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Guide 14

# Guide 14

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# Chapter 14 Interference and Diffraction

14.1 Superposition of Waves .................................................................................... 14-2 14.2 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment ..................................................................... 14-4 Example 14.1: Double-Slit Experiment................................................................ 14-7 14.3 Intensity Distribution ........................................................................................ 14-8 Example 14.2: Intensity of Three-Slit Interference ............................................ 14-11 14.4 Diffraction....................................................................................................... 14-13 14.5 Single-Slit Diffraction..................................................................................... 14-13 Example 14.3: Single-Slit Diffraction ................................................................ 14-15 14.6 Intensity of Single-Slit Diffraction ................................................................. 14-16 14.7 Intensity of Double-Slit Diffraction Patterns.................................................. 14-19 14.8 Diffraction Grating ......................................................................................... 14-20 14.9 Summary......................................................................................................... 14-22 14.10 Appendix: Computing the Total Electric Field............................................. 14-23 14.11 Solved Problems ........................................................................................... 14-26 14.11.1 14.11.2 14.11.3 14.11.4 14.11.5 14.11.6 Double-Slit Experiment ......................................................................... 14-26 Phase Difference .................................................................................... 14-27 Constructive Interference....................................................................... 14-28 Intensity in Double-Slit Interference ..................................................... 14-29 Second-Order Bright Fringe .................................................................. 14-30 Intensity in Double-Slit Diffraction ....................................................... 14-30

14.12 Conceptual Questions ................................................................................... 14-33 14.13 Additional Problems ..................................................................................... 14-33 14.13.1 14.13.2 14.13.3 14.13.4 14.13.5 14.13.6 Double-Slit Interference......................................................................... 14-33 Interference-Diffraction Pattern............................................................. 14-33 Three-Slit Interference ........................................................................... 14-34 Intensity of Double-Slit Interference ..................................................... 14-34 Secondary Maxima ................................................................................ 14-34 Interference-Diffraction Pattern............................................................. 14-35

14-1

Interference and Diffraction
14.1 Superposition of Waves

Consider a region in space where two or more waves pass through at the same time. According to the superposition principle, the net displacement is simply given by the vector or the algebraic sum of the individual displacements. Interference is the combination of two or more waves to form a composite wave, based on such principle. The idea of the superposition principle is illustrated in Figure 14.1.1.

(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 14.1.1 Superposition of waves. (b) Constructive interference, and (c) destructive interference. Suppose we are given two waves,
ψ 1 ( x, t ) = ψ 10 sin( k1 x ± ω1t + φ1 ),

ψ 2 ( x, t ) = ψ 20 sin(k2 x ± ω2t + φ2 )

(14.1.1)

the resulting wave is simply
ψ ( x, t ) = ψ 10 sin(k1 x ± ω1t + φ1 ) +ψ 20 sin(k2 x ± ω2t + φ2 )

(14.1.2)

The interference is constructive if the amplitude of ψ ( x, t ) is greater than the individual ones (Figure 14.1.1b), and destructive if smaller (Figure 14.1.1c). As an example, consider the superposition of the following two waves at t = 0 :

ψ 1 ( x) = sin x,
The resultant wave is given by

ψ 2 ( x) = 2sin ⎜ x +

⎛ ⎝

π ⎞

⎟ 4 ⎠

(14.1.3)

14-2

ψ ( x) = ψ 1 ( x) + ψ 2 ( x) = sin x + 2sin ⎜ x +
where we have used

⎛ ⎝

π ⎞

⎟ = 1 + 2 sin x + 2 cos x 4 ⎠

(

)

(14.1.4)

sin(α + β ) = sin α cos β + cos α sin β and sin(π / 4) = cos(π / 4) = 2 / 2 . Further use of the identity
⎡ ⎤ a b a sin x + b cos x = a 2 + b 2 ⎢ sin x + cos x ⎥ 2 2 a 2 + b2 ⎣ a +b ⎦ = a 2 + b 2 [ cos φ sin x + sin φ cos x ] = a 2 + b 2 sin( x + φ ) with

(14.1.5)

(14.1.6)

φ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ a

⎛b⎞ ⎝ ⎠

(14.1.7)

ψ ( x) = 5 + 2 2 sin( x + φ )

(14.1.8)

where φ = tan −1 ( 2 /(1 + 2)) = 30.4° = 0.53 rad. The superposition of the waves is depicted in Figure 14.1.2.

Figure 14.1.2 Superposition of two sinusoidal waves.

We see that the wave has a maximum amplitude when sin( x + φ ) = 1 , or x = π / 2 − φ . The interference there is constructive. On the other hand, destructive interference occurs at x = π − φ = 2.61 rad , where sin(π ) = 0 .
14-3

Figure 14. Thus. The light waves emerging from the two slits then interfere and form an interference pattern on the viewing screen.2. 14-4 . the incident light must satisfy two conditions: (i) The light sources must be coherent.3 Incoherent light source 14.2.1. The bright bands (fringes) correspond to interference maxima. no interference pattern is observed.2 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment In 1801 Thomas Young carried out an experiment in which the wave nature of light was demonstrated. this phase difference must not change with time. if two waves are completely out of phase with φ = π .In order to form an interference pattern.1. This means that the light consists of just one wavelength λ = 2π / k . This means that the plane waves from the sources must maintain a constant phase relation. The schematic diagram of the double-slit experiment is shown in Figure 14. The emerging light then arrives at the second screen which has two parallel slits S1 and S2. (ii) The light must be monochromatic. and the dark band interference minima.1 Young’s double-slit experiment. A monochromatic light source is incident on the first screen which contains a slit S0 . Light emitted from an incandescent lightbulb is incoherent because the light consists o waves of different wavelengths and they do not maintain a constant phase relationship. which serve as the sources of coherent light. Figure 14. For example.

