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Cry Freedom

Cry Freedom


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Up until 1994, when the first black government was

elected, South Africa was both a beautiful country, and an ugly country: It was - indeed, still is _:_ rich in gold and diamonds, but it was also a poor country, where people were forced to live together in small, dirty houses. It was a country of black people, with a government of white people. It was a country of contradictions. Steve Biko was a black political leader who wanted to bring together the black and wh ite people of South Africa. Donald Woods was the white editor of an important newspaper, and he wanted to help Biko, They were both good men, men with a vision ~~~~5f~. Africa chose to silence them by banningthem:_ This book, and the film o~hich But South and worse.

it was b~sed, were

createdJ.n~~ inform the world about what was happening in South Africa in those years.

OXFORD BOOKWORMS LIBRAR Y True Stories Cry Freedom Stage 6 (2500 headwords) Series Editor: Jennifer Bassett Founder Editor: Tricia Hedge Activities Editors: Jennifer Bassett and Alison Baxter .

A NOVEL BY JOI-IN BRILEY Cry Freedom Simplified by Rowena Akinyemi OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS .

without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the ELTRights Department. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research.OXFORD UNfVERSITY PRESS OX2 6DP Great Clarendon Street.2 i EDUCATION OF A LIBERAL Oxford University Press 2000 Database right Oxford University Press (maker) Copyright © 1987 by MCA Publishing Rights.9 THE SYSTEM FIGHTS BACK No unauthorized photocopying All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. in any form or by any means. and education by publishing worldwide :in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam OXFORD and OXFORD ENGLISH are registered trade marks of Oxford University Press in the me and in certain other countries CONTENTS STOR Y INTRODUCTfON THE BEGINNING 1 9 Chapters 1. THE FILM. Oxford University Press. a Division ofMCA Inc. scholarship. at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must iropose this same condition on any acquirer Anywebsites referred to in this publication are in the public domain and their addresses are provided by Oxford University Press for information only. All rights reserved Map by: Martin Ursell . AND SOUTH AFRICA ABOUT BOOKWORMS Photographs: copyright © 1987 by MGAPublishing Rights. Oxford Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. a Division ofMCA Inc. stored in a retrieval system. Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the content IS Chapters 10-14 ESCAPE FROM souTH AFRICA Chapters 15-18 GLOSSARY ACTIVITIES: ACTIVITIES: ACTIVITIES: 105 Before Reading While Reading After Reading 108 109 112 116 118 BN-13: 978 0194230810 ISBN-10: 0194230813 Printed in Hong Kong ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABOUT THE BOOK. or transmitted. © Chapters 3-5 CONFRONTATION First published in Oxford Bookworms 1989 This second edition published in the Oxford Bookworms Library 2000 12 14 16 17 15 13 11 22 49 81 Chapters 6 . or as expressly permitted by law. or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. All rights reserved.

He lit a cigarette and began to smoke as Woods looked through the photographs.'. and evergreen trees.. /lyJ'l\ .. which Woods had intended to use as the main storx. 'te~.' ' ..• .. 'I-_v. .• ~ .. . '("r' .~J. J.. . ~\ . :.' ..' .. But news had just come in of a policel')\tl on the black wnshlp called Crossroads.. ' ...~~~:)..• ' . .:. . : J. newspaper.r": . It is the home.." ... : . . editor of the Daily Dispatch. burst 1 to the office and threw a bundle of \--.-.. ..B9z-rd~AlY~ .. 'Boss!' Ken Robertspn.. .. the journalists on the Daily . ._ 1 Where the River Buffalo flows into the warm Indian Ocean.. There was a story on the government's tefusal of a new appeal for the release of Nelson Mandela.w's . lies the city of East London. " . in Cape Townt"mo~e than a thousand kilometres away on the south-wesn'\:1p 'bf South Africa.'iii: .. two policemen b~ating a boy. the respected newspaper which in November 1975 began a new battle with the South African Government . one of. .. with broken walls around him..JI!<' _'-=• ..' ~.. 'i'Y. ••• . : ' .:~?.... . ' .:'. clear dea. The Beginning .' '.. • . -'~TI photographs on to woods' desk.. " . . .. • :.. . '. of the Daily Dispatch. . ..--. . .'.' : ':'.. Dispatch. ' " .. sat at his desk looking at the stories for the front page of tomor!g. on the south-east coast of South Africa. . . : :: :.' . Donald Woods. '.: .'.• ' r'l~. Woods moved the stories around on his desk. too... . . They were pictures of the police raid on Crossroads: ~ a woman holding a ba by in her arms in front of her w~tcked home. .'" '. There was also a story on the pardon for Richard Nixon by President Ford of the United States of America."'.' . '.~~ . beautiful sandy beaches. . with its wonderful climate. an old man sitting in an armchair. a policeman with a ~I . .. ' ." r li!.:~~.• 4-' .' . and move news of a Japanese factory in Durban to the back page. ' "v. 1. He would make the Crossroads story the main story. .

Woods suddenly smiled. How did you get these?' Woods _!_. and hits of tin. staring at Ken through his glasses.2 The Beginning 3 . 'I'll print them. Then the bulldozers came to tett1pa t the houses made of wooden boxes. covered News had just come in of a police raid on Crossroads. Woods looked up at Ken in amazement.-e~po~ded.P. 'No: Leave him out of the story: I want to write about himand hi$llilack ~sci~~~n~9.' Woods sat back in his chair and took off his glasses for a moment. Some of these workers brought their families with them. Ken smiloed. Woods did not believe that black people should be allowed to vote. -f I J ('{II'S'~ • with large pictures of the serious. handsome face of a young black man. kitchen.' he said. that's all 1 can say about it.' 'Than..kkgrey hair made himlooK ~lder than his forty-two years.'I got them. tell me. However. . But he had been trai~ed ~ a lawyer. and built a room for them out of wooden boxes Of bits of~.' Woods turned back to his desk. with the name BIKO underneath.pers to print photographs of police beating black people. . 'Will you use his name?' ' 'Was Mr Biko meeting his sJIfpor ers i11 Crossroads?') ) 'I think so. '1~ '\'" ~hip chasing a girl. 'I'll even put your name underneath them. and he did not like police brutality against black people. 'If the police ~ me ~. Do we dare use them?' Woods e~amined the pictures again.if ~ deman ded once more.. He would put one of Ken's pictures at the top in the centre of the front page. His I 'Come on. so that the town did not become permanent.n an editoriag Ken 1m'd~~d and left the room wid'! the pictures. 'What about Mr Biko?' Ken asked. In Cape Town black workers could get work without work permits.. forcing the men into police buses and moving them out of the city. It showed a wall. 'The newspaper will have to pay my expenses. White employers benefited from the low wages the illegal workers accepted. which was also against the law. your' name WIll be the first on my lips!' The law did not allow new.. from time to time. I was told that his name was everywhere. but if there were enough violent pictures the government sometimes let~lle' matte'rt dibp in"''' order to prevent the newspapers giving the~nc more information. He/accepted the laws that forced bla ks and whites to live in separate areas. 'How did you get these?' ~~. the police came with whips and burning tear gas. a bulldozer sma"shing through a tiny ----.ks!' Ken-. """ ) . Drinking is the hardest part of my job!' Ken picked up one of the photographs.

'I've been reading this paper long enough to know that you're not one of the worst white journalists. and was amazed to see an angry young woman marching towards him. occasional words of congratulations from editors of other newspapers. 'Well. Woods glfrlc'l"e'd p "ft~m his work as Ann opened the door u and announced Dr Ramphele.phen Biko. She moved away from the desk and sat down. 'And I won't leave until he sees me. sat back in his chair. I've written against white prejudice. staring at Woods as if wondering what to say next.' Mamphela was still angry. Woods assumed that Dr Ramphele was an old man with some story to tell. and full of confidence. The editorial attacking Ste. intelligent. she threw a newspaper down in front of Ann Hobart.' Ann hesitated. i am an example of your white 'con~tt:h for the black people of this land.THE UGLY THREAT OF BLACK RACISM. and threw his pencil down on the desk. From South Africa.that's 'his banning area. Then he ~d. 'I know you're not a. When she came to the receptionist's desk. won approva\ from everyone.' she said. Mr Woods. you understand wrong!' Mamphela interrupted. She was beautiful.llt o go and see him!' t ~ds looked at Mamphe1a in silence. ho~ ever. If you want to find out the truth. It was folded to show Woods' editorial on Biko: BANTU STEPHEN BIKO .' she demanded.' he answered.. the humour dissolving her anger. She was annoyed by this black woman who had so much confidence. 'And he can't come to you. So I'm surprised to think you would write such rubbish!' Woods recovered from his surprise. r Woods. 'From here. showing Ann her card.fQQ}. At last she spoke again. before you print?' 'I think I do understand what Mr Biko believes in!' Woods began angrily.' she said coldly. 'Well. and if you think I'm going to ignore black prejudice. But she picked up the phone. since he is banned. 'I was one of two from my tribal area to be given a place at Natal Medical School.. Steve Biko is one of the few people who can still save South Africa. 'Doctor Marnphela Ramphele. 'I'm glad we didn't waste our money. She was dressed in jeans and a white shirt and she looked beautiful. 'There's a Dr Ramphele wishing to speak to you. 'Please send him in. Woods received lots of phone calls . He's in King William's Town .4 Cry Freedom The Beginning 5 Newspapers all over South Africa used Ken's pictures of the raid on Crossroads. You ought to see him. unknown callers making threats on his life. 'I would like to know who's responsible for this.' Woods almost lost his temper. 'Where are you from?' he asked at last.' he said slowly. but you are M uninformed.' Woods thought that her quiet sincerity was as impressive as her previous anger. 'That's not what Steve Biko believes in at all! Don't you find out the facts first. the anger gone from his voice. Or so Woods thoughU ~(""'" Mamphela Ramphele marched confidently into the offices of the Daily Dispatch.' Mamphela smiled slightly. you' u1?. then you're complaining to the wrong man!' 'Black prejudice!' Mamphela exploded in anger. 'Well. Dr Ramphele. Mamphela put the editorial on the desk in front of Woods. .w threats from the police. Ann looked at the paper.

this is Nkosinathi. but the surrounding hills. which Wood~t dangeroUS"::l Woods got out of the car an~lked across the street to the church door.. because he al~. The houses were small and miserable. still holding his mother's skirt. 'I'm Steve's wife . Ntsiki' .. The little boy. surprised that he was meeting a banned pers. 'He's waiting for you. iO~SI Biko's '!hinders' and Woods smiled and aved at them.on at an address in the white town. of course. She opened a side door.'~ Woods parked across the street and stared at it for a moment. He's sometimes more trouble than his father. and the door shut immediately behind him. there was a library of old books and magazines in another area. A tall black figure was standing quite still. ~ 12 • W' -. Woods drove on. greeted him with a warm smile. Ntsiki was warm and friendly. Some men and women were painting the walls while others were putting up 'partltl n. maybe learn something. Were beautiful. about sixty kilometres from East London.I I/~ The road out of East London to the north gradually rises from the coast to grassy hills. Mlticly with long grass. green b EnCIles touched the ground. the sun shining through the leaves. in his white Mercedes.. drove through the black township.' Ntsiki said. she said. Biko needed watching. Then something near the tree caught his eye. but there was no sign of anyone. He noticed two security policemen under a tree not far away. Woods.. Mr Woods.' A young black woman. on his way to the address Dr Ramphele had given him. JI. looking for someone.' Woods stepped through the door. I:~ .' Woods said. and opened the door wide. Woods began to feel annoyed. 'We're trying to create a centre where black people can meet during the day. and bits of broken ferice. two older men were' making children's toys in a third area. Woods was surprised. . watching Woods.d. not the sort of person he expected. get information about jobs. 'Biko? Are you Steve Biko?' Woods called out. ')J..:~re Ob. with small trees around it. Woods believed. A little boy ran to her side. There was silence.( h bh wioe street WIt trees on ot sides. 'And who is this one?' Woods asked. :3 . There I'I. He found the quiet. and then descends again t. I'm here to see Steve Biko. He rang the 1U1ty bell and immediately the door opened. He Iooked aroUI3. 'Oh. 'Mr Woods?' -'Yes. There was a small building at the other side of the yard.Y. He was in the church 'a 0.' Ntsiki said as they walked through the church. smiling again. except for the wind blowing through the leaves of the tree. He stepped inside the church and received another surprise. rather fat. A' . Some girls were~ut~in one corner of the church.but could see no one. the ~ valley of the Buffalo River. smiled at Woods. ~hey~. The address was an old church.. holding 011 to her skirt and staring shylv at the white man. Woods walked forwards.~ to ~eate separate black organizations. a few kilometres from the centre of the town . Only whites live in King William's Town itself.A)' L" It ':It was a huge old tree in the centre whose Iong. smiling down at the boy.6 Cry Freedom The Beginning 7 2 . covered with acacia trees.

Zanempilo was about twenty-five kilometres from King William's Town. moving towards the small building. 'It was good of you to come. his deep. where Biko had started a clinic. you approve of my banning. government.8 Cry Freedom The Beginning 9 The person turned away. but no. Whites in the townships and me in a Mercedes. if you were the one who possessed the house. I understand.police. in hill country so dry that there were no farms in sight. Woods sighed again and stepped into the office.' Woods responded s~ly. 0/ Education of a Liberal 3 Later that morning Donald Woods and Steve Biko drove out to Zanempilo. 'I wonder what kind of liberal you would make. the job. He SIghed and walked across the yard to the building. He look~ through the open door and saw that it was a small office. - It was the beginning. the intelligence. warm and sincere as his wife. the Mercedes .. . rt~~~ 'Of course.. The System are just across the street. and P}lt out his hand.' Biko we~n. follow me. \~ ~ysv-. Mercedes .' Woods hesitated for a moment.and the whites lived in the townships. 'I'm not ashamed of being a liberal. and I . 'You <!isapprove of liberals.to tell black. .' he said finally. The man stood in the shadows behind the desk and Woods could not see enough of the face to recognize wh~her the man was Biko or not.followed in their own car .' he protested. I've wanted to meet you for a long time. but as you know 1can be with only one person at a time.' Biko smiled. he had come to hear Biko's opinions. Woods was Mm~t~dto say: 'You're right!' But he hesitated.' 'I would have met you in the church. Biko's 'minders' .' Biko laughed aloud.' Now that they were face to face Woods could see that this man was Biko. observing the quick change in mood.. 'Disapproval is too strong a word. The person I}odded. 'May I come in?' Woods finally asked. the unexpected sincerity in the eyes and the warmth of the smile: Then he put out his own hand and took Biko's. Mr Woods. The man's large. Woods nodded coolly. army .s how n they should reaclt~ ~ way this country 1S governed. I don't approve of banning. dark eyes watched Woods in silence. 'Now that is a charming idea. dark eyes were alive and se!lsitiv~. education. houses.is J~~~ha:p's ot the ri~ht person .' Then he smiled. w. He was young and handsome. 'I think your ideas are dangerous.' • rttfAr :r Woods felt even more annoyed. 'I don't have all day to play games.. who holds on to the advantages of his white world . ~~~_~ . Mr Biko..the two security policemen .and that Biko was referring to the two "security policemen in the street. 'A true "liberal"!' Biko declared. 'I just think that a white liberal.d. 'Come.jobs. Woods knew that 'System' was the word blacks used for any white authority.

I suddenly realized that it wasn't just the job I was studying for that was white. medicine.same BL~ility. The history we read was made by white men. My mistake was to write down some of my ideas.hite. 'But we were lucky to get her.'all invented by white men.' He paused for a moment.' • 'And the government banned you. it is hard not to believe that there is something inadequate about being born black. looking at Biko across the top of the car. But Woods himself believed that South Africa needed organizations where black and white people could work together::l 'So if you had a white "liberal" doctor working here.. first. He knew that Biko's Black Consciousness group wanted black people to create their own organizations. Woods parked his car. 'They follow you everywhere?' he asked.' he said slowly.. some papers in her hand. He had driven through a few townships. a little annoyed by the question.. 'Howald are you.' The police waited further back on the road. Even football..' The clinic at Zanempilo was at the top of a hill.a leader .as a w.' 'I a. cars' . 'I felt that.he hit the roof of the Mercedes . Woods [ thought. 'A white South African.' Biko stared at him. anyway.has to helieze.' Biko nodded.' Biko replied. 'A clinic for black people. He understood Biko's iJeas and he was impressed by the man who had them. 'In a world like that.racism. ' oJ Woods glanced at them in the mirror. \.has. the bla~k illau. In addition. 'It was an idea that came from all of us.' Slowly he turned back to Woods. 'And the white liberal editor started attacking me. Woods hesitated. Biko smiled. to be a doctor . 'So we started this clinic. for refusing to work with t white liberals. 'Was this place her idea or yours?' Woods challenged.. A line of people ~ queueo outside one of the buildings . 'This is it. 'Fortytwo.IDa~ Woods nodded.' he answered.women with small children.tacked you for your . ! . Mr Woods?' he en yire. and a black doctor: Mamphela came out of the door of one of the buildings. 'I've .' Biko replied. written by white men. old men. M'i~ The clinic was an amazing achievement.~\Jr'-Yt~ 10 Cry Freedom Education of a Liberal 11 'When I was a student. 'A newspaper man" forty-two years old. pregnant women.rhe.. 'So this is it?' Woods asked. Then she nodded at them and turned to her patients. Biko became more serious than Woods had yet heard him.' he added. Television. getting out of the car. He looked at Mamphela.he. Have you spent any time in a black township?' Woods hesitated again. She paused and stared au Woods and Biko. 'They think they do. that wouldn't serve your purpose?' Woods asked. The first thing Woods noticed was the church.' Woods protested. Biko looked at the clinic. but no white South African spent any time in one. .d. Biko smiled. 'I began to think that this feeling was a bigger problem than the things the System does to us. there were ~~ ~g. 'If that makes any difference.. She was in a doctor's white coat.' He stopped again and then glanced behind him at the two policemen watching him from a distance. I've been to many . with black workers. l~w buildings mad~ ~f wood. He put his arm out of the window and waved at the car behind.

