable water supplies. account for more than a quarter of all water consumption. Xeriscaping is another term for landscaping design that focuses on using plants that are native to an area and therefore require little water. Photo by MDRP/Michael David Rose Strategies Choose locally adapted plants. Meters identify where water is being used so you can tell if you have a leak or some other issue. 'In addition. you can't drink the water that falls on your roof.

the building other than the water talked about above. Well-designed building systems don't need to use excessive amounts of potable water. At the building management level. Use nonpotable water. Water-efficient . This includes the water used in dishwashers. it's hard to fix a problem when you can't find it. therefore. Nonpotable water refers to water that isn't fit for humans to drink but is safe for watering plants. ·Metering helps quickly identify problem areas. Photo by Jennifer L. Process water refers to all the other water used in. and are cost appliances are easy to come by thanks to increased competitive. to reduce the amount of water Strategies Use efficient fixtures.Strategies Select efficient irrigation technologies.. supplying water directly to their roots means the 'plants get the bulk of the water instead of it evaporating into the air. Plants drink from their roots. but they are certainly not the most efficient way to water plants. Again. consumer demand. there are numerous opportunities being used for operational and industrial purposes. 72 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Water Efficiency 73 . Sprinklers are great for runni ng through on a hot summer day. ~t also refers to water used for industrial purposes and in building systems such as boilers and chillers. Process water systems can have leaks and maintenance issues. Closed-loop systems keep water clean in a contaminant-free Process Water r: closed loop that stretches the use of the water. Submeters help identify leaks and let you know where your water is going. and ice machines. Owens Strategies . clothes washers. Capturing rainwater from the roof and using it as watertor irrigation is one option for usi ng the water that falls on the site . Instal'l submeters. Use nonpotab'le water. Install submeters.

Water Efficiency 75 .What are the goals of the Water Efficiency category? THINK ABOUT IT Which of the following water efficiency systems do you use or have you seen? • • • • • • Waterless urinals Dual-flush toilets Low-flow showerheads and faucets Drip irrigation systems Submeters Rainwater-harvesting system If you haven't seen one of these systems. Further identify which of these items could potentially use nonpotable water. outdoor. Wha. • Toilets • • • • • • • Boilers Drinking fountains Garden hoses Dishwashers Bathroom faucets Cooling tower Drip irrigation system 74 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide. or pass out a copy of it. Show the image so that all participants can see it. Then place the items below in the correct category. Share the results with everyone. see if you can find one in your community.t are some uses of nonpotable wat~r? GROUP ACTIVITY Provide an image of a building using several water efficiency strategies. and process. What are some strategies for reducing water consumption? TRY IT OUT Write on the board ora piece of paper the three types of water usage-indoor. Give everyone two minutes to list as many water efficiency strategies as they see.

aerators.) Potable water use b.) The Clean Water Act . Wastewater from toilets and urinals.) Select noninvasive plants Municipally supptied reclaimed water is considered ? a.) Indoor plumbing water use d.) Process water d. All LEED Water Baseline Versus Design Efficiency credits use a baseline case against which the facility's design case is compared.. 1.6 gallons per flush d.) Toilet flushing e. showerheads.2 gallons per flush .) Ice making Cover up the left side of the page and test yourself to see if you can summarize the definitions of the following key terms. What :is reduced when a.Rroject uses reclaimed water in its cooling towers? a.) Installing technologies d.) Blackwater • A structure that uses water to absorb heat Cooling Tower from air-conditioning temperature systems and regulate air in a facility. Act of 1992 (EPAct 1992) flow and flush rates.1992).) National Environmental Pol icy Act 5.1 d.) Showers d.JDrinklng c. definitions vary.) Potable water c. showers..can be reduced by _? (select tw. The baseline flush rate for water closets is l.) Drinking water Galions per Flush (gpf) (water closets.) Irrigation water use 6.) Free water b. •• III KEY TERM DEFINITION b. What is the baseline water use for water closets? a. 7.) Installing submeters b. and wastewater from kitchen sinks Blackwater (perhaps differentiated by the use of a garbage disposal).6 gpf.) Process water use c.) Graywater e. Or better yet. sprinkler heads).) Install submeters b.) Energy Policy Act of 1992 c. and for urinals. Process water use. or toilets.) Use organic fertilizers e.n 1:1 1. Nonpotable water is typicaUy suitable for which of the following uses (select two)? a.) Noopotable water c.b.8 gallons per flush b.0 gpf (EPAct .) Using high-efficiency The amount of water consumed by flush fixtures 4. The amount of water consumed by flow fixtures Gallons per Minute (gpm) \ (lavatory faucets. 8. How can potable water use for irrigation be reduced or eliminated (select two)? a.) 3. The baseline case represents the Energy Policy 2.) 0.) ASHRAE Standard 90.o) a.) Increase the coverage of turf grass d. 3.0 gallons per flush c.) Blackwater d. make flash cards.) Using ENERGY STAR-certified clothes washers low-flow showerheads irrigation c. Wastewater from toilets and urinals is known as ? a.) Nonpotable water use e.) l. Answer Key on Page 135 76 USGBC LEED'Green Associate Study Guide Water Efficiency 77 .) Brownwater b. or bathtubs is considered blackwater under some state or local codes.) Select locally adapted plants c.) -1. What is the prima:ry standard used to establish the hassllne case for indoor water use? a. and urinals).) Irrigation The amount of water the design case conserves versus the basel ine case.

supplied from wells or municipal water systems. tubs. Can a safe. Domestic wastewater composed of wash water Graywater from kitchen. Water that meets or exceeds the EPA's drinking water quality standards and is approved for Potable Water human consumption by the state or local it may be authorities having jurisdiction. For example. 1JM(Q)~[P)~ lE~lE:~ • Do you know where your electricity comes from? • How much energy do bui Idings really use? • Why should buildings their energy on-site? • Why do some developers inefficient • buildings? building sell build energygenerate all of IE..l of the Green Building Concepts: Guide. comfortable electricity The spent or used water from a home. bathroom. and laundry sinks. ~ [P~ 17 ffi\~ [Q) ~ Harvested Rainwater Precipitation captured and used for indoor needs.. farm.. blow away. back to its commun ity? Wastewater community. or fall Irrigation Efficiency on hardscape. irrigation. or industry that contains dissolved or suspended matter. Read p:agi! and LEE. • Should a home have air cond ition ing? 'What could be gained? What would be lost? . overhead spray sprinklers have lower irrigation efficiencies (65%) than drip systems (90%). and washers. or both.P CQ 78 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Energy and Atmosphere 79 . J-5. (EPA) \\1M [HJ~ 1 ~1lE5Q) [UJ l_1 r ( The percentage of water delivered by irrigation equipment that is actually used for irrigation and does not evaporate.

Reductions in energy use.. 80 USGBC lEED Green Associate Study Guide Energy and Atmosphere 81 . On the one hand. performance over time through implementation to ensure sustained systems commissioning Environment:'Energy and metering of the building energy systems. lighting and equipment. Strategies to reduce the impacts of energy use focus on four. ventilation and daylighting. Finally. and ----geothermal energy. allowing businesses to expand and/or invest in further building improvements. on the other hand. and reduced air quality on a global scale.Use pbotovoltaics. solar thermal. are harmful to the environment and human health. Economy: expenses. Energy costs represent a significant percentage of buildings' operating ENERGY AND ATM'OSPHERE O'VERVI'EW In this chapter. they have remarkable physical properties that enable efficient cooling. wind. impacts. Buildings consume approximately 39% of the energy and 74% of the electricity produced annually by the United States. Refrigerants are a necessary component in the refrigeration cycle employed by most airconditioning and refrigeration equipment. and therefore energy costs. PURCHAS. smog. can further reduce the negative effects of energy. such as energy generated sources or Green-e-certified it is important MEASURE AND VERIFY SYSTEMS: Monitor energy system performance to make improvements over time. production causes emissions that contribute to climate change. 2009. minimize east-west glazing. Renewable energy. Many refrigerants. the environmental trade-offs of refrigerants have been explored.AND OPERATE AS DESIGNED: Verify through commissioning that systems are installed and perform accord ing to design intent. and shade southern glazing to maximize passive solor heat gain. With the enormous amount of energy that is used within buildings comes an opportunity to reduce these environmental Between 1990 and 2006.Interconnected elements: • • • • Energy demand. according to the Department of Energy. Energy efficiency. Additionally. using energy only where it is needed. Figure 1 from the LEEDReference Guide for Green Building Operations & Maintenance. electricity. is the most effective way to reduce the environmental use . Energy Use So What? Many of the primary _Intentionally methods of energy extraction have negative environmental effects. reduce plug loads and shift energy use to off-peak periods. they directly contribute to global warming and ozone depletion. natural . BUILD . REDUCE ENERGY DEMAND: Use natural lighting.S. BE ENERGY EfFICIENT: Use energy efficient building envelope. energy use increased by 16%. Page 137. CONSIDER ORIENTATION: Orient building on east-west axis. Example of Energy Use Breakdown. and Ongoing energy performance. annual greenhouse gas emissions from U. can benefit the economy. comfort systems.The use of less harmful forms of energy.E OFF-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY: Buy energy for building use from a Green-e certified power provider. but. followed by ensuring that efficient systems are impacts of energy on-site from renewable of building used to meet these needs. however. you've learned about the importance of energy performance in buildings and reviewed strategies to reducethe environmental impacts associated with energy use.