The geometry of the double-slit interference is shown in the Figure 14. Figure 14.2) yields 2 2 2 2 (14. (c) Destructive interference at P2.2.3.Figure 14. The two slits are separated by a distance d.2.1) from Eq. (142.3.2.2. This extra distance is called the path difference. and (b) at P1. (14.2.2 Constructive interference (a) at P. we have.2) 14-5 .3 Double-slit experiment Consider light that falls on the screen at a point P a distance y from the point O that lies on the screen a perpendicular distance L from the double-slit system. Figure 14.2. ⎛d ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛d⎞ r12 = r 2 + ⎜ ⎟ − dr cos ⎜ − θ ⎟ = r 2 + ⎜ ⎟ − dr sin θ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2⎠ and ⎛d ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎛d⎞ r2 2 = r 2 + ⎜ ⎟ − dr cos ⎜ + θ ⎟ = r 2 + ⎜ ⎟ + dr sin θ ⎝2⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝2⎠ Subtracting Eq. using the law of cosines. From Figure 14.2.2 shows the ways in which the waves could combine to interfere constructively or destructively.1) (14. The light from slit 2 will travel an extra distance δ = r2 − r1 to the point P than the light from slit 1.2.

m = 0.e.4 Path difference between the two rays. m = 0.2.2.5) where m is called the order number. and the path difference becomes δ = r2 − r1 ≈ d sin θ (14. assuming L d.. . 14-6 . ± 2. we show how a path difference of δ = λ / 2 ( m = 0 ) results in a destructive interference and δ = λ ( m = 1 ) leads to a constructive interference. ± 1. when δ is equal to an odd integer multiple of λ / 2 ..2. The zeroth-order (m = 0) maximum corresponds to the central bright fringe at θ = 0 . (destructive interference) 2 ⎠ ⎛ ⎝ 1⎞ (14.5. the distance to the screen is much greater than the distance between the slits.6) In Figure 14. i. Constructive interference occurs when δ is zero or an integer multiple of the wavelength λ: δ = d sin θ = mλ . resulting in destructive interference with a dark fringe on the screen. and the first-order maxima ( m = ±1 ) are the bright fringes on either side of the central fringe. . the two rays r1 and r2 are essentially treated as being parallel (see Figure 14.2.2.2. the waves will be 180° out of phase at P. Whether the two waves are in phase or out of phase is determined by the value of δ . The condition for destructive interference is given by δ = d sin θ = ⎜ m + ⎟ λ .. ± 3. Figure 14. (constructive interference) (14. ± 2.. ± 3.2.r2 2 − r12 = (r2 + r1 )(r2 − r1 ) = 2dr sin θ (14.4) In this limit. ± 1.. On the other hand. the sum of r1 and r2 may be approximated by r1 + r2 ≈ 2r .4).3) In the limit L d .

L = 120 cm.150 mm.1: Double-Slit Experiment λL d (14.9) Suppose in the double-slit arrangement.2. d = 0. d λ . λ = 833nm. in addition to L d .2. a minimum. or an intermediate condition? Solutions: 14-7 . yb = m and 1 ⎞ λL ⎛ yd = ⎜ m + ⎟ 2⎠ d ⎝ Example 14. we shall also assume that the distance between the slits is much greater than the wavelength of the monochromatic light. respectively.7) Substituting the above expression into the constructive and destructive interference conditions given in Eqs.2. and y = 2.2. (b) Constructive interference.2.00 cm .8) (14.6). the positions of the bright and dark fringes are. The conditions imply that the angle θ is very small.Figure 14. so that sin θ ≈ tan θ = y L (14. (c) Does point P correspond to a maximum.5) and (14. To locate the positions of the fringes as measured vertically from the central point O.2.5 (a) Destructive interference. (a) What is the path difference δ for the rays from the two slits arriving at point P? (b) Express this path difference in terms of λ . (14.

the intensity at point P is a maximum.3 Intensity Distribution Consider the double-slit experiment shown in Figure 14.3.50 × 10−4 m ) ⎝L⎠ (b) From the answer in part (a).00λ . θ is small and we can δ ≈ d ⎜ ⎟ = (1.3. (c) Since the path difference is an integer multiple of the wavelength.1.00 × 10−2 m = 2.33 ×10−7 m or δ = 3. Figure 14.3.3. we have ⎛ y⎞ 2.00 λ 8.1) Taking the time average of S. the Poynting flux S is proportional to the square of the total field: 2 S ∝ E 2 = (E1 + E2 ) 2 = E12 + E2 + 2E1 ⋅ E2 (14.1 Double-slit interference The total instantaneous electric field E at the point P on the screen is equal to the vector sum of the two sources: E = E1 + E2 . On the other hand.50 ×10−6 m 1. the intensity I of the light at P may be obtained as: 2 I = S ∝ E12 + E2 + 2 E1 ⋅ E2 (14. 14.(a) The path difference is given by δ = d sin θ . y .20 m δ 2. Thus.2) 14-8 . When L make the approximation sin θ ≈ tan θ = y / L .50×10−6 m = ≈ 3.

where the waves from both slits are assumed have the same amplitude E0 . This then implies δ φ = λ 2π or (14. since there is no definite phase relation between E1 and E2 . For incoherent light sources. and the intensity due to the incoherent source is simply the sum of the two individual intensities: I inc = I1 + I 2 (14.3. Suppose that the waves emerged from the slits are coherent sinusoidal plane waves. we have chosen the point P to be the origin. the cross term vanishes. and E1 ⋅ E2 ∝ − I1 . and the resulting intensity is I = 4 I1 (14. a path difference of δ = λ would correspond to a phase shift of φ = 2π .4) which is four times greater than the intensity due to a single source.3) For coherent sources. so that the kx dependence in the wave function is eliminated. For constructive interference.3. E1 = E2 . when destructive interference takes place. On the other hand.3.7) (14.8) 14-9 .3.3. Let the electric field components of the wave from slits 1 and 2 at P be given by E1 = E0 sin ω t and E2 = E0 sin(ω t + φ ) (14. In fact. the cross term is non-zero. and the total intensity becomes I = I1 − 2 I1 + I1 = 0 as expected.6) (14.The cross term 2 E1 ⋅ E2 represents the correlation between the two light waves. for constructive interference. E2 has an extra phase shift φ relative to E1 from slit 1.5) respectively. Since the wave from slit 2 has traveled an extra distance δ to P . For simplicity. E1 = −E2 .3.