' '" - - - --- . I must tell you. '& J It was not an empty challenge: Biko meant it. Even some companies gave them some money. 'How can he go anywhere with you?' Woods ShQ05 his head. smiling at Wendy's amazed face. was playing at the side of the pool. Apart from the police. Woods got out of the pool and ran quickly to the shower which was in the garden near the pool. but she did not agree w_@ Black Consciousness.Duncan. 'Where did they get the money?' 'From churches. 'South African companies?' 'That's right/ Woods answered.at doW. as Charlie jumped up at her. has he?' Wendy asked. Wood. But I have agreed to visit a black township with him.. cut your grass. he's like his photographs: young. Mary. clear your rubbish. he is impressive. Wendy asked. someone important heard Biko make a speech and was impressed. Dillon. I don't suppose one white South African in ten thousand has spent any time in a black township . the ninety per cent of South Africans who are forced to leave your white . They've built a clinic up there in Zanempilo. WE. 'But he's banned. treets at six o'clock at night?' J. aged five and the youngest of the family. as if he were speaking to an old friend.-.12 Cry Freedom Education of a Liberal 13 "V Biko smiled. 'Would you like to see how we live. We cook your food... At last Woods swam to the edge. ran up. 'Don't be embarrassed. . >1\. Everyone working there is black. arrived home with Jane. . tall. 'You see.' Wendy was silent. 'No. and the three boys . the boys chasing him and splashing water at him. 'Well.1 L Woods rubbed his hair with a towel.' Amazed.. ~oods hesitated.Wendy. 'Wem What was he like?' Wendy asked. Four of his five children were at horne.. }Ih f. 'Surprisingly. abroad. and down. As he came out of the shower. r) '\ (V~ Later that afternoon Woods went home to his swimming pool.splashed about with him.' she said finally. his wife. Wendy left the shopping in the car and came down the garden to greet Woods. You should see it.'I'~ not sure.' Biko stopped smiling at Woods' embarrassment and his voice grew warm. But 1 intend to find out. brought a glass of orange juice for Wendy and put it down on the table. 'I'm going to write to your teacher and tell him to give you more work. wondering how Biko had persuaded her husband to do this. excited by all the noise. Charlie. handsome. -"He hasn't convinced you that Black Consciousness is right.' he said quietly.' Evalina. know how you live. to get the shopping. 'I'm not sure . their eldest child. . Then she went up the garden to the car. their big dog. aged fourteen. and Gavin .' ---- r 'Donald! I mean what kind of person is he?' Gwas more liberal politically than Donald.' Woods shouted to the boys as he turned on the shower. Then he lea'A?a f~rW'ard and kissed her. People come from miles. their black servant..' Wendy stared at him doubtfully.. From black people..

you go to prison. man!' Mapetla said urgently. middle! We don't want him sitting up there where no one can miss seeing him!' ~ry. and John Qumza. There he waited.' he asked. Black taxis were usually very old cars and usually carried as many passengers as could he squashed in them. Mamphela smiled at that and sat down at the typewriter. There were now four men in the front seat and five in the back. The car drove away fast.' Mamphela was not amused. A few minutes later a black taxi drove up and stopped beside him. This was not easy. John turned down another small road and Biko stf££f4_o". The law said that some taxis were (or blacks and some for whites only. Mapetla p"'Ulled hat down at the back of Woods' head. 'You might just push the hair out of my eyes. 'You comfortable noug h~' .. a'J'p"""e''--tl'''_a Woods down until he was pulled squashed underneath two of the men. and one of the men already in the front seat sat on his knees. 'But I am!' Woods protested . 'Get in. and pushed Woods into the back seat. Tonight. Biko turned round and glanced at Woods. because there were already three black men sitting in it. and then pulled on an old hat. She was working in Biko's office on a speech she was going to give. 'We won't get caught.. someone must sit at my desk and read until I get back.ut from behind some small acacia trees. I le got into the front seat.. Dyani. he was going with Woods.' Woods had put on some old clothes for the visit to the black township. and Mapetla smiled for the first rime.' she said. about four kilometres from town. three weeks after their first meeting.' Mapetla ordered one of the other men. Mapetla got in after him and banged the door shut. that's all. 'Get him down in the -. didn't you know?' Biko replied. John Qumza had first met Biko at university and was one of the leaders of the black student organization which Biko led. 'Pull it all the way down at the back!' John shouted from the driver's seat. Mr Woods would only have to write a letter of explanation to the Board of his newspaper. 'It's not worth the risk. is it. 'When I put the light on. duty. who worked at the clinic in Zanempilo.14 Cry Freedom Education of a Liberal 15 4 Biko put on the old brown army coat that all black workers wore. . The car was a black taxi. Biko smiled. too. 'The education of a white liberal? It is a . 'You said you were going to wear old clothes/ Mapeda said angrily. Steve?' Mamphela asked. who was driving. to a black township outside East London. the Woods was so squashed that he could not move his hands 10 adjust the hat himself. looked in the mirror anxiously. He drove out of East London and parked his car in a small country road.' Biko said confidently.' 'That's what we call justice in South Africa... 'If you get caught outside your banning area. 'I don't want them to get you in prison again. Woods had already met Mapetla Mohapi.. 'Give him your hat. The door opened. Dyani removed the dirty hat from his head and Mapeda pushed it on to Woods' grey hair.

rway for two years to a school where I was taught by German and Swiss p"riests. clever or uupid.. tired and unsmiling..' 'I know. then you go to work in their city . in his own defence. the white boss must sign '-y:our-pass every month.' Everyone laughed again.. But you. down a little side ~t~ John and Mapetla walked behind them. are born into this . t was getting dark now. others with oil lamps.16 Cry Freedom Education of a Liberal 17 Everyone laughed. 'And even to stay in a l. and they-. Twice _- .' he said quietly. He checked the street for danger looking at Woods and Biko . 'Most of the women here work as domestic servants.. guarding them.. Woods did not try to respond 10 Biko's words and they walked on silently. the black child. clever or stupid. There was an atmosphere of fun and adventure in the taxi as the men joked with each other.. they stared out at the crowds of people walking through the little streets. the mood changed. ' Bike's eyes turned to Woods. 'Listen.'n~qVn~1fires outside. the white government tells y. ~~<iW 'Let's stretch our legs. 'I was gyollght up in a black Homeland. he's got the best seat. Then Biko spoke again... some with electric lights. I'm quite comfortable. The land belongs tothce wnite ~n . watching the st. and moved slowly in a long. 'Run.' b~nTding and stretching their arms and legs.fgal townshiI0ike this one. and. ~everal o!d men were cooki.' 6ik<.u which house to live in and what the rent is.' Woods said. Biko spoke for the first time. You can never own land or pass anything on to your . son. 'Hell. 'You only drive that Mercedes because of the neighbours. so they tee their children for a couple of hours on Sunday's. It was a new world to Woods. he is born into his white world. He turned to Woods. you know .-. They turned a corner and saw a little boy looking out of the door of OReof the houses.' Biko responded. They were all silent as. Biko stood up and looked at Woods. John stopPedt~ car and they all got out s"fltfft. "S 1!!Afr.!.:=:r. ana Y0~11 I over. Men stood at theirwJo&s... I'm amazed that children survive here at all. his eyes searchinghis face. looking for trouble. Because no matter how stupid or how clever a white child is. as they watched the boy go.. "I 'his place is full of violence. Something to do with your blackness. their streets.' 'Were you brought up in a township?' Woods enquired. But as the taxi reached the black township outside East London.> said at last.hildren. A white liberal like you really wants to ride in buses and taxis like us. you will die in it . which he had believed he knew so well._ : _ .' Mapetla declared. dusty line of buses and taxis.. And you begin to feel there is something not quite right ubout you. As Woods looked at all those black faces. Then he smiled ti~~'Let's take a walk. My father died when I was seventeen and I went . They moved along between the little houses.' He led Woods off the main street.ect.}'1' Finally. Women earned b{1cktts of water from t~-ft the street. that's all.you see their houses. run.and then ran as fast as he could 10 another house down the street. their l ars. he felt that the whole black world. Smoke from wood fires h"ttn~tu I they saw g~m~ of black youths walking the streets.Qrllrove tl1r~gh / t~e streets until most of them were empty and the evening rush was over~. the ~hole area. But if you do survive in a township and you get the education the white man gives you. 'Mostly. had a life he was totally l!uaware of.

'I'm taking you to eat with a black family here. "This land h longs to God. In the I John interrupted. You want to give us a slightly better education. -- from an outside jap and heating it on the cooker.touched the black skin of his face.' Tenjy put down the bucket of water she was carrying. After dinner the women washed the dishes. four other cousins. . but what he did not say was that in all those years he had never eaten with a black family. .." Then the white man finds a place he likes and builds a fence around it. served on big plates. all around him.18· Cry Freedom Education of a Liberal 19 you have got to giveJo children is this ' And Biko . "Listen.' 'We don't want to be put into your society. 'Homelands. and the land is no good. There was no electricity in the house but two oil lamps hung from the ceiling. Biko served beer to everyone. But if you stopped 1istening to Steve Biko and let us liberals gradually fit you into mf society. "Look. 'My father had a shop in a Homeland.' Biko said a little later. "I'm going to have a farm here. this feels like home to me. so we can get 'lightly better jobs . Biko's words made him feel that night.' Woods said. ' ~ \~"\1\ tJ:f\ ~ . mother." we say. when you ~y you disturb my ~on't . son. "We'll just move round you.' Woods wanted to impress them. some sitting in chairs. maybe. The men sat and talked.. What you are saying is that OUf s~ciety is better than ours. Woo s ad never before understood the emptiness. 'Yes.' Maperla began. and we were often the only white family for miles. then . pretty girl of twenty who worked as a nurse at the clinic in Zanempilo. Then. ir of e black community. You must have a pass. ' 'At first. It was the home of Tenjy Mtintso.' Mapetla declared. so you liberals are going to reach us how to do things your way. the s. looking at Biko who was sitting on the floor ncar him. 'First or last. We're just going to hunt over the hills [or a couple of days. rriend. A big family lived in those four rooms: father. 'But only at first. 'First. bringing water .' The little township house they went to was divided into four rooms.a tiny. he says. It was a noisy and happy meal. like something living. aunt.. uncle and three children. that's why the government wants us to go and live there.. The meal itself was a meat soup with rice and bread. man." Then he comes back." we say. 5 'Come on." we say.' BikoV~aid long . 'You know." he says. smiling and putting his arms round Tenjy's aunt.\i 1 . we can't have people moving about all over the place like this. "Do you mind if I pass through here?" "Hell." We move off. are not home to us. others on the floor. no. 'I'll tell you what happened when the white man first came to Africa..' Woods smiled. so we know who is coming and going". "There's lots of land.orne this way. and she was there to ~reet them. "Do you mind if I hring my wife and children?" "Of course not. "OK.' Woods said. they hegan to wash their work clothes. 'I'm not defending the past. But then the white man gets his gun and says." Then the white man moves his fences outwards and says.



Cry Freedom


Education of a Liberal


O~g to be me - as I am - and you can put me in prison, or even kill me, but I'm not going to be what ou want me to be.'

There were no smiles ow, and Woods felt the ~ger in the room. He tried to '~mal~lm and reasonable. 'There are some advantages in our society: fewer white babies die, and we have more ... ' ~

'Guns and bombs and anxiety,' Biko interrupted. 'You can J?low up the whole earth if one man makes a mistake. In your white society, when you knock on someone's door, if he is a nice person he will say, "What can I do for you?" He assumes that people are there to get soinething from him. But we don't think that way. We just say, "Come n in!" We like people. We don't think that life is an e~l~ss competition.' ~ Woods laughe , an 1 0 responded with a smile. 'You say you were brought up with blacks. Have you noticed that all our songs are group songs? - not someone singing to the moon about how lonely he is.' Woods laughed again, and nodded. Tenjy had finished washing her work clothes and now _ began to hang them above the cooker to dry for' tomorrow. 'We know the great white powers have given the world industry and medicine,' she said, and paused to look at Woods. 'But maybe our society has something to give others, too, by teaching people how to live together. We don't want to lose that.'


-- 'She's right,' Tenjy's uncle said. 'This is an African country. Let us have our place, in our own way, and then we will come together with our white brothers and sisters and find a way to live in peace. It cannot be just your way.' 'That sounds fair,' Woods admitted. 'But you can't go

back. The twentieth century is marching on for all of us.' :J?U!,,"We nt to march to our own time,' Mapetla declared w (bitt~rly~'4 The best you want for us is to sit at your table with your knives and forks; and if we learn to do it right, you will I indly iet us stay. We want to ~IP tbe table clean. It is an African table. We are going to sit at it in our own right.' Woods j,tfred silently at Mapetla. He had never heard such bitte~before and he tried to accept Mapetla's anger. John touched his hand. 'You will sit at that table, too. We know this is your home as it is our home. But you will not sit the boss, but as one of the Jamily.' . Woods Sighed. 'I'm "rMl·..a.~·· t at (you are p I'anrung to a IIow reueveo us to sit at all!' Everyone smiled at this remark and Tenjy's uncle poured more beer into Woods' glass. 'You understand our language,' h said; 'you know that the word we use for nephew is "my hrother's son". Tenjy calls my wife not "aunt" but "mother's sister". We have no separate words for members of the family all begin with "brother" and "sister". And we look after each other.' Woods had learned the language asa boy and he knew that t his was true. He realized now that it was ,perhaps a way of I eeping the family together. 'In auf' traditional villages there were no starv~pg men,' Mapetla added. 'The land belonged to everyone. No one ~ on the streets, no children were abandoned.' Tenjy stopped as she passed with some more clothes to wash. 'We got a lot of things right that your society has never solved.' Woods smiled at her. 'You did hav~rib'a-l wars, you know, in this perfect land of yours.'


Cry Freedom



'What do you call the First World War and the Second World War?' Biko asked. There was a moment of silence and then they all la ughed. 'You all put the words together well - but there's something about it that frightens me,' Woods said. 'Of course there is,' Mapetla responded. 'In your world everything white is normal - the way the world should be _ and everything black is wrong, or some kind of mistake.' 'And your real achievement', Biko added, 'is that for years you've convinced most of us of that idea, too.' Woods felt that this was not the whole truth. 'You're being unfair to a lot of people who ... ' (But Biko did not let him finish. 'In fact, our case is very , simple,' he said quietly. 'We believe in an intelligent God. We believe that He knew what He was doing when He created the black man. Just as He did when He created the white man ... ' Biko and Woods stared at each other. The quiet, serious words affected Woods more than anything he had seen that whole eventful day.

One morning six weeks later Donald Woods arrived late at the offices of the Daily Dispatch. Tenjy and Mapetla followed him. Woods knew that they were nervous as they entered this centre of white power and influence. People stopped to stare

them a they walked quickly through the newsroom. One journalist spi teo fte all over her desk and did not notice until 1 he little pr~ession had entered Woods' office. Ken Robertson was sitting on the edge of Woods' desk, I .ading, when Woods came in. He lifted his head to speakhut stopped with his mouth open. Woods hung his jacket on the back.of his chair. 'Ken, this is 'I' .njy Mtintso and Mapetla Mohapi,' he said. 'They are from King William's Towh, and rm ad to say that the Board has .ipproved their p ointment ere.' Ken stared at Woods. Then -he stared at T enjy and Mapetla. There was no doubt: they were black. Ken had heard that yesterday's meeting of the Board had been noisy, hut he had not guessed this! Woods picked up the phone. 'Ann, please come and meet I wo new reporters.' He turned to Ken. 'When they've had a look around the office: I want you to teach them how to use our cameras.' Ken nodded, still ~ speak. Ann came in. 'Ann, this is Tenjy and Mapetla. Please show them around the office.' 'Of course,' Ann murmured. She looked at Woods for some Inrther explanation, but Woods began looking at the letters Oil his desk and said nothing more. Ann turned and went out of the room with Tenjy and Mapetla. Ken did not leave. 'Excuse me, boss,' he began. 'Ah ... where will they be working?' Woods looked up and waved his hand towards the large open office area beyond the glass walls of his own office. 'In Ihe newsroom.' Ken nodded. 'The newsroom. Of course. Who would have

24 thought of anything

Cry Freedom else? Tell me, does this Steve Biko



_practise black. magi~?' . ~ "'J)L-l Woods smiled, They're gomg t~ cov.:!~l~ew¥weddings, music, sport, crime. There is nornmg illegilln that, and we'll get a lot of new readers.' 'Oh, I'm sure the white readers will be ~~d when they start writing about Black Consciousness _' he raised both hands _ 'great news!' In fact, it was Biko's idea that Woods should use a black journalist. Wendy - who had visited the clinic at Zanempilo and who had become friends with Mamphela, Ntsiki and Biko himself _ thought that Woods should use a black woman. In the end, Woods convinced himself that they needed both a black woman and a black man. And finally the Board had agreed. Not long afterwards, Woods invited Ken to meet him out in the country one Sunday afternoon. They parked their cars off the road and five minutes later a black taxi appeared with Mapetla in the back seat. 'Where are we going?' Ken demanded. 'Should I have let my family know I might not be back?' 'You're going to a black football match,' Mapetla answered. 'The only danger is that you will lose your idea that whites play the best football in this country.' In fact there was a whole world of black sport in South Africa, though no national teams because of the pass laws which prevented blacks from moving freely about the country. When they arrived at the football field there were lots of people there already. As they walked towards the small

tadium, three tall, t~en stepped in front of them, ready to prevent them from going in. 'Excuse me,' one said. 'Can I help you?' Mapeda stepped forward. 'It's all right. They're friends of Steve Biko.' The man stared. 'Biko? He's in King William's Town,' he said coldly. 'He's got nothing to do with this game.' 'Listen, man,' Mapetla protested, 'don't worry. These whites, they .. .' John Qumza suddenly appeared, running towards them. 'They are OK!' he called, 'Steve asked them to come. Hello, Mr Woods.' He a~J1gain to the three men. 'Come on, if t hey were the System, they wouldn't be waiting for your permission. One of the men reached out and took Ken's camera. 'They may be OK, but this certainly is not.' 'You're right,' John said quickly. 'Mapeda, please take the camera and put it in my car.' He gave Mapetla the keys and the tough men stood back to let the two white men pass into the stadium, though they still did not look very happy. The two teams were already on the field, but the crowd was listening to a man with a mic~~ph?~~+.o 'Why does the white man ~rouB'le between us?' the man asked the crowd. He was dressed in brown and gold, Mzim ' a black leader who was wanted by the security poh ecause he openly called for violent revolution. 'Because when wc?lignt among ourselves, he can convince our friends ~ rseas t at it is right to tell us where to live, and how to live.' John led Woods and Ken up the steps to some seats near the top of the stadium.