Insulate. but not exceed. as a whole. If you aren't paying the way they should. As simple as it sounds. • sources first Many building sites have the potential to natural ventilation.. © 2. Interior color schemes can significantly influence energy use. potentially.and from the building. Work with all the members of the design team early on to figure out what makes sense for your project. Lighting to meet the needs and preferences of building occupants should be a main consideration of project teams to ensure that the use of the space requires minimal energy. used with perm ission. Grondzik. and satisfy the majority of human needs through passive systems such as daylighting. Light-color surfaces reflect more light than dark surfaces and can reduce the total amount of lighting power necessary to maintain the intended light levels.007 The Green Studio Handbook: Environmental Strategies for Schematic Design. for downsizing of heating and cooling Monitor consumption. For example. those needs . systems . Increased ventilation strategies. insulation helps keep inside the building the air that owners have paid to heat or cool. cooled.. 82 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Energy and Atmosphere 83 . Siz·e the building appropriately. typically require a corresponding increase in HVAC energy use . Use free energy. in many buildings. Walter T. thereby increasing the availability of funds for local investment.. and ventilated. Alison G. significantly reduces its energy use can benefit from both the direct savings (from lower energy use). attention. High-performance envelopes insulate efficiently. Kwok.I I Community: Efficient buildings within a city or region can serve as a catalyst for En. When determining how the building will be heated. Strategies Establish design and energy goals. explore natural Conventional incandescent lamps use approximately four times the energy to create the same Iight output as standard compact fluorescent lamps . would it make sense to install a radiant floor for heating rather than a forced-air system? What would the energy bills be over the course of a year to operate the building? What design decisions could lower that number? • •. allowing for significant bui Iding reductions in energy use and.ergy Demand Addressing consequences energy' demand is the first step toward reducing the negative environmental of energy use. using the building mass as a thermal storage system. You can't achieve a goal if you don't take the time to establish one. Strategies to reduce energy demand are as follows: community engagement and foster a sense of civic pride. Early on in the project. creates an additional burden on the air-cond itio n i ng system. you really won't know whether people are using the bui lding's systems in Building occupants can be that encouraged to respond to alerts and notifications are initiated when energy demand exceeds certain levels or continues for specified durations. the project team should critically examine the needs of the future occupants and design the building to meet. lit. as well as the potential savings due to the lessened need for additional energy-generation infrastructure. Enabling occupants to turn off their lights when not in use can net significant lighting energy savings. Other factors alsoaffect energy usage. A community that. There is absolutely nothing more efficient than taking advantage of what Mother Nature offers to us free of charge.The wasted energy is converted into heat and. while helpful for increasing the overall quality of indoor air. Some examples follow: • • Water use can directly affect energy use because it typically takes gas or electricity to heat the water and to move the water to. including other aspects of building performance that have a direct impact on energy use.

Photo by Jonathan Leys Photo by K. and design options can be evaluated to determine which one offers the greatest energy benefit. systems can be used to Address the building envelope. Investments in premium systems often pay for themselves many times over during the equipment's lifetime. Projects in extreme climates (seasonally very hot or very cold) benefit more from higher levels of Insulation. Sui Idi ng performance can be predicted before the bui Iding is even constructed. less energy than conventional appliances. The extent to which envelope systems (such as glazing and insulation) are appropriate for a specific project is determined largely by the climatic conditions where the project is located. can achieve Significant lighting energy savings simply by using the sun instead of artificial lighting. The ENERGY STAR label is an easily recognizable indicator of efficiency for eligible equipment types. High-performing systems often carry a cost premium but use less energy than conventional systems.C. and refrigerators. monitors. Photo by Kalpana Kuttaiah Specify high-efficiency appliances. Look for the star! ENERGY STAR equipment uses Strategies Identify passive design opportunities.Energy Efficiency Energy efficiency builds on the strategies used to reduce energy demand. Photo by ©Christian Richters Install high-performance mechanical systems. such as computers. Energy simulation or energy modeling allows the team to look at the different energy efficiency measures to see how they work together and which offer the greatest benefit. Kratt Use energy simulation models. The idea of passive design goes back to using the natural attributes of a site. Once energy needs have been identified by exploring energy demand reductions. and are supported by active controls. 84 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Energy and Atmosphere 85 . high-efficiency further drive down energy use. Buildings that provide access to natural daylight.

regardless of their utility's direct offerings. it is possible to capture heat during the day for use at night. Generate on-site renewable energy.Additionally. Schematic Design. Alison G. Infrastructure. used with permission. certificates from local or national providers. Walter T. Buildings can be heated or cooled by a district system (a system that provides thermal conditioning to multiple buildi ngs). such as street lighting and traffic control devices. Projects wishing to use lower-impact energy sources can purchase green power from their utility . Projects with access to direct sunlight. Purchase off-site renewable energy. and natural gas). especially those in lower latitudes. can generate significant photovoltaic electricity using panels and reduce their energy use for hot water by using solar Capture efficiencies of scale. Grondzik. creates opportunities savings due to its long hours of use. These systems represent important opportunities of scale due to their large size. Photo courtesy of Russell T.. wind. of limited fossil fuels and production wind turbine Use thermal energy storage. By using of renewable energy sources wherever possible.and reject heat at night to provide cooling during the day. Photo by Colin Jewall and Enrico Dagostini inverter © 2007 The Green Studio Handbook: Environmental Strategiestor Kwok. 86 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Energy and Atmosphere 87 . oil. environmental and biomass) avoids air and and water pollution consumption and other harmful of traditional effects associated with the production fuels (such as coal. nuclear power. Because of the day/night cycle and corresponding temperature fluctuations. hot-water heaters. Tutt Science Center for significant Renewable Energy Generating power from renewable sources (such as solar. consumption emissions are reduced.Strategies Use high-efficiency infrastructure. projects can purchase renewable energy .

The use of incentives and the direct transfer of energy costs can help encourage occupants to turn off lights and equipment when they are not in use. Motivated building users can be an ally in reducing energy use.Ongoing Energy Performance The standard increment of electricity IS Strategies the ki lowatt-hour that would Provide staff training. Create incentives . and throughout construction and operation. using an integrative design approach and . Photo by Eric Laignel on the drafting table.implementing the best-performing construction systems. During design. Conduct preventive maintenance. Periodic maintenance helps ensure that systems stay in peak operating condition. for occupants and tenants. Informed building occupants are better able to use the systems as they are intended. Therefore. Photo by Wen Chang Strategies Adhere to owner's project requirements. Even the most carefully designed buildings. the OPR shou Id be used as a benchmark for ach ievement when evaluating design options and functionally systems once constructed. Photo by Brad Feinknopf testing the 88 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Energy and Atmosphere 89 . Staff training resources ensure that building operators (kWh). The owner's project requirements (OPR) aredetermined at the beginning of design and establish the building's functional requirements. can underperform continued due to any number of items that can't be foreseen to energy performance understand how to maintain and operate complex systems. attention is critical during and throughout the building's operation. Building systems that operate properly are able to fulfill their design function effectively and efficiently. This represents the amount of electricity be put out by a 1 kW source in one hour.

doe. school. Identify which renewable energy systems would work best given the site's natural resources and microclimate. 90 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Energy and Atmosphere 91 . What energy efficiency features do they currently have? What features would be possibilities for them? FEATURE Passive design Insu lation/weatherization High-performance windows INSTALLED NOW/FUTURE/POSSIBILITY What are some strategies to reduce energy demand? High-performance mechanical systems High-efficiency appliances .building's why not? energy needs entirely with on-site systems? Why or How can buildings reduce the impact of energy used? • Wha~are some LEED credits from other categories that are synergistic with energy use? INVESTIGATE List all energy uses at your house. Each participant should recalculate his or her energy use based on the group assumptions. sun. Return to the full group to discuss the assumptions and reach a consensus.wcan buildings reduce the negative environmenta. GROUP ACTIVITY Explore renewable opportunities. water. Determine what possible mix of renewable energy systems could be integrated to provide a significant portion of the building's energy.eia. Add up all the energy uses at your house. List all assumptions. Consider a specific site within your community.l consequences associated with energy use? THINK ABOUT IT Consider buildings in your community (these may be the same buildings you identified for earlier exercises). and so on). Work in small groups to review each participant's list and identify additional uses. Discuss the results.Hlo. what systems are most appropriate for the site? What systems don't make sense? Is it possible to meet the.gov/emeu/cbecs/ and determine the per-square-foot energy intensity for the sum of major fuel consumption in 2003 (Table C3A) for a building in the education category. office. This can be your home. Discuss the following questions: • Based on the availability of natural resources (wind. SITE VISIT Visit the Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings· Energy Consumption Survey at http://www. or other location where the group has specific knowledge of its surrounding environment.