5) the intensity can be rewritten as ⎛πd I = I 0 cos 2 ⎜ ⎝ λL ⎞ y⎟ ⎠ (14.φ= 2π λ δ= 2π λ d sin θ (14.14) Figure 14.3.3. Upon substituting Eq.3.11) The intensity I is proportional to the time average of the square of the total electric field: φ⎞ ⎛φ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛φ ⎞ I ∝ E 2 = 4 E0 2 cos 2 ⎜ ⎟ sin 2 ⎜ ωt + ⎟ = 2 E0 2 cos 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎝2⎠ or ⎛φ ⎞ I = I 0 cos 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ (14.12) (14.10) (14.3. the total electric field may be obtained by using the superposition principle discussed in Section 13. (14.9) Assuming that both fields point in the same direction.13) where I 0 is the maximum intensity on the screen.4). the above expression becomes ⎛ π d sin θ ⎞ I = I 0 cos 2 ⎜ λ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (14.1: φ⎞ ⎛φ ⎞ ⎛ E = E1 + E2 = E0 [sin ωt + sin(ωt + φ ) ] = 2 E0 cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ ωt + ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ where we have used the trigonometric identity ⎛α + β sin α + sin β = 2sin ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎛α − β ⎞ ⎟ cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (14. using Eq. (14.3.2 Intensity as a function of d sin θ / λ For small angle θ .3.3.3.15) 14-10 .4.2.3.

each separated by a distance d from its neighbor. as shown in Figure 14.17) Using the trigonometric identity ⎛α − β sin α + sin β = 2 cos ⎜ ⎝ 2 the sum of E1 and E3 is E1 + E3 = E0 ⎡sin ω t + sin (ωt + 2φ ) ⎤ = 2 E0 cos φ sin(ω t + φ ) ⎣ ⎦ The total electric field at the point P on the screen is 14-11 (14.3. E3 = E0 sin (ω t + 2φ ) (14.3.18) .19) ⎞ ⎛α + β ⎞ ⎟ sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ (14. Figure 14. The waves have the same amplitude E0 and angular frequency ω .3. but a constant phase difference φ = 2π d sin θ / λ .3. E2 = E0 sin (ω t + φ ) .2: Intensity of Three-Slit Interference Suppose a monochromatic coherent source of light passes through three parallel slits. (a) Show that the intensity is I I= 0 9 ⎡ ⎛ 2π d sin θ ⎢1 + 2 cos ⎜ λ ⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ 2 (14.Example 14.3 Three-slit interference.16) where I 0 is the maximum intensity associated with the primary maxima.3.3.3. (b) What is the ratio of the intensities of the primary and secondary maxima? Solutions: (a) Let the three waves emerging from the slits be E1 = E0 sin ω t .

there are also secondary maxima which are located at cos φ = −1 . we see that the minimum intensity is zero.3. and occurs when cos φ = −1/ 2 .3...3. From the figure. ± 2.20) E02 2 = (1 + 2 cos φ ) 2 (14. or d sin θ / λ = (m + 1/ 2). The intensity ratio is I / I 0 = 1/ 9 . The condition for primary maxima is cos φ = +1 .23) (b) The interference pattern is shown in Figure 14. The condition implies φ = (2m + 1)π . The maximum intensity I 0 is attained when cos φ = 1 . The intensity is proportional to E 2 : I ∝ E (1 + 2 cos φ ) sin (ωt + φ ) 2 0 2 2 (14.3.3. which gives I / I 0 =1 .21) where we have used sin 2 (ω t + φ ) = 1/ 2 .E = E1 + E2 + E3 = 2 E0 cos φ sin(ωt + φ ) + E0 sin(ω t + φ ) = E0 (1 + 2cos φ )sin(ω t + φ ) where φ = 2π d sin θ / λ .4. I (1 + 2 cos φ ) = I0 9 which implies I I ⎡ 2 ⎛ 2π d sin θ ⎞ ⎤ I = 0 (1 + 2 cos φ ) = 0 ⎢1 + 2 cos ⎜ ⎟⎥ 9 9⎣ λ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 2 2 (14. 14-12 . m = 0.22) (14. Thus.. In addition. ± 1.

In this section we shall take the width of slit to be finite and see how Fraunhofer diffraction arises. According to Huygens’s principle.4 Diffraction In addition to interference. 14. 14-13 .14.5 Single-Slit Diffraction In our consideration of the Young’s double-slit experiments. In this case. if no bending occurs and the light wave continue to travel in straight lines. We shall restrict ourselves to a special case of diffraction called the Fraunhofer diffraction. Figure 14. (b) Absence of diffraction pattern if the paths of the light wave are straight lines. On the other hand.1 illustrates the propagation of the wave based on Huygens’s principle. The phenomenon of diffraction can be understood using Huygens’s principle which states that Every unobstructed point on a wavefront will act a source of secondary spherical waves. The new wavefront is the surface tangent to all the secondary spherical waves. a convex lens is placed between the slit and screen to provide convergence of the light rays. then no diffraction pattern would be observed (Figure 14. waves also exhibit another property – diffraction. we have assumed the width of the slits to be so small that each slit is a point source. all light rays that emerge from the slit are approximately parallel to each other. The pattern is called a diffraction pattern.4. Figure 14.2 (a) Spreading of light leading to a diffraction pattern.2b).4.1 Propagation of wave based on Huygens’s principle.4. which is the bending of waves as they pass by some objects or through an aperture.4. light waves incident on two slits will spread out and exhibit an interference pattern in the region beyond (Figure 14. Figure 14.2a).4. For a diffraction pattern to appear on the screen.