>A' .26 Cry Freedom Confrontation 27 'He can gb on paying us less for doing the same job as the white man. the white man can be dt~fe~ltfttr ~ --- "There!' Ken pointed to the right. Finally. We have got to fifftlle\black community.II him in amazement.. others surrounding them.% way to do that. For a moment there was silence.o~~/O?gry. but something we make ( ut of our own lives!' The crowd was listening quietly now.. Confrontation if he likes. he turned and disappeared into the crowd. that we can both build a South Africa ~A. 'but let us remember we are in this Situggl~not to kill someone but to kill the [.. __. A South Africa as beautiful as this land is. 'This is the biggest illegal meeting 1 have ever seen!' The crowd burst into laughter. our black societ~ '0 that they face the wh~te man be~ieving they ~ equal.black or white. one of them will be 7 J .~o had ~ the approval of the crowd. but an open hand oo. We must stop l0Jt~~!~gto the white man to give us anything.. listening. Then another voice began to speak through another microphone. but he Gould not see him. The crow~r£~~ded.ortying.not something the white man gives us.. And he can go on passing his laws without listening to one word we say!' The crowd cheered angrily..""o~ worth Irvmg m.~ three black people meet together. Woods recognized Biko's voice immediately. land Mapetla on his left. Even the football players on the field were sitting on the ground. 'Killing that idea does not depend on the white man.' Bik~ went on.ty.' Biko declared forcefully.but you listen to what he has to say.. With humour and ski1rB. as beautiful . .. and 1 agree .----~ The crowd shouted in support and Mzimbi raised his hands. John Oumza stood on his right..all rising to their keto Woods stood and clapped with everyone €lse.>. we have got a surprise for you. 'I heard what the last spea~aid. idea that one kind of man is better than another kind of man. waving. Last year they killed more than four hundred black students! As one people we must let the white man know that his free ride on the back of black workers is over! ILthe__only way we 'can J?ikuhe message to him is to make sure he can ~eep in hisJ2!g ~eainliiSblgWliite helti'se'111TIi-in1o\vlie sate IS then that is nowIt must bet2. Finally. and Woods stopped w. A South Africa for equal men . with our own pride . we have the right t?. WIth loud. Biko continued... some people standing up. Believe me.~JIl' And now the crowd did react. 'Now.IS we are!' There was a second of silence and then the crowd nsponded ... He is a little shy .-. Woods saw him ... He wondered anxiously how Biko would deal with the crowd since he did not agree with the call for violence.-=-to Sc.' 7 Supporters of black revoluti. Mzimbi made a sign that the crowd should be silent and people began to sit down.))I.on in South Africa say that . joining the rest of the crowd. 'Then.' And then.we are going to change South Africa! All we have to decide is tIte be~. 'then we will stand up to him in any way he chooses.Biko at rhe back of the stadium with a microphone in his hand. whistling . 'We have got to teach our children black history. ~ady ~~g.cheering. he too stood up slowly and h 'gan to clap. 'tell them about our black heroes. 'We have got to keep together. Ken stared . clapping. protected by a group of guards.

28 Cry Freedom -\\ . and through the hole Bika saw a pair of eyes and part ofa black face. thdl.et~ctiv~s. r.' a voice said from within the box. don't beat him!' De Wet shouted in A frikaans. Biko jumped up and hit De Wet across the face with similar force. But Biko moved sideways fast. and the hand missed him.' Biko smiled again.' Biko was still held fitWl by the two detectives. Finally De Wet came face to face with Biko. talking to a crowd. when not long after the football match Biko's 'minders' were told to bring Biko in to the police station in King William's Town. 'And I'm going to see you in prison. a work permit for a son or daughter. blood po mg 'fr6m his nose. 'You're lucky. The two detectives stood behind Biko's chair. The two detectives held Bike's arms and pulled him back Iight against the chair. De Wet. the blood running down Ids c In. Biko -lucky. 'That's the man who rna-dethe speech. Remember.lVP. 'I . ut his eyes were still fixed on De Wet. There are so many ways to9-~ormers: a job. fJ) \QM' onfrontation 29 informer for the government. controlling his own anger.' 'Out of your banning area. The informer's great fear is of discovery and revenge.Itfate:f'There Was a hole in the box.' De Wet said slowly. IIOtrespon d to t h e hq~· atrea meet W' s VOICe. Hell. the kind used for a . 'On what evidence? What's his name?' he nodded towards the box. De Wet glanced at Ihe two detectives and then quickly hit Biko across the face.' Biko was unafraid.' he said slowly. the smile no longer on his face. 'You are a bit of poison. banging into the box. It stopped thefJ~.' Captain De Wet stepped in front of Biko and smiled down at him as the informer moved out of the back of the box and went out of the door. so the police hide informers in order to protect them. We don't want him to look as if something happened to · I11m. pushing him back across the room.-W&~~. Biko. Biko pulled his head back. man. 'No! Wait! No. knocking his head to one side and bringing blood to his Inouth.De Wet moved slowly hack across the room. 'but don't make the mistake of treating me without respect. nodded to the two detectives to release Biko's arms. you aren't going to send me to court in Pretoria on the evidence of an informer in a box.j)e Wet almost fell. ..9. De Wet. . .' he declared. are you?' De Wet did not answer and Biko smiled. 'You know I don't call for violence. 'Everyone knows t4at an informer will say anything: De Wet paused and then1>en his head to look straight into Bike's eyes. 'Don't!' Biko said. Just expect to he treated in the same way as you expect to be treated. challenging him with the anger in his eyes. 'That's him. 'Not with that kind of evidence. Instantly.. It was not surprising. The two detectives were on Biko immediately. heavy stick. When the police brought Biko into Captain De Wet's office they held him in a chair in front of a large box.' Biko said. we don't want you looking like a fooL' In a flash of anger De Wet lifted his hand to hit Biko in the 1. but he did D . -wtPl the blood from his face. one of Ihem pulling out a short. he's going to be a witness at another trial.1 e. n tisfied that Biko understood who was boss in this building. Biko continued to stare at De Wet. You'll be up there in court facing all kinds of charges. 'Captain De Wet. 'You're going to be in big trouble soon. He studied him with cold hatred. There is some truth in this.

was involved with both Ih students' organizations . The South African Government banned the III eting and arrested a grDup of Black Consciousness leaders who. the two. he nodded to.' -~ 'We shall never give in. 'don't be afraid. the capital of South Africa. he stood tall and proud. Are you familiar with the language of some of Ihe documents which the defendants have discussed with IWDweeks Biko stared at De Wet. FDr a long time they were kept in prison without being charged.' FDr a second De Wet did nDt understand. The State Prosecutor began. detectives. As he put his hand out to. entered the witness box \~:~~~::=~~ ~~~f:~L:. you'd better give in now. We're just as weak and human as YDU are. a tie. Biko smiled.lcclares that "South Africa is a country in which both black .who. challenging him with the anger in his eyes. And the two. swear en the Bible. you'll see that there's nothing to. 'Corne on.' he said..was called as the main witness lor the defence. 'I see. the street. Two years earlier two students' organizations had arranged . but at last charges were brought against them and Biko . large meeting in support of the new government in Mozambique. He was dressed in a suit.' De Wet gfoirea . 'If you're afraid Df ideas. The two. be afraid of. black groups?' ¥ . 'Throw him DUt. detectives were holding Biko tighter and tighter but he remained smiling and struggled to.' De Wet replied. catch very night of his life.30 Cry Freedom Confrontation 31 'Treated like a white man? You and your big ideas.~~:~:£:~:::~::itt~~h:~ L. speak. live with that promise of revenge every day and I later in a court in Pretoria.reat. II was a quite different Steve Biko who. a white shirt. 'We're going to. were helping to. His face went red with anger. When he felt Biko understood. through the pDlice station. to.md white shall live together". 'This student organization . 'It means that we believe South Africa needs all parts of the community.' The Prosecutor was a little surprised by Bike's quick response. detectives pulled Biko from the chair. His intelligence was ~~()ing be tested by the State Prosecutor and Judge Regter.' he said. the physical equal of anyone in the court.. eight hundred kilometres north of King William's 'l'own. and threw him out of the side door into. organize it. What does that mean?' Biko did not hesitate '. to. Once you try. but then the idea hit him.

Robert Sobukwe. 'I believe that ._~an d gh t against the t~'l' ' srruggie situation of black people in this country. but the Prosecutor was silent.' '" The court Was silent. "I am not talking about words. 'But nowhere in these documents do you say that the white government is doing any good.Frosecutor asKea. about police shooting people.. sitting in the black area of the court.f about desperate. Do you honestly believe that?' the _. We want to avoid violence. Even if we do not agree with some of the things they did.' The Prosecutor looked at Biko with a smile.about police beating people. and Judge R.J2fogresswithout violence. 'Correct. I am ta~kie. We demand confrontation. so~iety as it exists in South Africa.'I do. nnd there was a murmur of agr~emenJ:from the black area of the court. 'We believe that we can .egte~ glanced round the court. '50 your answer to this is to encouFage violence in the black community?' ~ 'No. Then the Prosecutor spoke again. hopeless people.' 'But your own words call for direct confrontation!' 'That is. you demand violence?' "ON. 'You write here that your true leaders are in prison in Robben Island. j 0 . still thi~k that you can influence the government Without violence? 'Yes.who had come to Pretoria for the trial and was sitting in the white area of the court ~ glanced across at Ntsiki and Mamphela. o.' Biko responded. Govan Mbeki. and they will always have a place in our hearts:' Again. Who are these true leaders?' '1 mean men like Nelson Mandela.). they spoke the language of the people. 'Yo~ and I are now i~ confrontation. '~ut you. But they stand charged in this court and white society is not charged. I am talking about violence .' This short answer surprised the Prosecutor even further. since 1 wrote some of the documents..' Biko turned to Judge Regter. It was obvious that Judge Regter was trying to conduct a fair trial. 'I agree with their cd'ilCei:n~ 'fl1eir sacrifices for black people have given them the natural support of all of us. there was a murmur of agreement from the black area of the court.ko replied ca . you did? The one which noted the terrorism of th goverflment? . 'So you agree with 1~~~~}9:}/~~ Prosecutor continued.' 'Ah.. Wendy. 'You say "terrorism". 'And you do not agree with their call for violence?' asked the Prosecutor. sir..' Biko answered.32 Cry F_reedom Confrontation 33 'Yes. I think all that ~~o more terrorism than the words the defendants have spoken. ___J There was some laughter. 'Is it not true that all these men call for black violence?' ~ 'All th ese men are 'WI rng to > . and they exchanged an anxious smile.' B~. Judge Regter leaned forward.' The Prosecutor was convinced that Biko was now trapped..' Biko spoke with respect.. Surely he was trapped now! 'In other words.... The Prosecutor stared at Biko in amazement. The Judge f~irl1~irection. right. We will not accept.lm~y. or forced to live overseas.'It does so little good that it is not worth writing about. I am talking about people starving in the townships.' This time the laughter was louder. and again Judge Regter turned and frowned. but I see no Violence.

.. . surely you encourage ~ack violence?' I lope for themselves... Biko was a 'We are telling them to stop accepting those problems. Woods ~ SInce It was legal to defeated.f-~n humanity our roper place in the world . ~~~ . Many newspapers had used Biko's must find ways . II rwspapers printed news of the trial. 'Black people are~ar of the things they suffer. to p~int his words. They don't need us to tell them what 8 the government is doing to them. hope for this country. and the journalists who were present.aders were now accepted by everyone. but as black voice grow louder.to build within ourselves a c:nse-of. 'You'll be talking like a liberal soon!' 'Oh. and Biko smiled. and the whole court. which brought in a flood of gifts from both black and white people. words so Woods was sure that the government would not .J . I {}I Biko phoned Woods to thank him.' pots and pans and a second-hand fridge to do that!' f E this government will listen to black opinion. In pite of this. he will be forced to listen.' JUdge Regter was still trying to understand.to say. all South African.. 'But if you cuse the government of terrorism. to hnnned person and it was against t~ law.irticle on the community centre in King William's Town. they print words used in court. Prime Ministe Vorster can postpone some problems. confront them.P~J. The next Board meeting was not easy for Woods. 'It's amazing what one positive article can do.to develop hope. f.Gu. there was no doubt that black news and black " .md sincerity of his words. However. That is the whole I oint of Black Consciousness . What had begun as an attack on Black Consciousness had become a platform for Biko's views. no. Black society has lost hope in itself. ' The whole court was silent.even in this situation .34 Cry Freedom Confrontation 35 For the first time Biko hesitated. fille widi -:8i 0 sOiWn humanity. We believe that black people must not give in. it feels The trial was different. The next day. Tenjy wrote an .' 'Be careful. they must find ways to develop hope.. 'It's going to take more than a few 'Black people must not give in. for the power . He wanted Judge Regter.' Woods joked.. he is going to consider the feelings of black people. But his face quickly became serious again.' There was some laughter. the Board still felt that Woods was' putting the newspaper in a clc ngerous position.' Biko laughed. Woods printed Bike's words in full. J. utack one particular newspaper. to -understand what he was going..

But Wendy stopped and looked across at Woods. go and 1·\1 him.' Mamphela added. but he sat up and listened. He's the Minister of Police and he told you himself that he wants to fight poTtce illegality. 'But 1 can't print a . the elderly man who was the nigh guard at the old church in King William's Town. wa disturbed by noises outside in the yard. 'If you go to him? he will find a good reason. Dilima looked a little puzzle~ Father Kani repeated the question in the Xhosa language.' Marnphela replied. Dilima quietly moved towards the side door. breathing heavily. 'I am positive. Then he pulled the hood from his head. who had heard about all the gifts. Everything of value had been smashed. He was sleeping in th sewing room. typewriters. Shaking with fear. Dilima recognized him immediately.rossly. 'and he will never survive to appear in court. 'Where is Steve? What are his ideas about the situation?' 'He went to the clinic. chairs. Wendy had heard enough. As he watched. 'He wanted to Ld e the security police away while you talked toDilima. that's sensible: Woods agreed. fly to Pretoria! The I .lared. 'Donald. children's toys. too. 'You are sure II The next day Biko asked Woods to come to the church with Wendy.I ory from a witness who can't appear in court.' Father Kani. Now Dilima answered at em ce. ordering them to help the men in the church. Wendy began to help Ntsiki and Mamphela clear the wreckage.' 'l'd be surprised if he survived until the end of the week. At last. Then they began to ~mash everything . an elderly black priest who was one of Bike's II10stenthusiastic supporters. 'Come on. Another man.' he Ill' . Dilima ran for the tree in the middle of the yard and quietly pulled himself up on the first branch. Dilima. perhaps. and stopped under the tree. nodding his head up and down.' .' Mamphela was picking up papers from the floor. he saw one of the men pull the telephone in Biko's room from the wall and smash it on the desk.' Any mention of Dilima's name in your newspaper. The third man joined them. with ~Pcovering their heads and faces. He slipped outside and closed the door softly behind him. Boys. Suddenly the front door crashed open and Dilima saw three big men. It was a terrible sight. Someone was trying to force open the front door. 'Kruger? He would probably 'I've them a rewar !' Woods lit ~a cigarette. turned to Dilima. Well. 'Ndimbonile.' Ntsiki W irned. also wearing a hood. and spoke in Afrikaans.' 'Don't they?' Mamphela said bitterly. and carrying iron bars. was Captain De Wet?' ~'lk~ . He wanted to get to Biko's office to use the telephone.' 'Well. She I nghed at Wend's suggestion. It was Captain De Wet from the security ~ 'Who do you go to when the police attack you?' Ntsiki isked sadly. Woods breathed out smoke from his cigarette. Mamphela. 'Donald. Ministers lon't approve of this sort of thing.36 Cry Freedom Confrontation 37 J That night. two of the men came out. followed and gave an order in Afrikaans. not expecting an answer. '" ) to Kruger. but as he moved towards it he saw three other men in that room.windows.