etri.) Natural gas 92 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Energy and Atmosphere 93 . This standard measure 2.) Install subrnetering equipment. also called a PL.rtificates fREes) refer? a.) Air pollution potential ~ .) Install renewable energy systems d . 7.) Lead time The exterior surface of a building-the walls. used as a more or biax lamp.) Commission building systems b.) Energy performance d.) Efficiencies of scale c. 8. twin-tube. Sxstems Answer Key on Page 136 d. and escalators is known as ? - 4.) Reduce energy demand. R. and capture daylight? a. b. kitchen cooking. What strategy is being used for a project design that orients windows to allow the building to be warm in the Winter.) Ozone depletion potential d.adverse environmental impacts.) Regulated energy .) First cost b. 5. One of the most cost-effective ways to ensure optimal ongoing energy performance is to _? a. stay cool in the summer. (EPA) tern efficient alternative to incandescent lighting. These direct impacts are quantified by which metrics (select two)? a. and floor. However. Which are considered renewable energy sources (select two)? a. A project team is selecting the HVAC system for the tenant space.) Exempt energy c.) Stock in utility providers A device that removes heat from a liquid. Which primary factors should be considered to minimize the environmental impact of the system (select two)? a.) Energy use potential c.) Process energy d.) Use on-site renewable energy. roof.) Solar c.J Maintain trees and landscaping features a. Or better yet. Ene'rgy use associated with office equipment.) Energy simulation modeling d. also referred to as the building shell.) Wave Energy~EfficientProducts and Building components and appliances that use less energy to perform as well as or better than standard products.) Nuclear b. 6. ~@~V II I II ~m "m"" 1'''''''''' ~@~ 8 The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of liquid water from British Thermal Unit (Btu) 60 to 61 0 0 Fahrenheit.) Expected life c.) Soil contamination potential e.) Passive design concepts mechanical of energy is used to describe the energy content of fuels and compare energy use.) Upgrade mechanical systems c.~ 1.) On-site photovoltaic systems b. Chiller typically as part of a refrigeration system used to cool and dehumidify buildings. • 3.gerantsare necessary as part of the refrigeration cycle often used te cool buildings. What is the first step a project team should consider when trying to save energy? a.) Global warming potential b. b. the benefits of their use should be considered against their potential for.) Market-generated wind power d.) Adopt energy efficiency measures. To what do renewable energy ce. Cover up the left side of the page and test yourself to see if you can summarize the definitions of the following key terms. make flash cards. c. Building Envelope windows. d.) Secondary energy Compact Fluorescent Lamp A small fluorescent lamp.) Off-site renewable energy purchases c.) High-performance systems b.

(EPA) Performance Relative to Code to minimal compliance with an applicable energy code. therms of natural gas. and gallons of liquid fuel. 94 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Materials and Resources 95 . . Examples of ENERGY STAR® Rating determined by the ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager. such as ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager. performance with a baseline that is equivalent Fossil Fuel such as peat.' Standard 90. such as ASHRAE Standard 90 or California's Title 24. as Not capable of being replaced. crude oil. A measure of a building's energy performance compared with that of similar buildings. Energy consumption divided by the number of square feet in a building. A comparison of a building system's Energy derived from ancient organic remains. often expressed as Energy Use Intensity British thermal units (Btus) per square foot or as kilowatt-hours of electricity per square foot per year (kWh/sf/yr). nonrenewable natural resources include metallic ores. A score of 50 represents average bui Iding performance. Equipment. A control system capable of monitoring environmental and system loads and adjusting Typical primary measures of energy Energy Management System HVAC operations accordingly in order to conserve energy while maintaining comfort. consumption associated with buildings include kilowatt-hours of electricity. coal. distribution systems. Lighting Power Density The installed lighting power per unit or 1. permanently depleted once used. Performance Relative to Benchmark A comparison of a building system's performance with a standard. (EPA) Measures of Energy Use .Energy or Greenhouse Gas Emissions per Capita A community's total greenhouse gas emissions divided by the total number of residents.1-2007) Photovoltaic (PV) Energy -- Electricity from photovoltaic cells that convert the energy in sunlight into electricity. Nonrenewable nonrenewable energy sources are oil and natural gas. and natural gas. and terminals (ASHRAE HVAC Systems that provide the processes of heating. ventilating. or air-conditioning. .

wind. Examples include energy from the sun. • How do you know if a building material is safe? • Where do the majority of building materials come from? • What are the most sustainable building materials? What criteria do you use to evaluate them? • What happens to leftover construction materials? • Which materials take the longest to break down at the landfltl? Read pages 53-57 of the 'Green Building and LEED Core Co 96 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Materials and Resources 97 . animal and other organic waste. solar thermal. and small (low-impact) hydropower. and bioenergy systems based on wood waste. RECs are sold separately from the electricity itself and thus allow the purchase of green power by a user of conventionally generated electricity.Renewable Energy Resources that are not depleted by use. Ways to capture energy from the sun include photovoltaic. plus geothermal energy and wave and tidal systems. or landfill gas. agricultural crops or residue. A tradable commodity representing proof Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) that a unit of electricity was generated from a renewable energy resource.

Existing Building I MANAGE RECYCLABLE GOODS. you've been challenged to consider where materials come from and where they go. many of which are not clearly understood. including air and water pollution. Green building focuses on two primary categories when considering materiaIs and resources: • • Selection of sustainable materials (life-cycle impacts). glass. While you may not be able to complete a formal LCA on all the products and services you use on a project. and its end use. ~pplication. the environment USE MATERIALS WITH LITTLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT: Use materials that are rapidly renewable. and disposal. . its transportation.e. plastics and metal. Eco nomy: Many of the readily available materials used in the construction industry are extracted or manufactured in a way that historically has focused solely on economic and people are completely left out of the picture. manufacturing. and Waste management. From their extrac. USE RESPONSIBLE WOOD PRODUCTS: Use wood members that are FSC certied. all the way to its eventual disposal. and depletion of natural resources.tion on through their sale. with a material from the beginning extraction) processing and use in manufacturing. and sand and 25% of all virgin wood that is extracted is used for the construction ofbuildings.In this model. 98 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Materials and Resources 99 . materials have extensive impacts on our lives and the environment. Provide a well-marked accessible area for occupants to recycle paper. Cradle-to-grave begins with the gathering of raw materials from Photo courtesy of the John Buck Company' the earth to create the product and ends at the point when all materials are returned to the earth. 40% of raw stone. A lifecycle assessment. Comm un ity: The extraction. its . corrugated cardboard.MATERIALS AND RESOURCES OVERVI~W In this chapter. to see the environmental destruction of native habitats. Environment: Given the sheer amount of resources that go into buildings. use. gravel." alot of materials! In fact. or LCA. Strategies So what exactly does it mean when you hear the term ''life cycle" in regard to material selection? impacts Basically. SALVAGE EXISTING MATERIALS: Use refurbished or reused materials to reduce demand for virgin materials from on or off-site. the framework itself can be extremely useful when weighing various options. and disposal of many of profit. today's materials pose serious health risks to the human population. it is easy consequences of their use. it all the associated through its means you are considering environmental (i. G) .Material Selection-Considering So What? Life-Cycle Impacts Obviously the development ofbuildings requires the use of materials . is a "cradleto-grave" approach for assessing materials.