3) The argument can be generalized to show that destructive interference will occur when a sin θ = mλ . For example. and 51 to 100 in the upper half.4) Figure 14. Figure 14. the path difference would be δ = a sin θ / 4 . . Thus.2) Applying the same reasoning to the wavefronts from four equally spaced points a distance a / 4 apart. Source 1 and source 51 are separated by a distance a / 2 and are out of phase with a path difference δ = λ / 2 .5. At the first minimum.1. In diffraction of Fraunhofer type. as well as any pair that are a distance a / 2 apart.5.5. each ray from the upper half will be exactly 180° out of phase with a corresponding ray form the lower half. the condition for the first minimum is a λ sin θ = 2 2 or sin θ = (14. as shown in Figure 14.2 illustrates the intensity distribution for a single-slit diffraction.1 Diffraction of light by a slit of width a.. m = ±1.5. In addition.5.Let a source of monochromatic light be incident on a slit of finite width a. each portion of the slit will act as a source of light waves according to Huygens’s principle. all rays passing through the slit are approximately parallel.. ± 2.1) λ a (14. suppose there are 100 point sources. For simplicity we divide the slit into two halves. (destructive interference) (14. and the condition for destructive interference is sin θ = 2λ a (14. with the first 50 in the lower half.5. 14-14 . Similar observation applies to source 2 and source 52. ± 3.5. Note that θ = 0 is a maximum.

Solutions: (a) The general condition for destructive interference is sin θ = m λ a m = ±1. and the interference of waves originating within the same slit can be neglected.5. For small θ .5). we employ the approximation sin θ ≈ tan θ = y / L . (a) What is the distance between the slit and the screen be located if the first minimum in the diffraction pattern is at a distance 1.4) with Eq.800 mm. the minimum condition for the single-slit diffraction is obtained precisely by taking into consideration the interference of waves that originate within the same slit.2. ± 3. On the other hand.. ± 2.00 mm from the center of the screen? (b) Calculate the width of the central maximum.Figure 14. By comparing Eq.3: Single-Slit Diffraction A monochromatic light with a wavelength of λ = 600 nm passes through a single slit which has a width of 0. The reason is that in the double-slit case. (14. (14. Example 14. which yields y λ ≈m L a 14-15 .. we see that the condition for minima of a single-slit diffraction becomes the condition for maxima of a double-slit interference when the width of a single slit a is replaced by the separation between the two slits d. .2 Intensity distribution for a single-slit diffraction.5. the slits are taken to be so small that each one is considered as a single light source.

If y1 = 1.6. and the field is 14-16 .00 ×10− 3 m ) = 2. Let’s divide the single slit into N small zones each of width ∆y = a / N .00 mm 14.1 Single-slit Fraunhofer diffraction Suppose the wavefront from the first point (counting from the top) arrives at the point P on the screen with an electric field given by E1 = E10 sin ωt (14. we must find the total electric field by adding the field contributions from each point.The first minimum corresponds to m = 1 .6. then L= −4 −3 ay1 ( 8.6.2) w = 2 y1 = 2 (1.6.33 m mλ 1( 600 ×10− 9 m ) (b) The width of the central maximum is (see Figure 14.2) The electric field from point 2 adjacent to point 1 will have a phase shift ∆β .1) Figure 14. We shall assume that ∆y λ so that all the light from a given zone is in phase. The relative phase shift ∆β is given by the ratio ∆β δ ∆y sin θ = = .00 mm .1. Two adjacent zones have a relative path length δ = ∆y sin θ . 2π λ λ ⇒ ∆β = 2π λ ∆y sin θ (14. The convex lens is used to bring parallel light rays to a focal point P on the screen.00 ×10 m ) = = 1.5.6 Intensity of Single-Slit Diffraction How do we determine the intensity distribution for the pattern produced by a single-slit diffraction? To calculate this.00 ×10 m )(1. as shown in Figure 14.

consider cos(ωt − ∆β / 2) − cos(ωt + ∆β / 2) = 2sin ωt sin(∆β / 2) cos(ωt + ∆β / 2) − cos(ωt + 3∆β / 2) = 2sin(ωt + ∆β ) sin(∆β / 2) cos(ωt + 3∆β / 2) − cos(ωt + 5∆β / 2) = 2sin(ωt + 2∆β ) sin(∆β / 2) cos[ωt + ( N − 1/ 2)∆β ] − cos[ωt + ( N − 3 / 2)∆β ] = 2sin[ωt + ( N − 1)∆β ]sin(∆β / 2) Adding the terms and noting that all but two terms on the left cancel leads to cos(ωt − ∆β / 2) − cos[ωt − ( N − 1/ 2)∆β ] = 2sin(∆β / 2) ⎡sin ωt + sin (ωt + ∆β ) + ⎣ + sin (ωt + ( N − 1)∆β ) ⎤ ⎦ (14.6) where N ∆y = a . the electric field from point N is EN = E10 sin (ωt + ( N − 1)∆β ) (14. (14.4) The total electric field is the sum of each individual contribution: E = E1 + E2 + EN = E10 ⎡sin ωt + sin (ωt + ∆β ) + ⎣ + sin (ωt + ( N − 1)∆β ) ⎤ (14.5) can be simplified using some algebra and the trigonometric relation cos(α − β ) − cos(α + β ) = 2sin α sin β (14.E2 = E10 sin (ωt + ∆β ) (14.5). The expression for the total field given in Eq.6.6.6.5) ⎦ Note that total phase shift between the point N and the point 1 is β = N ∆β = 2π λ N ∆y sin θ = 2π λ a sin θ (14.6.6.6.6. (14.7) [See Appendix for alternative approaches to simplifying Eq. (14.] To use the above in Eq.5).6.8) (14.3) Since each successive component has the same phase shift relative the previous one.10) 14-17 .6.6.9) The two terms on the left combine to cos(ωt − ∆β / 2) − cos[ωt − ( N − 1/ 2)∆β ] = 2sin(ωt + ( N − 1)∆β / 2) sin( N ∆β / 2) with the result that (14.6.

