CODES FOR VESSELS/HEAT EXCHANGERS
Avinash Nayak. (46) Shrikantkumar Padhy (47) Jitendra Patil (48) Manoj Patil (49) Ganeshprasad Pavaskar (51)
History of pressure vessel codes
• Boiler explosion on March 20, 1905 in Brockton, Massachusetts. • 58 killed and 117 injured. • Need of legislative rules and regulation for construction of boilers. • The first Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code was published in 1915. • Necessary changes made and new sections added as need arose.
fabrication. inspection and testing of pressure vessels. • Number of national codes have been developed for pressure vessels by different countries. • Codes specify requirements of design. • In India. the code for pressure vessels is IS-2825
.What is a Code?
• A code is a standard that has been adopted by one or more governmental bodies and has the force of law. or when it has been incorporated into a business contract.
fabrication. • This establishes and maintains design.WHAT ARE ASME CODES?
• It is a standard that provides rules for the design. and inspection of boilers and pressure. construction and inspection standards providing for maximum protection of life and property.
. the manufacturer is accredited by ASME.Manufacturer
• A manufacturer obtains permission to use one of the stamps through the ASME conformity assessment process.ASME Codes . • The manufacturer’s quality control system is reviewed by an ASME team. • If it meets ASME requirements and the manufacturer successfully demonstrates implementation of the program. • The manufacturer then may certify the product as meeting ASME standards and apply the stamp to the product.
Why follow ASME codes?
• Excessive elastic deformation including elastic instability • Excessive plastic deformation • Brittle fracture • Stress rupture or creep deformation (inelastic) • Plastic instability and incremental collapse • High strain and low cycle fatigue • Stress corrosion • Corrosion fatigue
• contact a standards organization directly.ASME Codes .org/catalog
• ASME Publications Catalog.asme. • The ANSI Catalog of American National Standards. • the US government’s OSHA General Industry Standards. • http://www.
ASME Codes – User
• Insurance • Replacement
• Proper Compliance .Size specific .Jurisdiction
• Proper ASME stamps
The organization of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is as follows: 1. Specifications for Welding Rods. Section II: Material Specification: i. and Filler Metals – Part C iv. Ferrous Material Specifications – Part A ii. Electrodes. Properties – Part D 3. Non-ferrous Material Specifications – Part B iii. Section III Division 1: a. Section III Subsection NCA: General Requirements for Division 1 and Division 2 i. Subsection NB: Class 1 Components
. Subsection NA: General Requirements b. Section I: Power Boilers 2.
Appendices: Code Case N-47 Class 1: Components in Elevated Temperature Service • Section III. Subsection NG: Core Support Structures h.• Subsection NC: Class 2 Components d. Subsection ND: Class 3 Components e. Subsection NE: Class MC Components f. Division 2: Codes for Concrete Reactor Vessel and Containment • Section IV: Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers • Section V: Nondestructive Examinations
. Subsection NF: Component Supports g.
Division 1: Pressure Vessels – Rules for Construction ii. Division 2: Pressure Vessels – Alternative Rules • Section IX: Welding and Brazing Qualifications • Section X: Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels • Section XI: Rules for In-Service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
.• Section VI: Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers • Section VII: Recommended Guidelines for Care of Power Boilers • Section VIII i.
for design P upto 250 psig
.Internal volume < 5 cubic ft.Example
• A heat exchanger qualifies as a UM stamped pressure vessel if: .5 cubic ft.Design pressure < 15psig . for 150<P<600 psig .Internal volume < 1.
Internal volume > 5 cubic ft.Internal volume > 1.Example
• A heat exchanger qualifies as a U stamped pressure vessel if: .5 cubic ft. for design P upto 250 psig
. for 150<P<600 psig .Design pressure > 600 psig .
Al and alloys. •Carbon. Cu and Cu alloys.Comparison of pressure vessels
•Unfired fusion welded pressure vessels •Pressure < 20 N/mm2 •Do/Di < 1.
materials •Carbon and low alloy steels. riveted. forged and brazed vessels •Water capacity>120 gal •Operating pressure > 15 psi •Di>6” •Same as IS-2825 •Cast iron. bolting and casting alloys
All metallic materials and graphite. high alloy steel.7 •Vessels and vessel parts predominantly under static load. lined material cast iron.5 •Di > 150 mm •Water capacity > 50 litres
ASME Code Section VIII
•Welded. ferritic alloy(low and high) and austenitic steels
•Do/Di < 1. glass.
. ferritic steel
• Unfired fusion welded pressure vessels •Medium and high pressure storage vessels •Excludes transportable vessels.
Comparison of pressure vessels
Item IS-2825 ASME Code Section VIII
Maximum pressure at most severe conditions
Maximum pressure at most severe conditions Actual metal temperature expected under operating conditions + margin for uncertainties
Based on permissible service pressure
Design Maximum working pressure pressure including static head + 5% maximum working pressure. Design Highest metal tempera temperature -ture expected under operating conditions
Actual metal temperature expected under operating conditions
Highest wall temperature expected under working conditions
5 2.3 1.T.Comparion of pressure vessels
National code ASME: VIII Div: 1 ASME: VIII Div-2 BS-1515 BS-1515 Part II BS-5500 ANCC IS-2825 U.5 1.5 1.5 Creep stress 1 1 1 1
.5 1.S 4 3 4 2.35 3 Yield strength 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 Sr(rupture stress) 1.5 1.
108 injuries and 22 deaths. the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors reported: . for example. • In 1980. wellconceived safety rules and procedures ever put together. boiler and pressure vessel accidents continue to occur.
.• In spite of some of the most rigorous.1972 boiler and pressure vessel accidents. • The pressure vessel explosions are of course rare nowadays and are often caused by incorrect operation or poorly monitored corrosion.
• Safety in boiler and pressure vessels can be achieved by:
Proper design and construction
Proper maintenance and inspection
Proper operator performance and vessel operation