It ensures that everyone from the top down understands what your goals are and how these translate into purchases so that the paper with 100% recycled content makes it to the copier instead of virgin paper.eenAssociate Study Guide Materials and Resources 101 . which means taking waste to recycling facilities that break down the materials and turn them backinto "new" materials. you can use the specifications floors. reuse. The word "policy" is enough to scare a lot of people OK. since we haven't been paying attention long enough. Photo by Jonathan leys Environment: Current construction ~nd disposal practices introduce highly hazardous into ground and surface water. Next comes reusing. 100 USGBC LEED Gr. are installed. But did you know that they're in that order for a reason? It's a hierarchy. so you've heard enough." it must be monitored and tested for decades to determine its impact on local air. The inside of a buildi ng is one of the most critical areas for human health to specify green. each of which fits Specify green electronic equipment. they are highly Specify green interiors. Find electronics and accessories that use less energy. and-water resources. Good waste management can reduce the amount of waste and toxins hauled to and disposed of in off. and it's best to start at the top with reduce. recycle. so it is the most solid way to ensure that green materials make it into the project.or no-VOG paints are used or bamboo potential for devastating impacts on human health. Because landfills have the potential to substantially harm the environment. consider the strategies below. into either the reduce. and recycle. toxic materials into the soil. air. landfills or incineration facilities.question about what products you'd like to see selected for the project. and are easier to upgrade. and demolition of buildings account for Specify green materials. scientists estimate that plastic could take 500 years or longer to decompose in a landfill. Waste Management So What? The funny thing about throwing something away is that there is no components for decomposition-sunlight. to make sure regulated and therefore costly. and not all of them necessarily understand your goals. you know the three R's. moisture. for example. and oxygen-are "away" Th three necessary hard to come by in a landfill . As noted above. Although we're not sure. right? Reduce. Even after a landfill is "closed. but really a purchasing policy can be a simple checklist that documents the types of products I you want to be used in your project. Put all these goals into a construction purchasing policy so that there is no . Strategies Develop a sustainable purchasing policy. you look at reusing existing products that may just need to be fixed up. reuse. But what's the answer? Well. And where is all this garbage coming from? Construction about 40% of the total waste stream in the United States. There are already countless choices when it comes to electronic equipment. Specifications are the written documents that an architect issues along with drawings to describe the quality of materials to be used on a project.Strategies Develop a construction purchasing policy. soil. Comm unity: Landfill gas emissions and contaminated groundwater sources have the only low. Last of the R's is recycling. but thinking about energy use and material selection is something you can't forget about. which means that instead of building a new building or buying new cabinets. and water when such materials are disposed ofin landfills. That's because reducing the amount of materials minimizes the environmental impacts throughout each phase of the materials life cycle. Landfills fail and leak contaminants Economy: The cost of building and maintaining landfills is astronomical. There are a lot of people involved in the design and construction of a project. for example. It is in the specifications that you can let the contractor are a legally binding know ·to buy wood from the region or not to use PVG. The specifications document. are made with recyclable and recycled materials. With that in mind. fix. or recycle category.

Looking for architectural gems or repurposing a product such as old lockers is a great way to keep materials out of the landfill and give a space character. It's pretty basic. designers and engineers are Reuse existing buildings or portions of existing buildings. One person's waste is another person's meal . but make sure it's as easy for building occupants to recycle as it is for them to throw something away. Given the number of existing buildings in this country. Bigger isn't always better. Compost. A construction waste policy should outline the three R's and spell out for all the trades how they can contribute to reducing the amount of waste headed to the landfill." and some creative design decisions could transform it into a unique office space. This means not only dedicating spaces for recycling but educating occupants on what goes where. or carpet tiles (new technology strategy). During construction.Size the building appropriately. design. Food and landscaping waste can easily be transformed into mulch for garden beds. Photo by Melva P. Calder coming up with new ideas for addressing the myriad of issues associated with waste. Every day. Certain salvaged materials simply cannot be duplicated in today's manufacturing system. Bui Idings that are smartly designed meet the needs of their occupants without wasting space. Develop a construction waste management policy. Photo by Dale Photographic Encourage' recycling. another plant's meal. Using less means you inherently" waste less. Consider an old manufacturing facility that has sat unused for years. Reuse building materials. er. advanced wood framing (construction strategy). It could have great ~bones. on-site accountable for the goals and processes you put in place.. we need to get more creative about repurposing them.. photo by Jim Gallop/ Gallop Studio 102 USGBC LEED GreenAssociate Study Guide Materials and Resources 103 . it is important to write down your goals so that you can hold everyone. Consider new technology. Such strategies might include a stained concrete floor (design strategy). and construction decisions.

and what should be avoided? - THINK ABOUT IT as lamps.com/i ndex. what environmental characteristics are important to prioritize. paint. Are there greener . WATCH IT Watch "The Story of Stuff" online http://www. html. or hand sanitizer) and identify at least four criteria that should be considered when developing an ongoing purchasing policy for this product. and it just may change the way you look at all the stuff in your life forever.MR CATEGORY REVIEW List some strategies for reducing the environmental impact associated with materials use. It will teach you something. for free at: "The Story of Stuff" is a 20-minute.0 • Construction carbon calculator • ATHENA EcoCalculator for Assemblies • EPEAT How can you apply any of these to your projects? at the end of the Material and Resources Chapter in the Green Building and LEED Core Concepts Guide.105 . fact-filled -look at the underside of our production and consumption patterns. When censiderlng materials. What elements contribute to the life-cycle impacts of a material? TRY IT OUT Tryout the life-cycle impact software listed • BEES 4.storyofstuff. it will make you laugh. Select an ongoing consumable product (such INVESTIGATE Take a look around the room and identify some basic material components such as the flooring.options than what is currently there? 104 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Materials and Resources . and furniture. It exposes the connections between a huge number of environmental and social issues and calls us together to create a more sustainable and just world. toilet paper. fast-paced.

) Construction only c.) 15 d. (EPA) 2.s of a building's materials that are extracted. of existing or deconstruction structures.al product grow or be raised to tie considered as r. 3.) 20 b. KEY TERMS TO K OW: ~@~\r II III ~lW'iI --_ . b. How many years can an agricultur.""". By-Product . c.) Construction and at the building's Construction and Demolition Debris construction demolition.) Pre-fabricated recycled content an independent organization with developed Certified Wood standards of good forest management.) 32% c.) 50 miles of the project site b. what percentage of solid waste is currently recycled in the United States? Cover up the left side of the page and test yourself to see if you can summarize the definitions of the following key terms. d.) 250 miles of the project site c.) 50% c.) 40% Dngo. What percentage of waste does LEfO consider to have been recycled? 8. and rocks.ing consumables are consumed during which of the following? Waste and recyctables generated from a. e.parated on-site and sent directly to recyclers.) Reduce the total quantity of waste.) Post-industrial recycled content Wood that has been issued a certificate from b. salvaging. other than the principal product. 6. the amount c.p 1.) 72% A material. Th is certificate verifies that wood products come from responsibly managed forests. make flash cards. What is the first step in a successful waste management policy? a.) Offer future customization options Regionaillocally Sourced MElterial.) 10 c.apidly renewable by . generated as a consequence of an industrial process or as a breakdown product in a living system. 50 tons are collected on-site and sent to a sorting facility with a faciUtywide diversion rate of 60%.) Are harvested and manufactured regionally b. Answer Key on Page 136 106 USGBC LEEDGreenAssociate Study Guide Materials and R our 11 I .) Recycle all possible construction materials.) Are salvaged e. 4.) Determine the embodied energy of the product.) 5 a.) Design only b.-'''''Ill'' t b..) Contain recycled content Construction Waste Management Plan A plan that diverts construction debris from landfills through recycling.) 70% d.) Pre-consumer recycled content d. such as soil.) 11% IONS According to the EPA.) Occupancy only d.) Reuse existing materials.) Post-consumer recycled content c.) Are sourced from developing countries d.) 51 % d. a. For LEED. 40 tons are se. b.. It does not include land-clearing debris. and manufactured close to a project site. LEEOdefines regional materiats as originating within _? a. 7.) 750 miles of the project site Also known as regional materials. processed.) Both construction end of life and operation e. and reuse. A project generates 100 tons of waste throughout construction. contains ? a. A building material that is made from recycled soda bottles .able attributes of materials does LEED recognize (select three)? a. .) 500 miles of the project site c. vegetation.. The final 10 tons are incinerated off-site. and from the renovation. LEED? a. regional materials originate within 500 miles of the project site. expressed as a percentage of the total materials cost.) Specify recyclable materials. Or better yet.) 80% Which environmentally prefer.

and decking). andtree trimmings). doors.The recycledmaterialwasgenerated by household. Preconsumer content was formerly known as postindustrial content.Recycled Content The percentage of material in a product that is recycled from the manufacturing waste stream (preconsumer waste) or the consumer waste stream (postconsumer waste) and used to make new materials. For LEED. or institutional end usersand can no longerbe usedfor its intended purpose. Management of a forest to produce in perpetuity a high-level annual or regular periodic output. through a balance between increment and cutti ng. cabinetry. recycled content is typically expressed as a percentage of the total material volume or weight. bagasse. Examplesinclude constructionand demolition debris. cabinetry. enhance. thereby extending the lifetime of materials that would otherwise be discarded. Salvaged Material Construction items recovered from existing buildings or construction sites and reused. The primary goal is to restore. expressed in tons. expressed as a percentage of the total materials cost.discardedproducts(suchas furniture. sawdust. culls. walnut shells. and landscapingwaste(such as leaves.inable Forestry Management of forest resources to meet the long-term forest product needs of humans while maintaining the biodiversity of forested landscapes. Post-Consumer Recycled Content Sustained-Yield Forestry . Examples include planer shavings. Excluded are rework.This includesreturnsof materialsfrom the distribution chain. Examples of waste diversion include reuse and recycling. brick. rapidly renewable materials take 10 years or less to grow or raise. expressed as a percentage of the total materials cost of a building. The salvaged materials are incorporated into the new building. regrind.commercial.industrial. social. including economic. The percentage of material in a product that was recycled from manufacturing waste. and ecological considerations. (Society of American Foresters) Pre-Consumer Recycled Content Waste Diversion The amount of waste disposed of other than through incineration or in landfills. Rapidly Renewable Materials and Products The amount of a building's agricultural products (fiber or animal) that are quickly grown or raised and can be harvested in a sustainable fash ion. For LEED. flooring. 108 USGBCLEEDGreenAssociateStudy Guide Materials and Resources 109 . Susta. Reuse The amount of building materials returned to active use (in the same or a related capacity as their original use). and obsolete inventories. Common salvaged materials include structural beams and posts. and sustain a full range of forest values. The percentageof material in a productthat was consumerwaste. or scrap materials capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated them. trimmed materials. and decorative items.grassclippings. materialscollected throughrecycling programs. overissue publications.