'It's about Steve Biko. Kruger waited as Woods glanced at wanted to see me about?' I he last photographs. perhaps not in si ht . sitting down. wearing an open shirt h .' Woods stared at her doubtfully. a car 'Ag.nothing but skin and bone. you are here.' 'If you have.' here was made by Afrikaner work and struggle and blood. he says. a young man in a football shirt holding a ball. two hundred years outside the front door. He led Woods into his study. but we couldn't go on fighting large. ' Kruger was standing 'We Afrikaners came here in 1652. comfortable room. One slowly up to the house. I promise you. and he is a black leader you can talk to. taxi stopped at the gates of Kruger's home and Woods got I want to show you something. can. police here will just laugh at you. then why not take him to court?' Kruger leaned forward in his chair. outside Pretoria on Saturday. <Listen..cping people in prison without trial? Man. You need a Biko wants.' Woods began.but if you weren't expected . Will you join me?' of men working on a farm. said. 'Ah.' The photographs showed starving women 'Oh. Do you think I like banning people and Kruger's office and Kruger agreed to meet him at his hom I . . taken in the 18608 or 1870s.' Woods ~amps.rnd children . we have reason to ban Steve Biko. I ruger's family.' He pointed to the earliest and holding a drink. man. I always like to help you editors if I in the 1930s. Two little dogs jumped about at his feet.' Kruger gave Woods a glass of whisky. com . Mr Woods. It was early afternoon when the I don't like these things. photograph. 'The British Kruger raised his et€ ro s. Gott! What is leader like that. He phoned j hings we don't like. you know. but you can't let this happe without doing something. . ' .' I he Boer War. 'Do it! Go!' she said. 'Look at the concentration 'The Minister of Police. looking at the surrounding hills and wall of the hall was covered with photographs. Mr Woods.38 Cry Freedom Confrontation 39 'Look. showing a group 'Come in. 'What is it you obviously Kruger himself. I'm just having a drink. Mr Woods.' Woods said. amazed.think we are going to give all this away? That is what Mr violence. any Afrikaner family could 'Biko!' Kruger exclaimed. a history of the beautiful large garden. it's nothing.. come in. a never defeated us. Do you 'Why is he banned?' Woods asked.fore there was a camera.' Suddenly he stood up. 'I know all about Steve Biko!' show you the same thing. when our families were dying in those concentration 'I want to thank you for seeing me at the weekend. There were other photographs . I am a lawyer. 'Let me tell you. You know we have special problems in this country and we have to do Woods did not take a suitcase or even a bag. This is a black country. 'He believes in non. There were no guards at the gate and Woods walked He led Woods out through another door into a hall. very relaxed. Mr Woods. 'and 1 walk amps the British put our women and children in during right into your house with no one in sight. 'Come.' out. We built this country.a farm in the 1920s.

'What makes you say that?' 'A witness saw a police captain and some of his men smash place. I do think it's worth it. No. you didn' force them to work.. man. to roU over ana give all this away. feeling it was all too easy after his long trip from East l. but since you had taken over most of the land they didn't have much choice.' hf Woods was surprised. 'johan. Kruger's son. Mr Donald Woods.. no. And wouldn't you say that their work has helped your success?' Kruger did not answer. 'Ag. of course. The warmth and sincerity of I ruger's response impressed him. 'Will you be able to play II nnis?' he asked his father. 'I appreciate your helpful attitude.ippening.the hills and a large lake that filled one of the valleys in the distance. 'Thank you. that's it. As they walked towards the house. But 1 have rea~ly come about a community centre in King William's Town which was smashed up the other night . Maybe it's a little too slow for some of them. Donald?' Kruger asked.' Woods answered. He finished his drink and stood up. I shall -~~Ii 5 ~er. I know more about Mr Biko than you do. 'You have your game of tennis.' And will the witness make a statement?' Kruger asked I ( Idly. Kruger went over to some chairs on the grass. the dogs want a ride. . 'He's afraid to.' Woods protested. Instead he opened the main doors and the two men looked out at the wonderful view .iid.' said. this is the editor of I II' Daily Dispatch. I don't want this sort of thing I t he h. the two little dogs following him.' Kruger said quietly. and remembered the black township he had visited. by taxi. came towards them. ' '[a. aged ihout fifteen. Ij you can just call a taxi for me .40 Cry Freedom Confrontation 41 Ghe blacks came to us for work .'Let's sit out here in the shade.ondon. Woods was surprised by the sudden use of his first name.' 'Ag.' he .' Woods knew the Afrikaner argument.remember that.' 11'm pleased to meet you. but Mr Biko is giving them false hope. We are not just going ~ il t(' -tt. 1 know about that. 'Listen.' Kruger responded. 'Well. 'Trust me. you rrc right!' hS .dec ared. leaning forwatd. 'No. Il~ . We didn' ~orce them to work. I . We have all afternoon for tennis.find a way to work together and live together. But 1 shall consider your recommendation. My police are investigating it.' 'I'll drive you back to the city.' 'No.' Woods looked at the beauty of the garden and the view. sir. Then he slowly put his drink down and turned to Woods..' Suddenly Kruger returned to his friendly attitude. 'We know we must .' He took his keys out of his pocket and the dogs immediately started jumping up at his . We are trying to find a way.' Kruger replied.. IJa. thank you. . I 'sides.. The difference between the two made the threat of revolution more real than ever.' the boy said politely. Mr Woods. 'and 1 felt it would be IWI ter if you dealt with it yourself. for the way you have dealt with this unpleasant business. if you really think it's worth it.' 'Your police are the ones who did it!' For a second Kruger froze.' 'It's no trouble. .. Minister. 'Did you come by car.' 'Thank you.

' .or you'll go to true.. It .' l.-s..' Lemick said..' I plained to Mr Kruger . l. and tell Mr Kruger that he must come back to the kitchen. pI inred a long article by Tenjy and Mapetla about the damage . 'Oh.42 Cry Freedom Confrontation I 43 legs. we are not really the terrible character policeman who did not understand the situation. Wendy. 'That's quick! 1 sa"" Mr Kruger onl 10 my house for a whisky one day!' yesterday. Woods was amused. .emick smiled again. r rrcd angrily at Lemick.ernick smiled. 'you had better bring a ~ . justice is on my side.ul come from. nice picture: the relaxe 'You reported a crime..n?$ you. was . 'I said that 1 people think we are. 'I'm Donald Woods. 'Kruger?' he I iurmured doubtfully.~ 'You complained to the Minister of Police?' one of the men 'The law is on our side. He his glasses down his nose.' 'This is very kind of you. Fred Lemick.' Lemick said confidently. He was a little annoyed at bein . 'Report to whoever you like.' he said sharply.' Woods said. carrying his newspaper I . 'to report that you . 'I would hate to go back to Mr I uger.. IB'I ion. 'The next time h. 'Yes. and he felt that Kruger had betrayed him. who had been pleased with the minister's quick around the house to where the cars were parked. . What did he mean.' he interrupted. HI must give us the name of the witness. Nothing happened for several weeks and Woods assumed 'Yes. and the law states that father. He glanced at the other detective.' And at that moment Woods believed that was probabl 'You must give us the name of the witness .' He started to shut the door said. the polite son. 'I he very top'? Then he began to understand. They were police. 'It's all right.' h h. and Wendy took Charlie by the collar and pulled hi hilt then paused.' For a moment Woods stared at him.' Woods realized from the man's confidence where the order At that moment Woods appeared. pi ison.1 said from the top.' Woods said angrily. Mr Woods. suddenly realized that he was dealing with a local . · )ur orders corne from the very top.'Ag. 'We Woods smiled. He hi1m .ill see what happens in court." he disturbed. . I explained to Mr Kruger that 1 couldn't nam t lmt Kruger had decided not to take the matter to court. as they walke Woods. well.!I'dared bitterly. 'oJJ/ .. asked.' Lemick repeated. 'I didn't Iy Mr Kruger .' It was too much for Woods. the spa 'Ie 0gS. Mr Woods. 'That is the law.' 'You had a witness. confi ent now that he was In control II the situation.

' Ntsiki whispered. whatever happens. and then Biko was sure. As he left the office. 'How did you know 1 was here?' 'Your wife told me.' Biko sat down near Woods. One night. 'It's OK.' Biko laughed. someone banged l~dly on the front door./'. Hi ko was working late on an article for Woods to be printed III the Daily Dispatch under another name. 'What do yo expect? Are you alone?' 'All alone. But as they moved up the hill. 'Steve . At that moment. Woods decided on Thursday afternoon to drive over to the community centre t see how they were progressing. Black or white. 'Kruger is obviously serious.' he said quietly. about a week later. tea s started to wal up the hill towards the road. 'There's someone out there with a torch. the damage was repaired. nodded towards a van parked a little way (the field where the other men were getting bottles of beer.' Woods answered. and another flood of gifts poured in Gradually. Quickly. 'You're a dirty player. .lowled.' Woods said.J done to the church.' he added.' someone 1'. 1 came here in the bread van. and took a long drink. 'It's OK. They're taking me to court over the name of the witness. Th man began to walk towards them. 'Then.' Woods called. He raised a bottle of beer to ltiko. '1 don't know. '1 was taught by a priest.. Biko stared at him in amazement. watching the play . 1 think. it isn't worth the price of one liild .44 Cry Freedom "j Confrontation 45 t <:.' he said quietly.When the game was over the tw9.' Biko looked at Woods for a moment. 'He breaks heads for the same I -nsons. '1 think they're trying to break· our off j I icndship. That afternoon a group of black men were playing rugby i a lonely field outside King William's Town. the players moved until they were surroundin Biko. to I induct my defence. " There was silence for a moment. Biko felt sure that h recognized that figure.' He. 'They think I'm at the clinic. 'Not to talk of six months in prison for Mr I\iko and his family lived in a tiny house in the black township outside King William's Town. As they played.:J..' orne of the other players laughed. A rotten policeman 18 a rotten I'nliceman. white man appeared over the hill and stood. Biko stopped writing and they both listened. Harold Levy.AJM Woods smiled. Ntsiki whispered a warning. uttay ut laughing.' Biko called back. then he looked icross at Woods. watch out!' . a cour official was waiting at the door and handed him an envelop from the court. Suddenly. . 'I'm getting my fo~w teacher. Someon saw the white figure at the top of the hill.' he repeated loudly.' Woods replied. But I'm not going to name Dilima. I think. AII. 'One day we shall be the System in this country. as they walked over to the van. 'She didn't tell me where the police think you are. A few months in prison would finish your education.' someon offered. 'I'll go and talk to him while you get Steve away.it's the System!' someone warned. and pulled away from th group. ~.' Woods said.

Behind him. 'Turn the page.: dl) ir!' ~l~ ot allowed to write anythin not even a letter.III' asked the two security policemen to break down the door. 'They're keeping you boys up late. pretending to st~tch -ord. 'Well.emick stared angrily at Biko..' said Biko. One of the 'minders' stepped forward and shone his torch III1 the warrant. Behind his back.=~6?. Samora. Finally. Gently. 'We have orders to search your house for dangero uul locked it. l hen Biko went over to the window and opened it at the top. he walked to the side window. the local detective. 'Good. l.g --=.e-if:l. 110 was now holding their younger son. but he decided he would look a fool if Biko nodded coolly.''. Biko went to the front door an opened it a 1111 . documents. luko made a quick search and gave another paper to Ntsiki. ~. security police. pretending he had just woken up. pulled the document from his .' said Woods. Then he smiled at the two "'. laying the papers on top of it. in the same sleepy manner.I ppy on. a sign that she had finished.' he said.' l.. yawning again.". "'U need your torch..' And he shut the door 'Yes?' Biko growled. Ntsiki had put a baby's napPY'onlin ir bed. Ilud any papers in my house.. Biko nodded. Biko began to read. ~ At the window.' he said..' Lemick said aggressively. "h n e.. but you won't 'l think the police are trying to break off our friendship. 'Could you read a little 1. even more annoyed.ernick. she lifted the h· 'ping Samora on to the papers and fastened the extra II. 'Just open the Biko ga up the papers he was working on and N took away the pen.' I . pretending to look sleepy.emick was angry.' he whing heavily.ernick was ~nnoyed by this familiarity."'''. there with Biko's two regular 'minders'. In the house.1'11 ·r?' ~iko continued to read each word. 'Bring it to III! window over there and I'll read it.. Lemick. Biko reached the bottom of the first page III I looked up at Lemick. it's all in order. Samora did not wake.~------Hiko yl~ne-d! 'Do you have a warrant?' l. '\ Freedom Confrontation 47 l.ket and waved it in front of Biko's face.. Ntsiki III rhed. uh his double nappy. She picked up Samora. sympathetically. 'Fine. in her arms."'46 .'_. and held him against her shoulder..

_ 'It'sa crime they send you people out on these useless jobs Biko said sympathetically. Lemick stared at Biko again. If. 'Sssh. after the six months. thinking that· I was going to prison . 'It's the police. a to the children!' Woods ordered.' Biko remarked. the beds.' 'Donald!' she cried once more. taking Charlie by the collar. a separate 111'111 building near the main house. not sure if he was joking. sh whispered. He took out a gun and moved towards III back door.' There was only one oil lamp burning..hildren about his trial.gasped with silent laughter. the pots and pans. She was laughing silently. Biko opened the door. Ntsiki and Biko watched. He followed them to the door. I'Il let you come in. And they both . 'Donald! What are you doing?' Wendy screamed. b his face looked serious. 'At that moment. The System Fights Back 10 Woods faced six months in prison if he did not give the name " Dilima to the court. rf -IY~' Woods put down his drink and rushed into the hall. Ste turned to Ntsiki. ' Gavin jumped up excitedly. 'Sssh. Th pulled the covers off the sleeping Nkosinathi and passed the hands under his bed. 'Keep the children inside. Charlie growled. 'And r. the cooker. 'Donald!' Wendy shouted from upstairs. he still refused III give the name. everyone in the mrt was silent. He stared at Biko andth at Ntsiki. running to the back door. I lr went to a cupboard in the hall.hes were standing at Evalina's door. 'So you are going to prison. so Lemick and t two other men used their torches to search the tiny hous a bookcase. shaking her off. Harold Levy conducted Woods' defence with onfidence and Woods was released on a legal point.ikc Charlie.y're after Evalina!' . 'As soon as my wife properly dressed. he would get another six months in prison. 'I told you there were no papers. I'll . Later that evening Woods was in the living room telling the . 'We'll be back. I Ie ran around the house to Evalina's room. nodding towards the sleepi Samora. Slowly. Charlie was jumping up at them both. Lemick paused and then closed the door quietly.' Biko started to shut the window.' he whispered. Ilowever. 'I think we had better rescue these'. Wendy LUI downstairs.. and pulled It I n the top dr wer. She Jjfa te Samora's nappy. holding I I to his arm. 'Do wake the children. Lemick sighed and nodded to the tw 'minders'.' Biko whispered. i I I }'l~ .48 Cry Freedom Lemick folded the document and put it back in his pock 'We shall see. He went back to the door and bang loudly on it. IIiH Woods was out of the back door.' said loudly. Dad?' Suddenly.' Lemick was angry.' Woods ordered. Lemick looked around angrily. Two policemen with lell .. reached up.

