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Lathe is a machine, which removes the metal from a piece of work to the required shape and size Common types of lathes: Engine Lathe: The most common form of lathe, motor driven and comes in large variety of sizes and shapes. Bench Lathe: A bench top model usually of low power used to make precision machine small work pieces. Tracer Lathe: A lathe that has the ability to follow a template to copy a shape or contour. Automatic Lathe: The lathe in which the work piece is automatically fed and removed without use of an operator. Cutting operations are automatically controlled by a sequencer of some form. Turret Lathe: The lathes which have multiple tools mounted on turrent either attached to the tailstock or the cross-slide, which allows for quick changes in tooling and cutting operations. Computer Controlled Lathe: Highly automated lathes, where cutting, loading, tool changing, and part unloading are automatically controlled by computer coding. The figure (1) shows Photographic view of Engine Lathe
Fig (1) Engine Lathe Centre lathe – constructional features • • • • • • • Head stock Tail stock Bed Carriage Feed rod Lead screw Feed change gear box Lathe specifications • • • • • • Distance between centers Swing over the bed Swing over the cross slide Horse power of the motor Number of speeds Number of feeds Lathes and Lathe Operations • • Lathes are the oldest machine tools Lathe Components .
g. to resist deflection and absorb vibrations during cutting Carriage Feed • Longitudinal Feed or “Turning” . Tail Stock: It’s like a stationary drill press It is centered with your work piece For drilling use a drill chuck that fits your bits Jam the drill chuck into the tail stock To remove the chuck turn the tail stock back to zero and the chuck should pop out Cutting Tools There are basically two types of cutting tools: • • Single point (e. turning tools).g.The tool is fed along the work. milling tools).• • • • • • Bed: supports all major components Carriage: slides along the ways and consists of the cross-slide. Fig (2) shows single point cutting tool . ( fig . apron Headstock – Holds the jaws for the work piece. tool post. Lathe bed material made of grey cast iron . supplies power to the jaws and has various drive Speeds Tailstock – supports the other end of the work piece Feed Rod and Lead Screw – Feed rod is powered by a set of gears from the headstock LATHE BED • • The bed is the base of the lathe and supports all the major components of lathe.2 ) Multiple point (e. • Cross Feed or “Facing” – The tool is fed across the work.
conical. curved.to produce a hole Cutting off – to cut off a work piece Threading – to produce threads Knurling – produces a regularly shaped roughness Fig (3) shows different types of lathe operations . or grooved work pieces Facing – produces a flat surface at the end of the part Boring – to enlarge a hole Drilling .Fig ( 2) Various lathe operations • • • • • • • Turning – produces straight.
. drive plates.Fig (3) Types of Lathe operations Work holding Devices for Lathes: Many different devices. mandrels. Work pieces can be held by various methods • • • • Work piece mounted between centers Work piece mounted within a single chuck Work piece mounted within a collet Work piece mounted on a faceplate Three Jaw chuck: It usually has three jaws.4). faceplates. collets. the jaws are moved simultaneously within the chuck (fig. such as chucks. and lathe centers are used to hold and drive the work while it is being machined on a lathe.
6). Mandrels: A work piece which cannot be held between centers because its axis has been drilled or bored and which is not suitable for holding in a chuck or against a faceplate is usually machined on a mandrel. Collet chuck : Collet chuck is used to hold small work pieces.Four Jaw chuck: This is independent chuck generally has four jaws . Magnetic chuck: Thin jobs can be held by means of magnetic chucks.(4) Fig.5). Face plates: The face plate is used for irregularly shaped work pieces that cannot be successfully held by chucks or mounted between centers (fig. 3 JAW CHUCK 4 JAW CHUCK Fig.(5) FACE PLATE . which are adjusted individually on the chuck face by means of adjusting screws(fig.
MRR=1000 x V x d x f Where D represents original diameter of the work piece in mm Where N represents revolution per minute (rpm) Where d represents depth of cut in mm Where f represents feed in mm/rev Taper Turning Tan α = (D1..Fig.6 Face plate Formulas: Cutting speed (V) = ΠDN/1000 M/min Depth of cut (D) = (D1-D2)/2 mm Where D1=original diameter and D2 = final diameter of the work piece Metal Removal Rate (MRR) = Π x D x d x f mm3 In terms of cutting speed (V in mm/min).D2)/L .D2)/2L where α = angle of taper D1= major diameter in mm D2= minor diameter in mm L= Length of taper in mm The conicity K of the taper is defined as K= (D1.
The smallest diameter on the tapered end of the rod should be 50 mm and the required length of the tapered portion is 80 mm.7 mm/rev is used.Lathe simple problems Problem -1 A mild steel rod having 50 mm diameter and 500 mm length is to be turned on a lathe. f = 0. Lj = 80 mm (with usual notations) tan α = (80-50) / 2× 80 or α = 10. efunda. Solution Given data: D1 = 80 mm.7 mm/rev Substituting the values of v and D in V = ΠDN/1000 M/min Required spindle speed as: N = 191 rpm Problem -2 Determine the angle at which the compound rest would be swiveled for cutting a taper on a work piece having a length of 150 mm and outside diameter 80 mm.62° Reference • • • • work shop Technolgy by Hajra choudry Advances in Manufacturing Technology C. Lj = 500 mm v = 30 m/min. Solution Given data: D = 50 mm.620 The compound rest should be swiveled at 10. D2 = 50 mm. engbasics.J Thomas Website www.com www.com . Determine the machining time to reduce the rod to 45 mm in one pass when cutting speed is 30 m/min and a feed of 0.
Define automatic lathes. What are all the various operations can be performed on a lathe? 2. Explain the following operations performed on lathe with suitable sketch. grooving d. List any four types of lathe? 9. write short notes on a. What is an apron? 7. State the various feed mechanisms used for obtaining automatic feed? 11. What are the three stage of a tool-layout? 17. What are the different operations performed on the lathe? 13. Explain the different methods of holding the work piece in a lathe with suitable sketches. . State the various parts mounted on the carriage? 5. Define tooling? 16. facing c. Difference between three jaw chuck and four jaw chuck 4. write four types of tool post 6. collet chuck a. thread cutting 7. turning b. 2. What do you mean by lathe? 2.(Part-A) 1. Explain the different components of a lathe with neat sketch. Compare the advantage of capstan lathe & turret lathe? 15. What are the different machining operations that can be performed on a lathe? Explain any five in detail. b. State any two specification of lathe? 8. universal scroll chuck c. What are the different operations that can be performed on a lathe? also . Explain the different work holding devices used in a lathe? 5. What are the different drives used in copying lathe? 18. State any two specifications of capstan lathe & turret lathe? 14. What do you mean by semi-automatic lathe? 10. List any four holding devices? 12. What are all the principle parts of the lathe? 3. knurling d. 4. magnetic chuck d. What are the components that can be turned on a copying lathe? 19. mention the tools required for each operation 3. centers 6. (Part –B) 1.
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