N sin(∆β / 2) ≈ N ∆β / 2 = β / 2 and the intensity becomes (14.6.6. Figure 14.14) where the extra factor N2 has been inserted to ensure that I 0 corresponds to the intensity at the central maximum β = 0 (θ = 0) .6.⎡sin ωt + sin (ωt + ∆β ) + + sin (ωt + ( N − 1)∆β ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ sin[ωt + ( N − 1)∆β / 2]sin( β / 2) = sin(∆β / 2) (14.6.2 Intensity of the single-slit Fraunhofer diffraction pattern.2.16) In Figure 14.11) The total electric field then becomes ⎡ sin( β / 2) ⎤ E = E10 ⎢ ⎥ sin (ωt + ( N − 1)∆β / 2 ) ⎣ sin(∆β / 2) ⎦ The intensity I is proportional to the time average of E 2 : E 2 (14.6.13) and we express I as I ⎡ sin( β / 2) ⎤ I = 02 ⎢ N ⎣ sin(∆β / 2) ⎥ ⎦ 2 (14.12) ⎡ sin( β / 2) ⎤ 1 2 ⎡ sin( β / 2) ⎤ 2 =E ⎢ ⎥ sin (ωt + ( N − 1)∆β / 2 ) = 2 E10 ⎢ sin(∆β / 2) ⎥ ⎣ sin(∆β / 2) ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 2 10 2 2 (14.15) ⎡ sin ( β 2 ) ⎤ ⎡ sin (π a sin θ / λ ) ⎤ I = I0 ⎢ ⎥ = I0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ β /2 ⎦ ⎣ π a sin θ / λ ⎦ 2 2 (14.6. 14-18 .6. we plot the ratio of the intensity I / I 0 as a function of β / 2 . In the limit where ∆β → 0 .6.

and more light is concentrated in the central peak. ± 2. the variation of I 0 with the width a is not shown. .6.3 the intensity is plotted as a function of the angle θ . each having a width a. We see that as the ratio a / λ grows.. In this case. The intensity of the total pattern is simply the product of the two functions: 14-19 .15). we readily see that the condition for minimum intensity is π a sin θ = mπ . m = ±1.From Eq. The resulting interference pattern for the double-slit will also include a diffraction pattern due to the individual slit. and separated by a distance d .. ± 3. we have seen that the intensities of the single-slit diffraction and the double-slit interference are given by: ⎡ sin (π a sin θ / λ ) ⎤ I = I0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ π a sin θ / λ ⎦ 2 single-slit diffraction ⎛φ ⎞ ⎛ π d sin θ ⎞ I = I 0 cos 2 ⎜ ⎟ = I 0 cos 2 ⎜ λ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ double-slit interference Suppose we now have two slits. 14. a λ (14.6.17) In Figure 14. the peak becomes narrower. ± 3. m = ±1. . .7 Intensity of Double-Slit Diffraction Patterns In the previous sections.3 Intensity of single-slit diffraction as a function of θ for a = λ and a = 2λ . λ or sin θ = m .. for a = λ and a = 2λ . ± 2. Figure 14.6. (14..6.

7.8.⎛ π d sin θ I = I 0 cos ⎜ λ ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎡ sin (π a sin θ / λ ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎟⎢ ⎠ ⎣ π a sin θ / λ ⎦ 2 (14.3) 14. a particular interference maximum with order number m may coincide with the first diffraction minimum.7. .7.1). 14-20 . the latter acts as an envelope which sets limits on the number of the interference peaks (see Figure 14. We have seen that the interference maxima occur when d sin θ = mλ . the total number of fringes in the central diffraction maximum is N = 2(m + 1) + 1 = 2m − 1 (14.1.2) Since the mth fringe is not seen.1 Double-slit interference with diffraction. Thus. Figure 14.1) The first and the second terms in the above equation are referred to as the “interference factor” and the “diffraction factor. Thus. the number of fringes on each side of the central fringe is m − 1 .7. the condition for the first diffraction minimum is a sin θ = λ . On the other hand.7. While the former yields the interference substructure. The value of m may be obtained as: d sin θ mλ = a sin θ λ or m= d a (14.” respectively.8 Diffraction Grating A diffraction grating consists of a large number N of slits each of width a and separated from the next by a distance d . as shown in Figure 14.

8. Notice that the principal maxima become sharper and narrower as N increases. the condition for the principal maxima is given by d sin θ = mλ .. the distance d between slits may be readily deduced.Figure 14. ± 3. N.2. (14. Thus. . similar to the calculation we made for the double-slit case.2 Intensity distribution for a diffraction grating for (a) N = 10 and (b) N = 30 .8. However. ± 2. If this path difference is equal to an integral multiple of wavelengths then all the slits will constructively interfere with each other and a bright spot will appear on the screen at an angle θ . (a) (b) Figure 14. The location of the maxima does not depend on the number of slits. In Figure 14. we show the intensity distribution as a function of β / 2 for diffraction grating with N = 10 and N = 30 . 14-21 . m = 0. ± 1. The relative path difference between each pair of adjacent slits is δ = d sin θ .1) If the wavelength of the light and the location of the m-order maximum are known.8.1 Diffraction grating If we assume that the incident light is planar and diffraction spreads the light from each slit over a wide angle so that the light from all the slits will interfere with each other..8. The width of the maxima can be shown to be inversely proportional to N. the maxima become sharper and more intense as N is increased.

. in grating with a large number of slits. However. The intensity of the interference pattern is λ 14-22 . the condition for constructive interference is δ = d sin θ = mλ . then the two waves will still be nearly in phase and produce maxima which are broad. ± 3. . m = ±1. . ± 3. 14. On the other hand. ± 1. ± 2. (constructive interference) where m is called the order number.The observation can be explained as follows: suppose an angle θ ( recall that β = 2π a sin θ / λ ) which initially gives a principal maximum is increased slightly. ± 2. where a coherent monochromatic light source with wavelength λ emerges from two slits that are separated by a distance d. ± 2.. Since grating produces peaks that are much sharper than the two-slit system. m = 0. • Diffraction is the bending of waves as they pass by an object or through an aperture. (destructive interference) a where a is the width of the slit. ± 3. if there were only two slits..9 Summary • • Interference is the combination of two or more waves to form a composite wave based on the superposition principle. m = 0. the condition for destructive interference is sin θ = m . (destructive interference) 2⎠ ⎝ • The intensity in the double-slit interference pattern is ⎛ π d sin θ ⎞ I = I 0 cos 2 ⎜ λ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where I 0 is the maximum intensity on the screen. it gives a more precise measurement of the wavelength. In Young’s double-slit experiment.. even though θ may only be slightly deviated from the value that produces a maximum.. it could be exactly out of phase with light wave from another slit far away. ± 1. the condition for destructive interference is 1⎞ ⎛ d sin θ = ⎜ m + ⎟ λ .. In a single-slit Fraunhofer diffraction..

