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# CIV 3248 Groundwater and Environmental Geoengineering

## Questions-1D and 2D Flow

1With reference to the figure given below, assume that the ground surface has an elevation of 1000 m above sea level, the depth to water is 25 m, the total depth of the piezometer is 50 m, and the water has a density of 1000 kg.m3. What is the: (a) the total hydraulic head at the measurement point (A: 975 m); (b) the pressure head (A: 25 m); and (c) the pressure (A: 2.45 105 Pa or 0.245 MPa).

Depth to water

## Total head Measuring point in the flow field Datum

2- A 3 m thick silty sand strata intersects one side of a reservoir as shown the figure below. The strata has a hydraulic conductivity of 4 x 10-4 m/s and extends along the entire 1000 m length of the reservoir. An observation well has been installed in the strata as shown. Compute the seepage loss from the reservoir through the strata. (A: 93.6 10-4 m3/s= 9.36 10-5 m3/s= 808 m3/day). Observation well

## el. 167 m Silty sand, thickness 3 m Reservoir

el. 165 m

Clay

256 m

Cross section through reservoir showing silty sand stratum. This cross section is oriented parallel to the direction of flow.

3- A slurry trench cut off wall is made by excavating a trench, usually 0.6 m to 1 m wide, to the required depth and filling it with a low permeability cement-bentonite grout. Cut off walls are often installed around landfills and other areas of contaminated land, in order to prevent leakage of leachate or polluted groundwater into the surrounding soil.

## CIV 3248 Groundwater and Environmental Geoengineering

With reference to the figure given below and knowing that the hydraulic conductivity of the cut off wall material is 10-9 m/s, determine the rate of leakage per square meter through the wall (A:2 x 10-9 m3/s per m2). Cut off wall k= 10-9 m/s

## 2m Water level in surrounding ground 1m

4- A constant head permeameter was set up containing fine sand with an effective size d10 of 0.12 mm. The times required to collect 250 ml of water were recorded at the following manometer readings. Determine the average value of k (A: 1.6 x 10-4 m/s) and compare this with Hazens empirical relationship (A: 1.4-2.2 x 10-4 m/s). Diameter of sample = 100 mm, distance between manometers = 100 mm, Q = 250 ml Table 1: Data from constant head permeameter test Times to collect Q 2mn 25s Manometer A reading (mm) 157 Manometer B reading (mm) 24 3mn 15 s 191 89 4mn 55s 262 195

5- A clean sand having a permeability of 4.5 x 10-3 cm/s and a void ratio of 0.45 is placed in a horizontal permeability apparatus. Compute the discharge velocity and the seepage velocity as the head h goes from 0 to 80 cm. The crosssectional area of the horizontal pipe is 95 cm2, and the soil sample is 0.65 m long. 6-During a falling-head permeability test, the head fell from 49 to 28 cm in 4.7 min. The specimen was 8 cm in diameter and had a length of 85 mm. The area of the standpipe was 0.45 cm2. Compute the coefficient of permeability of the soil in cm/s and m/s. What was the probable classification of the soil tested? 7- Table 1 gives data from a constant head permeameter test on a sample of initially dense sand in upward flow. Plot a graph of flow rate against hydraulic gradient, and estimate the initial hydraulic conductivity of the sample (A: 6.25 104 m/s). Cross-sectional area of sample = 8000 m2. Table 1: Data from constant head permeameter test Hydraulic gradient 0 0.2 Flow rate (cm3/s) 0.00 1.00 0.4 2.20 0.6 3.75 0.8 5.80

8- In an attempt to investigate the overall vertical hydraulic conductivity of a layered deposit, an engineer carries out a falling permeability test on an artificial sample comprising 100 mm of silt overlying 100 mm of sand. The results from this test are given in Table 2. (a) Plot a graph of ln (h1/h) against time, and explain its shape in terms of what happens to the overall horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sample during the test. What phiscally, might be the explanation for this? Table 2: Data from falling head permeameter test. Tiime since start of test (s) 0 40 100 190 330 600 Height of water in top tube (m) 1.00 0.85 0.70 0.55 0.40 0.25 Cross sectional area of sample A1 =8000 mm2 Cross sectional area of tube A2 = 10 mm2 Overall sample length = 200 mm

## CIV 3248 Groundwater and Environmental Geoengineering

9- A varved clay consists of alternating horizontal layers of silt and clay. The silt layers are 5 mm thick and have k=3x10-4 cm/s; the clay layers are 20 mm thick and have k=6x10-7 cm/s. Compute the bulk hydraulic conductivity in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the alternating layers. (A: kh=6x10-5 cm/s, kv=7x10-7cm/s)) 10- Water flows from top to bottom through a 900 mm soil sample placed in a cylindrical tube as shown. The water levels are maintained at the levels shown in the figure. Find the pore water pressure at X (Ux= -1.65 kPa), assuming the soil is homogeneous.

Datum

11- Flow takes place through a 100 mm diamter and 275 mm long soil sample, from top to bottom, as shown in the figure below. The manometers are 120 mm apart, and the water level difference within the two manometers is 100 mm at steady state. If the permeability of the soil is 3.7 x 10-4 cm/s, what is the flow rate (Q= 0.0242 cm3/s)?

## CIV 3248 Groundwater and Environmental Geoengineering

12- A long horizontal drain at 3 m depth collects the ground water in a low lying area. The free water table coincides with the ground level. The flow net for the ground water is shown in the figure below. The 6 m thick sandy clay bed is underlain by an impervious stratum. Hydraulic conductivity of the sandy clay is 6.2 x 10-5 cm/s (a) Find the discharge through the drain in m3/day., per metre length of drain (b) Find the pore water pressure at X, 1.5 m into the, directly above the drain (c) Estimate the velocity of flow at X. Note: Datum is at the drain level, water is at atmospheric pressure in the drain and at the surface (ground level), consider only half of the flow region, assume that the vertical length of the curvilinear square at X is 0.4m