'We have asked this female Bantu . who was also walking back to the office. Over Doreen's shoulder he saw a black police I . after the children had gone to bed. putting his arm tround her J'~And if you let go. waving his gun at them..' the policeman began. 'But I'm d raid they' will make an example of him so that no other 1. -Woods iuld Wendy what had happened. banged the door shut. Ken saw it all. They walked slowly along the treet back to the Dispatch bui din· .' 'At this time of night?' Woods demanded. 'You think you're a big editor. but he continued I. There may be an illegal male id \ mSI e . Ken turned and took a spoon u of Doreen's ice-cream. larger man. One of the policemen pointed a finger angrily at Ken. 'Oh. The policeman stepped back.50 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back \ 51 'What the hell are you doing here?' Woods shouted. a younger. frightened. Ken dropped his ice-cream. and kissed him.1· e!' $ Wendy laughed. 'It's all right.('I him to leave the newspaper. 'Woman!' Woods shouted. smiling. She put her arms around him. I'll get it..If' suddenly stop just in front of Mapetla. It was the middle of the morning and I 'n went out of the office to buy ice-cream with Doreen. pointing his gun at the policemen. to frighten him and try to . took his camera 110m where it hung on his ~Ad ran forward taking pictures.' Evalina repeated. I think I'll fall flat on my 11.' the policeman said. Wendy ran out of the back door and across the garden to Woods.1Ck person will dare to come near me. who can do anything you please .' 'If you let me have a little bit of yours. It's all right. 'You've got your own ice-cream. I'll let you have some of my chocolate.' Ken offered.' 'I think I'm a man who has found two strangers on my property. 'It's our job. Three men jumped out and took hold of Mapetla. Donald Woods! You're a crazy man!' 'I'm also shaking like a l~ Woods said.' she called to Woods.. He stopped. 'What do you think the police will do to him?' Wendy I I cd. Later that night.' Woods replied.' Wendy stood up and they both began to go upstairs to bed. The next day the police took their revenge. The men pushed Mapetla into the car. Evalina appeared at her door. The second policeman. 'It is our right. 'You're crazy. 'It's all right. ' o 'You're on my property. . 'We want to see her pass. and the car quickly drove away. 'Stop it!' she laughed. the I rettiest typist in the office.' one of the policemen said aggressively. beginning to lose some of his confidence in the face of Woods' aggression. 'Go on! Get out of here!' The two policemen finally began to walk down the path towards the gate.' Woods said. sir. . Evalina had found her pass and came to the door with it. sir. 1 suppose they'll beat him..d ing pictures until the car turned a corner. -ven got pictures of it. . not a female Bantu! Do you think you're talking to an animal?' His gun was still pointed at the policemen and in Woods' face was all the anger that had been growing in him since he first turned his attention to examine what South Africa was to a black min. sma ked his stick against his leg.' Woods shouted. 'She's a woman. 'We are allowed to question Bantu at any time.1.

suddenly tired.' Woods added. They both ran to the front door but it was too late. 'Are you Tenjy Mtintso?' Tenjy nodded and bit her lip. 'Please come with us. He took a long drink. Ken left the newsroom and rushed downstairs to look for Woods. Biko smiled at her amazement. Biko replied. Everyone was staring.' he said calmly. She glanced around the room. Woods poured Biko a drink and repeated the story of Mapetla's arrest. '1 want to write something about the arrest.. 'I'll give it to you on my way to Cape Town in a few days. but there was nothing anyone could do. and shut the door. She knew at once what was going to happen. '1 go where 1 like. and he sounded exhausted. Three policemen got out of the car and marched into the building. Biko listened silently. Biko quickly went past him into the hall. when the streets around the Dispatch were most busy. 'Y ou . you're out of your mind.' Woods continued. 'I have a warrant for Tenjy Mtintso. the police will probably be harder on Mapetla. :For two days nothing happened.travelling into a white area at night. 'It's an important meeting of black students.' There was no doubt about the importance of the meeting to him. The police were already closing the doors of the van on Tenjy. At that moment Wendy came into the living room.. ' Woods admired Biko's attitude. 'God!' Woods sighed.' one policeman said. Slowly. She stood at the door. and the police refused to give him any information about Mapetla. 'What the hell are you doing here?' '1 want to know about Mapetla. 'Steve.' Biko replied quietly.' He shook his head.' Suddenly someone knocked loudly on the front door. 'If 1 do. At twelve o'clock. unable to speak for a moment. '1 would like to know what the charges are in that warrant.re crazy .' the policeman said. But he was badly mistaken. Was it the police again? Charlie appeared and rushed to the door. Woods hoped that the police would release him in a few days. his face Woods nodded and nervously led him into the living room. Ken began taking pictures as Woods pushed through the crowd and took the arm of one of the policemen. 'Hello. Woods did not print news of Mapetla's arrest.' 'Cape Town?' Wendy protested. 'Steve. Wendy. They went up the stairs to the newsroom and went directly to Tenjy's desk. 'Steve!' he whispered as he opened the door. They both stopped and looked at each other. She was typing an article but looked up and stared at them. Woods went down the stairs again and went to the door. Biko looked at the two of them and leaned back. a police car and a police van with bars at the windows parked outside the office. '1 want them to hear what 1 have to say before they decide anything. saw only one car. 'This is my country. in his chair. 1 don't know . but at the same time was shocked by the risk Biko was taking. Woods glanced outside. .' he said finally.' . but for once his fire and energy were gone.' senous.52 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 53 'I've decided not to print the pictures.' he explained.

ges. . The lawyer representing the State stood up. They tied me to a chair and put a towel around roy neck.' . The policeman shook off Woods' hand and looked at him ith cold hatred. unable to speak. 'Mapetla wouldn't . was able to demand an inqJ:e~ld Wilfred Cooper agreed to represent Mapetla's family and Biko. and then stopped.officer. 'First. That was something they both knew. Cooper interrupted her gently. She reacnea over and took Woods' hand. Then late one evening Ken went to say goodnight to Woods and found him staring out of the window. 'Have you heard about this from someone else?' 'No.' Tenjy answered forcefully..' She turned and fixed her eyes on Schoeman. They sat silently in the growing darkness. 'There are no char. then her occupation. 'I was a reporter on the Daily Dispatch. 'The security police question prisoners by . they pulled me around the room by my hair.54 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 55 Woods said. 'We don't need charges. I still refused to swear to something 1had not done. 'None.' he announced.' Tenjy replied. Captain Schoeman. Cooper began to question her. 'I was questioned in this way myself by Captain Schoeman and his colleagues. who was sitting in court behmd the lawyer representing the State.. . This happened several times and produced these bruises. 'This inquest has been called to determine the reason f~r the death of Mapetla Mohapi. looking at Tenjy through the bars of the little window at the back of the van.' he said. rather than under the neck. getting into e police car. Tenjy turned and looked bitterly at the secunty. ' . 'Can you offer an explanation for the bruises found on the side of the dead man's neck. He knew no easy way. on the front page of the Daily Dispatch. 'They say he hanged himself. When she appeared in the witness box.. then beat me to the floor and kicked me. who was found hanged III .' Tenjy answered at once. pnson. as well as those of Tenjy's arrest.. They pulled this towel tighter and tighter until I became unconscious. she looked tired and ill in her prison uniform. there was no need to say it. 'zy ~(' 'Charges?' Cooper asked. as would be the case if he had hanged himself?' 'Yes.o~. But for another week there was no further news. filled with the bitter knowledge that they could not print the truth. 'I really do find this story of a towel around the neck rather like the articles t ~ Biko.t Wendy was crying as she listened to this.' She pulled down her collar to show large bruises on the side of h'lr neck. First her name. The next day Woods printed the photographs of Mapetla's arrest. 'What's wrong?' he asked.' And the car drove off. ' he began. Woods did not reply. 'Mapetla is dead. 'How can we get her out of there?' she whispered. The main witness at the inquest was Tenjy. . Woods looked up at Ken. despite his sorrow.' Ken stared at him. Woods turned slowly to his desk and Ken knew that something serious had happened. Now 1 am a prisoner.

Biko was sitting next to him in the front seat. 'No. it was bad luck.drove round the bend and saw the police lights of the road-block flashing ahead. but she took the towel and without ~esitation she threw it 0 Rrher face from behind and pulled it tight about her tn a. she began to cough. the police showed another prisoner a srnall figure of Mapetla hanging from a string. smiling bitterly. I just don't know what to say. On this night the road-block outside Port Elizabeth_ had juSfbeen put up.' Biko said.' He paused and then put the phone down. They had driven more than half-way home to King William's Town. He turned and found Mamphela looking at him. So if you came across a road-block.' -~I(" ~~ . Biko had phoned from Mamphela's roorn.56 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 57 Miss Mtintso wrote for the Dispatch: full of emotion but rather short on facts . 'It's too ~fidf dangerous.' Biko looked across the table at her.' he said nervously. Peter put his foot on the brake. sw owe severa Lti times. . 'They'll probably only ask for my papers. either. As she pulled it tighter. inquest finds that blame for Mapetla Mohapi's death can be fixed on no one.' 11 The road-block was put up at 10 p. All the posters were given out in Cape Town.one of Biko's closest friends . where she was typing his article on the inquest. The inquest is dosed. overcome by this example of police cruelty. 'Steve.' she said.' Woods stared at Wendy in complete amazement. She ~~d . There were two police cars and a Land Rover. Tears began to roll down her face. 'The . . And let us hope that it won't be visited on the innocent.' Cooper interrupted. and had only another two hundred kilometres to go.' Biko replied quietly.' 'Just say. 'The day before Mapetla died. God . Woods was sitting in his office on his own. 'Oh. the deep emotion in his voice. Only two cars had been stopped before Peter Jones ..' Woods sank back in his chair. 'You see? What did I tell you?' Later that night Biko phoned Woods. She had stopped typing while he rnade the call. Her smile seemed to say. They were on their way back from Cape Town. 'It's a dangerous country. 'You shouldn't rnake that trip to Cape Town. The judge left the court for only fifteen minutes. 'Perhaps Miss Mtintso could show us?' He took a towel from his bag and crossed the court to the witness box. 'Some news. They were never kept in place for long.. )fhen she stopped and took off the towel. It was quiet and in the newsroom only the light at the sports desk was still on. finishing his editorial on the inquest. 'Have you got anything in the back?' Biko asked. The police changed the place and time of road-blocks because news of them travelled fast. driving along the main coastal road with the ocean on one side and the mountains on the other. 'that some day justice will be done.' he sighed. I've only got a are tyr back there. There was no chance of turning and certainly no chance of running through it. Tenjy looked surprised. stanng at Schoeman coldly and accusingly.m.

the forehead and eyes seriously injured. and when the car paused at the gates the guard dogs growled.' Biko replied. . 'What's in there?' he demanded aggressively. opening his door. 'I think they've got something in here. the policeman at the window suspected something. Finally. The doctor examined the prisoner's eyes: he was deeply unconscious. 'It's there in the book.' Peter answered. and shone his torch around the back seat. The policeman shone the light from his torch on to Peter's face. The policeman at his window nodded. with desperate honesty. Biko hesitated for a moment. the last door was opened and the doctor saw a naked figure lying on the bare floor. He had trouble with the lock. 'Out!' he ordered. The doctor lifted one arm. '1 can't get it open. The body was covered with bruises. The doctor moved forward into the room. 'Can I try?' Peter asked.' called the policeman at the boot. Biko glanced sideways at Peter. 'What's your name?' he demanded. Peter slowly moved the car forward and stopped. The doctor was led by the chief police officer down a long corridor and through several locked doors. He stepped back. ready to let them go.vU'" ~T- .l The other policemen turned to look. he pushed open the door and got out. and one leg tied to the bars of the wall. Suddenly he stiffened. He saw that the man's hands were tied behind his back. 'Papers!' Again Biko hesitated. And the other policemen stared in amazement. He was breathing heavily. 'What's the matter?' he demanded.58 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 59 The car ahead of them was sent on by the police and a policeman waved Peter forward with his torch. Peter passed over his identity papers and the keys of the car. There was a silent pause. '. The yard was lit with bright lights. The policeman at the window handed the papers back to Peter. It was obvious that a doctor should have seen the prisoner much sooner. but he had no choice. But the policeman on Bike's side of the car stopped at the window.a police car drove through the forest trees to the Walmer police station in Port Elizabeth. There were cuts on his chest and lips. and fixed his eyes on the darkness straight ahead. but neither of them dared to say a word. Peter shook his head. The policeman shone his tor~h ~ ~ Biko's face and then down at the pass. What was happenmg. The doctor went in and knelt down by the body.' the policeman at the boot answered. The light went back to Biko's face and once again to the pass. Instantly. Slowly. The policeman threw the keys to his colleague and then shone his torch on to the papers.. Another policeman approached Biko's side of the car. 'Keys and papers!' he commanded.. The car entered the yard and a doctor got out.' he said evenly. The doctor turned to his bag and took out a small hammer. Then he reached into his coat and handed the man his pass. 'Say it! Say it!' the man shouted fiercely. Six days later . it fell back lifelessly. 'Bantu Stephen Biko. 'Nothing. The second policeman went to the boot of the car and tried to open it. Then Biko answered. much taller than the policeman. He stood up. He knocked on it. satisfied.again in the dead of night .

. 1 think he should go to a hospital. sir. but the police chief had his eyes fixed on the Land Rover. -~ The d octor could not answer that. Half an hour later. He looked down at the report on Biko.' The doctor looked down at the unconscious prisoner. It was obvious to the doctor that the police officer wanted police doctors to deal with the prisoner Biko. was put on it. or eyes swollen by the blood behind them? Even a policeman could answer that question. The doctor knew that he should insist on the prisoner being taken to the nearest hospital. He was determined to demand this. How could you pretend a smashed forehead. the doctor thought. not today. The doctor watched as the doors were banged shut and the Land Rover drove off into the night. He had one thousand kilometres of roti~h. only four kilometres away!' 'He could escape from hospital here. the doctor faced the officer. The doctor gas~. also have signs of possible brain damage. 'We'll take him to the police hospital in Pretoria. ~~I It was 11th September 1977.. The toe moved upwards. .. 'Could he be pretending?' My God. '1 . still naked.' he said. He knew what he must recommend. but no. And when you stop for a rest. Two policemen got into the back of the Land Rover. the doctor wanted to say something. '1 want you to take the Seymour road. . one man should stay with the prisoner at all times. with fear but with as much determination as he could manage. surely? 'The . 'The tests performed by Dr Hersch also show . A police captain gave the four policemen their final orders.' 'But why is he unconscious?' the police officer demanded. but he also knew that the prisoner Biko was very important to the police.' he began cautiously. the doctor watched as four policemen carried Biko out into the yard . 'Has he eaten?' 'No. He looked up into the cold. The police officer looked at him coldly. and said nothing.Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 61 He ran it lightly along the left foot. without delay. The doctor stood up. you can't pretend a reflex.' the officer said brutally..60 . fearful face of the doctor. wishing this had been decided earlier.' Finally. 'There's a hospital in Port Elizabeth.. ( . breathing heavily himself. country roads yet to survive. Again.' he said at last. He hit the foot once.. Escape? He would be lucky if he could walk and talk within weeks.. Keep off the main roads. Biko's head bumping on the floor. The officer glanced down at the bruised body on the floor and -then up at the white. 'You . the reflex indicates possible brain damage. Another policeman threw a blanket on to the floor of the waiting Land Rover and Biko. 'He must go to hospital..' the doctor replied. and the other two sat in the front.' The doctor expected them to cover Biko. He had seen other inil! d men who had ~d to survive. 'Could he be pretending?' the 'police officer repeated fiercely. he said. No reaction. twice.. '1 want him in a police hospital. angry eyes of the police officer . 'But '" but that's a thousand kilometres away!' he protested. The doctor rested the hammer on the floor for a moment.

Woods had phoned to ask her to meet him and she had come. and of ~ . So much had happened since their first meeting. The next day Woods and Ken drove the SIxty kilometres north to King William's Town. In Crossroads. h&cri~-'N'kosinathi and Samora. 'How did you get perrnissionj" Ntsiki asked quietly. The question was. At first. of sympathy.' ~ lwe~£e~~- every . . Mr Biko had been arrested.' 'I didn't' Woods replied. 'I knew they would move him If they rhought we were coming. Besides. Kruger's smiling face on television drove Woods ~nto action. and for herself and the boys. Then Woods moved forward and put his arms round Ntsiki. A few minutes later a bus stopped opposite and Ntsiki got off.' he whi~pered. less than two years ago. but she did not speak. Mr Biko had refused to eat. Then he received another call. thousands marched in a procession that went on for a whole day and into the night. And they. . how did he die? To find out. Once in custody. Mr Kruger. Ntsiki nodded her head. I don't think they will dare to stop us.they needed Ntsiki's help. and this was why he died: he starved himself to death. and crying for Steve . . Woods got dressed and went to the office. The Minister of Police. outside his banning area.. The news was taken up by every newspaper in the country. denied police responsibility for Biko's death.u~(~ As they drove to the~. The government needed black leaders to talk to. Ntsiki stood at the side of the road. 'A man the world will always . Woods went to ~er. Ntsiki stayed in their little house. 'He was a great man. with drl1Ms d wild singing. Woods spent hours on the phone talking to friends outside South Africa so that the story was printed in almost every co~Jn the world. This was why he was taken to hospital. He had learned from Biko himself. he had been in prison before and had come out unhurt~~ By the time he got to the office there was a message from John Qumza. when Mapetla died. . Biko was a big name and he was known as a leader who believed in nonviolence.62 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 63 12 Someone phoned Woods in the night and told him Biko was dead. cried with her. I have checked the law. BIKO DIES IN CUSTODY! This was on the front page of the Daily Dispatch the next morning. waiting until the bus moved off a in. On the way he tried to convince himself that it was not true. When they reached each other. from his night editor: the government had just ordered that any article on the police must be approved by the central police office in Pretoria. Woods did not believe it. Then she started to cross the road. that the family could demand an inquest. ' In the black townships thr~ut South Africa. and parked in a small road just outside the town. or a black worker at the police hospital. not understanding what was wrong. It was true. All Biko's friends knew that was not true. black crowds attacked police station-:. they paus~d and looked at each other their minds full of memones. lt was the first time they had met since Biko's death. Perhaps it was one of the black prison officers. Woods explained what he wanted to do. Yes. Ntsiki. Kruger was claiming that Biko had died because he refused to eat in prison.H ge~fires were lit in the townships evening until the funeral. They got out of the car near the little building.