10 Appendix: Computing the Total Electric Field Section 14.10. Thus.1) we may write sin x = Im(eix ) where the notation “ Im ” stands for the imaginary part.5) can be simplified.⎡ sin ( β 2 ) ⎤ ⎡ sin (π a sin θ / λ ) ⎤ I = I0 ⎢ ⎥ = I0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ β /2 ⎦ ⎣ π a sin θ / λ ⎦ 2 2 where β = 2π a sin θ / λ is the total phase difference between waves from the upper end and the lower end of the slit.6. (1) Complex representation: The total field E may be regarded as a geometric series.10.2) 14-23 ... + ei (ωt + ( N −1) ∆β ) ⎤ = Im ⎡ eiωt (1 + ei∆β + .. and I 0 is the intensity at θ = 0 . Below we show two alternative approaches of how Eq. and the intensity is ⎛ π d sin θ ⎞ ⎡ sin (π a sin θ / λ ) ⎤ I = I 0 cos ⎜ ⎢ ⎥ λ ⎟ ⎣ π a sin θ / λ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 14. we have sin ωt + sin (ωt + ∆β ) + . + ei ( N −1) ∆β ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ iωt 1 − eiN ∆β ⎤ ⎡ iωt −eiN ∆β / 2 (eiN ∆β / 2 − e− iN ∆β / 2 ) ⎤ = Im ⎢e = Im ⎢e ⎥ −ei∆β / 2 (ei∆β / 2 − e −i∆β / 2 ) ⎦ 1 − e i ∆β ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ sin( β / 2) ⎤ sin( β / 2) = Im ⎢ei (ωt + ( N −1) ∆β / 2) ⎥ = sin (ωt + ( N − 1)∆β / 2 ) sin(∆β / 2) sin(∆β / 2) ⎦ ⎣ where we have used (14. • For two slits each having a width a and separated by a distance d ..3) (14..6 we used a trigonometric relation and obtained the total electric field for a single-slit diffraction..10. + sin (ωt + ( N − 1)∆β ) = Im ⎡eiωt + ei (ωt +∆β ) + . the interference pattern will also include a diffraction pattern due to the single slit. (14. From the Euler formula ∞ ∞ (ix) n (−1) n x 2 n (−1) n x 2 n +1 e =∑ =∑ + i∑ = cos x + i sin x (2n)! n =0 n ! n =0 n = 0 (2n + 1)! ix ∞ (14.

10. Before doing this.4) The total electric field then becomes ⎡ sin( β / 2) ⎤ E = E10 ⎢ ⎥ sin (ωt + ( N − 1)∆β / 2 ) ⎣ sin(∆β / 2) ⎦ which is the same as that given in Eq.10.6) Using the phasor approach.12).10. Let E1 = E10 sin α and E2 = E20 sin(α + φ ) . (14. let’s first see how phasor addition works for two wave functions. the fields E1 and E2 are represented by two-dimensional vectors E1 and E2 . is the resultant field E . (14.10.1.10. the component of the resultant vector is equal to the sum of the individual components. with the total field given by E = E1 + E2 = E10 sin α + E20 sin(α + φ ) = E0 sin(α + φ ') (14.5) Figure 14. The vertical component of E . The addition of E = E1 + E2 is shown in Figure 14. which is the sum of the vertical projections of E1 and E2 . 14-24 . (2) Phasor diagram: Alternatively. we may also use phasor diagrams to obtain the time-independent portion of the resultant field. respectively.∑ an = 1 + a + a2 + … = n=0 N 1 − a n +1 . 1− a | a | <1 (14. The idea of this geometric approach is based on the fact that when adding two vectors.1 Addition of two phasors.6.

7) cos φ ' = Combining the two equations. the phasor diagram becomes Figure 14. π 2 − η 2 = π 2 − 1 φ (π − φ ) = 2 2 (14.9) φ⎞ ⎛φ ⎞ ⎛ E = 2 E10 cos ⎜ ⎟ sin ⎜ α + ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ (14. (14.10.8) ⎛φ ⎞ E0 = 2 E10 cos φ ' = 2 E10 cos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ and the resultant field is (14.3.18).10.11) The corresponding phasor diagram is shown in Figure 14. From the diagram.10.If the two fields have the same amplitude E10 = E20 . (14.10.2 Addition of two phasors with the same amplitude.5). Notice that all the phasors lie on a circular arc of radius R.6. This gives φ'= In addition.10.10. By setting t = 0 in Eq. we obtain E0 / 2 E10 (14.10. 14-25 .6. Now let’s turn to the situation where there are N sources. the time-independent part of the total field is E = E1 + E2 + EN = E10 ⎡sin ( ∆β ) + ⎣ + sin ( ( N − 1)∆β ) ⎤ ⎦ (14.3. as in our calculation of the intensity of the single-slit diffraction intensity in Section 14.10) One may also obtain the total field using the trigonometric identity given in Eq. with each successive phasor differed in phase by ∆β . we see that η + φ = π and 2φ '+ η = π .

0° < θ < 45.11. suppose the separation between the two slits is d=0. How many maxima will there be in the angular range −45.10.14) 14. The result is completely consistent with that obtained in Eq. 2 2 (14.10.11) using the algebraic approach.12) Since the length of the arc is NE10 = Rβ .15).13) where β = N ∆β . This occurs when 14-26 . (14.6.1 Double-Slit Experiment In Young’s double-slit experiment. The intensity is proportional to E02 .0° ? Solution: On the viewing screen.6. we have ⎡ sin( β / 2) ⎤ NE ⎛β ⎞ ⎛β ⎞ E0 = 2 R sin ⎜ ⎟ = 2 10 sin ⎜ ⎟ = E10 ⎢ ⎥ β ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ ⎣ ∆β / 2 ⎦ (14.Figure 14.320 mm. (14.3 Phasor diagram for determining the time-independent portion of E . and again we write it as ⎡ sin( β / 2) ⎤ I ⎡ sin( β / 2) ⎤ I = 02 ⎢ ⎥ = I0 ⎢ β / 2 ⎥ N ⎣ ∆β / 2 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ which reproduces the result shown in Eq. light intensity is a maximum when the two waves interfere constructively. From the figure.11 Solved Problems 14.10. we see that sin β 2 = E0 / 2 R (14. If a beam of 500-nm light strikes the slits and produces an interference pattern.10.