110 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Indoor Environmental Qual ity III . on average.individual lighting controls? . • What is the point of access to views of the outdoors? . do you spend inside? • Why is it beneficial for occupants to have .• What is your favorite place to be in your house? Why? • How' much time.• Why do buildings use entryway systems such as walk-off mats? • Is it worthwhile to provide more ventilation than required by code? • Why are acoustics of special concern to school classrooms? • What's so great about dayl ight? Read pages 59-63·of the Green Building and LEED ore Concepts Guide.

and the quality of this air can be compromised by contaminants within the building. Provide user controls and consider user feedback in operations and maintenance. 112 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Indoor Environmental Quality 113 .EW Photo courtesy of Exelon you've learned about the importance pollutants. and • • • $20 billion to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance unrelated to health. REDUCE OR ELIMINATE CONTAMINATES: Protect the indoor environment from VOCs. and Acoustics.that building occupants breathe is delivered through the building's ventilation system (naturally or mechanically).. of the Indoor Environmental Quality To summarize. Lighting. \ 1 lAO Fact Sheet (Environmental Health. and too little air can contribute to poor-quality indoor and views. . Indoor Air Quality So What? Most of the air .PROMOTE GREEN BUILDING OPERATIONS: Use Best Management Practices to control outdoor air introduction and exhaust systems. and Federal. were noted as critical and thermal to overall environments. some control of maintaining introducing highdaylight Ad- Environment: Improving indoor air quality specifically benefits the places where Americans spend most of their time: indoors. C02. ventilation strikes the right balance between energy use and human health. PROVIDE DAYLIGHTING AND VIEWS: Utilize natural light for optimal indoor lighting and provide views of scenery . Too much air is wasteful in terms of energy use. Create a plan to prevent pests from entering and damaging the building: SELECT APPROPRIATE MATERIALS: Use low-emitting materials. State and Local Government. furniture and interior finishes to limit off-gassing. particulates and tobacco smoke. Providing ample. Indoor air quality is known to affect human health and can directly influence productivity and quality of life. Thermal comfort. USE GREEN CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES: Control spread of construction dust and protect building materials from moisture. the critical components by controlling comfort QUALITY OVERVI. section are as follows: • • • • Indoor air quality. quality ditionally. CONTROL THERMAL COMFORT. but not excessive. occupant indoor environments acoustics satisfaction. a INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL In this chapter. Safety and Quality Management Services for Business and Industry. INTEGRATE PEST MANANGEMENT. and putting into the hands of the occupants. 2006). environmental $6 billion to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease. PRACTICE GREEN CLEANING: Adopt a Green Cleaning Policy and use sustainable cleaning products and equipment. Economy: • The potential annual savings and productivity gains from improved indoor quality in the United States are estimated as follows'. March 9. $10 billion to $30 billion from reduced sick-building-syndrome symptoms. $1 billion to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma.

Strategies Some strategies that project teams consider in addressing indoor air quality. Photo by Dale Photographic Use integrated pest management. and work and are ideal as community gathering spaces. improvements to indoor air quality can reduce the incidence of diseases and ailments. healthier indoor air. such as monitoring and baiting. Mechanical designers should venti late with ample outdoor air to help ensure that indoor air contaminants are sufficiently diluted within the space. Monitoring carbon dioxide levels within spaces. are as follows: Install high-efficiency air filters. Low-emitting materials should be used rather than conventional products because of their reduced off-gassing of harmful contaminants. Ensure adequate ventilation. directly improving the health of community members. can allow for demand-control ventilation strategies in which the amount of air delivered to the space is controlled based on the needs of the users. especially spaces where the numberot people changes. Strategies Prohibit smoking. For schools and schoolchildren. good indoor environmental quality is even more urgent. play. 11. High-efficiency air filters continually remove contaminants from the air and contribute to cleaner. rather than taking a "pesticide first" approach. Strategies Monitor carbon dioxide. Project buildings can prohibit smoking within the building and restrict outdoor smoking to designated areas that won't cause smoke to irritate building occupants. The writing is on the wall-smoking causes lung disease. Additionally. cancer. We all know how draining it is to sit in a stuffy room. Integrated pest management uses strategies that minimize or eliminate the potential for human exposure to pest-control chemicals by prioritizing nonchemical strategies. along with examples of each.Co mmu n ity: Locations with high-quality indoor air are desirable places to live. Well. due to the heightened sensitivity of young people to contaminants. it doesn't have to be stuffy and stale just because you're inside. Secondhand smoke is no' better.4 USGBC LEEDGreen Associate Study Guide Indoor EnvironmentalQuality 115 . • Specify low-emitting materials. and heart disease as well as a host of other health problems.

access to views. and can communicate effectively due to good acoustics. are degree of control over the indoor environment. the space can be flushed with large quantities of outside air to remove residual contaminants from construction activities. and increases the likelihood that occupants will be advocates for operational practices such as turning off lights when they're not in use. increased access to daylight can reduce the need for electric lighting during daytime hours. Once construction is complete. to daylight and views. - Economy: Personnel costs are a significant percentage of operating costs-much costs-thus. Additionally. Photo by Jennifer L. acoustics Additionally. Buildings that provide. work. and productivity are significant for the bottom line. Environment: Increased controllability fosters a partnership between the occupants and the building. greater than energy or maintenance attendance. Community: Employ a green cleaning program. Further.these comforts. Owens Thermal Comfort. Most people prefer to live. have access public gatherings.Strategies Protect air quality during construction. and Acoustics So What? Providing a high degree of thermal comfort and enabling occupants to playa role in controlling their environmental conditions lead to greater productivity and increased occupant satisfaction. especially if they openly accommodate ideal as centers for the community they serve. Conduct a flush-out. thereby decreasing energy use. Green cleaning policies can greatly reduce the introduction of harmful chemicals during building operation and encourage best practices by custodial staff. Project' teams can implement an indoor air quality management plan during construction to improve the air quality for construction professionals as well as reduce the buildup of dust and other contaminants within the building's HVACsystem. and high-performance further enhance the user experience. spaces that provide ample daylight. actions that affect employee retention. Lighting. projects that carefully protect absorptive materials from moisture damage reduce the potential for future mold growth. before occupants move into the building. and play in spaces where they have a are thermally comfortable. north facing skylight ~---exterior shading Interior light shelf device vision glazing 60· max 30· min 116 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Indoor Environmental Quality 117 .

erbal communication is integral to the way we live. provided. Photo by Anthony Semonti building geometry. Where operable windows are infeasible. 118 USG8C LEED Green Associate Study Guide Indoor Environmental Quality 119 .Strategies Strategies to increase occupant comfort indoors. Consider acoustics. It's amazing how much you can learn just by asking a few questions. improvement and foster occupant engagement in the operation of the Give occupants temperature and ventilation control. are provided below. This also enables occupants to actively participate in energy savings by turning off lights when they're not needed. lighting controls for shared spaces should be incorporated into the building to allow occupants to adjust the light levels to suit their needs and preferences. Projects can make use of acoustical finishes. Task lighting at individual workstations and group Strategies Use daylighting. Install operable windows. duct insulation and other strategies to facilitate human interaction. acoustics. Photo by Phi I Weston this critical component of Conduct occupant surveys. work. occupant control over mechanically supplied heating. and addressing thermal conditions. Asking occupants about their comfort within the space. along with examples of each. and learn within buildings. Projects should be designed to introduce' ample natural light into the space while providing glare-control devices to minimize the unwanted effects of unfettered sunllght. ventilation. Areas that are not regularly occupied should be designed in the core of the building. and air conditioning should be building. contributing lighting. Operable wln_dows provide occupants control over their environment so that on a mild day they can enjoy a breeze. Strategies Give occupants lighting control. and other elements can help identify areas for to their overall satisfaction. while spaces such as offices and classrooms should be locatec along the building perimeter to take advantage of greater access to windows. There is nothing quite like opening a window to get some fresh air. Photo by Eric Laignel Effective v.

rovide lightiing and thermallcomfort controls t.an arch itect. EFFECTIVE NEUTRAL INEFFECTIVE ABSENT Why is it important to p. mechanical engineer.NG What are some key .e lower the thermosta. indoor paintjfinishes. Research the products to identify all components and ub-components.o building occupants? .what do they like about them? What could make them better? Then consider who would best be suited to address the improvements they have suggested . What are How do you balance ventilation and comfort versus energy efficiency? (For example" should w. ineffective or absent. FEATURE Daylighting Ventilation Operable windows Occupant control of'lighting Occupant control of temperature low-emissions materials High-efficiency air filters .o save energy if that redaees comfort?) the best opportunities? List the current state of each feature as effective. interiors (e. furniture.).ATE Identify two building materlals which are used within building . 120 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Indoor Environmental Quality 121 . interior designer.EARNI. Green cleaning products and technologies Other I' NVESTIG. etc. faci lity manager? WALK AROUND Walk through an office or commercial building 'in your community to identify features that improve indoor environmental quality.strategies for a'chi&vi!Dghigh indoor envlrnnmeatal quali!ty? CTIVITIES ASK AROUND Ask your friends and co-workers about their working environments . Work in alone or with a group to determine which ccrnpon nts m y mit harmful chemicals over their lifetimes.g. neutral.t in the winter months t.