For a moment he stood above the familiar face of the man who had hated no one. ~h~el The ight of Biko's face shocked him. 'I'm afraid that's not possible.. who pulled out that particular drawer. It read 'Biko'.' she answered. The funeral was eld two days later. 'You and Wendy will come to the funeral. Steve.. puttmg her arm aroun dh im. When they returned to the car.' he said. Mrs Biko has the right to see her husband's body.this is a special case . Donald. 'lias caused enough trouble already. Woods hesitated. 'The law is quite simple and clear... won't you?' Ntsiki asked quietly..' Slowly.-__.' The official stood up. Ntsiki touched the sheet gently as she moved towards he face.. Mr Woods. tee was a huge lu~n .' ~ A short. If you want this matter on the front page of the newspapers as well . Ntsiki. Considering what had happened to Biko. Woods continued coldly. neither Woods nor Ken could move.' Woods said tftterly. elderly Pakistani opened the door and led them to the main office.would we be welcome?' Ntsiki still stared straight ahead. None of them spoke. and bruises around his eyes. and drove away from the mortuary. he wondered how people would react to a white man at his funeral.64 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 65 . taking photographs from all sides. Ken got into the back seat and Woods started the car.re the bodies were kept. ~~<ql out crymg.I'.. Woods knew he would go stralgllt to the phone. his own face full of fear. before he calls the police. Woods had never been ~ - . When she reached Biko's face she suddenly ~ .' he promised. 'Yes. Biko had not been playing rugby recently and had actually put on weight. Steve . Woods pulled the sheet down.._ . Ntsiki was sitting in the front seat. frightened by Woods' anger. 'Don't let them frighten you. who had now left this bruised body.would his other friends . their emotion was so great. The official looked up from his desk. 'Mrs Biko wants to see her husband's body. 'Refused to eat. At the door he turned. There has been no inquest . The body was covered with a white s~The offidalleft the room. He led them to the room whe.yv-. Woods stepped forward and pulled down the top of the . 'The official went forward and looked at the paper~lie toe of one pair of feet. Woods closed the door behind them and Ken took a small camera from his pocket.JY!. p. Ntsiki stood up and moved towards the door.' Woods began.' Woods interrupted. He cried as he had never done before as an adult. 'Oh. staring ahead. he moved about the body. 'You and Wendy are our brother and sister. .' She still had not looked at him. his forehead.. Three pairs of feet were Ist~l~~ of the drawm.' 'It's not special at all. 'Well . 'Mr Biko's death'. ' The official moved towards the door.R. Quickly. Biko's lips were swOllen. The Pakistani assistant came forward to lead her out of the room. 'We will be there. He nodded towards the Pakistani assistant.' she cried. her head down next to his. 'What have they done to you?' For several minutes. But finally Woods put his arm around Ntsiki. and Ken took photographs of the bruised body.. 'We must hurry.

The song ended and there was silence. The mood of the crowd was angry but also sorro\V1ttl. hands reached out to touch it. many of them carrying posters of Biko's face.' Suddenly they heard a song in the distance. 'We are here to express our deep sorrow for the death of one of the great men of Africa! I loved Steve Biko. He turned to Wendy. Then John Qumza came in with Father Kani and Mamphela. a group of people came on to a big platform at one side of the field. black and white. Ntsiki and the two boys came on to the platform and the murmur of the crowd grew until it Was like the ~~'fd cry of a great animal that was dying. ONE NATION.Woods and Wendy took a place in the middle of the field. He and Wendy went very early to the stadium where the ceremony was to be held. marching and singing. A group of priests_followed. but no one showed any anger or ha~J towards them. There are whites in South Africa who have been thinking a long time before we started to think. The crowd began to sing with them. Then came the coffin. About a Irour after they arrived. made of beautiful dark wood with gold letters: ONE AZANIA . and Woods could see a number of white faces here and there. When the procession reached the platform. stepped up to the microphone on the platform. As the coffin was carried slowly through the crowd. American.. The crowd simply ignored them.. and the procession arrived. the coffin was lifted on to the platform. dressed in gold and brown. ~ . moving slowly through the crowd and across the field towards the platform. Woods recognized officials representing the British. Some church officials. followed. Woods recognized only Bishop Tutu. but I hate the System that killed him!' The crowd shouted in agreement.66 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 67 to the funeral of a black person before. but even so there were thousands of people there before them. There were road-blocks on all the main roads. Finally. and Swedish Governments. A young man. A group of young men in uniform came first. They saw no one they recognized from the clinic or the community centre. flowers surrounding it. 'When I d~~emind me of this. raising their hands. the speaker held up his arms and gradually the crowd became quiet. Woods knew that Azania was the name Biko's followers used for South Africa. Helen Suzman appeared and there The mood of the crowd at Bike's funeral was angry but also sorrowful. The stadium was completely full now. was a deep murmur of welcome from the crowd. Finally. but still more and more P~RI~_ arrived. as though they were not there at all.

'Do you understand the words?' the girl asked. Blessthe leaders. Anxiously. the crowd exploded. Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika Maluphankanyisw'upondo lwayo . Holy Spirit! Woods. The speaker walked up and down the platform. Hear our prayers And bless us . God bless us. that Steve Biko loved as we do. 'I had hoped this wouldn't happen. The posters were held high and waved backwards and forwards.' he said quiedy.'but I welcome all South Africans who join with us today in our sorrow for the man who gave us hope .' he continued. the kind of country South Africa will be. and the shouting stopped.we . At last the speaker's hands went up again.. There were three white students near Woods. 'when isolation and anger have changed to friendship. and Mamphela.hope in the country South Africa could be. simply to show their respect for Steve Biko! The buses from Soweto. 'the day of Steve Biko's funeral.are . they pushed their way through the crowd to his side. cried for the first time since Biko's death. bless them. 'And in hope for that day. Ntsiki held Samora... 'But . On the platform. standing next to her.' he whispered. let us sing tO~l'thcr the Song of Africa. as equal Z!embers of God's family!' This time the crowd began to cratsofdy. When all was quiet.. Spirit! Woza Maya Oyingcweie! Come. God bless Africa. . he said. Wendy and the students stood in the crowd as the beautiful song. thousands of voices joined in. here and there an elderly couple. with many shouts of 'Amen!' Woods g anc~d~tound at the other white people he could see: students.' As he began the song. In their youth. holding up their posters of Biko. When they saw Woods singing. warmly. Bless our efforts To work together and lift ourselves Through learning and understanding. the System in their white p~have turned away thousands who wanted to come here. as they watched the thousands of posters of Bike's face waving below them. ended and died on the wind . Spirit! Descend.68 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 69 'Even today.. Woza Moya! Yihla Moya! Come. Woods put his arm around Wendy. but this time there was pride and determination mixed with their anger. when all men are judged as human beings. allowing the crowd to express their emotions. Raise up her name.here!' Again. from Cape Town have all been turned away! And road-blocks have been put up to prevent others from every part of the country from entering this area!' The crowd exploded with anger. 'I hate the System. their shouts like thunder. and began to sing in English as he worked the words out in his head..' the speaker ended. full of emotion. Then he stepped back to the microphone. Blessalso the young That they may carry the land with patience. from Durban. Woods nodded.. the tears running down her face.

Another had hit the wall by the front door.' But Woods was determined. At that moment. the largest city in . we're coming to get you!' a voice said. but the caller banged the phone down. 'Who can we call?' she whispered. and he had an idea about how he should use them. when the phone rang. 'I can't sleep. He booked his flight to Boston through New York. And finally the sound of the car being started and driven off. watching the news on television in her bedroom.Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 71 13 Woods did not print the photographs of Biko's body. Quickly Wendy turned off the light and went to the window. He felt that the government would shut the newspaper if he did so. Then they heard a shout from outside.' she said. and th re was the sound of glass breaking. 'I want to go to America to talk about Biko and the way he died. 'I've just come back from Pretoria and I can tell you there is no newspaper willing to fight the government on this matter. Two men ran from the car to the garden wall. 'No. Suddenly. Two days after Biko's funeral Woods flew north to Pretoria for a national meeting of editors. it will really embarrass them. We must force them to have an inquest. 'If they let you out. If I start talking in America. he phoned Cape Town to ask Bruce McCullough to come to East London as quickly as he could. Jane moved back from the window. Wendy was alone in the house with the children. One bullet had broken Wendy's bedroom window. they'll arrest you the minute you get back!' 'Look. and one of Woods' oldest friends: they had been students together in London many years before. 'Was that Daddy?' Wendy sighed in relief. not Daddy. put her arms around Jane. Donald.' 'More threats?' Wendy nodded. When Woods left Pretoria. and swore violently. someone knocked on the bedroom door and Wendy jumped in terror. there wasthe sound of a gun being fired. they'll stop at nothing. Wendy. Woods also asked Father Kani to come to his house that evening. 'You just stay here!' But Jane followed her as she started to go downstairs.' Bruce said.' Father Kani shook his head. It was Jane. They arrived about nine o'clock and sat down in the garden with a big bowl of spaghetti and plenty of bottles of cold beer.' Woods responded. Once! Twice! Jane screamed. Jane following her. Then he flew to Johannesburg. Bruce was an Australian. and we're coming to get you!' Wendy tried to speak. serving himself to spaghetti.' Woods began. Wendy was frozen with terror. 'You're mad. The gun was fired again and again. its lights turned off. The two others stared at him. The day before he left he printed the pictures of Biko's body with an editorial demanding an inquest. They saw a car parked across the road. 'We know you're alone. shaking. Wendy ran for the door. 'You're going to talk about Steve? I tell you. Suddenly they heard the sound of a car outside. 'All right. The next morning they discovered holes from two bullets near Woods' study. and the last was near the living room.

You are to stay within the district of East London for a period of five years. He turned and stared out at the darkness.. he hated the banning. It was a long drive from Johannesburg to East London more than eight hundred kilometres. 'The Minister of Police.72 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 73 South Africa. 'And he instructed us to take you by car to your home in East London immediately.. You are forbidden to enter any printing offices of any kind. Beukes drove and Boshoff sat in the front seat beside him. Woods heard his flight to New York being announced. '1 only hope that Kruger's boys won't be waiting here to meet you when you return. For miles they said nothing. Mr Kruger.' Woods said bitterly. you know. except for members of your family. He walked down the hall to the security desk. 'We've taken them off. 'We are security police. 'we don't know what happened yet. Bruce met him at the airport in Johannesburg. What would he do? Then he saw the Pretoria morning newspaper on the corner of the desk. are declared a banned person. the first officer. 'Come with me. 'Don't worry about that. Donald James Woods. BIKO INQUEST ANNOUNCED. 'I'll phone you when 1 get there!' he called confidently.same time punishing one of the people who wanted it. they aren't.' Major Boshoff.' Woods shook his head. Before Woods could say a word. ' Woods protested.' Shocked. 'And trying to cover it up with lies was stupid. The government was admitting that an inquest was proper. Two soldiers stood behind the passport desk. Woods looked up and saw two other men approaching. said. I met him once in a raid on Natal University. and at the. Woods picked it up and turned back to Bruce. but he had got the inquest. A soldier came forward and stood beside the door. using a false name. and he hesitated.' 'Yes. Well . 'No. it would be here. 'I knew Steve Biko. Beukes started reading from a warrant. Woods sat in the back seat. his bags piled around him. He was very intelligent . and gave it back to him.' the man said quietly. Woods found himself in the office facing another security officer. He was very intelligent.' the first man said. Well. Lieutenant Beukes.1 agree with you about that. 'You. You are forbidden to write anything.' the man said. do we?' .' Bruce told him. then at Woods. Killing him was not. a man touched his arm. As he approached it. Woods gave his passport to the official. This was the moment. 'I've sent copies of the photographs to England and America. you are forbidden to meet with more than one person at a time.' 'But my bags are . 'Donald Woods?' Woods nodded. Finally. For a period of five years. If the government was going to stop him. He looked up at the two officers.' 'Well.' Woods smiled. Boshoff spoke. to catch the evening plane to New York.' the man said calmly. ' Five years! Woods wondered what the Daily Dispatch would do. guiding Woods towards an office door. either privately or printed.' Boshoff replied easily. 'Has Kruger gone crazy?' he murmured. They walked together towards the passport desk. signed your banning order himself. 'You won't be on the plane. The official glanced at it.

' Boshoff lau~~Meople like Biko?' The words stabbed Woods like a knife. he found that he was writing a book about Biko. . 'and I think about the future. one of him laughing and the other showing him very serious. That lis how Woods first learned that the house was b~gea:Forfunately. Biko had expected the st uggi~ in South Africa to continue for twenty years.When she was at school. Sometimes Ken visited and drove Woods to the beach. as they walked together near Zanempilo: 'We have all got to accept that South Africa belongs to all of us who live here . 'but you're playing with fire.74 Cry Freedom The System Fights Back 75 '1 saw his body. A few minutes later. For the s"ill of your white children and mine. to give hope for the future. and he and Woods went for a walk in the garden. Woods wrote by hand. Woods finished writing. 'I have children.' No one spoke for a long time.' Kani told Woods quietly. The police insisted that she sat down and typed. Woods dared to type only when Jane was at. '1 like what you've written. and no one would ever know why. Kruger knows that.black and white. . he wondered how Biko had continued to believe that human bein s are more good than bad. Then he invited Father Kani to the house and showed him the manuscript. Three days later he came back. but he had no doubt that history was moving in the right direction. Soon. Some days Woods smiled at the thought that Biko would have called his book 'non-violent action'. Tell me. 'He died of brain damage caused by someone hitting him on the head several times.. home and reading in his study . and at that moment Woods could find sympathy for Beukes and the thousands of young Afrikaners like him. If you get caught. When Woods thought of Biko's death. Woods wanted to communicate Biko's ideas. Partnership with Biko! What would that have been like? He remembered Biko's words. Jane was at home and she claimed that the typing was hers. I e hope that it's partnership. 'But the days of a few whites controlling a black country are over. Day and night. Mr Woods. his nonviolence and his views on confrontation. two security policemen sat across the road.' Woods said shortly.either in violence or in partnership. to prove to them that she could type. He's had the report for weeks.' As he stared out into the darkness during that long drive home. Father Kani took the manuscript away with him.' he said quietly. On the first page Woods had put two photographs of Biko. 'What I think is t~ you should destroy what you have . Woods prayed that somehow Bike's ideas would be kept alive. After that. After three months.. Then Beukes glanced at Woods in the mirror. the police burst ikio the house. It's going to change . using th~pew!iter in his study. you'll get what Steve got. 'I've got two small children. The two policemen followed in their car.. Each night he hid the pag~s carefully. secretly.' he answered. 14 The second day he was home Woods started writing about Biko. to read. 'So you think I've done it for nothing?' he slgli1d.' Woods felt deeply disappointed. what would you do?' The words were sincere and helpless. too. not typewriter.

But . 'No. we've got five children!' 'We'll survive. 'I'm a writer! Do you think I can just sit for five years and not write a word?' 'And what would we do? Where would we go? Donald. 'I don't believe this!' she said fi~rcely. but it's still our country!' Woods began to get angry himself. ' 'You don't even bother to ask me what I want to do! Maybe we hate the way this country is governed.' Woods stared at him. their grandparents.' Father Kani said. 'Wendy. Woods walked back to Wendy who was still sitting on the sand. ' Tears came back into Wendy's eyes. He sat down near her. 'Wendy. Woods shook his head. but if Steve died for nothing.' Woods had put too much of his heart into the book to destroy it immediately.. death? Accept what the government is doing?' 'What more do you want?' Wendy shouted. if they just TIU y his name... never even thought of hitting her.' cih~ 'I know you! You'll tea ~r lives apart just to see "Donald Woods" on the cover of a book!' Woods jumped to his feet. While the children played in the sand and the waves. and that his life should end unnoticed seemed to Woods a crime. "Because you want to publish a book. he contacted a friend in London who promised to publish it if it reached London. if things are just going to get worse . In his mind Steve Biko was the greatest man he had ever met. But it was only part of the truth. trying to cool down.gd stared at Woods angrily.' she said at last. Finally. are? God?' .. 'I'm sorry I was so cruel. yes. He turned and walked away down the beach. do you just want to accept Steve's. can we talk this over?' he asked quietly. 'One or the other... He had never hit Wendy. 'Leave here? Permanently?' South Africa was his home .his father's home. una e to believe him. but her voice was quiet.76 Cry Freedom inquest! You're The System Fights Back banned! Are you gomg to change 77 the written immediately.. A few days later. Woods told Wendy that they must leave South Africa so that the book on Biko could be published in England. It was true that he very much wanted the book to be published. She looked at him and he saw that she had been crying. his children's home! 'Actually. it's true that I want a book published. Instead. The security policemen followed them but stayed on the hill when the family went down to the beach. or else get yourself out of South Africa with the manuscript. Wendy ti~e' ~. Bruce agreed with Kani. It was deserted. but she did not move or even look at him. . Woods and Wendy took the children to one of the many beaches on the East London coast. their whole life?' Woods was totally unprepared for Wendy's reaction. his grandfather's home. but instead of telling Woods to destroy the manuscript. you're going to tear the children from their schools. they'll . almost as great a crime as his murder. He walked for half an hour. he called Bruce McCullough and asked him to come and visit him. 'You've got the government all on your own?' 'I'm going to do what I can!' Woods shouted back at her. the security policemen watching him. 'They're children. 'Who do you think you. but at that moment he had to get away while he could still control his anger. I'm not .

