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saqarTvelos narkotikuli respublika gv. 26 revolucia, kontrrevolucia da sagadasaxado kodeqsi gv. 33 interviu kaxa benduqiZesTan gv.

17 kadirovis arti gv. 20 afxazebi rusul fuls ar Tmoben gv. 24 saministroSi dabarebulebi gv. 39 sovietologia gv. 37 geSinodeT sakuTari vnebebis gv. 41 ra elis operas? gv. 44
fasi 2 lari

# 37 / 28 ivnisi - 4 ivlisi / 2010

gv. 12

stalinis gareSe

# 37 / 28 ivnisi - 4 ivlisi / 2010

nomerSi: 02 fosta 04 mokled 06 fotoreportaJi 07 vrclad 10 ori azri gvWirdeba Tu ara axalgazrdobisa da sportis saministro? gia xuroSvili vs leqso maWavariani 12 mTavari Tema gori stalinis Zeglis gareSe 16 Tvalsazrisi gundistani mark maleni 17 interviu biurokratiam mougo xelisuflebas kaxa benduqiZe msoflio 19 !

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mezoblebi kadirovis arti sabWoTa warsuli ukrainaSi stalini ukrainaSi konfliqtebi afxazebi rusul fuls ar Tmoben Jurnalisturi gamoZieba saqarTvelos narkotikuli respublika saubrebi liberalizmze potenciuri safrTxeebi qarTuli memarcxeneobisTvis ekonomika revolucia, kontrrevolucia da sagadasaxado kodeqsi sazogadoeba warsuli, romelic ar iqca istoriad

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ganaTleba saministroSi dabarebulebi samedicino Jurnali `mkurnali.ji~ geSinodeT sakuTari vnebebis Tvalsazrisi ra elis operas? sporti maradonas isini uyvars sandro naveriani vedrebis dro gio axvlediani qalaqSi moxetiale kacis Canawerebi ukanaskneli tramvai kaxa Tolordava

garekanze:
stalinis gareSe foto: marika qoCiaSvili

Jurnali `liberali~ gamoicema fond `Ria sazogadoeba - saqarTvelos~ mxardaWeriT. avtoris / avtorebis mier sainformacio masalaSi gamoTqmuli mosazreba ar gamoxatavs fondis `Ria sazogadoeba-saqarTvelos~ pozicias. Sesabamisad, fondi ar aris pasuxismgebeli masalis Sinaarsze. The views, opinions and statements expressed by the authors and those providing comments are theirs only and do not necessarily reflect the position of Open Society Georgia Foundation. Therefore, the Open Society Georgia Foundation is not responsible for the content of the information material.

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

ilustracia TaTia nadareiSvili / wignis saxelosno

fosta
onkologiuri stigma
am statiaSi bevri ram kargad aris Camoyalibebuli, magram ar aris erTi mosazreba _ saqarTvelos onkologiis nacionaluri centris momavali ganviTarebis Sesaxeb. dReisaTvis ganxilul yvela models aqvs menejmentis motivaciis nakli. kargad mogexsenebaT, imisaTvis, rom kerZo interesma sazogadoebrivi interesis gaTvaliswineba daiwyos, unda miaRwios kerZo kapitalis garkveul mdgomareobas, romlis miRwevasac saqarTvelos pirobebSi didi dro dasWirdeba. amasobaSi daikargeba onkologiurSi dagrovili inteleqtualuri potenciali (gansakuTrebiT Semcirebebis mtkivneul procesSi), menejmentis kerZo interesze orientirebuli motivaciis gamo. dRevandeli mdgomareobis SenarCuneba ar SeiZleba, vinaidan menejmentis ekonomikurad gamarTlebuli motivacia ar arsebobs. CamoTvlili mizezebiT SeiZleba uari vTqvaT personalisaTvis gadacemazec. arsebobs kidev erTi modeli. saqarTvelos mTavroba, rogorc saaqcio sazogadoeba a. RvamiCavas saxelobis onkologiis nacionaluri centris aqciaTa asi procentis mflobeli, acxadebs, rom onkocentri aris aramomgebiani (non-for-profit) organizacia. am SemTxvevaSi: onkocentris muSaobis procesSi warmoqmnili mogeba rCeba misive miznebis ganxorcielebisaTvis; ar warmoiqmneba mogebis gadasaxadi; aramomgebian (non-for-profit) organizacias yovelTvis gacilebiT meti daxmarebis miRebis SesaZlebloba aqvs (daxmarebebi, grantebi); aramomgebian (non-for-profit) organizaciasTan ufro metad midian TanamSromlobaze aseTive aramomgebiani organizaciebi, romlebic wamyvan rols asruleben Tanamedrove onkologiuri mkurnalobis ganviTarebaSi. magaliTad, amerikis kibos nacionaluri instituti, romelTanac SeiZleba gaimarTos molaparakeba Tanamedrove kvleviTi centris organizebaSi daxmarebaze (saqarTvelo, rogorc amerikis strategiuli mokavSire regionSi, rogorc amerikeli xalxis gansakuTrebuli zrunvis obieqti, evrokavSiri da sxv.);

www.liberali.ge

modelis zemoT arasrulad CamoTvlili dadebiTi maxasiaTeblebi politikurad momgebiania, Seqmnis menejmentis axal (swor) motivacias da xels Seuwyobs saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis onkologiuri momsaxurebis da zogadad, onkologiis ganviTarebas. pativiscemiT, arCil kapanaZe onkologiis nacionaluri centris radiaciuli onkologiis departamentis eqimi www.liberali.ge

saswrafod iyideba `mersedesi~ `Jigulis~ nawilebiT!


imedi maqvs, rom mkiTxveli cxriliT naTlad dainaxavs ganaTlebis sitemaSi mimdinare bolodroindel cvlilebas da SeamCnevs, saiT midis igi (maSinac ki, Tu ar icis, rom lototroniT direqtorebis arCeva, ramdenime welia, gauqmda). iqneb yvelas ar moswondes marcxena svetSi ganxorcielebuli iniciativebi, magram marjvena svetSi imdenad avtoritarulia, Znelia, misi momxre iyo. iqneb jobda, `mersedesi~ isev `mersedesis~ nawilebiT Cagvenacvlebina, vidre ukan davbrunebuliyaviT `Jigulisken~... da sabWoTa ganaTlebis sistemidan yvelaze cudi meTodebi ar gamogverCia. mgoni, isev mogviwevs am gzis xelaxla gavla, 2009 wlamde arsebulis xelaxla danergva... ganaTlebis saministroSi es gauTavebeli cvlilebebi sistemaSi ramdenime Taobis ganaTlebasa da momavalze savalalo kvals datovebs. kana (Seumowmebeli), 25 ivnisi www.liberali.ge

saerTaSoriso daxmarebebs yovelTvis mohyveba kontrolis daxvewili da gamocdili meqanizmebi; aramomgebian (non-for-profit) organizaciaSi SesaZlebelia waxalisebisa da kontrolis Siga resursebis da damatebiTi, sazogadoebrivi meqanizmebis ufro efeqturi amoqmedeba; es yvelaferi gamoiwvevs onkologiur momsaxurebaze fasebis Semcirebas jer onkocentrSi, xolo Semdeg, mTlian dargSi. savaraudoa, rom moyvanili

redaqtorebi: mTavari redaqtori Sorena SaverdaSvili /aRmasrulebeli redaqtori nino jafiaSvili / politika da saerTaSoriso ambebi sofo Waava / kavkasia da konfliqtebi sofo bukia / Jurnalisturi gamoZieba beso kurtaniZe / sazogadoeba Tamar babuaZe / adamianis uflebebi da samarTali nino beqiSvili / axali ambebi naTia axalaSvili Jurnalistebi: maia wiklauri, nino gogua, marika qoCiaSvili, eka WiTanava, rusudan fanoziSvili, anita Tvauri, Tamar faradaSvili, nino CimakaZe, rusudan ruxaZe, nino robaqiZe, iago yuraSvili, naTia guliaSvili, daviT buxrikiZe kontribucia: mark maleni, giorgi cxadaia, kaxa Tolordava, gio axvlediani, laSa buRaZe, sandro naveriani redaqcia: foto-redaqtori levan xerxeuliZe / grafikuli dizaini Tornike lorTqifaniZe / redaqtor-stilisti nino svaniZe / koreqtori nino saiTiZe gamomcemloba: proeqtis menejeri qeTi babunaSvili / proeqtis menejeris asistenti lela SubiTiZe / reklamis da gayidvebis direqtori Salva CubiniZe / marketingi da sazogadoebasTan urTierToba naTia rusaZe / distributori zviad Sengelia gamomcemeli: Sps `liberali~. misamarTi: Tbilisi 0162, faliaSvilis q. 108. tel.: (995 32) 232235, 233731, 912326. el-fosta: info@liberali.ge sxva gamocemebi: `cxeli Sokoladi~, `cxeli Sokoladi _ literatura~, `biznesi: adamianebi, meTodebi, strategiebi~. `liberalis~ saavtoro uflebebi daculia. JurnalSi gamoqveynebuli masalebis nawilobrivi da/an mTliani gamoyeneba redaqciis Tanxmobis gareSe akrZalulia. beWdva: stamba `favoriti~. misamarTi: Tbilisi, CubinaSvilis q. 50. tel.: (995 32) 95 19 52. www.phfavorite.ge gamodis kviraSi erTxel, yovel orSabaTs. pirveli nomeri gamocemulia 2009 wlis maisSi. rekomendebuli sacalo fasi 2 lari.

www.liberali.ge 2

ISSN 1987-7528

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

mokled

saqarTvelo

savaldebulo sarezervo samsaxuri


samxedro sarezervo samsaxuri 40 wlamde asakis mamakacebisaTvis kvlav savaldebulo xdeba, 18-dRiani vada ki 45 dRemde gaizrdeba. am cvlilebebs `samxedro sarezervo samsaxuris~ Sesaxeb kanonproeqti iTva-

rusul-amerikuli garigeba
rusulma da amerikulma navTobmompovebelma kompaniebma `rosneftma~ da `Sevronma~ Savi zRvis dasavleT monakveTze navTobis saZiebo da mopovebis samuSaoebTan dakavSirebiT miliarddolariani SeTanxmeba gaaformes. dokuments xeli moskovTan axlos, novo ogariovoSi, putinis samTavrobo agarakze moewera da am process, kompaniebis direqtorebis garda, maspinZelic eswreboda. SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, `Sevroni~ ruseTis teritoriul wylebSi jer saZiebo samuSaoebs, Semdeg ki navTobis mopovebas 2 WaburRilze daiwyebs, romlebic novorosiiskis sanapirosTan da tuafsesTan mdebareobs. ruseTis teritoriaze navTobis saZieblad ucxoelTa mowvevas `rosneftis~ xelmZRvaneli Savi zRvis reliefis sirTuliTa da teqnologiebis arqoniT xsnis, Tumca, jerjerobiT ar aris cnobili, ras miiRebs rusuli mxare Tavis 2 sabadosTan amerikelebis daSvebis sanacvlod.saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministroSi acxadeben, rom maT xelT arsebuli informaciiT, navTobis moZiebis adgilad afxazeTi miTiTebuli ar aris, magram Tbilisi detalebs uSualod `SevronTan~ gaarkvevs.

dausrulebeli dava
gasul kviras `gazpromma~ beloruss gazis miwodeba Seumcira, Tavidan _ 15, Semdeg ki 60 procentiT. `gazpromSi~ acxadebdnen, rom bunebrivi airis sruli miwodebisTvis beloruss is 192 milioni aSS dolaris davalianeba unda gadaexada, rac bolo eqvsi Tvis ganmavlobaSi daugrovda. am valis arsebobas minski Tavdapirvelad uaryofda. magram mogvianebiT, molaparakebebis Semdeg 178 milioni mainc gadaixada. ruseTmac daadastura, rom davalianeba srulad daifara da gazis miwodebac aRdga. ruseTis sanqciebma evropelebic SeaSina. ruseTidan swored belorusis gavliT miewodeba centraluri da dasavleT evropis nawils gazi _ ruseTidan mTlianad importirebuli gazis daaxloebiT 20 procenti. `gazpromma~ evropelebi imiT daamSvida, rom Tu belorusi tranzits Sewyvets, ukrainis resurss gamoiyeneben, romelic mTlianad anazRaurebuli ar aqvT. gazis Temaze arsebuli gaurkvevloba kvlav grZeldeba. axla minskSi acxadeben, rom ruseTs satranzito gadasaxadi aqvs gadasaxdeli, rasac rusuli mxare ar aRiarebs.

liswinebs, romelic parlamentis biuros sxdomaze gasul kviras iyo inicirebuli. kanonproeqtis avtorebi arian deputatebi _ samson quTaTelaZe, laSa Tordia da zviad kukava. kanonproeqti aseve gansazRvravs samxedro Zalebis rezervis kategoriebs, rezervis formirebis, organizebis da gavlis safuZvlebs. amas garda, kanonproeqtiT, samxedro sarezervo samsaxurSi myof pirs samxedro mosamsaxuris statusi eqneba.

ricxvebi
4

10

milioni lariT azarala kaxeTi stiqiam.

65 trilion aSS dolars iTxovs CrdiloeTi


korea aSS-sgan zaralis anazRaurebisTvis.
liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

saqarTvelo

mokled
citatebi

de faqto boikoti
afxazeTisa da samxreTi oseTis separatistuli reJimebi Jenevis molaparakebebs `droebiT~ eTiSebian. Tavdapirvelad es gadawyvetileba soxumSi miiRes. Semdeg ki cxinvali daimuqra, rom molaparakebebs Tavadac boikots gamoucxadebs, Tuki saerTaSoriso molaparakebaTa TanaTavmjdomareebi maT moTxovnas ar daakmayofileben. es moTxovna ki kvlav Zalis gamouyeneblobis SeTanxmebas exeba. molaparakebebis datovebis mizezad soxumi gaero-s, euTo-sa da evrokavSiris araobieqtur damokidebulebas da saerTaSoriso formatis araproduqciulobas asaxelebs. maT ultimatumic wamoayenes, rom mxolod im SemTxvevaSi daubrundebian molaparakebebis magidas, Tu TanaTavmjdomareebi yvela mxaris winadadebebis Semcvel dokuments warmoadgenen da SesaZlebeli gaxdeba Ria diskusia da debatebi. ultimatumis konkretul vadebze soxumSi ar saubroben. cxinvalma ki vada 12 ivlisamde misca mxareebs. `Tu cxinvalSi TanaTavmjdomareebis morig Sexvedraze axal proeqts ar warmoadgenen, Semdegi raundi aRar iqneba~, _ acxadebs de faqto prezidentis sagangebo warmomadgeneli boris CoCievi da pasuxismgeblobasac TanaTavmjdomareebs akisrebs. TbilisSi am qmedebebs moskovis `tradiciul SantaJs~ uwodeben. `ruseTs Jenevis molaparakebebis mokvla surs~, _ ganacxada saqarTvelos prezidentma.

`dRes visesxe fuli megobrebisgan da sul male vals gadagixdiT. magram Zalian samwuxaroa, rom es fuli ucxoebisgan unda mesesxa imis gamo, rom ruseTs ar SeuZlia ori kvira moicados~. aleqsandr lukaSenko 22 ivnisi, minski `es aris mTavroba [saqarTvelos], romelic efuZneba mudmiv ganaxlebas, da aseve mudmivad, Tundac mcire dozebiT, magram axali sisxlis SeSvebas da SeSxapunebas~. mixeil saakaSvili 25 ivnisi, Tbilisi

trampi saqarTveloSi
amerikeli miliarderi donald trampi saqarTveloSi investiciebis Cadebas gegmavs. misi kompaniis The Trump Organization-is aRmasrulebeli viceprezidenti maikl koeni Tbilissa da baTumSi imyofeboda. The Trump Organization saqarTveloSi Silk Road Group-Tan awarmoebs molaparakebebs. Tumca, arc qarTuli mxare da arc koeni am urTierTobebisa da im adgilis Sesaxeb, sadac investiciebis Cadebas apireben, ar saubroben. Silk Road Group-s trampTan Sexvedris saSualeba aprilSi, prezidentis aSS-Si yofnis dros miecaT. aseTive molaparakebebi mimdinareobs las vegasis kazinoebis magnat stiv vinTan. Tumca, am molaparakebebis Sesaxeb detalebi ar xmaurdeba. koenma aRniSna, rom kavkasiaSi biznesis keTeba `axali ram~ ar aris trampisTvis, romelsac investiciebi mTel msoflioSi aqvs. saqarTvelosTan yvelaze axlos trampis mier ganxorcielebuli investicia stambolSi, 40-sarTuliani mravalfunqciuri kompleqsia. saqarTveloSi biznesis dawyebas donald trampis yofili meuRle ivana trampic gegmavs. igi TbilisSi gasuli wlis dekemberSi Camovida da qveynis pirvel pirsac Sexvda.

`ruseTi vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis wevri unda gaxdes. es xelsayrelia ruseTisTvis, es xelsayrelia aSS-sTvis, es xelsayrelia yvelasTvis~. barak obama 24 ivnisi, vaSingtoni `CeCneTis prezidentma ramzan kadirovma fsiqiatrs unda mimarTos da ukrainis saSinao saqmeebSi Carevasa da Tavisi Sefasebebis gakeTebas Tavi unda daanebos~. anatoli gricenko - ukrainis umaRlesi radis Tavdacvisa da nacionaluri usafrTxoebis komitetis Tavmjdomare 25 ivnisi, kievi

4.5

procentiT gaizarda mSp pirvel kvartalSi saqarTveloSi.

45

dRemde gaizrdeba savaldebulo sarezervo samsaxuri saqarTveloSi.

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

foto

wyaldidoba TbilisSi
19 ivniss Zlieri wvimis gamo, TbilisSi ramdenime ubani daitbora. gldani-naZaladevis raionSi, yofili manqanebis bazrobis teritoriaze, quCis mTel Cayolebaze manqanebi saaTze met xans uZravad idgnen. qarma moglija ramdenime xe, datbora saniaRvre arxebi. wyaldidobas im adamianebmac ver aarides Tavi, vinc sacobebisgan Tavis dasacavad metroTi gadawyvita mgzavroba. ramdenime metros sadgurSi wvimis wyali Sevarda da sadgurebi daiketa. daitbora metro `axmetelis~ garSemo mdebare miwisqveSa gadasasvlelebic. mgzavrebis da gamyidvelebis panikam wvimis gadaRebis Semdeg iklo, Tumca saxlSi misulebs kidev erTi siurprizi elodaT _ korpusebTan trotuarebi setyvas TeTrad daefara.