) Acoustical control d.) Use materials with recycled content.) Variable ozone contaminants d.) Design systems to deliver ample outside air.) Versatile organized composites 4. c.) Variable operating conditions c.) 65% c.) Lighting control Ambient Temperatura The temperature of the surrounding air or other . and daylight c. CO2 conc~ntrations greater than 530 parts per million (ppm) above outdoor a. c.) 75% b.000 ppm generally indicate poor air quality for breathing. and air speed classrooms. 5.lation is tYP'ically adjusted in response to _? a.) Humidity.) Carbon dioxide concentrations A process used to remove volati Ie organic d. efficiency reporting value (MERV) rating. and solar heat gain b.) Adjacent to building air intakes d.) Use advanced framing techn iques. Refrigerati ng and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Thermal comfort is typicaillyattributed to what environmenta. what percentage of time do Americans spend indoors? a. (EPA) 2.) Use filters with a low minimum b. Absolute concentrations of greater than 800 to 1. Which str. controllabi Iity and An operable window is considered what type of control? a. temperature. compounds (VaCs) from the temperature a building by elevating in the tully furnished and ventilated building prior to human occupancy. Answer Key on Page 137 11'1 addition to prohibiting smoking within the building.s (select two)? An indicator of ventilation effectiveness inside buildings. d. temperature.) 50% Cover up the left side of the page and test yourself to see if you can summarize the definitions of the following key terms. Which strateg!ies should be cons. c. w~ere is it also important to prohibit smoking to reduce occupant exposure to harmful airbnrne chemical. The a~brevia~tion VOC referno . f.) Thermal comfort control c.l factors? a.) Incorporate daylight into Air Quality Standards .) Ventilation. d.) Density.ategy supports improved indoor air quafiity1 a. (EPA) d.) Avoid the use of products with high carbon dioxide concentrations. ©(OJ" IIIII ©lW1r ~@~lID I~) ~~If~~ b. CO2 builds up in a p ce when there is not enough venti lation.) Consider acoustical learning spaces.ing strategies to maximize student learning. humidity.) In covered parking spaces b.) Volatile organic compounds ASHRAE Demand-controUed venti.) vac concentrations Bak.) Environmental tobacco smoke control American Society "of Heating. b. make flash cards.l Occupant requests to the building operator c.:: a. ventilation.) A time schedule b.) Reduce the energy use of the building below the baseline standard. e. 3.) Eliminate refrigerants with ozonedepleting potential.RACT According to thee~nvironmental Protection Agency.e~Out .) In wooded areas 122 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Innovation in Design 123 . Or better yet. regulations that is not to be exceeded during a given time in a defined area.) Install individual thermal comfort· controls in offices. A school project in predesign would like to incorporate build.) Near building entrances . The level of pollutants prescribed by . issues in core b. medium. 1r .idered to achieve this goal (select two)? a.) 90% d.Carbon Dioxide Concentration \ conditions generally indicate inadequate ventilation. 8.) Temperature.

An unwanted airborne element that may reduce C. and large particulates (PM 10). commissioning Indoor Air Quality . The controlled admission of natural Iight into Dayl jghting a space. 124 USGBCLEEDGreenAssociate Study Guide Innovation in Design 125 . allocation of resources. and lighting in their spaces. and documentation requirements of the process. Pollutant " (EPA) Air pollutants include emissions of carbon dioxide (C02). and maintained to meet the owner's project requirements. emissions from industrial processes. nitrogen oxides (NOx).1-2007) A document that details the commissioning process. rhe. Solid particles or liquid droplets in the atmosphere. . Flush-Out outside air at the end of construction and prior to building occupancy to ensure safe indoor air quality.ontrollability Of Systems control over temperature. and description of the commissioning process activities. tested. small particulates (PM2. MERV ratings range from 1 (very low efficiency) to 16 (very high efficiency). airflow. depending on location and time of year. Off-Gassing The emission of volatile organic compounds from synthetic and natural products. Sources The percentage of occupants who have direct C. used to reduce or eliminate electric lighting. (ASHRAE Standard 62.5). The operation of mechanical systems for a minimum of two weeks using 100 percent C.ommissioning Report - a commissioning program overview.ontaminant indoor air quality (ASHRAE Standard 62. or ecosystems.X) a building and all of its systems and assemblies are planned. (EPA) Any substance introduced into the environment that harms the usefulness of a resource or the health of humans. mercury (Hg). combustion products associatedwith motor vehicle or nonroad engine exhausts. Particulates include dust.ommissioning Plan schedule. designed. animals.and reactions to gases in the atmosphere. operated. sulfur dioxide (S02). identification of the commission ing Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) A rating that indicates the efficiency of air filters in the mechanical system. The nature of air inside the space that affects the health and well-being of building occupants.cnernical composition of particulates varies. including C.ommissioning (C. A document that outlines the organization. It is considered acceptable when there are no C. . installed. / known contaminants and a substantial at harmful concentrations majority (80% or more) of the occupants do not express dissatisfaction.12007). team.The process of verifying and documenti ng that. combustion products from the burning of wood and coal.

VOCs off-gas from many materials.in cubic feet per minute divided by rates. The amount of air circulated through a space. and energy DESIGN? • What technologies have been developed in the past 10 years that are now commonplace but were once considered innovative? • What is the goal of innovation? • Can LEED recognize and encourage innovation? • Can LEED reward the next generation of approaches to green building? • Can a building be carbon neutral? • Can a building use"? • Can the design building make healthier and Green Building . Control setpoints for HVAC systems should vary accordingly. carpets. Complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone or' be spread throughout the building. experienced by occupants of a building. Proper ventilation as prescribed by ASH RAE Standard 62. and airflow ranges within as which the majority of people are most comfortable. to ensure that occupants are comfortable is conserved. humidity.". and particleboard. measured in air changes per hour (the quantity of infiltration air.. thermal comfort levels vary with the season. paints. including adhesives.. ensure that enough air is supplied for the number of occupants to prevent accumulation pollutants of carbon dioxide and other in the space.~a""'+" Guide. 126 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Innovation in Design 127 . measured in grams per liter. determined by ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. in The amount of carbon compounds that participate atmospheric photochemical reactions and vaporize Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) (become a gas) at normal room temperatures. sealants.. Because Thermal Comfort people dress differently depending on the season. that appear to be Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) linked to time spent in the building but cannot be traced to a specific cause.A combination of symptoms. VOC concentrations construction Limiting protects the health of both personnel and building occupants. (EPA) The temperature. ion of a nstrably IN Ventilation Rate the volume of the room).

learning. The LEED Accredited Professional understands the importance of considering interactions the LEED prerequisites and credits and their respective criteria. LEED Accredited engineers. Innovation in Design As the building design and construction industry sustainable continue introduces new strategies for development. e nnovatron In DesIgn c t.. facility managers. if a project demonstrates a 45% reduction in potable water use. There are two primary ways to earn' an' Exemplary Performance Project teams can earn exemplary performance performance credit. Photo by Jenny Poole benefit of their innovative INNOVATION IN DESIGN OVERVIEW Now that you've finished reading throu hall green building strategies. lG) provide benefits of particular significance and should be prepared to demonstrate environmental strategies."re ''''''''Ii". about what's and improving. it is eligible for an r nnovation in Design credit. e I requIres or that o a ressed by any prerequisite or credit. Building owners.ACHIEVE EXEMPLARY PERfORMANCE.. and operational practices is recognized Professionals have the between LEED Accredited • • lnnovatton in Design credit: Innovation in Design.___ throughout the life of a project.ited Professional. __ ~ACTICE between professionals. LEED Accredited Professionals Multidisciplinaryexpertise by the LEED Accredited in sustainable buildingprinciples Professional designation... systems and concepts _. Emp".. consultants. ----:~ __ ~~. That's exactly why. For example. contractors. opportunities benefits will that for additional environmental to emerge. ~re ~II abo~t. and others who Lastly. have a strong interest in sustainable buildings are all appropriate candidates for accreditation. to reward projects that go ab d '. region. . a project team can earn one point f Pf .. Exemplary performance opportunities points by implementing are noted throughout strategies that result in or that greatly exceeds the level or scope required by an existing LEED prerequisite the LEED reference guides..th I K. . Green building and sustaina:l:od~~~ ~xclted and thinking. technicians. a egoryexlstsave an beyond what a cr d't .. or involving . 128 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Innovation in Design 129 . groundskeepers.. Employ a strategy that greatly exceeds th~ requirements of an existing LEED credit. hopeful! ' g.:. condition.evolvlng. of the LEED categories and next. purchasing staff. . . and'romm""". itis im portantto considerrelated environmental encouraged impacts.. and Exemplary performance • knowledge required to integrate sustainability into building operating and upgrade practices. INTEGRATED DESIGN. incorporate a strategy that's n t dd . With all sustainable strategies and measures. Project teams are that the to pursue opportunities INVOLVE A LEED PROFESSIONAL: Seek the expertise and knOwledge of a LEED Accred. Opportunities solutions are not currently addressed by LEED may include environmental to a particular specific or location. ro essionats in the project.