Woods and Wendy ran to her and Evalina rushed out of the kitchen. Wendy knew that Woods still wanted to leave. Why did they make the shirts that way?' 'Duncan!' Woods shouted. 'Don't touch your eyes!' Woods shouted. and he handed it over to Mary. She turned to him.' 'There are seven of us.J Duncan tore t>penthe parcel and held up aT-shirt.' Woods said. 'It's for me and Duncan! A parcel!' Duncan r~ ~ o~t of the living room. 'It's true.' 'I'm not God. Mary ran to the door. Then one afternoon. 'Didn't you hear what Evalina said? Go and wash your hands!' ~t . Duncan had dropped the shirt he was holding. We can't just accept it and we can't wait for God to change it. Donald! You're forty-thr e years old! What is one book going to do?' She g1-fnc~dove: her shoulder at the security policemen watching them. touching the truth deep within him.ask him to come immediately!' Wendy ran to the phone and Woods picked up Mary and carried her to the kitchen. 'Quickly!' Duncan rubbed his hands on his chest. but stood at the door shaking his hands. her face full of love mixed with disagreement. holding her hands. when Wendy was playing the piano and Woods was rewriting part of the book which might never be published. Finally. 'My hands are hurting. trying to escape . 'No. Woods pulled the T-shirt off Mary's head. She was holding her arms straight out and screaming in pain. 'but we know what this country is like now.' Woods called. From the top of the hill. but there's no writer who knows Steve's story or this government like I do. Nothing was said about leaving South Africa for more than ten days. Woods came out of his study as Duncan held up the second T-shirt. she l~e e across the sand towards him.' W I ~. call Dr James . and it reached Wendy.and the book is what I can do. Wendy.' What he said was sincere. 'I'm going to try it on. Mary was standing with the T-shirt over her head. It was a very small shirt. and he knew that she still did not want to leave. She went on screaming as Woods and Evalina splashed water on her face and shoulders. Charlie the dog following he. the security policemen still watched them. her eyes half-closed. We have to do what we can .78 Cry Freedom / The System Fights Back 1'''- 79 Woods sighed and stared out over the shining blue sea. 'Look. Woods put his arms around her as she cried again. The skin on her face was bright red and s ollen. 'What's the matter? What is it?' 'Go and wash your hands!' Evalina said. 'I wonder who sent them? Is there a return address on the box?' A desperate scream shocked them all. There was a picture of Biko printed on the front. and ran to the mirror in the hall.. Still screaming. she started to raD er eyes. 'Mummy! Daddy!' Mary called excitedly.. the postman knocked at the front door. 'Do you think they'll let us out? We could all get killed.or end up in prison for years. 'Of course. And your book still wouldn't be published.. if it's for you.' Mary said. Mum! Can we open it?' Wendy continued playing the piano. 'Wendy.

' Bruce 'Even if they hate us.' They drove into the country. A car was parked on the corner. 'I expected you the other way!' 'If I go out the front way. 'Dr James said it should stop burning in a day or two.early summer in South Africa Woods went to the bottom of the garden and climbed over the wall. tears filling her eyes.' Woods explained as Bruce drove off. He ran across the field and on to the side street. but up north it should be OK.Y 'Wd Wh Jane was crying. how could they do that to Mary?' . opened the door and got in. 'You'll be all right. He checked carefully to see that there were no security police watching that part of the house.' he said confidently. Finally.' she said. 'It's an old one. But I suppose it could work. Bruce jumped in surprise. Wendy went to kiss Duncan as he lay in bed. It wouldn't get you out of Johannesburg. but we've altered the date. Woods and Jane were standing near her bed. Later that night. 'Trying to fly you all out to Botswana is impossible. She was slf_sping. Bruce reached into his pocket and handed a passport over to Woods. Bruce McCullough and Father Kani helped Woods to plan his escape: he told no one else. 'I think I want to see that book published. looking down at Mary. her red. That medicine will help you to sleep well. There was no car in sight when Bruce parked by the side of the road. no glasses. 'Father David Curren!' he laughed. 'Black hair. Donald put his arms around both of them. 'An Irish priest! How did you get it?' 'Father Kani got it. Woods ran up to it. but he will explain it to him later. Woods opened the passport. Wendy put her arms tightly around Jane. 'Even if they hate us. but also who I'm with.nd shoulders.' When Wendy went into Mary's room. Dr James said.' Bruce answered. Bandages covered both his hands.' Woods shook his head in amazement. bandages on her arms . Wtace covered with a ' ite power. One day in December . they know not only where I'm going.' she said. Escape from South Africa 15 Things happened very fast after that.80 Cry Freedom Duncan burst into tears. how could they do that to her?' she whispered. dear. They got out and Bruce opened the map. 'He says that he's sure Father Curren would agree. she'glanced up at Woods.

Silently. You can fly from there to Botswana. Kani will meet you and drive you to the Lesotho border.' Bruce said enthusiastically. Wendy opened the back door of the Mercedes and Woods got in and stretched out on the floor. Then she would drive on to the Lesotho border before the police realized what had happened. sunnyday in East London. you don't take Kani and Wendy down with you. Then she shut the door and went to open the garage. He could never leave Wendy and the children behind. You will cross the river Telle into Lesotho at night and I'll be waiting to drive you to Maseru the capital of Lesotho.' Woods was still doubtful. There are three planes in Lesotho. Kani would wait for Woods at a bridge six kilometres north of Queenstown. 1st January. looking at the kitchen for the last time . There seemed to be so many risks. 'What about Wendy and the children?' 'Kani has planned all that. He took the manuscript from its hiding place and packed it in a small bag. 31st December was a warm. Then he took off his glasses. and the police won't be so careful. on the Pretoria road. He fought back his tears. Wendy threw a blanket over him.the house.' Bruce went on confiden_tIy. There was only one man watching from the other side of the street .' Wendy said loudly and went out of the kitchen through the door to the garage. Father Curren. Everyone will be having parties and drinking.' Woods sighed. as the final part of his disguise. nervously making sure he was covered. 'You hitch-hike. The younger children were playing in the living room. 'And I'm getting the newspaper to fly me from Cape Town to do a story on Lesotho's three planes. Kani and I have planned it all. It was a hundred and fifty kilometres from East London to Queenstown.a black security policeman. Bruce laughed.' . Obviously Bruce was right: today was a day for parties.82 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 83 began. You hitchhike! That way. You turn yourself into Father Curren and get up north of Queenstown. Wendy would pretend to go to the beach the next morning. who knew about the escape plan. Woods was silent. they struggled to control their tears. It was five o'clock. 'I must go out now and pick up that film the children want to watch tonight. kissed Woods goodbye. 'We think 31st December is the best day. The man stood up to-watch . Father Curren did not wear glasses. but really she would drive the two hundred kilometres north-east to her parents in Umtata. 'I don't understand why 1 have to go so far north to meet Father Kani. 'Don't worry. Jane and Dillon. Because the house was bugged. if you do get caught.' Disappointed.' Woods studied the map again. his children. s? Father Kani wants to get a local car which the police aren t likely to check when you drive to the border. She would wait there until ten o'clock for Woods to phone from Lesotho. he followed Wendy into the garage.' Five days later Woods met Father Kani to arrange the final details of the escape plan. Woods dyed his grey hair black and dressed in a black suit with a priest's white collar. 'We can't get a plane without letting someone know what's going on. Woods paused. 'I don't see how I'm going to get north to Queenstown.' 'The police think weapons are coming into the country up ther~. his life.

' Woods looked into her eyes. . It was 3. Father Curren. It was still rammg and Woods walked forwards cautiously in the darkness towards the bridge. Mrs Woods. they got out of the car and stared at the river. As he approached.' he said. before he finally stepped down at the place beyond Queenstown where he hoped to meet Father Kani. Woods put on his coat. 'You're a very brave woman. dirt road which descended to the edge of the river Telle. and now it began to rain. 'Go. "No. the handle broke. 'Oh. At last. full of rushing water. Kani laughed and opened the door of the car. no!' he exclaimed. 'I'd forgotten all about it. Then he had to wait again.' Wendy gasped. She was so nervous that she could not start the car for several minutes. Father Kani drove the little car through the darkness and the rain. Father Curren.50 a. as they reached the main road north to King William's Town. but no one was following them. He shut the door and Wendy started to move off. knowing that she was close to tears. before turning off down a side road. And I wish you luck. wide and deep. The journey north was not easy. 'Don't forget to go and collect the film. 'I'm a very frightened woman! And don't tell me anything else!' She stopped the car at the end of a long line of hitch-hikers. There were mountains on the other side. and he turned to Father Kani.' 'I've been in such terror that I'm surprised my hair hasn't turned grey again. and then down a small. The afternoon had become cloudy. before we're seen together!' Woods picked up his bag. 'You'd better sit up now. 'It's getting light and you'll get ten years in prison if you're seen with me. 'Just get out. she glanced constantly in her rrurror. 'It will start to get light in an hour's time and we still have two hundred kilometres to drive. After his first ride. Woods and Kani breathed. Woods sat up and picked up his coat and bag. 'You must go. Suddenly. Woods ran after her. leaving the forest trees behind. Woods dropped his bag in disgust. then turned and went to join the line of hitch-hikers. 'This ground was dry when I parked here.m. 'No good byes. the road climbing higher and higher. 'Wendy! Wendy!' he shouted desperately. 'I expected you three hours ago!' Kani exclaimed anxiously. Woods had to wait a long time before someone stopped and took him through King William's Town up the hilly road as far as Stutterheim.' Father Kani hesitated. banging on the window. Silently. staring at the road ahead. Mrs Woods.' she said tightly. Thank God you reminded me!' Woods watched her turn the car and drive back towards the town.a sigh of relief. The rain had spoiled the plan. A police car followed them for about five minutes. and as he did so. Now it's going to be difficult to get out of the mud.' he said urgently.' she said at last. 'Thank you for the ride. but at last they drove on to the road.' he said warmly. I'm not!' she answered. She stopped and opened the window.' _ As fast as he could. Woods saw that the sky was beginning to grow light. in his best Irish accent. Kani turned off the main road. he saw the flash of a torch. The river was too fast and too wide for him to walk across.' Woods responded.84 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 85 Wendy. Lesotho. As th~y drove through town.

'Is there someone we can trust who has a car?' Woods asked. 'You will get there!' he shouted. 'I trust me.' '1 have a passport. 'Fourteen . Light was appearing behmd the mountains. 'We've done all right. He lifted the bag and held it on his head. After Father Kani had gone. two black hands held his manuscript. escaping in my car! If Prime Minister Vorster knew .' Tami answered. hasn't it?' Kani said hopelessly. Just get out of here!' F~ther Kani glanced up at the sky. you will find a place to cross the river tonight. 1 can't fail now. Tami was not an expert driver and he steered the car from side to side of the road. Woods tried to cross the river. Woods began to move along the river. Africa!' 16 Twenty minutes after Woods had tried to cross the river. hoping that it would help Tami to believe his story. 'How far is the Telle Bridge?' he asked. Suddenly Woods had a desperate idea. 'go to one of us! Use Steve's name!' Woods held the bag tightly under one arm. it's turned into a complete disaster.86 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 87 'In fact. he sat with an old blanket round his shoulders while his clothes dried in front of the fire.' Woods said. 'I don't have time.. 'See you in London!' he called.' he shouted.' Tami did not move.m. He went forward again.. I'm so close.' 'I can't wait. he moved forward and the water reached his waist. ~ust and leaves flying behind them. Tami's face remained serious. '1£ you get desperate. It was 6. 'Editor Donald Woods. Woods had found the village as he walked north along the beautiful Telle valley. !' The car was parked behind the little house.05 a. Cautiously. Tami slowly read the first page of the manuscript and then he turned to the very last page and read that. He waved. It was old. At last Tami stopped reading.' he replied. He turned around and slowly went back to the edge of the river.. He smacked his hand on Woods' bag and laughed again. 'Maybe 1 can. 'If there is no more rain.. 'And I have a car!' He began to laugh. He should get the car away from the river. Woods felt sure that this action indicated that Tami was going to help him. looking again at his watch.' Tami stood up and put the manuscript back in the bag. 'You will get there! And then Vorster will know! Mayibuye iAfrika! Rise again. river. fifteen kilometres.' Woods said anxiously. He plunged into the water. . even without the bag. Then he took off his own belt and tied it around the bag. very old. He had kno ked on Tami's door by chance and had explained that he was trying to cross the . He was only a third of the way across and the water was moving so fast that he knew it would be difficult to swim . but when the water was around his chest he stopped. He took off his shoes and tied them around his neck. An expression of doubt had passed over Tami's face. so Woods had brought out the manuscript. 'You cannot cross there. Now. I'll find somewhere to cross. but the engine finally started and they moved off. In a few steps the water was up to his knees. The elderly face of Tami Vundla examined the two photographs of Steve Biko.

' the man said brightly.. 'It's locked?' he shouted. Woods handed his passport to the official.' 'Yes. 1 must get to Maseru by ten o'clock.' 'My name is Moses.88 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 89 After another twenty minutes. Then they both moved to the door. When the passport office was opened.' Woods was relieved. Woods stared at him in amazement.' Woods began. the road began to curve and Tami gradually stopped the car and turned off the engine. 'It should be open. Mr Woods: Tami said. and Woods read the words painted on the door: LESOTHO POSTAL SERVICE. 'Here. 'Moses?' Moses smiled. . of course. It was locked.' Moses told him. with its fast. He stood there. Suddenly he heard the sound of a 'car coming down the hill behind him. a friend brought me.' The man looked at his watch. 'You're always in a hurry. It seemed to be approaching very fast. trapped.' Woods picked up his bag and waved goodbye. Woods and Moses were first in the queue on the South African side of the bridge. clearly frightened by the closeness of authority and danger.. As he walked down the hill he heard the noisy old engine start and move away. Woods got out of the car and walked a little way through the trees.. 'Yes. That's what the trouble is!' The official gave Woods his passport back and glanced at Moses' passport. seriously. A ride across would look more normal to the border officials than walking. I will come back and we shall drink beer together. but there was no sign of anyone. Father?' the man asked. Curren. Woods heard the sound of rushing water. 'Where is the bridge?' Woods enquired.' He opened the door of the Land Rover. sat in the driver's seat. . 'The rain has damaged the roads over there. He shook it. 'Thank you very much. 'Some day. as the Land Rover drove towards him. 'You know why? Because we have to spend so much time sitting outside your gate. 'Well . 'I shall wait for you. 'Yes. It stopped right in front of Woods... I'll give you a ride over. A black man. wearing a brown uniform.' He looked at Woods for a minute.' 'You'll be lucky!' the man said. It would be!' The Telle Bridge was not a busy place. 'Yes. Tami pointed through the trees. deep water. Woods hesitated. Father. Was it someone with a message about him? Had they caught Father Kani? A Land Rover came into sight. put your bag in here. It's seven o'clock. A large iron gate blocked the road at the start of the bridge. He went back to the car. Tami. My name is .' Woods glanced at the river.' the official joked. when things have changed. 'What are you doing on foot. 'So tell me. He was quiet now. Woods sighed with relief. Woods went up to it. why does it take four days for a letter to get from Queenstown to Maseru?' Moses threw his passport down on to the desk. 'A . 'We're both in a hurry. Woods looked right and left but there was no escape. 1 . He saw that the road descended to the river and the Telle Bridge only a few hundred metres away.. Woods came out of the trees on to the road in front of the bridge. 'Have you seen it?' Tami asked.. sir. Woods nodded.

then he shook his head. 'Is this your bag. but Woods just stared at the policeman. 'Do you think I could make a phone call from here?' Moses laughed.' 'No. 'You're in Lesotho now! There's no telephone here. clothes. my friend.' Moses parked the Land Rover and jumped out.' the policeman said with a big smile. Then he turned and looked back across the river. The ground of Lesotho. the South African frontier police. 'If you want to phone quickly.' Woods said. Maseru will be fine..' The blood began to return to Woods' face. Father. 'I wish you luck. Steve Biko. 'A message for you. 'Oh. If only you were here with me today. There it was . and he left the building. Moses drove across the bridge. He stepped down on it.' the official explained. Moses ran to get into the driver's door.' Woods stared at him. and handed over the bag to Woods.' 'Moses!' Woods called. Moses nodded and went off to the Lesotho passport office for his message.90 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 91 'Father!' the official called. anxious again. waiting impatiently. Moses. 'There's some trouble on those roads.' A terrible thought hit Woods. unless you want to go back to the South African side. the South African passport building. He turned again and looked at the wet green hills of Lesotho. 'What's in it?' Moses was already at the wheel.' said the official. Woods opened the door and looked down at the ground. a Bible.South Africa.' '1 thought I felt a book of some kind. What did he mean? 'Driving with Moses. 'Yes. 'I won't be long. passing the frontier and into Lesotho. 'You're a brave man. You'll need it. Father?' the policeman enquired. Outside.' Woods answered stiffly. For a moment Woods was speechless.' . Father. Slowly. his face turning white. 'I'm free. Woods looked out. 'Aren't there any phones in this part of Lesotho at all?' 'The next place with phones is Maseru. just some . 1 mean. Father. Woods nodded and got into the Land Rover. At last he could put them on! A Lesotho official stopped the Land Rover.' Moses said. Woods froze. Woods felt in his pocket and pulled out his glasses. no. you'd better go back to the South African side.. a black frontier policeman was standing by the Land Rover holding Woods' bag.

'I don't know.' she told them. 'Daddy was really travelling all night. For four kilometres the roads were being repaired. 'Get down in the back. Woods started to dance. But at last she was able to overtake the tractor. as they went down into the valley and then again as they drove up through the acacia trees on the other side. called out. The one security policeman was surprised to see the garage door open so early. He frowned and glanced at his watch. And as he danced. my friend. but she could never do it safely. 'hre we going to get there in time?' Gavin asked uneasily. If only you were here with me today. oh God.' 'But why are we going to Granny's?' Duncan asked. Wendy put her foot on the brake. for the benefit of those who were listening. 'And be quiet. and did not notice the tears rolling down Jane's face . Wendy glanced desperately at the clock. realizing they ) were not on the road to the beach. Meanwhile. he'll phone us and we'll join him and fly to England.but I don't know." she said.' he said to himself..lt if we don't get there in time?' Duncan asked. They all looked at Wendy.' They had terrible luck with the traffic. as the Mercedes passed him. 'Daddy has left her as much money as he could.' Suddenly. an old African dance he had learnt as a child. 'What about Evalina?' Wendy bit her lip. 'She'll take him to the neighbours. waiting. and then Duncan. The police car was coming towards them.' .. Once we get to the top. 'Maybe the police are looking for a Mercedes with five children in it. Your father's sleeping late. They drove for a while.' she said finally. and the hill ahead was dear. '1 don't know. The three boys in the back seat leaned forward. 'I've left a note for Evalina. with their beach things. their mouths open in surprise. Steve Biko. At last they climbed out of the valley and Wendy began to drive faster than she had ever driven before. 'Mum . Wendy found herself behind a slow tractor. I'm here! I've got here!' And then. 'Mum. I think you're lost!' And so at last Wendy told the younger children what was happening. 'What's going to happen to Charlie?' he asked anxiously. During the night she had packed suitcases and put them in the car. we'll never get there before ten 0' clock!' 'We mustn't have an accident! And we mustn't get stopped by the police!' Wendy said sharply. watching the road.92 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 93 'I'm here. Her speed went down to 88 kilometres per hour. her eyes filling with tears. She had woken the children early and told them they were going to the beach for the day. he kept repeating 'Oh God. police: Duncan said suddenly.' she said tightly. 'Duncan! I don't know!' Wendy shouted.. he saw Moses and the Lesotho official watching him. it's mainly flat . 'Mum.' 'Wh. Jane was as nervous now as Wendy. as he turned. 'Because if Daddy gets across safely. He looked at the children. with the result that no one could overtake.' Gavin leaned forward. Then. 'I'm free. Wendy was on the road to Urn tat a with the children.' Jane glanced at her. Time and again she tried to overtake. 'So you see/ she finished. as the road began to descend steeply.