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

vrclad

protesti skandalisa da provokaciebis gareSe


2000-ianelTa Taobis mxatvrebma gamofenaze `Soris~ TavianTi deromantizirebuli xelovneba warmoadgines, rogorc TviTon amboben _ xelovneba makiaJis gareSe.
nino CimakaZe
23 wlis natali nebieriZem sakuTari mSoblebis, aseve mxatvrebis namuSevrebi aiRo da mamis meZavsa da dedis angelozebs sakuTari saxe gadaaxata. rogorc ambobs, palimfsestis stilSi Sesrulebuli am naxatiT man gamoTqva protesti mSoblebis TaobaSi arsebuli infantilizmisa da gauazrebeli kulturuli gavlenebis winaaRmdeg, romelic kritikuli azrovnebis Camoyalibebasa da kultebis ngrevas uSlis xels. natalis es naxati, 11 sxva namuSevarTan erTad, galerea #9-Si gamoifina, sadac 23 ivniss e.w. 2000-ianelTa Taobis mxatvrebis gamofena `Soris~ gaixsna. kliSeebisgan Tavisufali da socialurad aqtiuri xelovneba _ ase SeiZleba Sefasdes koncefcia, romelic aq warmodgenil namuSevrebs aerTianebT. saprotesto Sinaarsis miuxedavad, gamofenis forma skandaluri ar yofila. avtorebi Seecadnen, aqtualuri problemebi tradiciuli formiT gadmoecaT da amisTvis gamoiyenes ara performansebis xerxi, aramed kedlis sibrtye, zeTis saRebavi, fanqari, akrili da foto. amiT maT kidev erT problemaze, Tanamedrove xelovnebisadmi stereotipul damokidebulebaze gaamaxviles yuradReba: `modian winaswar gamzadebuli azriT, rom aq aucileblad skandalur performanss naxaven. Tumca, Tanamedrove xelovneba ar niSnavs maincdamainc romelime konkretuli

Tekla aslaniSvilis namuSevari `Tekla~. gamofena `Soris~, galerea N9, Tbilisi, 23 ivnisi 2010

formis gamoyenebas an provokacias, gvinda, rom am kitCuri damokidebulebisgan gavTavisufldeT~, _ aRniSnavs gamofenis monawile da kuratori qeTo logua. mis namuSevarze londonis White Cube-is galerea organzomilebian ferwerul namuSevrad aris warmodgenili. rogorc Tavad ambobs, erTi ganzomilebis gamokleba erTgvari protestia imis mimarT, Tu rogor Wams namuSevrebis ideas Tanamedrove galereebSi sivrceze da garemoze aqcentireba. namuSevarTa did nawilSi mkveTrad gamoxatuli memarcxene msoflmxedveloba dominirebs. aq vxvdebiT dokumentur fotomasalas, romelic 2009 wels JenevaSi msoflio savaWro

organizaciis sawinaaRmdego demonstraciebis Sedegebs asaxavs (avtori melano soxaZe). sareklamo banerebis Camsxvreuli vitrinebi erTgvar kontrasts qmnis SuSis miRma momRimar, bednier adamianebsa da mis aqeT arsebul realobas Soris. antikapitalisturi muxti igrZnoba Tekla aslaniSvilis namuSevarSic, saxelwodebiT _ `Tekla~. Teklas portretebi, romlebic 40 sxvadasxva mxatvris mieraa Sesrulebuli, gamofenaze erT did tilodaa gaerTianebuli. am SemTxvevaSi, protesti mxatvrebis brendirebis da komercializaciis winaaRmdegaa mimarTuli: `mxatvris saxeli sul ufro metad iZens logotipis funqciebs da sul ufro naklebad gansxvavde-

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

foto levan xerxeuliZe

vrclad
ba iseTi brendebisgan, rogoricaa `naiki~ an `adidasi~. rac ufro farTovdeba es brendi, miT ufro daclilia mis ukan mdgomi produqcia Sinaarsisagan da sazogadoebac da kritikosebic naklebad kritikulni xdebian mis mimarT~, _ ambobs aslaniSvili. komercializacias da kapitalistur art-markets upirispirdeba giorgi kevliSvilis namuSevaric _ `cxrili 2~. giorgi monawileTa Soris yvelaze ufrosia da ramdenime maTgans samxatvro akademiaSic aswavlida: `ra Tqma unda, bazris kanonebs gverds mTlianad ver avuvliT, magram rac unda xmamaRla JRerdes, xelovnebis daniSnuleba mainc WeSmaritebis Ziebaa da ara bazarze adgilis damkvidreba~, _ aRniSnavs kevliSvili. giorgis studentebs _ qeTo loguas, natali nebieriZes, Tekla aslaniSvils da daviT kuxalaSvils, romlebic samxatvro akademiaSi swavlis dros iq arsebul ganaTlebis sistemas da swavlebis meTodebs aprotestebdnen, akademiam diplomebi ar misca. amis oficialur mizezad kreditebis arasakmarisi raodenoba daasaxeles. Tumca, axalgazrdebis azriT, realuri mizezi swored maTi Riad dafiqsirebuli pozicia iyo. kevliSvili ki, romelic 2 wlis manZilze vizualuri xelovnebis saxelosnos xelmZRvanelobda da axali midgomebis danergvas cdilobda, akademiidan axsna-ganmartebis gareSe gaaTavisufles. saprotesto muxti da axali gzebis Zieba gamofenaze monawile yvela mxatvars aerTianebs. amjerad maTTvis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani koncefciaa xelovnebis deromantizacia da demiTologizacia _ rodesac xelovneba makiaJis funqcias ki ar Seasrulebs, aramed realobas asaxavs da Tavadac axali realobis Semqmneli gaxdeba.

mosalodneli da moulodneli samTavrobo cvlilebebi


sami axali ministri, prezidentis administraciis axali xelmZRvaneli da misi moadgile, aseve sagareo saqmeTa ministris axali moadgile da erTic axali saministro _ aseTia ramdenimekviriani mosalodneli samTavrobo cvlilebebi.
naTia axalaSvili
axal postebze wardgenilTa umravlesoba sazogadoebisTvis ukve kargad nacnobi xalxia. `axali sisxli~ ki mTavrobaSi ekonomikis axali ministri da sagareo saqmeTa ministris axali moadgile iqnebian. ekonomikis ganviTarebis saministros saxeli ukve meored Seecvleba da ekonomikisa da mdgradi ganviTarebis saministro daerqmeva. mas kanadidan saqarTveloSi dabrunebuli vera qobalia uxelmZRvanelebs. prezidentma wardgenisas vera qobalias, vankuverSi misi ojaxis puris cxobis biznesis gamo, `Zalian warmatebuli businesswoman~ uwoda. mTavrobaSi calke Seiqmneba axalgazrdobisa da sportis saministro, romelsac Sida qarTlSi prezidentis yofili rwmunebuli lado varZelaSvili uxelmZRvanelebs. vin daikavebs mis adgils, jerjerobiT ucnobia. axali ufrosi da moadgile eyoleba prezidentis administraciasac _ daviT tyeSelaSvili, misi moadgile ki telekompania `rusTavi2~-is sainformacio samsaxuris xelmZRvaneli, Jurnalisti irma nadiraSvili gaxdeba. tyeSelaSvilis adgils, rogorc winaswar vrceldeboda informacia, sagzao departamentis xelmZRvaneli ramaz nikolaiSvili daikavebs. prezidentis administraciis yofili ufrosi Temur janaSia saxelmwifo dacvis samsaxurs Caudgeba saTaveSi. prezidentma waradgina sagareo saqmeTa ministris axali moadgile Tornike gordaZec, romelic bolo 15-16 weli safrangeTSi cxovrobda. saakaSvilma gordaZe `parizSi Zalian cnobil da warmatebul politologad~ daaxasiaTa. axali moadgile sagareo uwyebaSi `evropul mimarTulebas~ uxelmZRvanelebs. aqamde is anatoliis kvlevis franguli institutis kavkasiis centris direqtori iyo. prezidentma gadadgomis Semdeg Seaqo ekonomikis ukve yofili ministri zurab pololikaSvili, Tumca, aRniSna, rom `mTavroba, romelic efuZneba kadrebis stabilurobas, aseve efuZneba adamianebis rezultatiT Sefasebas... Tu adamiani rezultats konkretuli mimarTulebiT ver aRwevs, is aucileblad unda iyos gadasrolili sxva mimarTulebaze~. imis gamo, rom ukanaskneli cvlilebebiT, bolo dros ministrebis saerTo raodenobam kabinetis sruli Semadgenlobis 1/3-s gadaaWarba, mTavrobisa da misi programis damtkiceba parlaments am kviraSi mouwevs.

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

ori azri

momxre gia xuroSvili mTavrobis saparlamento mdivani

axali saministros Seqmna niSnavs uwyebis Seqmnas, romelsac eqneba ufleba, Seqmnas konkretuli politika konkretuli mimarTulebiT. sportis ganviTareba aris saxelmwifos prioriteti, sporti ki qarTuli sazogadoebis sijansaRe, ganviTareba da iseTi problemebis daZlevaa, rogoricaa magaliTad narkomania. am saministros dafuZnebiT kidev ufro meti yuradReba mieqceva sports da meti dafinanseba gamoiyofa am sferos ganviTarebisTvis. axali saministro xels Seuwyobs axalgazrdebisTvis sxvadasxva saganmanaTleblo Tu socialuri programebis ganviTarebas. xelisuflebis mTavari prioriteti dRes axalgazrda Taobis maqsimaluri daxmarebaa, axalgazrda kvalificiuri kadrebis mozidva. unda arsebobdes mkafiod Camoyalibebuli politika rogorc parlamentis doneze, aseve am politikis Sesrulebis meqanizmebi ufro maRali rwmunebis saministros SigniT. swored aman ganapiroba dRemde moqmedi departamentis saministrod gadakeTeba. prezidentmac axsena, rom Zalian bevri adamiani wavaxaliseT da maTi swavla ucxoeTSi saxelmwifom daafinansa. es adamianebi axali codniT da axali gamocdilebiT brundebian saqarTveloSi. maRali kvalifikaciis mqone axalgazrda kadrebiT Canacvlebis procesi mudmivad unda grZeldebodes, radgan, bunebrivia, Cven ar varT qveyana, romelic icxovrebs almasebiT. Cveni erTaderTi gadarCenis saSualebaa kvalificiuri Taoba da mkafiod Camoyalibebuli politika momavali Taobis aRzrdis saqmeSi. uSualod politikis ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli ministri iqneba da amitom davelodoT am saministros Camoyalibebas. ministri gagvacnobs im mimarTulebebs, razec apirebs aqcentis gakeTebas. am saministros kompetenciaSi Seva patriotTa banakebic da sxva sakiTxebi, rac axalgazrdebs SeexebaT.

gvWirdeba Tu ara da sportis s


axali saministro xels Seuwyobs axalgazrdebisTvis sxvadasxva saganmanaTleblo Tu socialuri programebis ganviTarebas. xelisuflebis mTavari prioriteti dRes axalgazrda Taobis maqsimaluri daxmarebaa.
liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

10

ori azri

mowinaaRmdege leqso maWavariani

axalgazrdobisa saministro?
qveyanaSi arsebul ramdenime iseT saministros, romelic mxolod da mxolod erisa da mamulis winaSe Rvawlmosil pirTa dasasaqmeblad an evropel partniorebTan Tavis mowonebis mizniT aris Seqmnili, kidev erTi msgavsi dawesebuleba Seemata.
liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

Cemi mokrZalebuli azriT, ramdenime iseT saministros, romelic mxolod da mxolod erisa da mamulis winaSe Rvawlmosil pirTa dasasaqmeblad an evropel partniorebTan Tavis mowonebis mizniT aris Seqmnili, kidev erTi msgavsi dawesebuleba Seemata, romlis daniSnulebac gadasaxadebis gadamxdelTa fuliT im saqmianobis ganxorcieleba iqneba, romelsac, saxelmwifos mxridan Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi xelSewyobiT, wesiT, kerZo biznesi unda afinansebdes. Cemi gakvirveba imanac gamoiwvia, rom b-nma prezidentma sakuTari gadawyvetileba axalgazrdobis saqmeTa specialuri saministros Seqmnis Sesaxeb sabWoTa memkvidreobisgan ganTavisuflebisken swrafvis gamomxatveli iseTi qmedebis Semdeg gaaxmaura, rogoricaa stalinis Zeglis demontaJi. orueliseul saministroebTan asociaciebs Tavi rom davaneboT, cota ar iyos da, gaugebaria, ratom unda ereodes saxelmwifo axalgazrdebis saqmeebSi, Tu misi mizani axalgazrdobaSi sasurveli ideologiis danergva ar aris; ra daaSaves qveynis saSualo asakis da xandazmulma moqalaqeebma, SevqmnaT maTTvisac analogiuri saministroebi? samwuxaroa, rom pirovneba, romelsac yvelaze ufro meti SesaZlebloba da, rac mTavaria, sakmarisi niWi aqvs imisTvis, rom yvelanairad Seuwyos xeli progress saxelmwifoSi, amdenad araTanmimdevrulia sakuTar qmedebebSi. saministros Seqmnis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba axali miRebulia. jerjerobiT sajarod ar gancxadebula misi miznebi da funqciebi, da arc ministrs ar warmoudgenia sakuTari samoqmedo programa. Tumca, xelisuflebis mier bolo periodSi lobirebadi tendenciebis da struqturis axlad daniSnuli xelmZRvanelis warsuli saqmianobis gaTvaliswinebiT, vfiqrob, rom uaxloes momavalSi unda velodoT axalgazrdebs Soris samarxvo kulturis TvalsaCino warmomadgenlebis Semdgom popularizacias da mizanmimarTul svlas win _ sabWoTa warsulisken.

foto salome jaSi

11

mTavari Tema

reportaJi

stalinis gareSe
stalini samuzeumo eqsponatad iqceva.
eka WiTanava

stalinis Zeglis demontaJi, gori, 25 ivnisi, 2010

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liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

mTavari Tema

ebraeli turisti jonaTan holi gorSi ramdenime dRis win Cavida. yvelaze metad mTavari moednis daTvaliereba da stalinis ZeglisTvis fotoebis gadaReba undoda. Tumca, im dRes ver moaswro, radgan bakurianSi gaemgzavra. ifiqra, Zegli arsad gaiqceva, gorSi xval davbrundebi da Zeglsac mere gadaviRebo. Tumca, turists qandakeba gamqrali daxvda. `gaocebuli vuyurebdi cariel kvarcxlbeks. ar miyvars stalini, magram misi qandakeba qalaqis RirsSesaniSnaoba iyo~, _ ambobs jonaTan holi. kulturis saministros gadawyvetilebiT, stalinis eqvsmetriani brinjaos qandakebis adgilas 2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omsa da stalinuri represiebis dros daRupul adamianTa memoriali aRimarTeba. `maxinj kerpebs ar unda hqondeT adgili damoukidebel, Tavisufal qveyanaSi~, _ ganacxada kulturis ministrma nika ruruam. qandakebis aReba 25 ivniss Ramis pirvel saaTze daiwyes. gorelebisTvis es sruliad moulodneli iyo. mTavari moednis garSemo ZiriTadad maRaziebi da kafeebia ganlagebuli, amitom stalinis Zeglis aRebis ambavi qalaqis mosaxleobis absoluturma umravlesobam mxolod meore diliT gaigo. im RamiT ki, sapatrulo policiis mier gadaketil moedanze Sekrebil 100mde moqalaqes Soris xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi Warbobdnen. swored isini daemSvidobnen beladis Zegls SeZaxiliT: `Zirs satana!~ procesis firze aRbeWdvas TiToorola Jurnalisti cdilobda, maT Soris iyo telekompania `TrialeTis~ gadamRebi jgufic. Jurnalisti lado biWaSvili Zeglis aRebiT ukmayofilo mosaxleobas esaubreboda maSin, roca samoqalaqo formaSi Cacmulma pirebma operators, imeda gogolaZes kamera waarTves da or mxares Soris

Sexla-Semoxla gaimarTa. incidents Tvalyurs adevnebda goris samxareo policiis ufrosic. rogorc lado biWaSvili hyveba, policiis maRalCinosanma Jurnalistebi daamSvida, ris Semdegac `TrialeTis~ warmomadgenlebs kamera da kaseta daubrunes, oRond Sexla-Semoxlis amsaxveli kadrebi ukve waSlili iyo. aseTi konspiraciis gamo, istoriuli movlena _ agvistos omis dros dabombil qalaqSi didi beladis Zeglis demontaJi _ saidumlo operacias daemsgavsa. oriode saaTis Semdeg TokebiT Camoxsnili 6-metriani Zegli ukve satvirTo manqanis sabargulze ido da gaurkveveli mimarTulebiT mihqondaT. stalinis kvali swored am momentidan daikarga. diliT moedanze Sekrebil `komunisturi partiis~ warmomadgenlebs ki, Zeglis nacvlad, cxrametriani kvarcxlbeki da ori gadaRunuli armaturaRa daxvdaT. roca SuadRisas gorSi Casulma `liberalis~ Jurnalistebma stalinis Zeglis adgilsamyofeli vikiTxeT, yvelam mxrebi aiCeCa, _ `aba, ra viciT, CvenTvis arc misi Camogdebis nebarTva uTxoviaT, da arc is viciT, momavalSi ras upireben~, _ ambobdnen goris macxovreblebi. Zeglis adgilsamyofels qalaqis sakrebulo da gamgeoba mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi saguldagulod malavda. `araferi viciT, gamgeblis moadgile araa samsaxurSi~, _ acxadebda gamgeblis pressamsaxuris warmomadgeneli. `me rom raime giTxraT, mogatyuebT, sakrebulos Tavmjdomares ki ver vukavSirdebi~, _ gvimeorebdnen sakrebuloSi. parlamentis wevris, petre ciskariSvilis versiiT ki, Zegli naSuadRevs ukve stalinis saxelmwifo muzeumSi unda yofiliyo. Tumca amis Sesaxeb Tavad mezeumis TanamSromlebma Jur-

nalistebisgan Seityves. muzeumis samecniero-kvleviTi samsaxuris xelmZRvanelma mzia naoWaSvilma ezoSi is ori buCqi gviCvena, romelTa Sorisac stalinis Zegli restavraciis Semdeg unda dadgan. `ar momwons, rom Zegli mTavari moednidan waiRes, Tumca vemorCilebi xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebas. maT ukeT ician, rogor jobia!~ paralelurad meore versiac gavrcelda, romlis mixedviTac, Zegli karaleTis asfaltis qarxanaSi unda gadaetanaT. Tumca, beladis qandakeba arc iq aRmoCnda. `ukve davWeriT da davinawileT~, _ xumrobdnen `birJaze~ gamosuli gorelebi. kidev ramdenime mcdari signalis Semdeg ukve danamdvilebiT gairkva, rom qandakeba policiis ezoSi iyo Caketili. mTavrobis gadawyvetilebiT, es faqti ar unda gaxmaurebuliyo da, gaugebari motiviT, `sapatio patimari~ arc erT Jurnalists ar unda enaxa. gorSi mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi simSvide iyo. Zeglis demontaJs ZiriTadad komunisturi partiis mxardamWerebi aprotestebdnen da swored maTi iniciativiT qalaqis mTavar moedanze 6 saaTisTvis aqciac daigegma. Tumca, daaxloebiT 7-is xuT wuTze trotuarTan SavebSi Cacmuli oTxi adamiani gamoCnda, Semdeg maT kidev ori demonstranti Seemata da yvelani erTad protestis niSnad kvarcxlbekTan Camosxdnen. `ar vici, ratom ar SemogvierTdnen~, _ xelebi gaasavsava Sav kabaSi Cacmulma stalinis erT-erTma Tayvanismcemelma, romelsac gulze misi suraTi hqonda mimagrebuli. `isev aq unda daabrunon, is CemTvis Zalian bevr rames niSnavs. stalini marto beladi ki ar iyo, aramed RmerTi! yovelTvis, roca gavivlidi misi Zeglis win, vexvewebodi, _ soso, Sens sulsa vTxov, rodis SegvaerTeb ruseTTan~, _ acxadebda komunisturi partiis we-

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

13

mTavari Tema
vri mayvala SatakiSvili da cxvirsaxociT cremlian Tvalebs iwmendda. goris axalgazrdoba beladis Zeglis Camoxsnas gulgrilad Sexvda. `Cemi azriT, kargad moiqcnen, rom waiRes, qalaqis centrSi diqtatoris saxes ratom unda vuyuro yoveldRe~, _ ambobda 23 wlis ana gamgebeli. `Tuki muzeumSi gadaitanen, ara mgonia, vinme winaaRmdegi iyos, ubralod ar mesmis, ra saWiro iyo Zeglis Cumad CamoReba~, _ `Ramis ritualis~ mizans verafriT xsnida meore gogona. stalins qandakeba gorSi 1952 wels, sicocxleSive daudges. specialurad am ZeglisTvis teritoria erTi wliT adre moasufTaves da daangries mimdebare Senobebi, maT Soris _ eklesiac. Zeglis ganadgureba jer kidev 1961 wels nikita xruSCovma gadawyvita, roca sabWoTa kavSirSi pirovnebis kultis dagmobis kampania daiwyo. igive scades 1980-90-ian wlebSi qarTuli erovnuli moZraobis liderebmac, Tumca goris mosaxleobis winaaRmdegobis gamo, stalinis Zegli maSin gadarCa. 2008 wels Zeglis gadatanis idea ruseT-saqarTvelos omis Semdeg momwifda. `stalinis Camokvarcxlbekebis~ moTxovniT 2009 wlis agvistoSi, goris centrSi studentebi gamovidnen da qandakebas saRebavi Seasxes. sazogadoebaSi stalinis kultis sawinaaRmdego ganwyobis Seqmnas mizanmimarTulad cdilobda `Tavisuflebis institutis~ wevri levan ramiSvilic. man socialur qsel `feisbuqze~ specialuri gverdic Seqmna, romelSic Zeglis Camogdebis 2000-mde momxre gaerTianda. xelisuflebis nacvlad, antistalinistur kampaniaSi swored aseTi sainiciativo jgufebi aqtiurobdnen, mTavrobis warmomadgenlebi ki acxadebdnen, rom gadawyvetilebas referendumis Semdeg miiRebdnen, radgan ZeglisTvis saboloo ganaCeni swored xalxs unda gamoetana. Tumca, stalinis Zeglis Camoxsna, rasac xelisufleba totalitarizmis dangrevis simbolod afasebda, sazogadoebis nawilisTvis moCvenebiTi demokratiulobis niSnad iqca. istorikosi laSa baqraZe maSin acxadebda: `istoriaze uari ar unda vTqvaT, Zeglebis Camogdebaze ufro Wkvianuri iqneba, Tuki stalinizms Cvens gonebaSi gadavlaxavT. es komunisturi midgomaa, swored komunistebi cdilobdnen imis gaqrobas, rac ar moswondaT~. stalinis qandakebebis umetesoba msoflioSi an aiRes, an saxe ucvales. magaliTad, 1956 wels ungrelma revolucionerebma budapeStSi misi Zeglisgan mxolod Ceqma datoves. zogan ki piriqiT, stalins damsaxurebebi axla daufases da, magaliTad virjiniis StatSi, Zegli mas sul ramdenime dRis win, faSizmis winaaRmdeg brZolisTvis aRumarTes. ar SeiZleba qveyanaSi erTdroulad arsebobdes okupaciis muzeumi da im xalxis Zeglebi, romelTa iniciativiTac saqarTveloSi saokupacio armia Semovida, _ aseTi iyo prezident mixeil saakaSvilis komentari stalinis Zeglis gadatanis Semdeg. qandakebis demontaJi Sefasda, rogorc totalitaruli warsulis dasasruli. goris mTavar moedanze stalinis Zegls male axali simbolo Caanacvlebs.