Identify what the expectations are of the LEED Professional within an active LEED project.mples of today's innova'tive building methods that weren't in use five or 10 years ago? Visit the GBel website (www. What -innovative strategies are on the horizon for five or 10 years from now? 130 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Innovation in Design 131 . What role does the LEED Professional play? INVESTIGATE Investigate a couple of LEED projects in your area or in the USGBC case studies and identify which ID strategies were used.what type of information would you need to know in order to document the benefits? r FIND OUR MORE What are some exa.10 CATEGORY REVIEW How can Involvement of a LEED Accredited Professional enhance a project? LEARNING ACTIVITIES THINK ABOUT IT What strategies that might positively impact building performance aren't included in the current LEED Rating System? If a project utilized a new technology that allowed them to drastically reduce the amount of materials that went into the construction of a building would it qualify for an Innovation Credit? .org) and research what is required to become a LEED Professional.gbci.

engineers. or service. Credits that most directly address the most important environmental impacts and human benefits are given the greatest weight. Operations and Maintenance. c. Bringing professionals together as early as possible in the proc. b. The triple bottom line. and u.) Plan to enroll the proiectm LEED for Existing Buildings. Green Associate is the first level. 38% of all energy used within buildings is used for space heating. 4. process. green building education program waste beyond the requirement of 75% c. discipi inary bou ndaries can lead to inefficient solutions. a. 4. Life-cycle cost analysis considers the long-terms costs of building materials and design strategies. professionals can achieve the LEED Fellow designation.) Checking the USGBC website b. c. d.) Research existing CI Rs to see whether the strategy has been previously addressed. including the human and environmental 2.) Significantly a comprehensive diverting construction PRACTICE' QUESTION ANSWER KEY 6. b. b. Life-cycle assessment is a method used to analyze the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated 'with a product. built.) Implementing b.) Include two LEED Accredited Professionals on the project team.) Calculate the strategy's overall environment. d. 8. between the sit 132 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Appendix 133 . Answer Key on Page 138' such as pa ive th rm I comfort and links nd th building.al impact and self-evaluate whether it is significant.) Draft a compelling narrative for the LEEO submittal. Integrative design. is a way to evaluate performance relative to overall impact. architects. What steps should the team take to determine whether its str. (LEED Reference Guide for Green Building Operations & Maintenance. 3. thereby decreasing the energy used to heat water. b. brings together owners. S. enabling an environmentally and socially responsible.) Achieving carbon neutrality d.) Providing 75% more spaces with daylighting e.) Check the L~ED rating system. The conventional bottom line evaluates only economic prosperity. conversely. a. 55 decreases the barriers to lrnplern nting innovative strategies their LEED project registration.Administration. at 20%.PRACTICE QUESTIONS An Innovation in Design credit for exemplary performance would be available for _? a. d. USGBC is a nonprofit. 7. a. GBCI recognizes three tiers of professional accreditation. The predesign period of an environmentally responsive design process is the first phase in the development of a project.S. Reducing the flow of water at hand-washing stations results in less water used per minute. Department of Energy's Energy Informatiori . page 499) 5. Beyond LEED AP with a specialty. healthy.ategy wil'l be eligible for the credit? a. LEED credits are weighted based on their relative importance. 3. Lighting is the second largest user. The team decides that it will implement the strategy only if the strategy will 'be eligible for an Innovation in Design credit. and operated. followed by LEED AP with a specialty.) Calculating the net environmental impact BUILDING COUNCIL AND ITS PROGRAMS ANSWERS 1.) Researching locally pertinent environmental issues c.) Developing a green housekeeping policy A project team is considering pursuing an Innovation in Desjgn credit for a strategy that will require a large capital expense. member-driven body whose mission is "to transform the way buildings and communities are designed. d. in contrast. b.) Issue a press release to announce effects associated with performance. operators. c. In a conventional linear design. b & c. c.) Submitting a Credit Interpretation Request (CI R) d. Projects can identify which credits have regional priority by _? a. 2. and other stakeholders to identify cross-d iscipl inary opportun ities to improve the environmental performance of building projects.) Develop an educational outreach program. thereby decreasing the total water used when washing hands. LEED for New Construction and Major Renovation addresses buildings. Accordi ng to the U. GREEN BUILDING ANSWERS 1." Its primary responsibilities are to develop and maintain technically robust building certification programs and educational offerings. and prosperous environment that improves the quality of life. 2009 Edition. This in turn results in less hot water use. 2. GREEN An Innovation in Design credit for innovative strategies is Ukely available for projects that _? a.

3. and materials. allows registered professionals to forgo requirements. While LEED customer service representatives may be able to assist users in determining whether an issue ~s of appropriate technical complexity to be a CIR. ice making. for the early identification Submetering can track consumption and allow of ineffic iencies clothes or leaks. Only once the certification review is complete. a. c. Once construction is complete. as well as for certain business operations. Nonpoint source pollution is caused by many sources. The Sustainable Building Technical 2. the three correct answers should be tried before submitting a CIR. a &. 5. a. thereby reducing the total vehicle miles traveled. c. b. 6. 4. Then. and the project achieves the minimum number of points and all prerequisites. a final point tally (and achievement of all prerequisites) dictates the final LEED rating. 7. Process water is used for industrial systems such as HVAC. and is exacerbated by impervious hardscapes during heavy rainfall. 7. so although ltls often acceptable to use for . Many municipalities supply both the company fleet to hybrids or other lowvehicles reduces the impact per mile traveled. solid waste. a & b. a. can be exemption indexes reduces the trapping of heat in site hardscapes. d & e.6 gallons per flush for all water closets.IR process. not suitable for consumption. is completed for both the design and construction credits. This non potable water is often reclaimed from sources such as stormwater. water containing human waste is considered blackwater. submeters and locally adapted plantings both contribute to water use reduction. a. The solar reflectance index represents how well a surface rejects solar heat. locating parking underground eliminates surface parking. 8. . 3. Pervious surfaces allow water to infiltrate the ground. not advise applicants as to whether a CIR is likely to be successful. thereby increasing the available site area to use as open space. and the The carbon overlay considers the impact of direct energy use. & d. potable water (treated for human consumption) and nonpotable water (typically treated. is the project certified. the LEED submittal documentation certification is compi led and submitted along with the fee. The Lise of locally adapted plantings allows further reduction. 5. transportation. likewise increasing the available site area that can be dedicated to open space. b. local chapters do not playa role in the C. they do 134 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Appendix 135 . Submeters ensure that water use can be tracked and leaks or overwatering quickly mitigated.. Finally. Other water-using fixtures follow standards such as the Universal Plumbing Code (UPC). b. because these plant cal climate and. Vehicle miles traveled is a measure of transportation demand that esti mates the travel miles associated with a project. emitting/fuel-efficient transportation Upgrading sustained with little or no 11 tion. itis not required to do so. in order to use the criteria to evaluate potential sites and guide the overall design effort . although in all cases. Providing a carpooling incentive increases the percentage of occupants who co-commute. c. 8.although furniture and appliances can be included within the scope of the program. SUSTAINABLE SITES ANSWERS L c. Likewise. thereby ensuring that they use water efficiently. EN ERGY STAR-certified WATER EFFICIENCY ANSWERS 1. such as oil leaks in cars or fertilized landscape plantings. only one concise question or a set of related questions may be addressed within a single CIR. Increasing the floor-to-area ratio results in a smaller building footprint. a. 4. Additionally. Projects must first register with GBCI and pay the registration fee. such as clothes washing and dish washing. Using materials with high solar reflectance Manual: Part II recommends developing green design criteria before selecti ng the project site. a & d. d. Decreasing impervious surfaces permits an increase in pervious surfaces. Projects that use reclaimed water for process uses reduce their demand on municipally supplied potable water. so it is not appropriate to include other issues within the same CIR. To minimize its impact on nocturnal environs. but not to the same standard as potable water). From the Guidelines for CIR Customers. 4. 2. plant watering and waste transport. Many water-using fixtures follow the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) guidelines for baseline water use. Light trespass is the unwanted spillage of light onto adjacent properties. or bathing. The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) establishes the baseline of 1. one ar sulted to the lot:bli hed. The licensed-professional some of the documentation 8. C. The carbon overlay is used to weight LEED credits based on the carbon footprint impact within a "typical" LEED building. 7. Iight trespass must be controlled. thereby reducing stormwater runoff. it is not usable for drinking. by definition. a. 6. 5. a & d. washers have low water factors. Once the review process embodied emissions of water. the project team can submit its construction phase credits (design phase credits may be submitted earlier). 6. c. d. further lessening the environmental harm associated with automobile use. d. Nonpotable water is. in turn reducing the heat island effect. Blackwater doesn't have a single definition that is accepted nationwide.

