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# Contents

• Introduction To Fluid Properties
• Fluid Classification
• Real and Ideal Fluids
• Fluid Properties
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO
FLUID PROPERTIES
WHAT – FLUID MECHANICS?
Defined as the science that deals with
behavior of fluids at rest (fluid static) or
in motion (fluid dynamics)
Fluid?
Substances that capable to flow and conform to
the shape of containing vessels. When in
equilibrium, fluids can’t sustain tangential or
shear forces. All fluids have some degree of
compressibility and offer little resistance to
change of form.
Fluid Classification
Fluid can be classified into two:
1. Liquids – Tend to flow freely and take the shape of the
container (e.g: water, oil, gasoline, etc)
2. Gases – tend to expand to completely fill their
container (e.g.: air, oxygen, etc.)
Differences:
- Liquids are practically incompressible
- Gases are compressible
• Liquids occupy definite volumes and have free surface
• Gases expand until it occupy all portions of any vessels
Fluid Classification
Assumption in Fluid Mechanics:
- Fluids are not compressible although a little
compression can take place but it was
neglected.
Ideal and Real Fluids
Ideal Fluids:
- No viscosity,
- No internal friction/surface tension
- Incompressible
Real Fluids:
- Have viscosity
- Have surface tension and frictional forces between
- Compressible
Dimension and Units
Mass Length Time
Dimension M L T
Unit kg m s
Eg.:
Area = L² = m²
Force = mass x acceleration
= ML/T
= kgms² or Newton (N)
Fluids Properties
1. Density
2. Specific weight
3. Relative/specific density
4. Compressibility (Elasticity/Bulk Modulus)
5. Surface tension
6. Viscosity – kinematics & dynamics
Fluids Properties –Important
parameters
1. Density
2. Specific weight
3. Relative/specific density
4. Dynamics Viscosity
5. Kinematics Viscosity
m
V
µ =
g ¸ µ =
material
water
µ
o
µ
=
y
v
µ t
| |
=
|
\ .

2 2
/
N m Ns
unit
m m s m
µ
| |
| |
= =
| |
\ .
\ .
2 2 2
Ns kgm s kg
unit
m s m ms
µ
| |
= = =
|
\ .
µ
u
µ
=
( )
2
/ unit m s u =
( )
3
/ kN m
( )
3
/ kg m
SUMMARY CHAPTER 1
1. Fluid Mechanics
2. Fluid Classification – Liquids and gasses
3. Ideal and Real Fluids
4. Dimension and Units
5. Fluids Properties – Density, specific
gravity/ weight, compressibility, surface
tension and viscosity (kinematics and
dynamics)

. All fluids have some degree of compressibility and offer little resistance to change of form.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO FLUID PROPERTIES WHAT – FLUID MECHANICS? Defined as the science that deals with behavior of fluids at rest (fluid static) or in motion (fluid dynamics) Fluid? Substances that capable to flow and conform to the shape of containing vessels. When in equilibrium. fluids can’t sustain tangential or shear forces.

Gases – tend to expand to completely fill their container (e. oxygen. etc.g: water. Liquids – Tend to flow freely and take the shape of the container (e.) Differences: . gasoline.g.: air. oil.Fluid Classification Fluid can be classified into two: 1. etc) 2.Liquids are practically incompressible .Gases are compressible • Liquids occupy definite volumes and have free surface • Gases expand until it occupy all portions of any vessels .

Fluid Classification Assumption in Fluid Mechanics: .Fluids are not compressible although a little compression can take place but it was neglected. .

No internal friction/surface tension Incompressible Real Fluids: Have viscosity Have surface tension and frictional forces between adjacent layer Compressible .Ideal and Real Fluids Ideal Fluids: No viscosity.

: Area = L² = m² Force = mass x acceleration = ML/T = kgms² or Newton (N) .Dimension and Units Dimension Unit Mass M Length L Time T kg m s Eg.

3. 6. 5. Density Specific weight Relative/specific density Compressibility (Elasticity/Bulk Modulus) Surface tension Viscosity – kinematics & dynamics . 2. 4.Fluids Properties 1.

Ns kgm s kg   unit    2  2   m s m2 ms   Kinematics Viscosity   unit   m2 / s  . material  Relative/specific density  water y Dynamics Viscosity      v     4.  N  m  Ns  unit    2   2 m  m/s  m   5.Fluids Properties –Important parameters 1.    g  kN / m3  3. m Density   V Specific weight  kg / m  3 2.

5. surface tension and viscosity (kinematics and dynamics) . Fluid Mechanics Fluid Classification – Liquids and gasses Ideal and Real Fluids Dimension and Units Fluids Properties – Density. specific gravity/ weight. 2.SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 1. compressibility. 4. 3.