goris mTavari moedani, 25 ivnisi, 2010

stalinis Zeglis demontaJi, gori, 25 ivnisi, 2010

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liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

radio nacnobi gepatiJebaT klubSi nacnobi


tradiciuli qarTuli samzareulo cocxali musika

misamarTi: abanos q. N 3

Tvalsazrisi

gundistani
msoflio Cempionatma gundebze damafiqra. gaxarebuli viyavi, rodesac aSS-m alJirs mougo. Cemi cxovrebis naxevari amerikis gareT gavatare da mayureblebiani sportis mimarT naklebi interesi maqvs, fexburTis mimarT _ yvelaze naklebi. ratom gvizidavs gundebi?
mark maleni
bevri dawerila imaze, rom fexbur- damwerlobis mosaZebnad, imis nacvlad, tiuli opozicia Tvlis, rom mTavroTi nacionalizmis dadebiTi, uvnebeli rom Tavidanve mohyveT auTenturi da- bis romelime politikis an gancxadegamoxatulebaa: ukeTesia datkbe fex- mwerloba. erTi periodi zogierTebs bis mxardamWeri erTi sityvac ki udris burTis yurebiT, romelsac wesebi da ideologiis mimarTac msgavsi grZnobe- Ralats da wiTel baraTs opoziciuri msajebi aregulireben, vidre am kuTxiT bi hqondaT. ar hqonda mniSvneloba, es gundisgan. stadionis gareT gamoxato Tavi. ideologia saukeTeso iyo, ergeboda Tu amas vxedav bevri qarTvelis damokirac mawuxebs ki isaa, rom gunduri ara realobas da a.S. is unda yofiliyo debulebaSic amerikis sagareo polimentaloba Cvens cxovrebas filtravs. mxolod da mxolod Cveni _ qarTuli. tikis mimarT. logika aseTia: me var 11 seqtembris teraqtis Semdeg, 2001 es yvelaferi dakavSirebulia mego- qarTveli, anu antikomunisti, ese igi wels amerikaSi erTianobis Zlieri gr- brobasTanac. megobrobis da loialu- antirusi. reigani iyo antikomunisti Znoba warmoiSva, romelmac, nawilobriv robis jaWvebi saqarTveloSi Zalze da respublikeli. buSi cekvavda abaamerikis geografiuli mdebareobis mtkicea. megobrebisgan elian, rom isi- noTubanSi da movwondiT, da isic iyo gamo, nawilobriv ki oportunistuli ni aramegobrebs megobrebs arCeven. ra respublikeli. da vin arian demokrada agresiuli politikuri liderebis Tqma unda, amas bneli mxarec aqvs da tebi? ras akeTeben saerTod: irCeven vimeSveobiT, gadagvawyvetina, rom Rac Sav kacs, romlis Sesaxebac wavsuliyaviT omSi nebismieri aravis araferi gaugia? isini xandaxan zedmeti sicxade, riTac Zalis Tu adamianis winaaRmdeg, raRac damabnevelni arian. ar gundebi xelmZRvaneloben, realobas vinc Cvens fsiqologiaSi TaiReben bevr suraTs miSasTan vdamsxmels Secvlida. Cven amas erTad. sakmarisia CemTvis: me zedmetad amartivebs, imaze metad, suleluri saxeli davarqviT _ respublikelebis mxares var! vidre misi gamartiveba SeiZleba. omi terorizmTan. `maRalCinosani yidulobs mangundebi saqarTveloSic Zaqanis nomers warweriT makeilian Zlieria. maxsendeba is ni, rac fufunebis saqonelia. dro, rodesac Cems qarTvel meuRlesa bevri adamiani amis gamo cixeSi zis. Tu amerikis politika da mTavrobis wevreda me umcrosi Svili gagviCnda. Cemi megobrebi gexmarebian samsaxuris moZe- bis, gansakuTrebiT ministrebis, dameuRlis megobrebi modiodnen mis sana- bnaSi, Wkvianuri xom ar aris, bevri me- mokidebuleba mis mimarT ufro rTuli xavad. bavSvi ramdenime kviris rom Ses- gobari gyavdes, an erTi da gavleniani, sakiTxia, vidre stadionze fexburTiT rulda, ukve gvekiTxebodnen: qarTve- vidre iswavlo da bejiTad imuSao? swa- tkboba. lia, Tu amerikeli? maxsovs, ra ucnauri vla da muSaoba ras mogvitans? Cven vaxdendiT Cveni Tavis organizeamgvari damokidebuleba politika- bas gundebSi, iqidan gamomdinare, rom iyo CemTvis es impulsi _ Cvili bavSvis amgvari kategorizacia. sinamdvileSi, Sic iCens Tavs. bolo xanebamde xeli- varT biologiuri arsebebi. gundebi suflebis wevrebs mkacrad hqondaT saqmes advilad asruleben, magram xanes iyo gundurobis principi. rodesac pirvelad Camovedi saqar- gansazRvruli, Tu vin iyo maT gundSi. daxan zedmeti sicxade, riTac gundebi TveloSi, 1997 wlis dasawyisSi, xalxi isini Tvlidnen, rom vinc maT gundSi xelmZRvaneloben, realobas zedmetad bevrs saubrobda qarTul erovnul ide- ar iyo, mowinaaRmdegeTa gunds mieku- amartivebs, imaze metad, vidre misi gaologiaze. Tu saqarTvelo diadi eri da Tvneboda. erTi kritikuli momenti martiveba SeiZleba. saxelmwifoa, mas undoda Tavisi saku- sakmarisi iyo, rom vinme gundidan gaunda davrwmundeT, rom es sxvaoba Tari da ara sxvisi ideologia. qarTve- egdoT. bolo xanebSi es situacia, Cemi gundebis xasiaTTan dakavSirebiT karlebi yovelTvis zemodan uyurebdnen im azriT, gamosworebis gzazea da amis gad gvesmis. enebs, romlebsac sakuTari damwerloba mizezi bolo arCevnebSi xelisuflebis inglisuridan Targmna giorgi cxadaiam ar gaaCniaT da quCaSi xetiali uwevT warmatebaa. meore mxriv, arademokra-

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liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

interviu

biurokratiam mougo xelisuflebas


interviu Tavisufali universitetis damfuZnebelTan, kaxa benduqiZesTan

ekonomikuri ganviTarebis yofili ministri da reformatorTa jgufis xelmZRvaneli kaxa benduqiZe qveynis ekonomikuri politikis Sesaxeb.
gasul wels prezidentma sazogadoebas `ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis aqti~ warudgina da dahpirda, rom 2011 wlisTvis saqarTveloSi gadasaxadebi daiklebda. axalma sagadasaxado kodeqsma es perspeqtiva 2013 wlisTvis gadawia, gaizarda dabegvris arealic. emxrobiT am gadawyvetilebas? Cemi azriT, gadasaxadebis odenobis sakiTxi Zalian principulia. arsebobs ori midgoma _ erTi is, rom biujets rac SeiZleba meti fuli sWirdeba, da meore _ mTavrobam rac SeiZleba mcire Tanxebi unda gankargos. 2004 wlidan rom SevxedoT, CvenTan biujeti sami faqtoris gamo izrdeboda. pirveli _ Semcirda gadasaxadebi, ufro legaluri gaxda biznesi da mewarmeebma gadaxda daiwyes; meore _ korufcia administrirebam Caanacvla da fuli korumpirebuli biurokratis magivrad biujetisken wavida, da mesame _ investiciebma laris kursi gaamyara. Tu gvinda, rom biujeti kidev ufro gaizardos, axla arsebobs ori gza _ an unda gavzardoT gadasaxadebi da am gziT mosaxleobidan ufro meti fuli avkrifoT, an gadasaxadebi ar gavzardoT da gaizardos ekonomika, rac momavalSi kidev ufro met sagadasaxado Semosavals Seitans biujetSi. am ori SesaZlo variantidan Tqven romels aniWebdiT upiratesobas? me vTvli, rom dRes sakmarisad didi biujeti gvaqvs. Tumca, yvela qveyana sxvadasxvanairad udgeba am sakiTxs. 1960 wlis dasawyisSi singapuri iyo wumpe, romelic axlaxan gaTavisuflda britanelebis jarisgan. maTi wasvlis Semdeg mosaxleobas darCa yazarmebi da patara porti. singapuris mTavrobam gadawyvita, rom gadasaxadebi maqsimalurad mcire hqonoda. 60-ian wlebSi msoflio bankis mier gakeTebuli prognozis mixedviT, singapurs SeeZlo Srilankas ganviTarebis donisTvis mieRwia. dRes singapuri Srilankaze 10-jer ufro SeZlebuli qveyanaa. es ar niSnavs, rom singapuris mTavrobas Secdomebi ar dauSvia, magram dabali gadasaxadebis efeqtma Secdomebi gadawona. amerikasa da evropaSi gadasaxadebi 45 wlis winaT erTnairi iyo. magram mere evropaSi SemoiRes damatebiTi Rirebulebis gadasaxadi. viTom didi araferi _ jer mcire iyo, magram nel-nela gaizarda. dRes sagadasaxado tvirTi TiTqmis orjer ufro metia evropaSi, vidre amerikaSi. amerikaSi dRg ar SemouRiaT. am qveynis ekonomika ufro dinamikurad izrdeba da amerikelebi dRes ufro mdidrebi arian. ar arsebobs zusti pasuxi _ dRevandeli kvercxi jobia, Tu xvalindeli qaTami. Tu Zalian gSia, dRevandeli kvercxia saWiro, magram xvalindeli qaTami ufro metad fasobs. moklevadiani efeqtis miRebis mizniT gadasaxadebis gazrdis politikas, anu dRevandeli kvercxis Wamas, dabali ekonomikuri zrda mohyveba. biujetTan erTad gaizarda saministroebis xarjebic. Tqveni azriT, iyo amis saWiroeba?

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interviu
vTvli, rom xarjebis gazrda swori ar iyo. es moxda imitom, rom xelisuflebas mougo biurokratiam. biurokratiis Secvla SesaZlebelia, mocileba _ ara. Tumca, Secvlac araa martivi saqme. me vTvli, rom xelisuflebas politikurma krizismac SeuSala xeli. garkveulwilad gaimarjva dayvavebis ideam. xSirad ase fiqroben _ biurokratia rom SevamciroT, ewyineba 100 kacs. me ki mgonia, rom mTavaria, ar ewyinos 4 milion adamians. erTi zedmeti biurokrati niSnavs masTan muSaobiT gamwarebul minimum 100 kacs da 10 dakargul samuSao adgils kerZo seqtorSi. roca ministrad muSaoba daviwye, axali TanamSromlebi TiTqmis ar amiyvania, magram ekonomikis saministros da saqveuwyebo dawesebulebebis TanamSromlebi samjer Sevamcire. movida erTi kargi kaci da mekiTxeba, _ ratom apirebT Cems gaSvebaso? diliT movdivar, kabinetSi viketebi, Cemi saqme maqvs, qrTami arasdros amiRia, saministrosTan kavSiri ar maqvs, me xom arafers vakeTebo? vuTxari, rom swored amitom vuSvebdi, magram ver gaigo. mTavroba liberaluri ekonomikuri kursidan gadaxvevas, rogorc wesi, evrokavSiris rekomendaciebiT xsnis. Tqveni azriT, ramdenad obieqturia es argumenti? jer ar varT evropis nawili da sanam suvereniteti gvaqvs, es upiratesoba unda gamoviyenoT. Tu Cven evropis nawili gvinda viyoT, maSin sanacvlod, sargebelic unda vnaxoT. norvegiis erT-erT premier-ministrs hkiTxes, Tu ra wyobaa mis qveyanaSi. man upasuxa: `Cven gvaqvs `faqsis demokratia da ase axsna: dadebuli gvaqvs xelSekruleba evrokavSirTan, rom Cveni kanonmdebloba unda iyos harmonizebuli. briuselidan modis faqsi, rom miiRes axali kanoni da is Cvenc unda miviRoT. gadawyvetileba suverenul qveyanaze ki ar aris damokidebuli, aramed faqsze. Cven jer ar gvaqvs am `safaqso demokratiis danergvis valdebuleba. Cveni muSaoba evrokavSirTan unda iyos merkantiluri, am sityvis yvelaze cinikuri mniSvnelobiT. kanoni qveyanas ise unda moergos, rogorc adamians _ sakuTari tansacmeli. Tu kanoni iqneba gadmowerili, is ubralod ver imuSavebs. Cven SeiZleba wavideT daTmobaze, magram raRac unda miviRoT amis sanacvlod. SeiZleba Tu ara vTqvaT, rom axali sagadasaxado kodeqsi evrokavSiris rekomendaciebs moarges? sagadasaxado kodeqsi ar yofila evrokavSirTan diskusiis sagani. ZiriTadi motivi gadasaxadis akrefis administrirebis wesebis gamartiveba iyo. amas daemTxva biujetis deficitic da axali gadasaxadebis SemoRebis ideac. es ori sxvadasxva cvlileba, finansTa saministros gadawyvetilebiT, erTdroulad moxda. amjobines mTlianad axali sagadasaxado kodeqsis miReba, sadac orive faqtori iqneboda gaTvaliswinebuli. pozitiuria, rom Semodis axali midgomebi, magaliTad, rogoricaa winaswari SeTanxmeba. mewarmes SeuZlia mimarTos finansTa saministros da misgan miiRos axsna, ra gadasaxadebi unda gadaixados da rogor. am dokuments eqneba iuridiuli Zala da sagadasaxado samsaxuri veRar daajarimebs biznesmens imis gamo, rac winaswari SeTanxmebiT ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli. aseTi gadawyvetilebebi miiRebs normatiul xasiaTs da yvela mewarmeze erTnairad gavrceldeba, rac aseve win gadadgmuli nabijia. es reformaa, cxadia. Cemi azriT, mTavrobis diskrecia sagadasaxado kodeqsSi ufro metad unda SeizRudos da dakonkretdes, magram axali midgomebi mainc pozitiuria. irRveva Tu ara am midgomiT sagadasaxado Tanasworoba? zogadad me vemxrobi erTgvarovan sistemas, sadac gadasaxadi yvelasTvis erTnairia. Cemi azriT, is SeRavaTebi, romelic dawesebulia da axla uqmdeba, Tavidan ar unda dawesebuliyo, magram ar vici, ramdenad sworia maTi axla gauqmeba. Cven gvyavs 120 000-ze meti studenti, romlebsac unda avuxsnaT, Tu ratom unda daibegron. Cven gvaqvs kerZo da sajaro umaRlesi saswavleblebi. me is garemoeba mawuxebs, rom SeiZleba sajaro seqtors es fuli ukan daubrunon, kerZos ki, cxadia, ar daubruneben. es didi usindisoba iqneba da araTanabari konkurencia Seiqmneba. erTi wlis winaT prezidentma saqarTvelos `singapurizacia~ daisaxa miznad. dRevandeli ekonomikuri politikis da evrokavSiris gavlenis fonze, kvlav xedavT amis SesaZleblobas? ki, Cven gvaqvs es Sansi. amas, cxadia, bevri mowinaaRmdege hyavs SigniT Tu gareT, magram sxva gza ar gvaqvs. principuli sakiTxia. roca Tbilisidan 40 kilometrSi rusuli tankebi dgas, Tu reformebi ar gavagrZeleT, aRaravin aRar viqnebiT. msoflio bankis kvlevebis mixedviT, bolo 50 wlis ganmavlobaSi erTdroulad imdeni reforma, ramdenic saqarTveloSi Catarda, arc erT qveyanaSi ar Catarebula. bevri sfero, met-naklebi SecdomebiT, magram ZiriTadad warmatebulad SevcvaleT. am reformebis gagrZelebisTvis saWiroa Zveli miRwevebis SenarCuneba da axlis ganviTareba. reformebi aris erTaderTi gza, romelTa meSveobiTac SeiZleba warmatebuli saqarTvelo SevqmnaT. esaubra nino gogua

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msoflio
ruseTi_aSS

!
Tamar kakabaZe
! ! _ es ruseTis prezidentis pirveli originaluri postia, romelic man mikroblog Twitter-ze sakuTar gverdze datova. gasul kviras dmitri medvedevis viziti aSS-Si kaliforniidan, silikonis velis monaxulebiT daiwyo. ukve arsebobs proeqti, romlis mixedviTac, kremli moskovis maxloblad _ skolkovoSi amerikuli silikonis velis analogis Seqmnas apirebs. es iqneba gansakuTrebuli ekonomikuri pirobebis zona, sadac maRali teqnologiebisa da inovaciebis kompaniebi imuSaveben. kaliforniaSi stumrobisas medvedevi Apple -is, Yandex-is, Google -is, Cisco Systems -is xelmZRvanelebs Sexvda, Twitter-ze sakuTari gverdi gaixsna, Apple -is xelmZRvanelisgan axali iPhone 4 miiRo saCuqrad, sityviT gamovida stenfordis universitetSi da barak obamasTan erTad Ray's Hell Burger-is restoranSi hamburgeri da Semwvari kartofili miirTva. `didi xania, ar miWamia hamburgerebi. visauzme barak obamasTan~, _ dawera man Twitter-ze. aSS-Si medvedevs xazgasmulad pompezuri daxvedra mouwyves. politikuri komentatorebi amboben, rom `gadatvirTvis~ Rilaki realurad amuSavda da dadga axali epoqa amerikul-rusul urTierTobebSi. Tumca, amerikul-rusul `gadatvirTvas~ am etapze mxolod erTaderTi sayrdeni aqvs _ uprecedento daTmobebi, rasac kremli barak obamasgan iRebs. medvedevis vizitisas mTavari aqcenti ekonomikaze gakeTda, rac imas niSnavs, rom orive qveyanas surs, gamovides urTierTobaTa im Cixidan, ro-

dmitri medvedevis da barak obamas Sexvedra, vaSingtoni, 24 ivnisi 2010

melSic 2008 wels ruseT-saqarTvelos omis Semdeg aRmoCnda. Tumca, avtoritarul ruseTTan megobroba, SesaZloa, obamas Zviri daujdes, radgan dRes am urTierTobebis normalizeba mxolod misi daTmobebis xarjze xdeba. medvedevis bolo vizitis dros ruseTma aSS-sgan msoflio savaWro organizaciaSi gawevrianebisa da skolkovos SeqmnaSi mxardaWeris piroba miiRo. amerikelebi rusebs uaxloes teqnologiebsac ki gauziareben. kremli bolo dros Zalze ganebivrebulia TeTri saxlis mxridan daTmobebiT. manamde aSS-m aRmosavleTevropeli mokavSireebi gaakvirva, roca ruseTis nebas dahyva da poloneTsa da CexeTSi raketsawinaaRmdego Tavdacvis elementebis ganTavsebaze uari Tqva. ruseTis mimarT daTmobad aRiqves ramdenime Tvis win obamas mier saqarTvelosTan dakavSirebiT gakeTebuli gancxadebac. obamam Tqva, rom saqarTvelo aRar iqneba dabrkoleba ruseTaSS-s urTierTobebSi. medvedevis aSS-i vizitamde erTi dRiT adre obamas administraciam

kremls kidev erTi saCuqari gaukeTa _ teroristTa Sav siaSi Seiyvana CeCen separatistTa lideri doku umarovi. es gadawyvetileba gansakuTrebiT damafiqrebelia im fonze, roca oficialuri vaSingtoni, karga xania, arafers ambobs ruseTSi adamianis uflebebis totaluri darRvevis faqtebze. ra miiRo obamam am daTmobebis sanacvlod? rogorc eqspertebi amboben, mxolod umniSvnelo Semxvedri nabijebi: moskovi aRar moiTxovs SimSilisa da daSlis piras mdgari yirgizeTidan amerikuli aviabazis gayvanas da aseve iranisa da CrdiloeT koreis winaaRmdeg Zalze zomier sanqciebs dauWers mxars. kremli cdilobs, maqsimumi dastyuos TeTr saxls, romelic Tavis mxriv mzadaa, maqsimumi gasces. zedmeti daTmobebiT obamam, SesaZloa, kidev ufro gaafuWos moskovTan urTierTobebi. TeTr saxls aviwydeba, rom ruseTis xelisufleba aSS-sTan konfrontaciis winaaRmdegi sulac ar aris. piriqiT, amerika _ rogorc mTavari gare mteri _ rusuli nacionaluri ideis nawilia.