The car was covered with mud. there was a car parked by the side of the road. .' Bruce looked at his watch. 'I'm the editor of the South African Daily Dispatch. He might have the information Woods needed. a BMW. Father. As they approached the centre of the town. the two policemen glancing at Wendy. She did not move. Then she glanced at the clock: 9:45. 'Wake up!' Woods shouted again. across the grassy hills to Umtata. Wendy. 'The British High Commission? It's there on the right.' The receptionist looked at him doubtfully. and I was driving fast. 'Can you tell me where the American or British offices are?' The man looked calmly at Woods and then pointed his umbrella. Inside the building a receptionist sat behind a large desk.' Woods whispered. and put her cigarette to her mouth..' she looked up at Woods.56. 'Wake up! Bruce! W~ke up! Bruce opened his eyes sleepily. 'Dispatch.' Woods saw the British flag and began to run towards the building.' Woods gasped. sir. 'I must see the High Commissioner at once. 'Is that your man?' Moses asked. the three boys went down on the floor.' 'Good luck. 'We've got to move fast. 'At last! I thought you would never get here!' Woods turned and waved at Moses. It was Bruce! Woods banged on the window. Moses says the roads are bad because of the rain. my name is Donald Woods/ he explained. He ran up the steps past a guard who looked at him in surprise.' Woods answered. 'Thanks. jumping out of the car as Bruce stopped. In no time at all. Finally.' he said softly. 'Excuse me!' Woods called. How was he to know which road Bruce was on? So he was relieved when. When they saw the first buildings of Maseru it was 9.94 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 95 Obediently. Bruce kept his eyes on the road and did not reduce his speed. to see the High Commissioner.' Moses called as he drove off. still drove slowly. the BMW passed Moses and drove on to Maseru. The Daily . 'Maybe. 'Yes.. . with its buildings of red stone. She began to drive faster again. Woods learnt that there were five different roads to Maseru. Moses stopped the Land Rover and Woods jumped out. To his horror. 'Eight thirty. Woods got into the car. 'There's a Father Donald Woods. and as he approached Woods saw that the driver was sleepng.. He went closer. Bruce opened the door. ' 'I'm not a Father. and got it on to the road. she picked up the phone. with the great Lesotho mountains on their right. watching them in the mirror.' He started the car. 'My . It took me two hours from Maseru yesterday. The police car passed. It was a hundred kilometres of hilly roads. Woods saw a man wearing a suit and carrying an umbrella. In the first four hundred metres Woods realized he was in the hands of an expert driver. an editor. At last. Moses! It's the right one. Moses drove Woods along the main road to Maseru. 17 In Lesotho. at the first corner.

'It's Donald. From Umtata you'll have good roads most of the way. but he bowed. 'I'll answer it. yes. 'What time is it?' Woods asked. He pointed to the phone on his desk.' Woods responded. 'I've come to ask you to let me and my family enter your country. smiling. 'Mum. Was he in Lesotho. 'What's the matter?' Wendy's mother asked uneasily. but the Acting High Commissioner will see you. 'Wendy! The phone!' Wendy got out of the car and ran towards the house.' she repeated. 'Please. no. 'He's there!' she said to Jane and Dillon.' She carefully put the phone down and turned to Woods. don't say anything.' Woods listened anxiously as the phone at the other end went on ringing. Wendy's mother hurried in from the garden to answer the phone. all go to the toilet. Can I phone South Africa direct?' 'Yes. 'I love you. It's a sleepy little place.' She pointed to the door behind her and Woods hurried to it. Moffat glanced at the dock on the wall behind Woods. 'It's all right. 'You can't talk to me like that! Hurry!' Wendy wiped her tears. 'Donald?' Woods exploded with relief. Little Mary rushed past her. came across the room to greet him. James Moffat. 'You haven't quarrelled. Mum. 'Yes. I'll call her. 'He got across.' Wendy came into the room. As he rushed in. Moffat was still rather puzzled. hello? Donald!' she exclaimed. with some concern. and then nodded. 'Children.' he said as he finished dialling. 'Is something wrong?' Wendy did not answer. have you got some fruit we could take?' . sir. No. Afraid to pick it up. Wendy moved to the phone. or had he failed to get across? 'Go on. but I desperately need to use your phone. 'We understood you were banned?' 'I was. I can tell you.' She went to the open window.' she ordered. Wendy finally burst into tears. but just hurry!' 'We're on our way.' Dillon urged. Slowly. She's coming now. 'Wendy! I'm here! Come as quickly as you can. 'Our pleasure. Wendy stared at the phone.' 'I'm a priest. quickly.' he said. 'I didn't realize you were a priest!' Moffat exclaimed.' Moffat was surprised. the Acting High Commissioner. 'Donald?' Wendy's mother said. looking at his watch. 'The High Commissioner is in London. 'Just after ten.' he responded with a little smile.96 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 97 'Dispatch. Donald. She picked up the phone. At that moment she heard a car approaching. Yes. She looked out of the window and saw the white Mercedes driving up to the house. but he sensed the urgency.' Wendy promised. Wendy's mother explained cheerfully. In Umtata. 'This is strange . have you? She's got all the children with her.' she called to her husband. 'I'm not. Would you like a cup of tea?' Moffat asked kindly. the children following her. dear. straight into her grandmother's arms.' After all her control.Wendy is just arrrvmg. Woods smiled and shook his head. shall we cross at Telle Bridge?' 'Yes.

'Please write your personal details here. 'They would never be safe from the South African police.' Woods added. hundred kilometres over South Africa.' Monyane frowned and pointed at the map of southern . pushing a paper at her.98 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 99 Her mother turned to go to the kitchen. The official shook his head at the crazy things people do. And the South African Government demands that all planes leaving Lesotho land in South Africa before going on. 'In the rains' . 'you have to fly five . Wendy shook the rain from her hair and faced the passport official with a pretence of confidence.' he murmured. Prime Minister of Lesotho. Monyane listened to Moffat's description of the situation and then took the manuscript on Biko. The man was John Monyane and he agreed to come to the British High Commission. Moffat contacted one man who would be sympathetic to a liberal white South African. He looked at Woods without saying anything. glancing out now and then at the rain that was still falling. Wendy and the children ran through the rain to the passport building and pushed open the door. was very courageous in acting independently of South Africa.Africa on the wall of the High Commissioner's office. There must be a way! 'If we flew out anyway. 'You picked good weather for a holiday. 'My wife and children will reach Telle Bridge in a few hours.' Monyane remarked.' she explained.'impossible. 'We'll drive you.he shook his head .' It was raining heavily at Telle Bridge. Chief Jonathan. but his country was dependent on South Africa. He spent about ten minutes reading a passage here. a passage there. Bruce looked from Woods to Monyane.' 'They are not short of planes to force you down. Woods felt trapped. while Woods walked nervously up and down the other side of the room.' she called over her shoulder. Finally. 'To fly anywhere out of Lesotho. Wendy's parents drove them the two hundred kilometres north through the hills in their van. Monyane took off his glasses and put the manuscript down on Moffat's desk. could they force us to land?' he asked. But I will make sure that someone meets them and brings them safely here.' Desperately. and thought that neither of them was going to begin. 'They can't stay here. At least. can we meet them there?' Monyane waved towards the window. in case the Mercedes caused problems with Customs officials. 'We had hoped to fly to Botswana. They would need Lesotho's permission to fly out of the country. Moffat shook his head helplessly.' It was true that the South African Government often sent their police into Lesotho. 'I'm taking the children over on a little holiday. You can include the names of all the children.' 18 James Moffat acted quickly as soon as he understood what Woods' problem was. Woods looked at Moffat.' he observed. 'The sooner the better. 'The law is the law.' he began. He had to get Wendy and the children somewhere safe when they arrived. When they arrived at the bridge. if they are under eighteen.

. Wendy leaned down and kissed the top of her head as they walked on towards that huge umbrella. They had decided to fly south-west of Johannesburg . Wendy waved the umbrella and moved on with the children. Woods and Bruce waited at the airport while Richie and two mechanics prepared the plane. bought a new tie and went with Bruce to the airport.and then on into Gaberone. They met Mr McElrea.' Wendy said positively. from New Zealand. Woods washed the dye from his hair. Richie De Montauk. Woods W:lS 'You haven't put down your husband's name. and Wendy felt a wave of relief when all of them had crossed that line. Wendy realized how strange they must look to the frontier police. was called into the office. standing in the rain next to the van. a Canadian. He said that he would risk one plane. As they began to walk across the bridge. .not the normal route . called. 'James. The official glanced at her passport and handed it back to her. if its pilot was willing to fly out without landing in South Africa. She looked ahead to the Lesotho side of the bridge. the lights from the passport building throwing long shadows across the road. As they came closer. . Without a moment's hesitation. Mrs Woods. One light shone in the darkness and under it stood a young man holding a huge umbrella and smiling brightly at Wendy. and the boys got out the suitcases.' The official wrote it down for her. who was the boss of the three planes that flew out of Lesotho. they could see a Lesotho Government Land Rover behind the young man.' Wendy hesitated. the capital of Botswana. pointing to the ground. with two soldiers who were also smiling at them. The next morning.' 'OK. 'Mum!' Jane suddenly called. They reached the middle of the bridge. A painted line marked the frontier. Wendy's mother had found an umbrella in the van.100 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 'God bless you!' her mother 101 Wendy smiled at him nervously and wrote quickly.' They went out into the rain again. 'You haven't put down your husband's name?' 'Oh .' . She glanced back at her parents. 'Have a good holiday. he agreed to make the flight. having heard the news that his wife and children were safely in Lesotho. her VOIce full of emotion. 'And his middle initial ?' 'D. Jane passed the suitcase she was carrying to her other hand and put her arm around Wendy's waist. And try to stay dry.

hills. 'Help Dillon with the other bags.' 'Listen.' Bruce argued. but already Monyane was walking quickly towards the plane. 'The South African Government knows about the flight. they came out into the sun and Woods knew they must be close to Botswana. 'Daddy! Daddy!' they screamed. they don't care about newspapers. 'We're here! We got across!' Woods held out his arms and the children rushed into them. and he has decided that I should accompany you to Botswana. For a long time they continued to fly in and out of clouds. Monyane touched Richie's shoulder. 'Richie's a clever pilot.just as it is .' he shouted.all the way. green farms. We are not sure. thanks to Bruce. It would always be his country.' Monyane shouted above the noise of the engines. Jane and Mary jumped out first. they will force the plane down. 'How long before we are over South Africa?' Woods shouted.' Moffat said.' Woods smiled and nodded to Richie to repeat the message on the radio. still tied with Tami's old belt.' Woods could hardly believe the generosity of this action. the more time you give them to plan something. It might make the South Africans hesitate. 'The newspapers of the world know about this now. 'They're demanding to know who is on the plane.' Richie began to test the engines of the plane and Woods had to shout. This goes with me . looking down at the river below. 'I don't think they mean it. Woods took Jane's arm. But I'm going to fly in these clouds for a while. 'Oh no. 'Donald has already made them look like fools.' They flew through the clouds for some time.' McElrea said. 'Maseru is right on the border.' McElrea answered. cattle. then she. I would say you've got a chance. He held the pages of the . one Lesotho official and seven holders of United Nations passports. 'Tell them.' Woods hesitated. John Monyane stepped out.' he said. 'Thirty seconds!' Richie shouted back. bringing his family. Woods looked down at the country below them . 'It's cloudy. 'They've picked up the flight. At last.' 'Donald!' Wendy called suddenly..' Shocked. and at that moment a large black car approached them. ran forward and kissed him. A few minutes later the plane was in the air. but it is the best we can offer . 'Chief Jonathan has arranged United Nations passports for all of you.102 Cry Freedom Escape from South Africa 103 walking up and down near the plane when the car arrived.' he said. Woods glanced at Wendy. and I don't think they would dare. Dillon gave Woods his bag. 'You should have bought a new bag when you bought your new tie. even though he knew he might never see it again. 'They have refused to allow the plane to fly over South Africa. Then the boys rushed out of the other side of the car. Woods knew that. But the longer you wait. 'Have we got a chance at all?' he asked McElrea. 'Mr Woods. and went to meet Moffat and McElrea.' Before Woods could think of anything to say. Woods held on to the bag. Dad. Woods turned and saw Moffat and McElrea hurrying towards them. Then there were voices on Richie's radio. Richie's plane was finally ready and the family began to board. too. Wendy stood watching for a moment. If you do.

river. by law. GLOSSARY a small tree with white or yellow flowers Acting (adj) temporarily doing the job of another person Afrikaans a South African language developed from 17th-century Dutch Afrikaner a South African. Raise up her name. and Biko had believed. singing at Biko's back to that beautiful In his mind he heard the crowd of thousands funeral. 'Dad . led by Stephen Biko. Across the land of his birth. In their youth. God bless Africa. who speaks Afrikaans Amen a word used to show sincere approval of something tha t has just been said (used.. Woza Moya! Yihla Moya! Come. Many others had died in custody. And the plane turned Bless our efforts To work together and lift ourselves Through learning and understanding. bless them. which can move earth or destroy buildings charges accusations of a crime which will be brought to court ciinic a place where people see doctors for treatment or advice coffin a box for a dead person to be buried in concentration camp a prison for political prisoners or prisoners of war before the price became been paid! The inquest too high? What had decided had 'hanged a cost had that Biko had died after falling down. descended from the Dutch. trying to change South Africa. look! A city!' Duncan called. God bless us.. Hear our prayers And bless us . but could they be acacia 105 be changed. that's it. which believed that black people should achieve success without the help of white people bless (v) to ask God for protection bug (v) to hide a small machine in a room or a telephone in order to listen secretly to private conversations bulldozer a powerful tractor with a large steel blade at the front. Bless also the young That they may carry the land with patience.. a banned person must stay Bantu a word used by white South Africans for black people (Biko's first name was Bantu. We are safe . for example. ' And his eyes turned 'Yes. Spirit! Descend.. Holy Spirit! its nose down to land. his full name being Bantu Stephen Biko) Black Consciousness a South African organization. Woods looked out of the window. .. at the end of a prayer) authority the power to give orders to other people and make them obey ban (v) to forbid someone by law from doing or saying something banning area the area where.. Bless the leaders. Mapetla himself'.104 manuscript that men's changed already Cry Freedom in his bag. Spirit! Woza Moya Oyingcwele! Come. Woods minds could knew.

customs. handwritten or typed minder a person employed to watch someone mortuary a building where dead bodies are kept before burial naked without clothes on nappy a small towel folded round a baby's bottom newsroom the office of a newspaper where journalists work partition a thin wall which divides a room into smaller rooms pass (n) a document giving somebody permission to be in a particular area permit (n) a document which allows a person to go somewhere or do something poster a large notice or picture displayed in a public place print (v) to produce a copy of a newspaper or book law court tear gas a gas which hurts people's eyes and produces tears. surrounded by seats stand up to (somebody) to refuse to give in. movement of the body road-block something which blocks a road so that the police can check the traffic security (men) police whose duty is to protect the interests of the government stadium a large sports field. God in the form of a spirit Homeland live in an area of South Africa reserved for black people to publish to produce a book and offer it for sale to the public racism believing that people of one skin colour are better than people of another skin colour raid (n) a sudden attack made by the police or the army reflex an automatic. van a type of closed lorry used to carry and deliver things warrant a document which allows the police to arrest someone Qr to search a house witness box the place in a law court where a witness gives evidence . usually written by the editor High Commission the office of a group of people who represent the government of a foreign country hitch-hike to travel by getting free rides in other people's cars Holy Spirit in the Christian religion. beliefs. to defend oneself with courage State Prosecutor a lawyer who speaks for the government in a hood a cover. waiting for trial dye (n) a liquid used to change the colour of things. used by the police to control violent crowds township a town in South Africa reserved for black people tribal of a group of people with the same language.106 Glossary Glossary 107 confrontation face-to-face challenge of ideas and forces custody in prison. not a conscious. for the head and part of the face inquest an official enquiry to learn the facts about a death justice the quality or ideal of being right and fair Land Rover a strong car designed for use over rough ground liberal (n) a person who wants progress and individual freedom in society manuscript an author's work. dye (v) editor the person who is in charge of a newspaper editorial a special article in a newspaper. like a bag. etc.

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