b. MATERIALS AND RESOURCES ANSWERS 1. 0 tons recycled. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are volatile at room temperature. Smoking near building entrances or near building air intakes allows infiltration of environmental tobacco smoke into the building interior. 6 . Passive design strategies are used to reduce energy consumption by utilizing natural thermal processes (convection. resulting in 40 tons recycled. as systems that last longer need to be replaced less often. b. c. b & c. regional harvest and manufacture. c. thereby decreasing the impacts associated with system replacement over the life of the building. b.b & c. outdoor airflow is increased when the building automation system detects increased carbon dioxide concentrations. For new construction. plus geothermal energy and wave and tidal systems. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory study found that commissioning for existing buildings has a median cost of $0. c. defined by LEED as having a planting/harvest cycle of 10 years or less. Only then should renewable energy systems be considered. b & d.ENERGY AND ATMOSPHERE ANSWERS 1. Energy performance is a primary factor in determining how much energy is used per unit of cooling. RECs are sold separately from the electricity itself. b.A refrigerant is weighted by its global warming potential and its ozone depletion potential. radiation. Process energy is defi ned as energy used to run office equipment. 136 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Appendix 137 . Waste reduction should be the first consideration of a waste management policy. kitchen cooki ng and refrigeration units. 2. computers.escalators. & d. 4. laundry washing and drying units. 8. Many of them are harmful to humans. Even a small increase in the overall recycling percentage could have enormous environmental benefits. In many cases. The 40 tons separated on-site are 100% diverted. Expected life is also a large driver of environmental impact. LEED addresses many environmental attributes of building materials. and temperature (air temperature and radiant temperature) . 3. 7. Demand-controlled ventilation modulates the delivery of outdoor air into the building based on occupancy. a. the study found that the median cost was $1 per square foot and had a payback of 4.LEED has established 500 miles as the threshold for a regionally sourced material. High-performance acoustics foster effective·teacher-student and student-student commu nication. a. Examples include energy from the sun. 7. 5. contrasted with preconsumer recycled content. RECs are tradable environmental commodities representing proof that a unit of electricity was generated from a renewable energy source. 6. followed by exploring opportunities for reuse. paper. Renewable energy comes from sources that are. 7. Finally. 2. elevators and .not depleted by use. LEED doesn't currently recognize materials based on their nation of origin or potential custom izabi Iity. b. 6. 8. batteries. Operable windows allow occupants to make adjustments to the air speed and temperature within the building. Studies show that improved daylight in classrooms increases student learning. which is 70% of 100 tons. Rapidly renewable resources. ai r speed. ASH RAE Standard 55 defines the environmental factors of thermal comfort as hu nudity... are replenished more quickly than conventional materials. The EPA estimates that Americans spend 90% of their time indoors. b. Delivering high volumes of outside air into the building interior dilutes indoor air contaminants. followed by implementing energy efficiency measures such as installing high-performance equipment. 3. 4. with one study showing 20% faster progression in math and 26% faster progression in reading. r ulti os in 2. absorption. resulting in 30 tons recycled. 4. thereby controlling multiple environmental conditions for thermal comfort. a & e. The 50 tons sorted off-site are 60% diverted. a. f.. Ongoing consumables are goods with a low cost per unit that are regularly used 3. which comes from manufacturing processes. where concentrations of harmfu I contam inants may be dangerously high. and miscellaneous items. and reuse. Recycling should then be considered for waste streams that can't be eliminated or repurposed. lighting that is exempt from the lighting power allowance. 8. and conduction) and sunlight to condition and light spaces. To reduce energy use. b. The and replaced in the course of business (for example. c.7 years. Postconsumer recycled content comes from consumer waste. d. project teams should first reduce energy demand. a. and soap). wind. including their recycled content. submetering equipment is used to maintain building performance. Th total r cycled i 70 tons. 5. 5. and small (low-impact) hydropower. c. thereby influencing the environmental impact of the HVAC system..27 per square foot and an average simple payback of 0. thereby exposing occupants to harmful airborne chemicals. remaining 10 tons re in in rat d. c.8 years based on energy savings alone. b & c. c. thereby improving indoor air quality. The EPA estimated greenhouse gas emissions from building waste and found that the United States currently recycles approximately 32% of its solid waste. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ANSWERS 1.

'" 0 'Vi -E 0 "'~ 0" c. Innovative strategies expand the breadth of green building practices and introduce new ideas... These concepts aren't addressed elsewhere within the LEED rating system. <II Q> :0 'Vi .. I:: '~ ... While many of these strategies may be eligible for an Innovation in Design credit. but are instead evaluated via the elR process. SAMPLE CHECKLISTS . Educational outreach programs are intended to educate building occupants about the building's features and the benefits of green building in general.... <II c.ttl "0 Q.. ~~~ o "'0 in '0 c. N o ..... 0 c: 0 c:: :p c:: 0 u III Z ... :<:r in . a CIR is typically required to evaluate the strategy.. '0 I:: 2 . Eligible innovative strategies aren't addressed within the LEED rating system or reference guides.....INNOVATION IN DESIGN ANSWERS L b.~ c: 0 :p ttl 1""'1 > 0 c:: 0 ... 4.. a. Q> '0 :9 c... '" ~ '0 c. 3. o c.... They are distinct from exemplary performance innovation credits in that they address environmental issues not addressed elsewhere within the LEED rating system..o _Q)~ E 1::- 2.. so this strategy is a likely candidate for an Innovation in Design credit for innovative strategies.c Q. .. If the issue in question has never been addressed. :0 'Vi :0 'Vi 0 c. only diverting an increased percentage of construction waste is considered exemplary performance. . Q) I:: . a. which can be downloaded from the organization's website free of charge..c 'Vi III =E . :J VI U ~ 138 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Appendix 139 .. USGBC maintains a listing of all regional priority credits by ZIP code... ttl '" id Q.

Preconsumer material is defined as material divertedfrom the waste Stream during the manufacruring process. which can no longerbe used for its intended purpose. Handbook. and identify material suppliers that can achieve this goal. The recycled fraction ofthe assembly is then multiplied by the cost of assembly to determine the recycled content value.SAMPLE CREDIT USGBC Pol ides MR Credit 4: Recycled Content 1-2 Points Intent To increase demand for building products that incorporate recycled content materials.org!polides> for the most up-to-date Requirements Use materials with recycled content' such that the sum of postconsumer" recycled content plus 1/2 of the preconsumer. USGBC policies (trademark.e.Envlronmental labels and declarations .accordance with the International Organization of Standards document. of the total value of the materials in the project The minimum percentage materials recycled for each point threshold is as follows: Recycled Content 10% 20% Points 1 2 The recycled content value of a material assembly is determined by weight.orgjpolicies policies. ']3 : Pl'Opric~aryMarks.Self-declared env. Consider a range of environmental.. economic and performance attributes when selecting products and materials. industrial and institutional facilities in their role as end-users of the product. Reutilization ofrnaterials (i. e 1 2. USGBC Logo Guidelines According to the GBeI GI'ceIl AtHlC'l -hI1' 'untllla'L' logo usage) are a category 0 f axam cent unacceptable uses of US int. regrind or scrap generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed wirhin the same process that generated it) is excluded. Include only materials permanently installed in the project. During construction. Recycled content is defined in. thereby reducing impacts resulting from extraction and processing of virgin materials. and CandIdates should be familiar with the acceptable and Refer to the www. based on cost. Mechanical. Postconsumer material is defined as waste material generated by households or by commercial.content constitutes at least 10% or 20%. electrical and plumbing components and specialty items such as elevators cannot be included in this calculation. Potential Technologies & Strategies Establish a project goal for recycled content materials. rework. Furniture may be included if it is includ:d consistently in MR Credit 3: Materials Reuse through MR Credit 7: Certified Wood. -c:http://www.ronrnentul cl aims (Type I I environmental labeling).usgbc. [SO 14021. LEED 2009 FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION AND MAJOR RENOVATIONS 140 USGBC LEED Green Associate Study Guide Appendix 141 .usgbc. ensure that the specified recycled content materials are installed.

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