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19

mezoblebi
CeCneTi

kadirovis arti
ramzan kadirovs ar uyvars Tanamedrove xelovneba. respublikaSi, sadac sulier-zneobrivi da patriotuli aRzrda mimdinareobs, rokerebs, reperebs, abstraqcionistebsa da modernistebs ar aWaWaneben.
laura hasanova

CeCneTis prezidenti ramzan kadirovi nacionaluri cekvis Sesrulebisas, grozno, 2010

rac dro gadis, CeCneTSi sul ufro irRveva adamianis uflebebi. kadirovi, romelsac saxlSi katis nacvlad vefxvi hyavs, respublikas veluri meTodebiT marTavs. adamianis uflebaTa damcvelebi mas adamianTa gatacebebSi, wamebasa da mkvlelobebSi adanaSauleben. misi tirania maTac Seexo, visac arc boevikebTan, arc politikasTan saerTo araferi aqvT _ xelovan xalxs. kadirovi religiur ojaxSi, CeCnuri tradiciebiT gaizarda. dRes

igi CeCneTSi araTu mouwodebs xalxs islamis kanonebiT icxovron, aramed saxelmwifo am tradiciebs ubralod akanonebs da savaldebulos xdis. `demokratia, romelsac dRes evropa Tavs gvaxvevs, ruseTs ar sWirdeba. unda vibrZoloT imisTvis, rom Cvenma momavalma Taobebma ... sakuTari faseulobebi ar dakargon~, _ ganacxada CeCneTis prezidentma 17 ivniss `ruseTis axali ambebis samsaxurTan~ interviuSi.

2008 wlidan, roca CeCneTSi metnaklebi stabiluroba damyarda, kadirovi kulturuli teroriT iqcevs Tavs. magaliTad, respublikaSi koncertis gamarTvis ufleba ar aqvT rok da rep musikis CeCen Semsruleblebs. xolo Tanamedrove cekvebi, vTqvaT, hip-hopi, aq CeCnuri tradiciebis Ralatad miiCneva. `axla koncertebs mxolod bavSvebi ki ara, xanSi Sesuli adamianebic sia-

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mezoblebi
movnebiT daeswrebian~, _ amayad acxadeben kadirovis mTavrobis wevrebi. imisTvis, rom CeCneTSi simReris ufleba moipovo, sagangebo feis-kontroli unda gaiaro. ukve ori welia, CeCeni momRerlebi mxolod mkacri, tradiciuli samosiT gamodian. qalebi valdebulni arian, scenaze Tavdaburulebi iyvnen. simRera mxolod CeCnur enaze SeiZleba. rusulad mxolod maSin mRerian, Tu moskovidan delegacia Cadis. Tavidan es akrZalvebi saxelmwifo filarmoniis xelmZRvanelobam SemoiRo, Semdeg kulturis saministromac aitaca. kulminacia iyo CeCneTis prezidentis televiziiT gamosvla, rodesac man momRerlebs miuTiTa, ra unda Caicvan da rogori simRerebi imReron. es wesebi Zalian awuxebs axalgazrdebs, romlebic, marTalia, sakuTari azris xmamaRla gamoxatvas ver bedaven, magram ar uSveben mcire Sanssac ki, rom respublika datovon. bevri axalgazrda, romelic adre roks mReroda, an Tanamedrove arti ainteresebda, iZulebuli gaxda, sxva saqme moeZebna. zogma ambiciebi daTmo da axal tendenciebs moergo. dasavlur stils ratom ar iSoreb?~ rogorc kadirovi ambobs, dRes scenaze `manWva~ ar aris miRebuli. abdusalimovi da misi megobrebi, ukve ori welia, arsad Canan. kadirovis wesebi marto momRerlebze rodi vrceldeba. igive kriteriumebi moqmedebs, magaliTad, arqiteqtorebzec. yvela samSeneblo proeqts piradad kadirovi amtkicebs. roca kadirovs momavali Tanamedrove sastumros _ `kavkazis~ maketi miutanes, man haerSi xeliT naxevrad mrgvali saxuravi ganasaxiera: `am sastumros zemodan gumbaTi unda daedgas, rom Senobas ufro islamuri ieri mieces~, _ uTxra prezidentma arqiteqtors. kadirovis gemovnebaSi ar Cajda axalgazrdul saqmeTa komitetis SenobasTan wlebis win damontaJebuli uzarmazari Sadrevani, romelic TeTr da cisfer ferebSi iyo gadawyvetili. es Sadrevani yabardoeli arqiteqtoris proeqtiT aSenda da Zalian didxans igeboda. qvis uzarmazari lodi naxevari weliwadi xsnariT muSavdeboda da irandeboda, myinvaris forma rom mieRo. Tanamedrove `raRac gaurkveveli formis da Sinaarsis skulpturebs da naxatebs ar jobia Cveni lamazi buneba vxatoT?~ _ Tqva erTxel ramzan kadirovma teleeTeriT. am sityvebis Semdeg erT-erTi CeCeni mxatvari gogonasTvis, romelsac Tavisi vinaobis gamxela ar surs, yvela gamofenis kari daiketa. `Cemi stilia kubizmi, magram naxatebis gamofenas mikrZalaven. Tavad mikveTaven ra davxato _ magaliTad, axali meCeTi (es meCeTi ramzan kadirovma Tavisi mamis _ axmadis pativsacemad aaSena)~, _ ambobs mxatvari. CeCneTSi moskovis `fabrika zviozdis~ analogiuri proeqti daiwyes, sadac axalbeda momRerlebi erTmaneTs ejibrebian. aq mxolod CeCnur enaze mRerian. monawile gogonebs erTnairi kabebi acviaT da Tavsafrebi axuravT. am cvlilebebis Semxedvare yvela Tanxmdeba, rom ramzan kadirovma CeCneTi rusuli samarTlebrivi da kulturuli sferodan gaiyvana. SeuZlebelia, kremli amas ver xedavdes. cxadia, yvelam icis, ra respublikas aSenebs kadirovi, magram moskovSi amaze Tvals xuWaven, imitom rom mxo-

ruseTTan urTierTobebis `gadatvirTviT~ aRtyinebuli aSS, marTalia, CeCen savele meTaurs doku umarovs saerTaSoriso teroristad acxadebs, magram amave dros gulgrilad xuWavs Tvals tiranze, romelic CeCneTis moqmedi prezidentia.

dRes CeCneTSi moduria ramzan kadirovze, mis dedaze, mamasa da vaJze simRerebis Seqmna. momRerali ali abdusalimovi, romelic CeCneTSi erT dros cnobili rok-momRerali iyo, Taviseburi varcxnilobiTa da Cacmis maneriT, bolos televiziiT 2009 wels, gadacema `gulwrfel saubarSi~ gamoCnda. gadacemaSi monawile erT-erTma stumarma mas agresiulad Seutia: `ratom ar asruleb xalxur simRerebs da am

stiliT Sesrulebuli es Sadrevani irgvliv mdgari nacrisferi nagebobebisgan mkveTrad gamoirCeoda da groznoelebs mis fonze fotoebis gadaReba uyvardaT. erT mSvenier dRes qalaqis merma Sadrevnis aRebis brZaneba gasca, radgan, misi TqmiT, respublikaSi tradiciuli koSkebiT, arwivebiT da bunebrivi mTis qvebiT damSvenebuli Sadrevnebi unda daidgas. es Sadrevanic gasuli wlis bolos gaaqres.

lod kadirovia is adamiani, visac dRes CeCneTSi moCvenebiTi, fasaduri stabilurobis SenarCuneba SeuZlia. cxadia, es yvelaferi ician dasavleTSic, Tumca ruseTTan urTierTobebis `gadatvirTviT~ aRtyinebuli aSS, marTalia, CeCen separatistTa liders doku umarovs saerTaSoriso teroristad acxadebs, magram amave dros gulgrilad xuWavs Tvals tiranze, romelic CeCneTis moqmedi prezidentia.

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

21

mezoblebi
sabWoTa warsuli ukrainaSi

stalini ukrainaSi
ukrainis industriul qalaqSi sabWoTa beladis Zegli aRmarTes. azrTa sxvadasxvaoba, rac stalinis qandakebis inauguracias mohyva, kidev erTxel warmoaCens gansxvavebas ukrainis nacionalistur dasavleTsa da prorusul aRmosavleTs Soris.
meTiu qolini, zaporoJie, ukraina
Suaxnis mamakaci Tavisi gmiris monumentisken kibeebs miuyveba, piedestalTan TeTri yvavilebis Taiguls debs, pativiscemis niSnad, Tavs xris da erTxans ase mdumared yovndeba im kacis Zeglis winaSe, romelsac uamravi adamiani uwodebs istoriaSi yvelaze sastik diqtators. stalinis metalis figura, beladis cnobili CibuxiT, pirveli Zeglia, romelic ukrainaSi aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi aRmarTes. SeiZleba, qandakeba zomiT mcire iyos, magram im fonze, rom sakuTar istoriaze ukrainaSi isedac bevrs davoben, stalinis Zegli polemikis mizezi mainc gaxda. Tumca, gaxarebuli iyo kaci, romelmac belads TeTri Taiguli usaxsovra. `stalinma grandiozuli imperia aaSena da sabWoTa kavSirs meore msoflio omSi gamarjveba moupova, _ amtkicebda is, _ CemTvis stalini yvela droisa da eris udidesi figuraa, _ Tqva man, _ msoflio istoriaSi is pirveli kacia. zogi ambobs, _ stalins Secdomac bevri hqondao, _ magram ara, stalins mTeli cxovrebis manZilze arc erTi Secdoma ar dauSvia. yoveli misi gadawyvetileba uzado iyo~. Semdeg man amayad gvaCvena sakuTari partbileTi, romelzec saxelis grafaSi ewera: `georgi stalini~. beladis siyvaruliT am

stalinis qandakeba zaporoJieSi, ukraina

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mezoblebi
ukrainels gvari hqonda gadakeTebuli. saqarTveloSi stalinis Zeglis aRebis Sesaxeb debatebi didxans grZeldeboda, magram ukrainaSi sabWoTa diqtatoris Zeglis aRmarTvaSi komunistebisTvis oficialur struqturebs xeli ar SeuSliaT. inauguraciis ceremoniali ukrainis industriul qalaq zaporoJieSi maisSi gaimarTa. komunisturi partiis asobiT mxardamWeri sazeimod afrialebda wiTel almebs, ismendprezidentis viqtor iuSCenkos CaTvliT, sjera, rom masobrivi SimSiloba sabWoTa mmarTvelobis mier oficialurad sanqcirebuli genocidi iyo. Tumca, qveynis axalma, prorusulma liderma viqtor ianukoviCma ganacxada, rom marTalia, stalinis `totalitaruli reJimia~ SimSilobaze pasuxismgebeli, magram es iyo ubralod tragedia, romelmac ramdenime sabWoTa respublika daazarala da amitom genocidis klasifikacia am SemTxvevas ar unda qali iyo is, vinc biWi moxarSa da Wama~. ukrainis dedaqalaqSi, sabWoTa okupaciis muzeumSi, tkaCukisa da misi Tanamemamuleebis msgavsi mogonebebi inaxeba. muzeums uZRveba istorikosi roman kruciki, romelmac ukrainaSi sabWoTa reJimis danaSaulebaTa kvlevas wlebi Sealia. is dRes okupaciis muzeums sakuTari pensiiT afinansebs, radgan Segnebulad ambobs uars yovelgvar samTavrobo subsidiaze. miuxedavad

`ukrainelma komunistebma stalinis qandakebis aRmarTva mas Semdeg gabedes, rac ukrainas saTaveSi prorusuli mTavroba Caudga. kremlma SeiZleba ianukoviCis mTavroba aiZulos, okupaciis muzeumis daxurvis brZaneba gaices~.

nen sabWoTa himnsa da stalinis gamosvlebis Canawerebs. `is ubadlo iyo, _ ganacxada zaporoJies komunisturi partiis wevrma aleqsandr zubCevskim, _ CamorCenil qveyanas Caudga saTaveSi da roca midioda, ukve birTvuli iaraRi gvqonda~. Tumca, zaporoJies danarCeni mosaxleoba stalinis Zeglis aRmarTvam saSinlad gaaRiziana. `Tavisuflebis~ partiis aqtivistma, vitali podlobnikovma Zeglis inauguracias kriminali uwoda. `es igivea, israelSi anda germaniaSi hitleris qandakeba rom aRmarTo. stalinis reJims Cemi ojaxis eqvsi wevri Seewira~, _ Tqva man. 1930-ian wlebSi masobriv SimSilobas, romelic ukrainaSi `golodomoris~ saxeliTaa cnobili, ramdenime milioni adamiani emsxverpla. SimSilobis gamomwvevi mizezi stalinis politika iyo soflis meurneobis sferoSi. es istoriuli faqti is sakiTxia, romelic kidev erTxel warmoaCens gansxvavebas ukrainis nacionalistur dasavleTsa da prorusul aRmosavleTs Soris. zogierT ukrainels, yofili

mieces. vladimir tkaCuki rva wlis iyo, roca 1932 wlis SimSiloba daiwyo. naTesavebi Tvalwin ukvdeboda da dRes ambobs, rom am saSinel mogonebebs stalinsa da sabWoTa reJims arasdros apatiebs. yovel dilas mis sofels cxenebSebmuli furgoni daivlida xolme, orRobeebi gvamebisgan rom gaewminda da saWmlis ZiebaSi gardacvlili ukrainelebis cxedrebi saZmo sasaflaoze gadaetana. `ar arsebobda ojaxi, romelmac im periodSi erTi wevri mainc ar dakarga~, _ ambobs tkaCuki. magram kidev ufro Semzaravi iyo uWmelobisgan SeSlili adamianebis cqera, romlebic kaciWamiebad qceuliyvnen. tkaCuks axsovs aseTi faqtic, Tu rogor Sevida erTi patara biWi mezoblis saxlSi, ukan ki cocxali aRar gamosula. `axlos rom mivediT, vnaxeT, rom saxlis kedlebi da Weri sisxliT iyo moTxvrili, _ hyveba tkaCuki, _ vnaxeT, naWrebad akepili biWis sxeulic, romelic im ojaxs qilebSi hqonda Senaxuli. erT-erTi qila ukve gaexsnaT da moexarSaT kidec.

imisa, rom es dawesebuleba gacilebiT pataraa, vidre Tbilisis sabWoTa okupaciis muzeumi, romlis koleqciaSic represiebis dros Sublgaxvretili adamianebis Tavis qalebic Sedis, am adgilas mainc STambeWdavad cocxldeba komunisturi epoqis represiebis Semzaravi qronikebi. kruciki darwmunebulia, rom ukrainelma komunistebma stalinis qandakebis aRmarTva mas Semdeg gabedes, rac ukrainas saTaveSi prorusuli mTavroba Caudga. is SiSobs, rom kremlma SeiZleba ianukoviCis mTavroba aiZulos, misi muzeumis daxurvis brZaneba gaices. Tumca, muzeumis mmarTveli imaSic darwmunebulia, rom sabWoTa beladis reputaciis aRdgenis yoveli mcdeloba ukrainaSi marcxiT dasruldeba. `rogorc unda scadon warsulis miCqmalva, simarTle mainc izeimebs, _ ambobs is, _ stalinis mier Cadenil danaSaulebs verasdros daviviwyebT. mudam gvemaxsovreba is milionobiT adamianic, romlebic mis mmarTvelobas Seewirnen, gansakuTrebiT ki _ ukrainaSi~.

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konfliqtebi
afxazeTi

afxazebi rusul fuls ar Tmoben


10 miliardi rubli is Temaa, sadac afxazebma ruseTTan ar daTmes.
inal xaSigi, soxumi
afxazeTis prezidenti sergei baRafSi mosaxleobas sensaciur dapirebas aZlevs. misi TqmiT, Zalian male igi respublikaSi korufcias daamarcxebs. afxazeTSi, sadac korufcia ise yvavis, rogorc vardisferi oleandri gazafxulze, baRafSis danapirebis cota vinmes sjera. `saxelmwifo Cinovnikebis mxridan fulis gamoZalvis nebismier faqtTan dakavSirebiT maSinve darekeT prezidentis an premier-ministris misaRebSi. ar aris aucilebeli vinaobis dasaxeleba. nebismier zarze maSinve movaxdenT reagirebas~, _ ganacxada afxazeTis prezidentma sergei baRafSma televiziiT. man aseve aRniSna, rom amJamad mowmdeba informacia imis Taobaze, rom privatizaciis fondi, mcire da saSualo biznesis ganviTarebisTvis specialuri kreditebis gacemis sanacvlod, mosaxleobisgan qrTams iRebda. `Seiqmneba efeqturi kontrolis sistema, raTa saxelmwifos mier biznesis ganviTarebisTvis gamoyofili Tanxebi miznobrivad daixarjos~, _ Tqva prezidentma. bolo erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi es gaxldaT baRafSis meore gancxadeba, sadac igi korufciasTan brZolaze saubrobda. arada, wina wlebSi am problemis arsebobas xelisufleba hipoTetur donezec ki ar aRiarebda. ra aris am uecari gamofxizlebis mizezi? afxaz Cinovnikebs qrTamis aReba erTi Tvis win ki ar uswavliaT. am praqtikas isini wina wlebSic aqtiurad mimarTavdnen da sakuTar finansur keTildReobas iqmnidnen. Tanac `samuSao~ pirobebi idealuri iyo _ araviTari riski. mezobel ruseTSi, romelic aseve Caflulia korufciaSi, asea Tu ise, zogjer SeiZleba vinme daiWiron, patimrobis realuri

sergei baRafSi

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liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