100 mm and L = 1.11.00 × 10−4 m) sin(0.1) where λ is the wavelength of the light..800° ? (b) What is the phase difference between the two waves arriving at a point P on the screen when y = 4.0° .11. ± 1.5 (14. there are 452 maxima in the range 0 < θ < 45.5) (b) When θ is small. At θ = 45..2.00 mm ? (c) If φ =1/3 rad. m=0. we get d sin θ m= = 452.00 × 10−7 m) (14. (14. what is the value of θ ? Solutions: (a) The phase difference φ between the two wavefronts is given by φ= With θ = 0.3.11. ± 2. what is the value of θ ? (d) If the path difference is δ = λ / 4 .00 m .0° < θ < 0 .800° .20 × 10−4 m and λ = 500 ×10−9 m . the total number of maxima is N = 452 + 452 + 1 = 905 (14.3) 14. Thus. there are also 452 maxima in the range −45.11.2) λ Thus.d sin θ = mλ .2 Phase Difference In the double-slit interference experiment shown in Figure 14. and the incident light is monochromatic with a wavelength λ=500 nm.800°) = 17.11. By symmetry.4) φ= 2π (1. d = 3. we have 2π λ δ= 2π λ d sin θ (14. suppose d = 0.5 rad (5.0° .11. the phase difference becomes 14-27 . (a) What is the phase difference between the two waves arriving at a point P on the screen when θ = 0.. Including the one for m = 0 straight ahead. we make use of the approximation sin θ ≈ tan θ = y / L .

7) (c) For φ = 1/ 3 rad .0152° (14. we have 1 2π 2π rad = d sin θ = (1.00 × 10 θ = sin ⎜ ⎟ = sin ⎢ ⎥ = 0.8) θ = 0.9) (14.11.6) φ= −3 ⎛ ⎞ 2π (1.φ≈ For y = 4. we have −7 m ⎤ ⎛ λ ⎞ −1 ⎡ 5. we have 2π ⎛ y⎞ d⎜ ⎟ λ ⎝L⎠ (14. d and λ . find the relationship between θ1 .00 ×10 m ⎟ = 5.0716 ° −4 ⎝ 4d ⎠ ⎣ 4(1.3 Constructive Interference Coherent light rays of wavelength λ are illuminated on a pair of slits separated by distance d at an angle θ1 .11.1 If an interference maximum is formed at an angle θ 2 at a screen far from the slits. θ 2 .10) 14.00 ×10−4 m ) sin θ −7 λ 3 ( 5.00 ×10−4 m ) ⎜ 4.00 ×10 m) ⎦ −1 (14. Figure 14.11.1.11.00 ×10 m ) which gives (d) For δ = d sin θ = λ / 4 . Solution: 14-28 .00 mm .11.00 ×10 m ) ⎝ 1. as shown in Figure 14.11.03 rad −7 ( 5.11.11.00 m ⎠ (14.

is the order number. Thus.14) (14.11) The condition for constructive interference is δ = mλ .11.11.The path difference between the two rays is δ = d sin θ1 − d sin θ 2 (14. ⎛φ ⎞ 0.11.11.. where m = 0.11. ± 1.4 Intensity in Double-Slit Interference Let the intensity on the screen at a point P in a double-slit interference pattern be 60.15) (b) The phase difference φ is related to the path difference δ and the wavelength λ by δ= λφ ( 500 nm )(1.12) 14. (a) What is the minimum phase difference (in radians) between sources? (b) In (a).13) φ = 2 cos −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ I ⎝ I0 ⎞ −1 ⎟ = 2 cos ( 0..16) 14-29 .0% of the maximum value.. ± 2.60 = cos 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝2⎠ which yields (14.60) = 78.37 rad ) = = 109 nm 2π 2π (14.37 rad ⎟ ⎠ (14. what is the corresponding path difference if the wavelength of the light is λ = 500 nm ? Solution: (a) The average intensity is given by ⎛φ ⎞ I = I 0 cos 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ where I 0 is the maximum light intensity.11. Thus.11. we have d ( sin θ1 − sin θ 2 ) = mλ (14.5° = 1.

60 ×10− 3 m) = = 6.800 ×10− 3 m)(1.11.14.60 mm from the center of the central maximum.11. (a) Find the direction of the interference maxima on the screen.800 m away from the slit. Express your answers in terms of the angle away from the bisector of the line joining the slits. and a diffraction pattern is formed at a screen which is 0.11. The distance between the centers of the slits is d = 2. each having a width a = 0.17) where small-angle approximation has been made. The second-order bright fringe is at a distance 1.18) Let the second bright fringe be located halfway between the second and the third dark fringes. 1 1 λ L 5λ L = y2b = ( y2 + y3 ) = (2 + 3) 2 2 a 2a The approximate wavelength of the incident light is then (14. What is the wavelength of the incident light? Solution: The general condition for destructive interference is sin θ = m λ a ≈ y L (14. That is. The screen has a semi-cylindrical shape.11.6 Intensity in Double-Slit Diffraction Coherent light with a wavelength of λ = 500 nm is sent through two parallel slits.700 µ m.800 mm. (b) How many bright fringes appear on the screen? 14-30 .20) 14. Thus.40 ×10− 7 m 5L 5(0.19) λ≈ 2a y2b 2(0. the position of the m-th order dark fringe measured from the central axis is ym = m λL a (14.11.11.800 m) (14.5 Second-Order Bright Fringe A monochromatic light is incident on a single slit of width 0.80 µ m . with its axis at the midline between the slits.