konfliqtebi
vada miusajon, moparuli qoneba CamoarTvan. afxazeTSi arasodes araferi msgavsi ar momxdara. yvelaze didi, risac xelmrud Cinovniks unda eSinodes, samsaxuridan daTxovnaa. da sasjelis es `umaRlesi zomac~ mxolod Zalze gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi gamoiyeneboda. cali xelis TiTebia sakmarisi im Cinovnikebis CamosaTvlelad, romlebsac ar gaumarTlaT da saSovars moswyvites. albaT baRafSi manamdec saqmis kursSi iyo Tavisi xelqveiTebis sisusteebis Taobaze (is xom arc mefe-batonia da arc amxanagi stalini, adgilobriv darRvevebze rom araferi icodes), magram am procesisTvis xelis SesaSlelad araviTar Zalisxmevas ar iyenebda. albaT, acnobierebda imasac, rom yvela mniSvnelovan sferoSi seriozuli reformebis gareSe, situaciis kardinalurad Secvla SeuZlebelia. am reformebisTvis ki baRafSi mzad arasodes yofila. miuxedavad misi bolo Tvis ritorikisa, revoluciuri cvlilebebisTvis mzadyofnis niSnebi arc axla etyoba. baRafSma icis, rom es sarisko TamaSia. Tu korufciasTan brZolas igi marTlac daapirebs, maSin gardauvlad mouwevs, daupirispirdes usindisod gamdidrebul, TiTqos safuariT gaberil biurokratiul aparats; Tanac, warmatebis yovelgvari garantiis gareSe. arada, baRafSi revolucioneri politikosi sruliad ar aris. misi lozungia stabiluri ganviTareba. garda amisa, is momaval saprezidento arCevnebze ukve veRar iyris kenWs. ase rom, ra azri aqvs saxifaTo kampaniaSi Cabmas? aramarto xelisuflebis kritikosebma, Tavad xelisuflebamac mSvenivrad icis, rom korufciasTan brZolaSi misi maqsimumi dRes ndobis telefonebis amuSavebaa. an axals ras ityvis anonimuri zaris avtori? iseTs verafers, rac satelefono xazis meore boloSi ar ician. baRafSis iniciativiT dawyebuli korufciasTan `brZolis~ saTaveebi ufro sagareo faqtorSi unda veZeboT. naxevar weliwadze metia, respublikis xelisufleba daZabul molaparakebebs awarmoebs kremlTan, imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu vin unda gaakontrolos ruseTidan afxazeTSi Semosuli finansuri daxmareba. laparakia sakmaod did fulze. ruseTma valdebuleba aiRo, uaxloesi sami wlis manZilze afxazeTs 10 miliardi rubli (600 milioni lari) gamouyos. moskovis survili iyo, regionuli ganviTarebis saministros calke direqcia Seeqmna da Semdeg am direqcias piradad gaekontrolebina afxazeTSi gagzavnili Tanxebis xarjva. bunebrivia, es gegma afxazeTSi Zalian ar moewonaT. jer erTi, es iqneboda pirdapiri da yvelaze mokle gza gareSe qveynis mier afxazeTis srulad marTvisa; da meorec _ afxazur biurokratias, ukve didi xania, dalagebuli aqvs gegmebi imis Taobaze, rogor aiTvisos aseTi soliduri daxmareba. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac nacionaluri interesebi aranairad ar ewinaaRmdegeba piraduls. sabolood, qveynis SigniT sayovelTao mxardaWeriT gaTamamebulma da patriotuli motivaciiT zurggamagrebulma afxazma Cinovnikebma, romlebic molaparakebebSi monawileobdnen, kremls gaafTrebuli winaaRmdegoba gauwies: bolo ori welia, maT aseTi simtkice ar gamouvleniaT. ruseTis mxridan afxazeTis saxelmwifoebriobis aRiarebis Semdeg, madlierebis niSnad, oficialurma soxumma bevr Zalian mniSvnelovan sakiTxSi dauTmo moskovs. maT Soris _ sazRvris erToblivi dacvis, samxedro TanamSromlobis sakiTxebSi, rac qveynis erovnul interesebs azaralebda. yvelaze principuli soxumi maSin aRmoCnda, roca saqme fulis aTvisebasa da kontrols Seexo. am saqmeSi kremlTan SeTanxmeba afxazeTma ar isurva. rogorc ityvian, _ `celi qvas moxvda~. premier-ministrma sergei Sambam Tavis bolo preskonferenciaze Riad ganacxada am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT xelisuflebis poziciis Sesaxeb. `gaTvaliswinebuli iyo regionuli ganviTarebis saministrosTan arsebuli rusuli direqciis Camoyalibeba, romelsac faqtobrivad unda emarTa Semosuli fuladi saxsrebi. Cven amas kategoriulad vewinaaRmdegebodiT, radgan vTqviT, rom Cven ruseTis regioni ar varT. ruseTis federaciis regionuli ganviTarebis saministro Cven nacvlad ar unda wyvetdes, ra da rogor davxarjoT. gvyavs mTavroba, romelic mzadaa TanamSromlobisTvis. magram Tavad gadavwyvetT, sad da rogor mivmarToT es saxsrebi da rogor vakontroloT. vnaxeT, Tu rogori uTanxmoeba gamoiwvia samxreT oseTSi msgavsi direqciis mier analogiuri proeqtebis ganxorcielebam, da aseTi Sedegi sruliad ar gvWirdeba. ar gvinda, igive gavimeoroT. Cven sakuTari midgoma gvaqvs. sakiTxi ise gadawydeba, rogorc Cven vTavazobdiT. fuli gamogzavnon, da am proeqtebs Tavad mivxedavT~, _ ganacxada mTavrobis xelmZRvanelma. Tumca, samxreTosuri precedenti mxolod soxumisTvis ki ara, kremlisTvisac mniSvnelovani mtkicebulebaa. marTalia, kokoiTi rusuli daxmarebis miTvisebaSi regionuli ganviTarebis saministros rezidentebs adanaSaulebs, magram isini Tavis mxriv imave danaSaulSi swored kokoiTis da mis garemocvas sdeben brals. savaraudod, istoria ganmeordeba afxazeTSic. moskovi Seecdeba, cxinvalis msgavsad, soxumis Sida saqmeebSic Caerios. misi oficialuri argumenti igive iqneba, rac samxreT oseTSia _ ruseTisgan miRebuli daxmarebis aramiznobrivad xarjva. albaT swored rusuli fulis molodins ukavSirdeba afxazeTis xelisuflebis mxridan korufciasTan brZolis uecari survili.

statia momzadebulia hainrih biolis fondis mxardaWeriT. am publikaciaSi gamoTqmuli Sexedulebebi da mosazrebebi ar aris aucilebeli, gamoxatavdes hainrih biolis fondis Sexedulebebs.

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Jurnalisturi gamoZieba
ilustracia serga nemsiwveriZe

narkotikebis tranziti

saqarTvelos narkotikuli respublika


saqarTveloSi yovelwliurad

2,4 tona heroini iyideba, saidanac narkorealizatorebi minimum 700-milionian mogebas naxuloben.

2 wlis manZilze ki policiam mxolod

18 kilogrami heroini amoiRo.


Tvelos SemTxvevaSi, cifri cota gazviadebulia: zusti statistikuri monacemebi ar arsebobs, imitom, rom narkomanebi sajarod ar amboben narkomani varo~, _ ambobs SoTa utiaSvili, romlis varaudiT,

nana nasyidaSvili, studia `monitori. werili dafinansebulia evrokomisiis mier


gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciisa da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saxelmwifo departamentis narkotikebTan brZolis biuros monacemebiT, saqarTveloSi 240 aTasidan 350 aTasamde narkomania, xolo somxeTSi _ 160 aTasi, azerbaijanSi _ 20 aTasi, yazaxeTSi ki _ 25 aTasi. saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros analitikuri departamentis ufrosi miiCnevs, rom saqar-

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liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

Jurnalisturi gamoZieba
saqarTveloSi narkomanTa raodenoba 250 aTasis farglebSia. saqarTvelo _ heroinis satranzito qveyana 2009 wlis seqtemberSi gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis narkotikebTan da danaSaulTan brZolis ganyofilebam avRanuri heroinis msoflios masStabiT gavrcelebis sakiTxze moxseneba gaavrcela. masSi aRniSnulia, rom yovelwliurad evropaSi, saqarTvelos gavliT, 7 tona heroini Sedis, xolo mTlianad samxreTi kavkasiis qveynebidan _ 11 tona. gaero-s moxsenebaSi heroinis moZraobis marSrutebi detaluradaa ganxiluli. avRanuri warmoSobis narkotiki saqarTveloSi ZiriTadad ori gziT xvdeba. pirveli: avRaneTi _ irani _ azerbaijani _ saqarTvelo da meore: avRaneTi _ TurqmeneTi _ azerbaijani _ saqarTvelo. am gzebidan ZiriTadi iranis marSrutia, saidanac regionSi yovelwliurad 9 tona heroini SemoaqvT. saqarTveloSi heroini ZiriTadad wiTeli xidis gavliT xvdeba da foTis portidan bornebiT evropisken igzavneba. gaero-s moxsenebaSi miTiTebulia, rom foTidan bulgareTisken mimavali narkotranzitis gza SedarebiT axalia. narkogadazidvebis es axali marSruti, romelic 2007-2008 wlebSi gaizarda, bolomde gamokvleuli ar aris. saqarTvelos pirdapiri saborne mimosvla aqvs ukrainis iliCevskis portTan da bulgareTis burgasis portTan. saqarTvelodan gasul bornebs heroini swored am portebSi CaaqvT. mezobeli qveynebis Zalovan struqturebs heroinis didi partiebi sazRvarze araerTxel daukavebiaT. 2008 wlis 16 dekembers BostonHerald.com-ma informacia gaavrcela, romlis mixedviTac, bulgareTSi mesazRvreebma satvirTo manqanebSi damaluli 400 kilogrami heroini amoiRes. manqanebi bulgareTSi foTis portidan borniT Caitanes. analogiuri SemTxveva ukrainaSic moxda. iliCevskis portSi 105 kilogrami heroini ipoves. narkotikebi ukrainaSic foTis portidan moxvda. informacia ukrainis saxelmwifo sasazRvro samsaxuris oficialurma veb-gverdma 2007 wlis 29 noembers gaavrcela. 2007 wels ukrainaSi saqarTvelodan heroinis didi partiis Catanis es ukve meore SemTxveva iyo. pirveli 23 ivliss dafiqsirda. maSin foTis portidan gasuli 174,5 kilogrami narkotikis kontrabanda daakaves. saqarTvelodan iliCevskis portSi Sesul gemze narkotiki didxans eZebes. yvelaferi Seamowmes, magram heroinis povna mxolod ZaRlis saSualebiT SeZles. eqspertebi amboben, rom sabaJoze gawvrTnili ZaRlebis yola narkotranzitTan sabrZolvelad Cveni qveynisTvis aucilebelia. `am etapze Semosavlebis samsaxurs kinologiuri ganyofileba ar gaaCnia da Sesabamisad, ar gvyavs gawvrTnili ZaRlebi, romlebsac narkotikebis mosaZebnad gamoviyenebdiT~, _ aRniSna sabaJo kontrolis sammarTvelos ufrosma giga xvindiam. heroinis transportirebisTvis trailerebs iyeneben, maT saerTaSoriso satranzito niSani TIR aqvT da sabaJoze rentgeno-skaneris meSveobiT SerCeviT amowmeben. `Cven gvaqvs specialuri riskis marTvis programa, romliTac iseT tvirTebs vavlenT, romlebsac sariskod vTvliT da am SemTxvevaSi vaxdenT an dokumentur, an fizikur Semowmebas. ori wlis win daviwyeT am tvirTebis rentgeno-skanerebiT Semowmebac~, _ aRniSna giga xvindiam. 2 wlis manZilze policiam 18 kilo heroini amoiRo gaero-s garda, saqarTveloSi arsebuli narkotrefikis problemis Sesaxeb kidev erTi mniSvnelovani dokumenti 2008 wels amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis narkotikebTan brZolis biurom gamosca. am monacemebze dayrdnobiT advili gamosaangariSebelia, Tu ra raodenobis narkotiki rCeba saqarTveloSi. angariSis Tanaxmad, samxreT kavkasiaSi 11 tona narkotiki Semodis da saqarTvelos sazRvao portis saSualebiT gadis 7 tona. regionis sam qveyanaSi: somxeTSi, azerbaijansa da saqarTveloSi rCeba saSualod 4 tona. narkomanebis raodenobis Sesaxebac aris monacemebi. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTveloSi daaxloebiT 2,4 tona heroini unda rCebodes. `am etapze moklebulni varT SesaZleblobas, mogawodoT informacia narkotikuli saSualebebis amoRebisa da ganadgurebis Sesaxeb, vinaidan amJamad mimdinareobs informaciis damuSaveba, rac dros moiTxovs~, _ gvipasuxes Sinagan saqmeTa saministroSi. Sinagan saqmeTa ministrma rusTavi 2~-is eTerSi ganacxada: `arasdros saqarTveloSi ar amouRiaT imdeni narkotiki, ramdenic bolo wlebSi amoviReT~. Sss-s veb-gverdze ori monacemi movipoveT. 2007 wels Sss-m _ 9kg da 783 grami, xolo 2008 wels 8 kg da 332 grami heroini amoiRo, anu ori wlis manZilze sul _ 18 kilogrami. wels ki Sinagan saqmeTa saministrom ivnisSi narkotrefikis erTi saqme gaxsna. dakavebulia narkokartelSi CarTuli 5 qarTveli da amoRebulia 1 750 000 evro. policiam 180 grami kokaini ipova, Tumca samarTaldamcavebma Tqves, rom 2009 wels am dajgufebam saqarTvelodan TurqeTSi 90 kilogrami kokaini gadaitana. es narkotiki samxreTi amerikidan saqarTveloSi jarTSi gadamaluli SemohqondaT. Sss ar dainteresda, Tu ratom SemohqondaT jarTi foTSi, maSin roca Tavad saqarTvelo jarTis eqsportiori qveyanaa da evropaSi is gacilebiT Zviri Rirs.

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Jurnalisturi gamoZieba
erTaderTi gamarTleba, rac narkotikebis am siSoreze Camotanas hqonda _ narkomovaWreebis mier kontrolirebuli foTis portia, vinaidan am narkotikis daniSnulebis adgilic evropa gaxldaT. sainteresoa Sss-s mier gavrcelebuli informacia kokainis marSrutis Sesaxebac. foTis ports am istoriaSic, iseve rogorc ukanono narkotikebis tranzitTan dakavSirebul CvenTvis yvela cnobil SemTxvevaSi, mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia. rentgeno-skanerebiT aRWurvili qarTuli sabaJo an ususuria narkotikebis aRmoCenis kuTxiT an narkobiznesSi CarTuli pirebis seriozuli kontrolis qveS imyofeba. espaneTSi mcxovrebi kanonieri qurdis, Saqro kalaSovis mfarvelobiT, kokaini panamidan, perudan da kolumbiidan saqarTveloSi CamohqondaT. narkotiki saqarTveloSi swored foTis saSualebiT Semodioda. mas imereTSi afasoebdnen, Semdeg ki TurqeTSi gadahqondaT. `saqarTvelos mTavrobas tranzitiT gamavali narkotikebis Taobaze sando statistikuri monacemebi ar gaaCnia. saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministro miuTiTebs, rom 20042006 wlebSi da 2007 wlis pirveli cxra Tvis ganmavlobaSi narkotikebis mniSvnelovani raodenoba ar amouRiaT. es, SesaZloa, niSnavdes, rom saqarTvelo satranzito qveyana ar aris an policiis araadekvatur muSaobasa da SesaZlo korufciaze miuTiTebs`, _ aRniSnulia amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saxelmwifo departamentis narkotikebTan brZolis biuros moxsenebaSi. gasakeTebeli jer kidev bevria~ gia gaCeCilaZes, mwvaneTa partiis Tavmjdomares milionobiT dolaris Rirebulebis heroinis uproblemod gadaadgileba xelisuflebis mfarvelobis gareSe SeuZleblad miaCnia: `Cven vambobT, rom

80

ton

6 t ona

82

ton

saqarTvelos teritoriidan evropaSi 7 tona heroini gadis, 2,4 tona ki adgilze trialebs. gamodis, rom qveyanaSi 9-10 tona sufTa heroini moZraobs, da rodesac mxolod 8 kilo aqvT amoRebuli, es raze metyvelebs?!~ Zalovani struqturebis narkobiznesTan kavSiris Taobaze informacia qarTul mediaSic gaCnda. 2005 wels gavrcelda informacia, rom sod-is yofili TanamSromlebi Temur revaziSvili da giorgi xuxia departamentis ufrosobas _ irakli koduasa da mis moadgile kaxa misirels narkorealizatorebTan kavSirsa da mkvlelobis mcdelobaSi adanaSauleben. Temur revaziSvilis informaciiT, am incidentam-

de cota xniT adre departamentis Tavmjdomarem, irakli koduam mas narkotikebis erT-erTi gamsaReblis winaaRmdeg sagamoZiebo moqmedebebis Sewyveta, narkotikebis realizatorebTan TanamSromloba da realizaciidan Semosuli Tanxebis ganawileba SesTavaza. revaziSvilma amaze uari ganacxada da samsaxuridan wamosvlis Taobaze pataki dawera, Tumca erTi kviris Semdeg, TanamSromlebis TxovniT, samsaxurSi dabrunda. amis Semdeg, revaziSvilis TqmiT, 21 maiss igi motyuebiT wyneTisken waiyvana misma TanamSromelma da megobarma, kaxa miruaSvilma, cota xanSi kodua da misirelic mividnen. revaziSvilis TqmiT, mas operatiuli departamen-

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liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

Jurnalisturi gamoZieba
1 ton a
movaWreebs, romlebTanac, savaraudod, TanamSromlobs kidec.

RUSSIA

to

na

to

na

95
2 to

ton

yovelwliurad evropaSi, saqarTvelos gavliT, 7 tona heroini Sedis, xolo mTlianad samxreTi kavkasiis qveynebidan _ 11 tona. gaero-s moxsenebaSi heroinis moZraobis marSrutebi detaluradaa ganxiluli. avRanuri warmoSobis narkotiki saqarTveloSi ZiriTadad ori gziT xvdeba.
liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

tis Svidi TanamSromeli sastikad scemda, Semdeg ki mokvla daupires. revaziSvili acxadebs, rom Tavs gaqceviT uSvela. momxdarTan dakavSirebiT Tavisuflebis institutma maSin preskonferencia moawyo da prokuraturisgan saqmis gamoZieba moiTxova. prokuraturas Cvenc mivmarTeT da davinteresdiT, daiwyo Tu ara winaswari gamoZieba giorgi xuxiasa da Temur revaziSvilis saCivarTan dakavSirebiT. agreTve, ra gadawyvetileba miiRo saqarTvelos generalurma prokuraturam. pasuxi arc erT kiTxvaze ar migviRia. narkomomxmareblebi mianiSneben, rom saxelmwifo maT ufro did problemebs uqmnis, vidre narko-

avRanuri heroinis qarTuli milionebi damokidebulebis kvleviTi centris `alternativa jorjias~ direqtoris TqmiT, saSualo qarTveli momxmareblis erTjeradi doza 100-200 miligrami sufTa heroinia, romelic egreT wodebul Cekebad iyideba. erTi Cekis fasi saSualod 250 laria. `heroinis koncentracia arsad ar aris 100-procentiani. masSi meti wili sxvadasxva nivTierebis minarevebia~, _ aRniSnavs daviT oTiaSvili. saqarTveloSi erTi abi suboteqsi, romelic evropaSi 5 dolarad iyideba, 700 lari Rirs. momxmarebelTa TqmiT, gayidvisas mas anawevreben. `suboteqsi 250 lari Rirs, magram meoTxedi. naxevars uZaxian, mara is naxevaric ar aris. Camofxekili da naCaliCebia. mTliani abi 700 lari Rirs. magram Zalian iSviaTad Tu iyidi gautexav abs~, _ ambobs erT-erTi respondenti. araoficialuri monacemebiT, erTi grami heroinis fasi saqarTveloSi 500 laria. gaero-s dokumentis mixedviT ki, 2007 wels erTi grami heroini 350 dolari Rirda. Cveni qveynis narkobiznesis Sesafaseblad es fasi 2 tona heroinze gavamravleT. irkveva, rom qarTul narkobiznesSi, sul cota, 700 milioni dolari Savi fuli trialebs. narkomania _ biujetis Sevsebis wyaro 2010 wlis 1 ianvrisTvis Sinagan saqmeTa saministroSi, eqspertizis erovnul biuroSi da narkologiis samedicino kvleviT institutSi erTianad aRricxulia 70 000-mde piri, romelic narkotiks moixmars. eqspertebi amboben, rom narkomanTa mimarT saqarTvelos xelisuflebis araswori midgoma viTarebas auaresebs. `yvela piri,

o 9t na

na

29

Jurnalisturi gamoZieba
narkotikuli saSualebebis momxmarebeli da narkotikuli saSualebebis gamsaReblebi faqtobrivad eqvemdebarebian erTsa da imave pasuxismgeblobas~, _ aRniSnavs iuristi aleqs SoSikelaSvili. `magaliTad, pirovnebas upoves naxevari grami heroini _ erTi aris momxmarebeli, meore aris bariga~, orives Tanabrad dasjian. dRes kanoni amaT orives gauSvebs 10 wliT cixeSi. anu gadamyidveli unda gavuSvaT 10 wliT cixeSi, Tu vupoveT naxevari grami, magram Tu momxmarebels vupoveT naxevari grami, rac misi ori dRis doza SeiZleba iyos da ver vudasturebT rom gadamyidvelia, 10 wliT ar unda gavuSvaT cixeSi~, _ ambobs daviT oTiaSvili. saqarTvelo gaero-s 1961 wlis konvenciis xelmomweria. dokumenti narkoproblemis mosagvareblad mxareebs narkomanebis mkurnalobis rekomendacias aZlevs. eqspertebis TqmiT, saqarTveloSi, mkurnalobis nacvlad, narkomomxmareblebis winaaRmdeg represiebi xorcieldeba. `cixeSi Semogviyvanes narkomani axalgazrda biWi. damoukideblad ver moZraobda. biWebi vuvlidiT. imas ra unda cixeSi? imas rom rame eSvelos, saswrafod unda umkurnalo~, _ gviTxra Cvenma narkomanma respondentma. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 274-e muxli narkodamokidebuli adamianis iZulebiT mkurnalobas gulisxmobs, Tumca 2006 wlidan dRemde es muxli aravisTvis SeufardebiaT. narkotikis moxmarebis faqtze pirvelad dakavebis SemTxvevaSi, administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsiT, jarima 500 lars Seadgens. Tu pirs ganmeorebiT daudasturdeba erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi narkotikis moxmareba an SeZena, Senaxva, maSin mis winaaRmdeg amoqmeddeba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 273-e muxli. am muxliT jarima SeiZleba iyos 1000 lari an ufro meti. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 273-e muxliT gadaxdili jarimebis raodenobam bolo sam weliwadSi 21 169 825 lari Seadgina. administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis 45-e muxliT gadaxdili jarimebis raodenobam ki _ 2 766 120 lari. mniSvnelovania is faqtori, rom saxelmwifos mier amoRebuli milionebidan narkomaniiT daavadebul pirebis mkurnalobaze gasul wels 2 milion 200 aTas laramde daixarja. eqspert nino gvenetaZis azriT, es araswori politikaa da is mxolod jarimebis saSualebiT fulis amoRebazea orientirebuli. `Cven am xalxs uzarmazar jarimebs varTmevT. es jarimebi miemarTeba saxelmwifo biujetSi da erT wreze vbrunavT. mere am adamianebs isev gamovuSvebT, mere isev davakavebT, mere isev jarimas gadavaxdevinebT. saxelmwifom am jarimebs daumatos sxva Tanxebi da am adamianebs umkurnalos. Tu saxelmwifo xels daibans da am adamianebs mxolod represiiT daemuqreba, faqtia, rom Sedegi ar gveqneba~, _ aRniSnavs nino gvenetaZe. mkurnaloba _ dasjis nacvlad saqarTveloSi metadonis programa 2007 wlidan moqmedebs. amJamad saxelmwifo programaSi 877 pacienti monawileobs. programaSi CarTvisas pirovneba 450 lars ixdis, Semdeg ki yovelTviuri gadasaxadi 150 lars Seadgens. daavadebaTa kontrolisa da sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis erovnuli centris direqtoris moadgile akaki gamyreliZe aRniSnavs, rom jarimebidan amoRebuli milionebi reabilitaciis centris asaSeneblad unda gamoiyenon, magram amis politikuri neba ar arsebobs. `cxadia, es emsaxureba erT diad mizans, rac aris arsebuli narkosituaciis SenarCuneba, romelic, kidev erTxel vimeoreb, orientirebulia narkomaniiT daavadebuli pirebis, narkotikuli saSualebebis momxmarebelTa diskriminaciaze. dRevandeli politikuri Tanamdebobis pirebis interesebSi ar Sedis, rom es adamianebi ganTavisufldnen~, _ aRniSnavs iuristi aleqs SoSikelaSvili. arsebuli narkopolitikis Sesacvlelad 2008 wels arasamTavrobo organizaciebis koaliciam _ zianis Semcirebis saqarTvelos qselma` parlamentSi kanonproeqti Seitana. mas 58 aTasi adamiani awers xels. kanonproeqti ori wlis Semdegac ar ganuxilavT. damokidebulebis kvleviTi centris xelmZRvaneli, daviT oTiaSvili aRniSnavs, _ `ar viciT ratom iwuneben Cvens kanonproeqts. vfiqrob, rom arian adamianebi, visac kanonmdeblobaSi ar unda raimes Secvla da parlamentSi am adamianebis gavlena sakmaod Zlieria~. dozis gadaWarbebiTa da narkotikebis moxmarebiT gardacvlilTa zust statistikas jandacvis saministro ar awarmoebs. arsebobs mxolod zogadi eqspertuli monacemebi, romelTa daTvlac sxvadasxva proeqtis farglebSi moxda. 2007 wels zedozirebiT mxolod TbilisSi _ 39, 2008 wels ki 26 adamiani gardaicvala. 2003 wels, narkotikebis moxmarebis gamo, 120 adamiani daiRupa. es monacemebi arasrulia da saqarTveloSi narkotikebis mizeziT sikvdilianobas bolomde ar asaxavs.

Jurnalisturi gamoZieba momzadebulia studia `monitoris~ proeqtis farglebSi. Jurnalisturi gamoZieba ganxorcielda evrokavSiris finansuri mxardaWeriT.

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liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

saubrebi liberalizmze
Tvalsazrisi

potenciuri safrTxeebi qarTuli memarcxeneobisTvis


ganviTarebadi qveynebis memarcxeneebi midrekilni arian, problemebis mizezebi sazogadoebis gareT eZebon da iSviaTad cdiloben maT sakuTar sazogadoebaSi aRmoCenas.
giorgi cxadaia
_ Sidasazogadoebrivi problemebia (saqarTvelos xelisufleba, amis sapirispirod, cdilobs qveynis winaSe mdgari yvela problema ruseTs gadaabralos). amitom, masonebis, imperialistebis da sorosistebis winaaRmdeg brZola cota komikuria im fonze, roca mTavari problema im sazogadoebriv jgufebSia, romlebic erTmaneTTan TamaSis wesebze ver SeTanxmebulan; magaliTad imaze, rom biznesmenebma gadasaxadebi ar unda damalon, biujeti xalxis sasikeTod unda daixarjos, quCaSi nagavi ar unda davyaroT, sazogadoebis sxvadasxva jgufs pativi unda vceT, maTi Sexedulebis miuxedavad, sazogadoebrivi sikeTeebi ar unda davazianoT da a.S. is sazogadoeba, romelic aseT rameebze ver Tanxmdeba da mTel Tavis Zalisxmevas imperialistebis da masonebis kritikisken mimarTavs, araracionaluri, arapragmatuli da infantiluria. erTi sityviT, ganviTarebadi qveynebis memarcxeneebi midrekilni arian, problemebis gamomwvevi mizezebi sazogadoebis gareT eZebon da iSviaTad cdiloben, es mizezi sakuTar TavSi aRmoaCinon. evropuli socializmi swored am niSniT gansxvavdeba belorusuli da kuburi socializmisgan. xsenebuli qveynebi sityvis Tavisuflebas zRudaven swored im motiviT, rom, amis sanacvlod, adamianebs gadarCenisTvis aucilebel, minimalur resursebs TiTqmis ufasod sTavazoben. Tu saqarTveloSi momavalSi me-

Salva naTelaSvili

saqarTveloSi memarcxeneoba bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi diskreditirebuli Tema iyo. is asocirdeboda sabWoeTTan da komunistebTan. erTaderTi stabiluri da met-naklebad popularuli memarcxene partia, tradiciulad, leiboristulia. bolo xanebSi socialisturi ideebi axalgazrdebisTvisac gaxda mimzidveli da ramdenime memarcxene politikuri Tu sazogadoebrivi jgufi gamoCnda, magaliTad _ `axalgazrda socialistebi da social-demokratebi saqarTvelos ganviTarebisTvis. memarcxene jgufebis dasaxelebaSi jerjerobiT sityva socialisti figurirebs, rac, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom maT proevropul (da ara amerikul) orientaciaze metyvelebs _ evropa-

Si memarcxene partiebs yvelaze xSirad am saxeliT moixsenieben. maT finansuri urTierTobebic ZiriTadad mxolod evropasTan aqvT. ganviTarebad qveynebSi memarcxeneebi yvelaze xSirad gareSe mtrebis demonizaciiT arian dakavebulebi. msgavsi ritorikaa saqarTveloSic, gansakuTrebiT, leiboristuli partiis gamosvlebSi amerikis administraciis winaaRmdeg. problema is ki ar aris, rom ganviTarebul, mdidar, Zlier da meti pasuxismgeblobis mqone dasavleTs akritikeben, aramed is, rom sazogadoebis winaSe mdgar problemebs xelovnurad amartiveben. Cvens qveyanaSi arsebuli problemebi arc amerikis bralia da arc evropis. es umeteswilad Tavad Cveni

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

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saubrebi liberalizmze
marcxene platformis ganviTarebaa mosalodneli, axlave unda daisvas kiTxva _ rogori memarcxeneebi da socialistebi gvinda? erT-erTma axalgazrda socialistma Jurnal cxeli Sokoladis mier mowyobil diskusiaze ganacxada, rom arsebobs prioritetebis garkveuli skala, sadac Raribebis problemebi ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre, vTqvaT _ umciresobebis. Sesabamisad, msgavsi logikiT, ucxoeli donorebi, romlebic umciresobebis dacvas sxvadasxva finansuri da politikuri saSualebiT lobireben, tyuilad irjebian _ maT, sinamdvileSi, realuri problemebidan yuradReba moCvenebiT problemebze gadaaqvT! ucxouri donorebis saqmianoba ramdenad uwyobs xels saqarTveloSi socialur jgufebs Soris konsenswori mimarTulebiT sazogadoebis warmarTva. samwuxarod, aseT Temebze msjeloba gvabrunebs meoce saukunis dasawyisSi, rodesac bolSevikebi da menSevikebi erTmaneTs swored msgavs sakiTxebze ekamaTebodnen. rogorc Cans, sakuTar istorias sakmarisad kargad ar vicnobT, radgan Temebi, romlebzec axla vmsjelobT, saukunis dasawyisSi ukve irCeoda da Sesabamisi daskvnebic gamohqondaT (samwuxarod, movlenebi yvelaze uaresi scenariT: bolSevikuri partiis diqtaturiT dasrulda). am problemas ekonomikuri kuTxidanac SevxedoT: ratom ar gvinda belorusis an kubis modeli? sul axlaxan wavikiTxe britaneli Jurnalistis, johan haris kritika radikali memarcxene moazrovnis, noam Comskis misamarTiT. haris azriT, foebi aqvT, sadac moqalaqeebis mier sakuTar Tavsa da sazogadoebaze pasuxismgebloba minumamdea dayvanili _ isini elodebian, Tu rodis moamaragebs saxelmwifo minimaluri resursebiT, riTac Tavs gadairCenen. mTavari problema is aris, rom es socialuri iniciativebi zemodan modis da ara qvemodan, da modis umTavresad diqtatori mmarTvelebisgan, romlebic sakuTari Zalauflebis SenarCunebas am gziT cdiloben. am dros sazogadoeba moumwifebeli da sustia, radgan Tavad ki ar wyvets socialuri siduxWiris problemas, aramed beladi da partiuli bosebi zemodan aZaleben gaakeTon is, rac, SesaZloa, gaTavisebuli arc aqvs. sityvis Tavisufleba, umciresobebis uflebebis dacva da adamianis sxva fundamenturi uflebebis ar-

ganviTarebad qveynebSi memarcxeneebi yvelaze xSirad gareSe mtrebis demonizaciiT arian dakavebulebi. msgavsi ritorikaa saqarTveloSic, gansakuTrebiT, leiboristuli partiis gamosvlebSi amerikis administraciis winaaRmdeg.
susisken orientirebul samoqalaqo kulturas da ndobis gaRrmavebas, es calke sakiTxia (da CemTvis Zalze sadavo), magram memarcxeneebis mier msgavsi liberaluri Temebisadmi agdebuli damokidebuleba didi Secdomaa. evropel socialistebs arCevani rom mxolod socialur Temebze gaekeTebinaT da sxva sakiTxebi usamarTlod mieviwyebinaT, dRes evrokavSirSi belorusic iqneboda. evropaSi Zalian kargad esmiT, rom jansaRi sazogadoeba gulisxmobs sxvadasxva socialur jgufs Soris humanizmsa da saerTo keTildReobaze dafuZnebul urTierTobas da ara erTi jgufis interesebis (rac unda keTilSobiluri iyos es interesebi) diqtaturas yvela sxva jgufis interesebze. am ukanaskneli tipis mmarTvelobas xSirad mohyveba qarizmuli beladis gamoCena, avangarduli partiis daarseba da radikali memarcxeneebis erT-erTi mTavari problema imis veraRiarebaa, rom kapitalizmi simdidres qmnis: magaliTad, riT aixsneba is faqti, rom samxreTi korea ufro ganviTarebulia, vidre socialisturi CrdiloeTi korea? amisi aRiareba radikal memarcxeneebs sakuTari ideebis Ralatad miaCniaT. arada, sinamdvileSi, Tanamedrove evropuli socialuri demokratia swored am gziT uzrunvelyofs sakuTari ekonomikebis mdgradobas da Zlier socialurad orientirebul saxelmwifos _ qmnis socialur damcav bades, riTac cdilobs, simdidre efeqturad gaanawilos. am meTodiT arc inovacia, konkurencia da teqnikuri progresi zaraldeba, da arc _ Raribi moqalaqeebis interesebi. amis sapirispirod, qveynebs, romlebic sworxazovan socialistur politikas adganan, CamorCenili da mouqneli saxelmwiseboba iseT qveynebSebi, rogoric belorusia, swored imitom aris saWiro, rom moqalaqeebma TavianTi interesebi gamoxaton. adamianis uflebebis dacvis saboloo mizani swored grZelvadiani ekonomikuri da socialuri keTildReobis miRwevaa. sxva SemTxvevaSi, socialuri saxelmwifo mxolod butaforia iqneba, romelic beladis, mama patronis wasvlis Semdeg advilad CamoiSleba; aseT saxelmwifoSi grZelvadiani ganviTareba da ekonomikuri progresi yovelTvis Seewireba iaffasian socialistur ritorikas. zemoT moxazuli safrTxeebis gaTvaliswineba, Cemi azriT, sasicocxlod aucilebeli iqneba nebismieri memarcxene partiisTvis, romelic saqarTveloSi moRvaweobas gadawyvets. jerjerobiT arsebuli partiebis ritorikaSi, samwuxarod, amgvar aqcentebs ver vxedav.

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ekonomika
Tvalsazrisi

revolucia, kontrrevolucia da sagadasaxado kodeqsi


aqamde vicodiT, rom dRes moqmedi sagadasaxado kodeqsi iyo _ liberaluri, revoluciuri da msoflioSi saukeTeso. axla xelisuflebam misi isev revoluciurad Secvlis gadawyvetileba miiRo _ finansTa ministris gancxadebiT, kodeqsi 98%-iT icvleba. Tu logikas gavyvebiT, gamova, rom saqme `kontrrevoluciasTan~ gvaqvs... sinamdvileSi ki, Tu qarTuli filmidan cnobili gamonaTqvamis perifrazs mivmarTavT, `arc erTi iyo liberaluri da arc meore _ kontrrevoluciuri. orive ugvani kodeqsi iyo~. ratom vfiqrob ase? Sevecdebi, davasabuTo
(sityvebis ekonomiis mizniT, dRes moqmed sagadasaxado kodeqss `kodeqsad~ movixsenieb, SemoTavazebuli cvlilebebis proeqts _ `proeqtad~).

irakli SaviSvili, auditori

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

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ilustracia TaTia nadareiSvili / wignis saxelosno

ekonomika
1. koncefcia ar varga rogorc kodeqsis, ise proeqtis koncefcia _ isini antiliberaluria erTi martivi mizezis gamo _ oriveSi devs azri, rom qveyanaSi mTavaria biujeti, xolo gadasaxadis gadamxdeli (adamiani) _ maqsimum, meorexarisxovani. amis dasabuTeba yvela im muxlis gaanalizebiT rom vcado, romelic kodeqssa da proeqtSia, Jurnalis erTi nomeri ar meyofa. amitom mxolod ramdenimeze gavamaxvileb yuradRebas: gadasaxadis cneba kodeqsSic da proeqtSic erTnairad aris ganmartebuli _ maTi mixedviT, gadasaxadi aris `upirobo~ da `usasyidlo~ Senatani biujetSi. sagadasaxado kodeqsi aris gadasaxadis warmoSobisa da gadaxdis pirobebis krebuli. maS, rogorRaa gadasaxadi upirobo? bunebaSi ar arsebobs legitimuri moTxovna sanacvlo valdebulebis gareSe. nebismier aseT moTxovnas yvela droSi da yvela qveyanaSi yaCaRobas uwodeben. gadasaxadis `usasyidlobis~ gamocxadebiT xelisufleba uars ambobs raime valdebulebis aRebaze gadasaxadis gadamxdelis winaSe. kodeqsSic da proeqtSic aris muxli saxelwodebiT `sxva jarimebi~, romelic ambobs, rom Tu gadamxdelis mier irRveva romelime valdebuleba, romlisTvisac dadgenilia pasuxismgebloba, magram jarimis odenoba ar aris gansazRvruli, es jarimdeba 100 lariT. ras gveubneba amgvari CanaweriT xelisufleba? _ `ici ra, me axla mezareba yvela darRvevis CamoWikWikeba, magram icode, sadac dagiWer, migajarimeb~. gadasaxadis gadamxdelis mier gadasaxadis gadaxda uamravi RonisZiebiT aris uzrunvelyofili _ sauraviT, jarimebiT, yadaRiT, salarodan naRdi fulis amoRebiT, qonebis gayidviTa Tu warTmeviT da a.S. samagierod, Tu gadasaxadi zedmetad gaqvs gadaxdili da biujetidan mis dabrunebas moiTxov, kodeqsproeqti geubneba, rom moTxovnidan 3 TveSi dagibruneben. oRond, Tu ar dagibrunes, ra xdeba, riT agebs Sen winaSe pasuxs xelisufleba, amaze aRaraferia naTqvami, rac imas niSnavs, rom pasuxs arafriT agebs. amgvari magaliTebis ganxilva dausruleblad SeiZleba. 2. mikro da mcire biznesi `revoluciuradaa~ Sefasebuli mikro da mcire biznesis cnebebis SemoReba. orive statusi mxolod fizikur pirebs exebaT da ar vrceldeba iuridiul pirebze. mikro biznesisTvis dadgenilia brunvis 30 000-lariani zRvari da naTqvamia, rom Tu pirs am odenobaze naklebi aqvs brunva, igi arc erTi gadasaxadiT ar daibegreba. amas did miRwevad gvasaReben, sinamdvileSi ki es am kategoriis gadamxdelTa mdgomareobis gauaresebaa: ar aris dadgenili, saqmianobis romel dargebze gavrceldeba mikro biznesis statusi. es unda gansazRvros mTavrobam Tavisi SexedulebiT. masve SeuZlia, saqmianobis romeliRac saxeobebSi akrZalos am statusis miniWeba. gamodis, rom jer arc ki viciT, ras gvTavazoben. dRes moqmedi sagadasaxado kodeqsiT dadgenilia saqmianobaTa saxeobebi (mewaRe, mesaaTe, Sinamosamsaxure da a.S.), romelTa mimdevari fizikuri pirebi dabegvrisgan Tavisufldebian, Tundac 100 000 laris Semosavali miiRon. axla ki maT eubnebian, _ xom kargia, rom mxolod 30 000 laris Semosavalze gaTavisufldebiT dabegvrisgano. mikro biznesis statusis mqone pirebs ar aqvT sakontrolo-salaro aparatis qonis valdebuleba. aRricxvis wesebic gaurkvevelia _ finansTa ministrma unda daudginos. iqve weria, rom `sagadasaxado organos ufleba aqvs, mikro biznesis statusis mqone piris Semosavlebi gansazRvros arapirdapiri meTodebiT finansTa ministris mier gansazRvruli wesiT~. mokled, mewarmisTvis TamaSis wesebi ganusazRvrelia, xolo sagadasaxado organoebi Tavisi Sexedulebisamebr gansazRvraven mis Semosavlebs. ra gamova? _ is, rom loialur gadamxdelebs `eqnebaT~ 30 000 larze naklebi Semosavali, araloialurebs ki _ meti. sxva gadasaxadis gadamxdelebs ekrZalebaT mikro biznesis statusis mqone pirebisgan Sesyiduli saqonlisa Tu momsaxurebis Rirebulebis xarjad gamoqviTva, Tundac danaxarji dokumenturad iyos dadasturebuli. ratom unda moundes aseT gadamxdels mikromewarmisgan raimes yidva? msgavsi mdgomareobaa mcire biznesis statusTan dakavSirebiTac. am farglebSi SemoTavazebulia 3 da 5-procentiani dabegvris reJimebi, xolo Semosavlis zeda zRvari 200 000 laria. amasTan, 3%iani dabegvris reJimis gamoyenebis ufleba pirs mxolod im SemTxvevaSi aqvs, Tu is daasabuTebs Tavisi erToblivi S e m o savlis 60%-is tol danaxarjebs, daqiravebulisTvis gadaxdil xelfasze gaweuli danaxarjebis garda. xom kargad vzrunavT dasaqmebaze? erTgan weria, rom mcire biznesis statusis mqone pirs ufleba aqvs, ar awarmoos Semosavlebisa da xarjebis aRricxva (proeqtis 92.1-e muxli), meoregan ki weria, rom man unda awarmoos xarjebis aRricxvis