(14.11.357) = ±20.07) = no solution θ ±1 = sin −1 (±0.26) The solutions are 14-31 . .00 ×10−7 m ⎞ −1 ⎟ = sin ( 0.00 ×10−7 m and d = 2. (b) The general condition for single-slit diffraction minima is a sin θ = mλ .(c) For each bright fringe. Solutions: (a) The condition for double-slit interference maxima is given by d sin θ = mλ which yields m = 0.24) Thus..22) With λ = 5. or θ m = sin −1 ⎜ ⎛ mλ ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ a ⎠ m = ±1. the above equation becomes θ m = sin −1 ⎜ m ⎝ ⎛ 5.6° θ ±6 = sin −1 (±1. measured relative to the intensity I 0 associated with the central maximum.714) = ±45. the above equation becomes ⎛ 5.179) = ±10.11.80 ×10 m ⎠ (14.11..21) θ m = sin −1 ⎜ ⎛ mλ ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ (14. ± 2. ± 1. we see that there are a total of 11 directions of interference maxima..00 ×10−7 m and a = 7.179m ) −6 2.3° θ ±3 = sin −1 (±0.11.536) = ±32.11.. (14.00 ×10−7 m ⎞ −1 θ m = sin ⎜ m ⎟ = sin ( 0.23) The solutions are θ 0 = 0° θ ±2 = sin −1 (±0.80 ×10−6 m .9° θ ±4 = sin −1 (±0.714m ) −7 ⎝ 7.00 ×10 m ⎠ −1 (14.2° (14.11. ± 2.893) = ±63.4° θ ±5 = sin −1 (±0..25) With λ = 5. find the intensity.00 ×10−7 m .

27) Since these angles correspond to dark fringes. 2 (14.31) (v) At θ = ±63.11.0° ⎤ = ± ⎥ = 0.32) 14-32 .4° .0° . 0.714 ) = ±45.6° θ ±2 = sin −1 ( ±1.0901 I0 ⎢ 2.811 I 0 ⎢ 0.0° .785 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (14.11. (i) At θ = 0° .700 µ m ) sin 10.00 . (c) The intensity on the screen is given by ⎡ sin (π a sin θ λ ) ⎤ I = I0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ π a sin θ λ ⎦ where I0 is the intensity at θ = 0 .57 ⎦ ⎣ 2 (14.43) = no solution (14.2° .11.406 I0 ⎢ 1. the total number of bright fringes is N = 11 − 2 = 9 .0324 I0 ⎢ 3.11. we have the central maximum and I / I 0 = 1. we have πa sin θ / λ = ±2. we have πa sin θ / λ = ±3. and the intensity ratio is I ⎡ sin 135° ⎤ = ± = 0.57 rad = ±90. we have πa sin θ / λ = ±1.9° .11. we have πa sin θ / λ = ± which gives π ( 0.28) (ii) At θ = ±10. and the intensity ratio is I ⎡ sin 90.93 rad = ±225° .11.785 rad = ±45.36 rad = ±135° .0° ⎤ = ± = 0.36 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 (14.θ ±1 = sin −1 ( ±0. and the intensity ratio is I ⎡ sin 225° ⎤ = ± = 0.30) (iv) At θ = ±32.3° .29) (iii) At θ = ±20.93 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 (14.3° = ±0.500 µ m 2 I ⎡ sin 45.

what happens to the intensity pattern if the slit width becomes narrower and narrower? 6. Explain why the light from the two headlights of a distant car does not produce an interference pattern. (a) Calculate the spacing between the adjacent bright fringes.00 cm and the viewing screen is located at a distance L = 1. In Young’s double-slit experiment.20 mm . What happens to the width of the central maximum in a single-slit diffraction if the slit width is increased? 5. (b) What is the distance between the third-order fringe and the center line? 14. if the slits of width 0.010 mm are separated by a distance 0. and the incident light is monochromatic with a wavelength λ = 600 nm . how would the interference pattern change if white light is used? 3. suppose the slits are separated by d = 1. can we simply add the intensities from each of the two slits? 14. How many bright fringes are there in the central diffraction maximum? 14-33 .20 m from the slits.14.12 Conceptual Questions 1.13 Additional Problems 14. In calculating the intensity in double-slit interference. In Young’s double-slit experiment.1 Double-Slit Interference In the double-slit interference experiment.13. In a single-slit diffraction. Let the incident light be monochromatic with a wavelength λ=500 nm.13. 4. what happens to the spacing between the fringes if (a) the slit separation is increased? (b) the wavelength of the incident light is decreased? (c) if the distance between the slits and the viewing screen is increased? 2.2 Interference-Diffraction Pattern In the double-slit Fraunhofer interference-diffraction experiment.

3. E2 = E20 sin(ωt + φ ) 14. suppose the slits are of different size. Show that the intensity at P is I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1 I 2 cos φ where I1 and I 2 are the intensities due to the light from each slit. each separated by a distance d from its neighbor.. n = 1. 7.5 Secondary Maxima In a single-slit diffraction pattern.3 Three-Slit Interference Suppose a monochromatic coherent light source of wavelength λ passes through three parallel slits.14. 4.13. 2. λ = 450 nm and d = 0.20 m . (b) Let L = 1. we have shown in 14.10.6 that the intensity is ⎡ sin ( β 2 ) ⎤ ⎡ sin (π a sin θ / λ ) ⎤ I = I0 ⎢ ⎥ = I0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ β /2 ⎦ ⎣ π a sin θ / λ ⎦ 2 2 (a) Explain why the condition for the secondary maxima β / 2 = (m + 1/ 2)π .10 mm .. is not given by 14-34 .8.. and the fields at a point P on the viewing screen are E1 = E10 sin ωt .. 14.5. 2.. What is the spacing between the successive minima? λL 3d . m = 1..4 Intensity of Double-Slit Interference In the double-slit interference experiment. (a) Show that the positions of the interference minima on a viewing screen a distance L d away is approximately given by y=n where n is not a multiple of 3.13.13.

14.(b) By differentiating the expression above for I . show that the condition for secondary maxima is β ⎛β ⎞ = tan ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝2⎠ (c) Plot the curves y = β / 2 and y = tan( β / 2) . find the values of β at which the two curves intersect. or mathematical software. and hence.13. the values of β for the first and second secondary maxima. Using a calculator which has a graphing function. Compare your results with β / 2 = (m + 1/ 2)π .6 Interference-Diffraction Pattern If there are 7 fringes in the central diffraction maximum in a double-slit interference pattern. what can you conclude about the slit width and separation? 14-35 .

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