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ekonomika
Jurnali, romlis warmoebis wess adgens finansTa ministri (muxli 92.7e). gavfrindeT Tu ar gavfrindeT? 3. ombudsmeni proeqtiT SemoTavazebulia sagadasaxado ombudsmenis institutis SemoReba. es idea axali araa. jer kidev dRes moqmedi kodeqsis proeqtSi iyo gaTvaliswinebuli aseTi instituti, magram imis gamo, rom is proeqti aseve iTvaliswinebda kerZo arbitraJebis mier sagadasaxado davebis ganxilvis uflebamosilebas (romelic amoqmedebidan 3 TveSi gauqmda), es instituti zedmetad CaiTvala da proeqtidan amoiRes. dRes am instituts isev gvTavazoben, oRond _ gauaresebuli saxiT. ombudsmenis funqcia, wesiT, unda iyos mTavrobis (sagadasaxado organoebis) moqmedebebis sawinaaRmdego RonisZiebebis gatareba gadasaxadis gadamxdelis uflebebis dasacavad. proeqti ki gveubneba, rom ombudsmenis uflebamosilebebi da saqmianobis wesi mTavrobisave dadgenilebiT ganisazRvreba. ratom unda mianiWos mTavrobam vinmes Tavis sawinaaRmdegod moqmedebis uflebamosileba? 4. winaswari gadaxdebi sagadasaxado kodeqsis proeqtiT kidev ufro izrdeba xelisuflebis `mada~, winaswar miiRos gadasaxadebi. imavdroulad, gveubnebian, rom xelisufleba gadasaxadis gadamxdelebs aZlevs orTvian uprocento sesxs imiT, rom angariSgebas yovelkvartalurad gadaaqcevs yovelTviuris nacvlad. is ki yvelas aviwydeba, rom kodeqsiTac da proeqtiTac gadasaxadis gadamxdelebi valdebulni arian, mogebisa da qonebis gadasaxadSi winaswar gadaixadon gadasaxadebi `mimdinare gadasaxdelebis~ saxiT; rac niSnavs, rom xelisufleba Tavad iRebs uprocento sesxs gadamxdelebisgan, oRond _ erTwlians. proeqtiT ki es mdgomareoba kidev ufro mZimdeba _ Semodis miRebuli avansebis dabegvra damatebuli Rirebulebis gadasaxadiT (dRg-iT). TiTqos es ukeTesi unda iyos mewarmisTvis, radgan is gadasaxads nawil-nawil gadaixdis da ara _ erTbaSad. sinamdvileSi ki amis keTeba ar aris swori, arc _ Teoriulad da arc _ praqtikulad: Sinaarsobrivad, dRg aris gadasaxadi, romliTac ibegreba Seqmnili damatebuli Rirebuleba. isic mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca misi gadacema xdeba sxva pirisTvis (momxmareblisTvis). miRebuli avansis SemTxvevaSi ki, es damatebuli Rirebuleba jer arc Seqmnila da, miT umetes, arc gadacemula. isic SeiZleba moxdes, rom igi arc arasdros Seiqmnas. maS, ras vbegravT? es moqmedeba praqtikuli TvalsazrisiTac gaumarTlebelia. sicxadisTvis movitan yvelaze gavrcelebul SemTxvevas _ binaTmSeneblobas. mSeneblobebi 2-3 wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobs da am xnis ganmavlobaSi mSenebeli myidvelisgan nawilnawil iRebs avansebs, rac misTvis sabrunavi saxsrebia danaxarjebis gasawevad _ masalebis sayidlad, samSeneblo teqnikis dasaqiraveblad da a.S. ra gamova, Tuki am Tanxebidan 18%-s amovacliT mSenebels? _ igi iZulebuli gaxdeba, es Tanxa sxvagan moiZios, anu _ aiRos krediti da ixados masze procentebi. es niSnavs, rom misi danaxarjebis odenoba izrdeba, rac an mogebas Seumcirebs mas, an binis fass gazrdis. cxadia, esec uaryofiTi movlenaa. winaswari dabegvris formaa e.w. `grZelvadiani kontraqtebis~ dRgTi dabegvrac. es meTodi dRes mxolod mogebis gadasaxadSi gamoiyeneba. proeqtiT ki dRg-Sic vrceldeba, rac, zemoT aRwerili mizezebis gamo, aseve uaryofiTad aisaxeba mewarmeebis Semosavlebze. aseve gaugebaria sakuTari warmoebis Senoba-nagebobebis dabegvra dRg-Ti, maSinac ki, roca am Senobanagebobis sxva pirisTvis gadacema ar xdeba. gamodis, rom xelisufleba winaswar cdilobs Tanxebis akrefas. oRond is aRar Cans, ra moxdeba 2-3 wlis Semdeg, roca am Tanxebis `ganaRdebis~ vada dadgeba. ori variantia _ an 2-3 wlis Semdeg kvlavac axali `revoluciuri~ kodeqsis mowmeni gavxdebiT, an dRevandeli xelisufleba 2-3 wlis Semdeg sakuTar Tavs veRar xedavs da dResve cdilobs, Tanxebi `moimaragos~. 5. saSemosavlo gadasaxadi uaresdeba saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT dabegvris reJimic: dRes moqmedi kodeqsiT, saSemosavlo gadasaxadisgan Tavisufldeba iseTi aqtivebis gayidviT miRebuli nameti, romlebic fizikuri piris sakuTrebaSia 2 welze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi da romlebic ar gamoiyeneba ekonomikuri saqmianobisTvis. proeqtiT ki es nameti ibegreba nebismier SemTxvevaSi, garda uZravi qonebisa da arasasoflo-sameurneo daniSnulebis miwisa. uZravi qonebis SemTxvevaSi, Tavisufldeba mxolod 30 000 laramde miRebuli nameti, xolo miwis SemTxvevaSi _ mxolod 2 heqtaramde miwis nakveTis gayidviT miRebuli Semosavali. kodeqsiT aseve Tavisufldeba 6 Tveze meti vadiT msubuqi avtomo-

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ekonomika
bilis gayidviT miRebuli nameti Semosavali. proeqtiT ki aseTi gaTavisufleba aRar aris. saerTod aRar aris SeRavaTi aRniSnulis garda sxva aqtivebis gayidviT miRebul Semosavalze. gamodis, kacma, gaWirvebis gamo, saxlidan ZvelisZveli karada rom gamoitanos da gayidos, aqedan gadasaxadi unda gadaixados. am gauaresebis garda, isic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom dRes im qonebis gayidvisas, romelic 2 welze naklebi xniT iyo piris sakuTrebaSi, gadasaxadi 12% iyo. axla ki 20% iqneba. kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli iyo 20%-iani ganakveTis TandaTan Semcireba 15%-mde _ 2013 wlis 1 ianvramde. am vadamac (maT Soris, xdeba sagadasaxado wlis 31 dekembris mdgomareobiT, xolo miwaze gadasaxadi gadaixdeba sagadasaxado wlis pirveli aprilis mdgomareobiT; anu igulisxmeba, rom 2011 wlis pirvel aprils rom warvadgen deklaracias, iq unda Sevitano miwis Sesaxeb is monacemi, romelic im dRisTvis maqvs, aqedan gamomdinare, sagadasaxado weli aris 2011, oRond 2011 wlis 31 dekembris mdgomareobiT, ra ganakveTi iqneba qonebis gadasaxadze, 2011 wlis pirvel aprils rogor unda davadgino? xolo Tu es 2010 wlis deklaraciaa, gamodis, rom, miwis garda, qonebaze gadasaxadi imis mixedviT unda gadavixado, rac mqonda gasuli wlis 31 dekembers, magram miwas ra vuyo? SarSan vevaa, radgan sagadasaxado kodeqsi ar adgens raime gamonakliss romelime gadasaxadis mixedviT, romlis CaTvlac sxva gadasaxadSi akrZaluli iyos; metic, erTi uwyebis sagadasaxado da sabaJo organoebi Semosavlebis samsaxuris Semadgeneli nawilebia. teqnikuri xasiaTis problemis gadawyvetas ki kodeqsebis gaerTianeba ar sWirdeba. am gaerTianebas sxva dabrkolebis Seqmnac SeuZlia mewarmeebisTvis _ arsebobs mTeli rigi mewarmeebisa, romlebsac sabaJo kodeqsTan Sexeba ar aqvT. maT mouwevT mniSvnelovnad damZimebuli, sqeltaniani kanonis Seswavla imisTvis, rom terminebis ganmarteba an sxva raime niuansi ar gamorCeT.

nebismieri xelisuflebisTvis ajobebs, sanam dabegvris sakiTxebis gadawyvetas Seudgeba, waikiTxos Tundac `Cipolinos Tavgadasavali~ da gaiTvaliswinos princ limonos bedi, romelmac gadasaxadebis daweseba scada JuJuna-Tavsxma-kokispirul wvimaze.
dividendze da sesxis procentze gadasaxadis ganulebis vadamac) erTi wliT gadaiwia. gauaresebad unda CaiTvalos, agreTve ijarisa da roialtis dabegvris Semotana gadaxdis wyarosTan. gamodis, Tu piri, vTqvaT, saofised farTs qiraobs, man unda daukavos gadasaxadi gamqiravebels. sainteresoa, ra unda akeTos gamqiravebelma? 6. orazrovneba xelisufleba gveubneba, rom proeqtiT daZleuli iqneba orazrovneba da bundovaneba. es rom ase ar aris, amis dasasabuTeblad minda vkiTxo finansTa saministros _ am proeqtis mixedviT, Tu am saxiT iqca es proeqti kanonad, 2011 wlis pirvel aprils rom qonebis gadasaxadis deklaracia unda warvadgino, romeli wlis deklaracia iqneba igi? proeqtSi weria, rom dasabegr qonebaze (miwis garda) gadasaxadi gadaipirvel aprils rom mqonda, imis mixedviT unda gadavixado? axla rom aRar maqvs, im miwaze unda gadavixado qonebis gadasaxadi? an 2010 wlis deklaraciaSi rogor unda Sevitano is miwa, romelic 2011 wlis, vTqvaT, 15 Tebervals viyide? gaugebaria xom, rac davwere? CemTvisac gaugebaria. imedi maqvs, finansTa saministrosTvis ar aris gaugebari. ramden-azrovnebaa es? 7. kodeqsebis gaerTianeba mTavroba ambobs, rom moxdeba sagadasaxado da sabaJo kodeqsebis gaerTianeba, romlis Sedegadac gadasaxadis gadamxdels SeeZleba Cveulebrivi saqmianobidan warmoSobili gadasaxadebis zedmetad gadaxdili Tanxebi gamoiyenos sabaJoze gadasaxadebis gadaxdisas da rom dRes es SeuZlebelia. is, rom `dRes es SeuZlebelia~, moqmedi kodeqsis pirdapiri darRboloTqma dRes moqmedi kodeqsisa Tu SemoTavazebuli proeqtis Seusabamobebze dausruleblad SeiZleba saubari. araferi miTqvams sauravebis daricxvis wesis Secvlasa Tu mTavrobis mier gadasaxadis ganakveTis dawesebis uflebamosilebaze, terminologiur Tu enobriv uxarisxobaze, jarimebis araadekvaturobasa Tu sagadasaxado samarTaldarRvevebis kriminalizaciaze, kidev bevr, erTi SexedviT, wvrilman sakiTxebze, romlebic konkretul seriozul problemebTanaa dakavSirebuli. mniSvnelovani sxva ram gaxlavT _ nebismieri xelisuflebisTvis ajobebs, sanam dabegvris sakiTxebis gadawyvetas Seudgeba, waikiTxos Tundac `Cipolinos Tavgadasavali~ da gaiTvaliswinos princ limonos bedi, romelmac gadasaxadebis daweseba scada JuJuna-Tavsxma-kokispirul wvimaze.

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sazogadoeba
sovietologia

warsuli, romelic ar iqca istoriad


erTaderTi gza, romelic sabWoTa warsuls dagvaSorebs, misi Seswavla da gadafasebaa.
nino CimakaZe

1968 wels, studenturi amboxis dros germaniaSi masobrivad da xmamaRla pirvelad daisva kiTxva _ `Sen iyavi nacisti?~ kiTxvas studentebi _ ara sxvebs, aramed pirvel rigSi sakuTar mSoblebs usvamdnen. istorikosebi amboben, rom Tuki SeiZleba davasaxeloT germaniaSi nacisturi warsulis gadafasebis dawyebis TariRi, es swored 1968 welia. aRmosavleT evropas sabWoTa warsulis gadafasebis talRam 1990-ianebSi gadauara. CexeTi, slovakeTi, ungreTi, bulgareTi da baltiispireTi _ am qveynebma TiTqmis erTdroulad, 1996 wels miiRes lustraciis kanoni. maT gaasajaroes warsuli imisTvis, rom is am erebis nacionalur kompleqsad ar qceuliyo. istorikosebi Tanxmdebian imazec, rom realuri winsvla yofili totalitaruli reJimis monawile qveyne-

bs mxolod misi safuZvliani kvlevis Sedegad SeuZliaT. sakuTar Tavze gamocdili sabWoTa reJimis miuxedavad, es 70 weli saqarTveloSi dRemde araa gamokvleuli. sazogadoebisTvis cnobili faqtebi sakmaod zedapirulia da ZiriTadad zepirad gavrcelebul istoriebs eyrdnoba. sabWoTa imperiis daSlidan ori aTeuli wlis Semdegac ki saqarTveloSi praqtikulad ar arsebobs seriozuli literatura, romlis saSualebiTac am periodis gaanalizeba da gadafaseba gaxdeboda SesaZlebeli. aq uSiSroebis arqivebic sul ramdenime welia, gaixsna da es masalebic arasrulyofilia, radgan maTi didi nawili ganadgurebulia, nawili ki ruseTSi inaxeba. amitom, im ori siaxlis gamo, rac wels moxda, 2010 weli saqarTveloSi SeiZleba sovietologiis kvlevis dasawyisad miviCnioT.

wels aq pirvelad daarsda sabWoTa warsulze momuSave arasamTavrobo organizacia, ilias universitetSi ki gaixsna saswavlo programa, romelic sabWoTa da postsabWoTa sistemebs Seiswavlis. `sabWoTa epoqa CvenTvis aris iseTi warsuli, romelic jer istoria ar gamxdara. is mogvdevs Sleifad da faqtobrivad dRemde sabWoTa tradiciebSi vcxovrobT~, _ acxadebs programis xelmZRvaneli sergo ratiani. socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis mesame kursis studenti, Tako Tolordava erT-erTi pirvelia, vinc ukve gadawyvita, swavla am mimarTulebiT gaagrZelos. Tako sabWoTa istoriiT SarSan dainteresda, roca universitetSi saleqcio kursi `sabWoTa reJimi da misi memkvidreoba~ gaiara. `aRmovaCine, rom is, rac vicodi

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sazogadoeba
sabWoTa warsulze, zRvaSi wveTi iyo. Tu sworad ar gaviazrebT da gavaanalizebT sabWoTa periods, is problemebi rac dRes arsebobs, mougvarebeli darCeba da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibebasac didxans ver SevZlebT~, _ ambobs mesame kurseli. ilias universitetSi saleqcio kurss _ sabWoTa istoriis Sesavals istorikosi laSa baqraZe uZRveba. es kursi arCeviT sagnad iswavleba da mas bakalavrebi da magistrantebi gadian. `aranairi gardatexa ar moxdeba, Tu sabWoTa warsuli ar gavaanalizeT. amis naTeli magaliTia germania, romelmac SeZlo, Tavisi warsulisTvis Tvali gaesworebina~, _ acxadebs baqraZe da dasZens, rom am ba, radgan miiCnevs, rom sabWoTa totalitaruli sistema calsaxad negatiuri iyo da amitom misi dadebiTi mxareebis Zieba uSedego iqneba: `rogorc nacisturi germania iyo totalitaruli saxelmwifo da is iyo boroteba, aseve iyo sabWoTa kavSiric. amitom saWiroa, SeviswavloT, Tu ram gamoiwvia totalitarizmi. unda viyoT principulebi Rirebulebebis SefasebaSi~, _ acxadebs ratiani. ilias universitetSi am samagistro kursze ucxoel profesorebs miiwveven. swavlebas gauZRvebian qarTveli profesorebic, romlebic sabWoTa kavSirs sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT, ukve ramdenime welia, ikvleven. Tumca, radgan sabWoTa periodis specialistebi cotani arian, tebis arasaTanado informirebulobas abralebs: `am kursis popularizacia universitetSi ar xdeba, amitom ar vici, momaval wels Tu mainc Sedgeba axali jgufi~, _ aRniSnavs kandelaki. 24 wlis daTo jiSkarianma, romelic manamde istoriis fakultetze swavlobda, am programis arCeva 2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omis Semdeg gadawyvita. `maSin davaskveni, rom aucileblad gvWirdeba ruseTis safuZvliani Seswavla. gansakuTrebiT ki sabWoTa da Semdgomi periodis gaanalizeba. dRes saqarTveloSi gardamavali periodia da Tu gvinda, rom es etapi warmatebulad gadavlaxoT, aucileblad unda vicodeT, sad viyaviT manamde~, _ ambobs jiSkariani, romelic axla samagistro naSro-

`sabWoTa epoqa CvenTvis aris iseTi warsuli, romelic jer istoria ar gamxdara. is mogvdevs Sleifad da faqtobrivad dRemde sabWoTa tradiciebSi vcxovrobT~.
periodis mxolod calsaxa da ideologizirebuli Seswavla ar unda moxdes, qarTvelebma ki, mxolod rogorc msxverplma, ar unda warmovidginoT Tavi: `Cven msxverplic viyaviT da damnaSavec. unda moxdes sabWoTa kavSiris deideologizirebuli kritika da mecnieruli kvleva~, _ ambobs baqraZe. deideologizaciis rekomendacias aZlevs qarTvel mkvlevrebs politikur mecnierebaTa amerikeli doqtori timoTi bloveltic, romelic ilias universitets stumrobda leqciiT _ `sovietologiis istoria inglisurenovan samyaroSi~. `mesmis, rom rodesac sakuTar Tavze gaqvT yvelaferi gamocdili, Znelia obieqturi iyo, magram Tu mecnieruli Seswavla da kvleva gindaT, maSin ukeTesia, am epoqisgan distancireba moxdes~, _ aRniSnavs blovelti. sergo ratiani am azrs ar eTanxmeTsu-s ruseTismcodneobis samagistro programis meore kursis studenti daTo jiSkariani ambobs, rom saswavlo procesi universitetSi srulyofili ar aris. sabWoTa epoqas ori semestri eTmoba ruseTismcodneobis programaSi, romelic Tsu-s humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetze 2008 wlidan arsebobs. studentebi sabWoTa istorias da sabWoTa ideologiur sistemas cal-calke sagnebad swavloben da amisTvis uSiSroebis arqivebsac ikvleven. programis xelmZRvanelis, profesor dali kandelakis TqmiT, magistrantebis yvelaze did interess swored es ori sagani iwvevs. Tumca, Tsu-Si amJamad aseTi dainteresebuli sul eqvsi studenti swavlobs. 2009 wels ki miReba magistraturis am programaze saerTod CaiSala, radgan ruseTisa da sabWoTa sistemis kvleva arc erTma studentma ar isurva. kandelaki amas studenmisTvis 1937 wlis represiebis detalebs ikvlevs. msgavsi mizani aqvs wels daarsebul 7-wevrian arasamTavrobo organizaciasac `sabWoTa warsulis kvlevis laboratorias~, romelic axla teroris topografiuli rukis Seqmnaze muSaobs. rukaze daitanen terorTan da represiebTan dakavSirebul adgilebs: saxlebs, sadac cxovrobdnen represirebulebi, cixeebs, daxvretis adgilebs, saidumlo organizaciebis Sexvedris adgilebsa da konspiraciul binebs. wlis bolosTvis organizacia vebgverdis gakeTebasac apirebs, sadac sabWoTa periodis Sesaxeb foto da teqstur masalasa da uSiSroebis arqivebis dokumentebsac atvirTaven. Tumca is, rasac laboratoriaSi akeTeben da is, rac or saxelmwifo universitetSi ukve dainerga, qarTuli sabWoTa warsulis gadasafaseblad gadadgmuli jer mxolod pirveli nabijebia.

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sazogadoeba
ganaTleba

saministroSi dabarebulebi
ukve Cans imis niSnebi, Tu risTvis sWirdeba ganaTlebis saministros 2 aTasamde sajaro skolaSi direqtorebis daniSvna.
rusudan fanoziSvili
direqtoria, Tanac _ arCeuli. aluda gogliCiZe 42-e sajaro skolis direqtorad 3 wlis win sameurveo sabWom airCia. Tumca, axla ambobs, rom sameurveo sabWoebi saTanadod kompetenturebi ar iyvnen, maTTvis amxela pasuxismgebloba rom dagvekisrebina, ris gamoc maT bevr skolaSi Rirseuli direqtorebi ver airCies. gogliCiZe am iniciativis kritikosTa mosazrebas eTanxmeba da acxadebs, rom direqtorebis daniSvna swored zogadi ganaTlebis sistemis centralizaciisken gadadgmuli nabijia, Tumca amaSi cuds verafers xedavs: fsevdodemokratias nu viTamaSebT... unda daisvas kiTxva: visia skola? ganaTlebis saministro aris skolis damfuZnebeli da is aris masze pasuxismgebelic. ganaTlebis ministri da aluda gogliCiZe amtkiceben, rom axal iniciativas yvela direqtori didi mowonebiT Sexvda. Tumca, liberali esaubra direqtorebs, romelTa nawilsac, miuxedavad imisa, rom uflebebi ezrdebaT, cvlileba mainc Secdomad miaCnia. skolebis avtonomiurobis ideas bolo moeReba, es skolebze kontrolis mopovebis iaraRi iqneba, _ ambobs Tbilisis erT-erTi sajaro skolis direqtori, romelmac, ramdenime kolegis msgavsad, gvTxova, misi vinaoba ar dagvesaxelebina: imis gamo, rom saministros gadawyvetilebisadmi kritikuli damokidebuleba aqvT, direqtorebs samsaxuris dakargvis eSiniaT. ukan gadadgmul nabijad miaCnia

dimitri SaSkinis Sexvedra skolebis direqtorebTan

bolo ori kviraa, Tbilisis da regionebis yvela skolis direqtori Tavis rigs elodeba _ ganaTlebis saministroSi arian dabarebulebi. iq misulebi specialur komisias xvdebian da ramdenime saaTis ganmavlobaSi Tav-TavianTi skolebis saStato ganrigs ganixilaven. `SiSiT velodebiT, ar viciT, iqidan rom gamovalT, ra iqneba, _ ambobs erT-erTi maTgani, _ uceb dagvibares, saswrafod unda mogvardes yvelaferio. saStato ganrigebi direqtorebma, didi xania, saministros gadaugzavnes, Tumca maTi TqmiT, am dokumentacias ganaTlebis saministroSi bolo dromde yuradRebas ar aqcevdnen. axla ki masalis daCqarebul ganxilvas maswavle-

blebisa da skolis sxva TanamSromlebis samsaxuridan gaTavisufleba sdevs Tan. skolidan TanamSromlebis saswrafo gaSveba, romelsac ganaTlebis saministroSi kategoriulad ar naTlaven Semcirebad, maisis arCevnebis Semdeg ganaTlebis saministros mier wamowyebuli meore mtkivneuli cvlilebaa, romelic pirvels _ direqtorebis daniSvnis proeqts mohyva kvaldakval da masTan kavSirSia. am proeqtis mixedviT, romelic parlamentma, savaraudod, seqtemberSi unda daamtkicos, saqarTvelos ori aTasamde skolaSi direqtorebs mxolod saministrosTan gasaubrebis Semdeg gaanawileben. direqtorTa daniSvnis proeqtis erT-erTi iniciatori TviTonac

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sazogadoeba
es cvlileba 161-e skolis direqtors, miSa mindaZesac, Tumca, imasac dasZens, rom sxva gamosavali ar iyo. sameurveo sabWoebma marTla ar gaamarTla, vidre sxva gamosavali moiZebneba, Cemi azriT, daniSvna tragedia araa~, _ ambobs mindaZe. oTxwliani muSaobis Tavze sameurveo sabWoebis araefeqturoba arc ganaTlebis eqspertebisTvisaa sakamaTo da arc direqtorebisTvis. sabWos bevrma wevrma sakuTari funqciebis gaazreba marTlac ver SeZlo. skolis saerTo interesebis nacvlad ki, direqtorebis TqmiT, sabWos maswavlebeli wevrebi xelfasis momatebaze fiqrobdnen, mSoblebi _ Svilebis maRal niSnebze. ki magram, rodis da rogor daitilebiT, sakuTar Tavze aiReben, swored skolebis saStato ganrigis Semcireba iqneba. maswavleblis sruli ganakveTi 18 saaTia, vinc kviraSi amaze gacilebiT naklebs muSaobs, unda gaaTavisuflon. zog skolaSi biblioTekarisa da organizatoris saWiroebis sakiTxi daayenes eWvqveS, zogan _ eqimebisa da eqTnebis, _ maTi saqme axla mandaturebmac iciano. me biblioTekari gamaSvebines, romelic Zalian mWirdeboda, _ ambobs erTi direqtori. 165-e skolis direqtorma, lia gigaurma ki, vidre saministroSi Sexvedraze wavidoda, TviTonve daiwyo Statebis Sekvecaze zrunva: `xelovnebis erTma maswavlebelma, romelsac cota saaTi hqonda, ukve datova ar yofiliyo, aqamde dabali kvalifikaciis mqone maswavleblebi isedac aRar unda darCeniliyvnen skolaSi. axla ki, araswori principiT, saStato ganrigis daxvewis~ argumentiT, naCqarevad gviwevs brZanebis Sesruleba, Tan is maswavleblebi toveben skolas, visac naklebi saaTi aqvs, da ara isini, vinc cudad aswavlis. naklebi saaTebi ki ufro axalgazrdebs aqvT. amitom, bevr karg maswavlebels mouwevs skolidan wasvla~, _ ambobs erT-erTi direqtori. direqtorTa asociaciis aRmasrulebel direqtors, Tea TuTberiZes miaCnia, rom maswavleblebis ukmayofilebis gamowvevas aqamde ganaTlebis saministro adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCev-

sajaro skolebidan direqtorebis mier kadrebis gaTavisufleba SeiZleba imis pirvel niSnad CaiTvalos, rom saministro centralizebul sistemaSi daniSnul direqtorebs legitimurad gamoiyenebs sakuTari miznebis gansaxorcieleblad.
xvewebian sameurveo sabWoebi, Tu maT uflebebs ase SevuzRudavT? ganviTareba gamocdilebam ar unda moitanos?~ _ kiTxvas svams Tbilisis erT-erTi sajaro skolis arCeuli direqtori. 165-e skolis direqtors, lia gigaurs ki miaCnia, rom skolis sameurveo sabWoebi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi gaamarTlebs, Tu mis wevrebs saTanadod gadaamzadeben. direqtorebis daniSvnis gadawyvetilebas TviTon ganaTlebis ministri, dimitri SaSkini imiT xsnis, rom lototronis sistemam ar imuSava, daniSvnis Semdeg ki is direqtorebic ufro igrZnoben pasuxismgeblobas, romlebic dRemde arc aurCeviaT da arc daumtkicebiaT da movaleobis Semsrulebleblad rCebian. pirveli mniSvnelovani pasuxismgebloba ki, rasac dasaniSni direqtorebi, saministros gadawyveskola, meores ki, romelic ukve moxucia, axla vuTxari, xom ar ifiqrebT skolidan wasvlaze-meTqi, _ ambobs lia gigauri. maswavleblebis arakvalificiuri nawili rom Sesamcirebelia, amaze ganaTlebis sferos eqspertebi, didi xania, msjeloben. Tumca, direqtorebi `liberalTan~ saubarSi acxadeben, rom pedagogebis daTxovnis saSualebas bolo 3 wlis ganmavlobaSi maT TviTon ganaTlebis saministro ar aZlevda. Cems maswavleblebs Tavidan samTviani xelSekrulebebi gavuforme. es maT motivacias umaRlebda. mere saministroSi gviTxres, _ erTwliani xelSekruleba daudeTo, Semdeg _ samwliani, bolos _ uvadoo, _ ixsenebs erT-erTi arCeuli direqtori, romelic aseve inkognitod darCenas gvTxovs. gamodis, rom maswavleblebis ganawyeneba ar undodaT. ase rom nebis gamo erideboda. Tumca, realurad, ganaTlebis saministro maT arc axla gaanawyenebs. am saqmes direqtorebi Seasruleben _ `saStato ganrigis daxvewis mizniT. ra, pasuxismgeblobas sakuTar Tavze ver iRebo? _ miTxres, roca winaaRmdegobis gaweva da biblioTekaris Statis SenarCuneba vcade, _ ambobs erTi direqtori da dasZens, _ verafers gavxdi. xuTi wlis winaT dawyebuli ganaTlebis reformebis kursi ukve Sefarvis gareSe icvleba, rasac direqtorebis daniSvnis Sesaxeb bolo iniciativac adasturebs. sajaro skolebidan direqtorebis mier kadrebis gaTavisufleba ki SeiZleba imis pirvel niSnad CaiTvalos, rom saministro centralizebul sistemaSi daniSnul direqtorebs legitimurad gamoiyenebs sakuTari miznebis gansaxorcieleblad.

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sazogadoeba
samedicino Jurnali `mkurnali.ji~

geSinodeT sakuTari vnebebis


samedicino Jurnal `mkurnalis~ veb-gverdze, Jurnalis eqimebi onlain pacientebs, samedicino konsultaciis nacvlad, sasuliero SegonebebiT moZRvraven.
anita Tvauri

`minda mogiyveT Cemze. var 18 wlis gogona. bavSvobidan mizidavda gogonebTan urTierToba... vcade biWTan kontaqtic, vifiqre, raRac Seicvleboda, magram _ piriqiT. vici, sazogadoebisTvis miuRebelia da es Zalian maSinebs. hormonebi gamovikvlie da yvelaferi normaSi maqvs. fsiqologTan davdiodi da araferi gansakuTrebuli ar uTqvams, garda daSinebisa, rom sazogadoeba gamriyavs. mainteresebs amaze Tqveni azri. gmadlobT winaswar~, _ am kiTxviT ucnobma gogonam samedicino Jurnalis _ `ojaxis mkurnalis~ eqimebs amave Jurnalis veb-gverdis meSveobiT mimarTa.

`Tqven sazogadoebis ki ara, sakuTari vnebebis unda geSinodeT. pirovnebas sazogadoeba ki ar aqcevs zurgs, aramed igi Tavad aqcevs sazogadoebas zurgs. unda icodeT, rom jansaRi sazogadoeba taSs ver daukravs homoseqsualebsa da lesboselebs. maSin ra daaSaves narkomanebma, isinic xom Tavis survilebs ikmayofileben?~ _ iyo pasuxi. samedicino Jurnali `mkurnali~, romelic 2001 wlidan, or kviraSi erTxel gamodis beWduri saxiT, ukve ori welia, Tavis erTgul mkiTxvels yvelaze intimuri kiTxvebis dasmis saSualebas aZlevs _ anonimurad, veb-

gverdis saSualebiT. `aravisTvis aris saidumlo, rom dRes sazogadoebis udides nawils samedicino momsaxurebaze xeli ar miuwvdeba... bevri xsnas TviTmkurnalobaSi eZebs. samwuxarod, aseT dros Secdomis albaToba didia, Secdomis gamosworeba ki medicinaSi TiTqmis yovelTvis rodi xerxdeba~... _ ase xsnis `mkurnalis~ redaqcia virtualuri kiTxva-pasuxis mizans da mkiTxvels arwmunebs, rom pacientebis kiTxvebze pasuxebs profesionali, sertificirebuli eqimebi weren. seqsisa da homoseqsualobis Temebi Cvens sazogadoebaSi dRemde tabuirebulia. sajarod amis Sesaxeb

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41

ilustracia sofo kirTaZe / wignis saxelosno

sazogadoeba
yviTeli presis an sensaciuri gadacemebis formatSi Tu laparakoben. radio `Tavisuflebis~ korespondentis, kulturolog salome asaTianis azriT, tabus uryevad SenarCunebas sami faqtori uwyobs xels: sabWoTa mentaliteti, romlis mixedviTac homoseqsualoba kriminalad iTvleboda, kavkasiuri kulturuli tradiciebi da marTlmadidebluri eklesiis gavlena. albaT amitomac sqesobriv problemebze eqimebTan pirispir laparakis nacvlad, `mkurnalis~ anonimur momsaxurebas bevri amjobinebs. es ki am veb-gverdis mzard popularobas ganapirobebs. `top.ji~-s monacemebiT, romelic qarTuli internet-gverdebis reitings zomavs, `mkurnals~ _ kviraSi 3 aTasamde unikaluri momxmarebeli, dReSi ki 500 vizitori hyavs. aq moqalaqeebisgan zogjer dReSi asi oraluri seqsis zianis miyenebis albaTobiT dainteresebuli mkiTxvelebic. `oraluri seqsi iseTive simaxinjea, rogoric iqneboda, magaliTad ukana tanidan Wama, yurebidan moSardva an TvalebiT siaruli. ufalma adamiani Seqmna srulyofil arsebad.... [mis] TiToeul organos garkveuli daniSnuleba da funqcia aqvs da rodesac adamiani cdilobs funqciaTa Secvlas, igi kanonzomierebis winaaRmdeg midis, anu ufals ewinaaRmdegeba~, _ pasuxoben samedicino konsultaciis momlodine pacientebs eqimebi. `Tqven mamakacad gaCndiT da mamakacuri orientacia Tqveni sakuTrebaa. aratradiciuli orientaciis mimdevrebi romeli sqesis warmomadgenlebi arian? mgoni _ arc erTis, adamians ki sqesi aucileblad unda hqondes. gamodis, rom roca orientacias icvli, erTiani poziciaa, Sinaarsze pasuxsac, Sesabamisad, redaqcia agebs. `mkurnali.ji~-s redaqcia daxurul, gasaidumloebul organizacias hgavs. `Tu ginda, bnelebi gviwodeT, Tqveni azri Cven Sesaxeb mniSvnelovani ar aris. Cvens religiur Sexedulebebze veb-gverdze ukve davwereT da amaze saubars saWirod aRar vTvliT. Tu vinmes Cveni religiuri Sexedulebebi aRizianebs, es maTi problemaa~, _ am sityvebiT gveubneba uars Tamar mamacaSvili redaqciaSi stumrobaze. `Cven yvelaferze erTiani pozicia gvaqvs da Tu rame kiTxva gaqvT, Tamar mamacaSvili gagcemT pasuxs~, _ gvpasuxobs Jurnalis erT-erTi eqimi marika dvali, romelic, `mkurnalis~ garda, `aversis klinikaSic~ muSaobs. `eqimi uwinaresad profesionali unda iyos, romlis kompetenciaSic ar Sedis imis dadgena, Tu ra aris codva~, _ acxadebs salome asaTiani. `msgavsi pasuxebi eqimebis imijs azianebs~, _ ganmartavs samecniero kvleviTi centris RADIX-is prezidenti zurab alxaniSvili. misi TqmiT, pacients eqimTan misvlamde isedac fsiqologiuri barieris gadalaxva uwevs, rogoricaa SiSi, moridebuloba da intimur sakiTxebze saubari. am fonze ki eqimebis aseTi pasuxebi `arakompetenturoba da samedicino eTikis darRvevaa~. saqarTvelos eqimis kodeqsi 2003 wels saqarTvelos eqimTa pirvelma kongresma miiRo. am kodeqsis mixedviT, `eqimi pativs unda scemdes pacientis pirovnebas, mis kulturul, sulier da moralur faseulobebs~. jandacvis saministrosTan arsebuli profesiuli ganviTarebis sabWo, samedicino SecdomebTan erTad, samedicino eTikis darRvevis faqtebsac ganixilavs. Tumca, eqimis eTikurobis sakiTxi sabWom mxolod mas Semdeg SeiZleba ganixilos, rac mas pacienti mimarTavs saCivriT. `amgvari Jurnalis Sesaxeb araferi msmenia. miT umetes, rodesac internetSi dasmul kiTxvebzea saubari, ra garantia gva-

`oraluri seqsi iseTive simaxinjea, rogoric iqneboda, magaliTad ukana tanidan Wama, yurebidan moSardva an TvalebiT siaruli. ufalma adamiani Seqmna srulyofil arsebad...~
kiTxvac ki Sedis. dRemde am veb-gverds konsultaciisTvis 8 aTasamde virtualurma pacientma mimarTa. veb-gverdis im ganyofilebebSi, romlebSic stomatologiis, onkologiis Tu qirurgiis sferodan kiTxvebi qveyndeba, pasuxebi marTlac samedicino xasiaTisaa. magram rogorc ki kiTxva adamianis seqsualur cxovrebas exeba, `mkurnalebis~ toni mkacri da Semgonebluri xdeba. eqimi-konsultantis nacvlad, im wuTas dogmatikosi Teologi laparakobs. ai, magaliTad gogona, romelic SeyvarebulTan seqsualuri aqtis Semdeg sisxlis denis mizeziT dainteresda, `mkurnalis~ konsultantisgan aseT pasuxs iRebs: `yvelafers rom Tavisi saxeli davarqvaT, Tqven CaidineT siZvis codva~. msgavs pasuxs iReben analuri an adamianobaze ambob uars~, _ aseTia maTi pasuxi seqsualuri umciresobebis mimarT. `mkurnalis~ eqimebi pacientebs moZRvarTan misvlas da monaniebas, an `sapatriarqosTan arsebul fsiqologiuri daxmarebis centrSi~ vizits urCeven. `mkurnali.ji~-s veb-gverdis mier daqiravebuli eqimebis CamonaTvalSi eqvsi Terapevti, qirurgi, pediatri, eqim-epidemiologi da erTi fsiqologi Sedis. Tumca, yvela sxva saxis kiTxvebisgan gansxvavebiT, adamianebis intimur cxovrebaze pasuxebi eqimis miTiTebis gareSe qveyndeba. Jurnalis mTavari redaqtori Tamar mamacaSvili `liberalTan~ satelefono saubarSi ambobs, rom eqimis saxelis miTiTeba saWiro arcaa, radgan marTalia, kiTxvebs sxvadasxva eqimi pasuxobs, magram maTi pasuxebi redaqciis

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sazogadoeba
qvs, rom marTlac eqimi pasuxobs? Tu vinmem Seuracxyofilad igrZno Tavi, mogvmarTos, daasabuTos, rom pasuxi marTlac sertificirebulma eqimma gasca da Cven gamovikvlevT~, _ ambobs jandacvis saministros aparatis ufrosi Tamar manjaviZe. Tumca, `mkurnali.ji~-sTvis dRemde aravis uCivlia. isic gaurkvevelia, akmayofilebT Tu ara virtualur pacientebs samedicino rCevebis nacvlad gacemuli sasuliero Segonebebi. amitom mxolod SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rogor grZnobs Tavs pasuxebis miRebis Semdeg Tundac is 18 wlis gogona, romelmac, anonimurobis imediT, gabeda da yvelaze intimur seqsualur saidumloebaze sajarod ilaparaka. `adamianebs, romlebic ver umklavdebian sakuTar ltolvas da verc sazogadoebriv wnexs uZleben, romelic mas codvilis, garyvnilis iarliys akravs, Sinagani konfliqti uRvivdebaT da negatiuri TviTSefaseba uyalibdebaT. aman ki, mZime SemTxvevaSi, adamiani SeiZleba suicidamdec ki miiyvanos~, _ acxadebs qalTa iniciativebis mxardamWeri jgufis direqtori, eka aRdgomelaSvili. miuxedavad amisa, `mkurnalis~ vebgverdze amgvar komentarebs stumrebi mainc iSviaTad toveben: `mixaria, rom aseTi kargi veb-gverdi arsebobs, magram rodesac konkretuli SekiTxviT mogmarTaven da Tqven morals ukiTxavT, ratom aZlevT Tavs amis uflebas, rom sxva adamiani gansajoT, esec xom aramarTlmadidebluria?~ kidev ufro kritikuli Sefasebebi ki mxolod sxva veb-gverdebze da socialur qsel `feisbuqSi~ vrceldeba: `rwmenisTvis arsebobs eklesia... magram me roca mainteresebs pasuxi imaze, Tu ratom maslokinebs samSabaTobiT, amaze unda miviRo pasuxi, da ara marxvaze da sulier wiaRsvlebze~. `eqimi valdebulia, umkurnalos sxeulsac da ecados, dadebiTi muxti Seitanos pacientis sulier mdgomareobaSi. es maTi gankiTxvisTvis ki ara, maTsave sasikeTod keTdeba~, _ pasuxobs redaqcia, sadac acxadeben, rom `mkurnalis~ mimarT kritika bolo xans gaxSirda, imata redaqciaSi agresiuli Sinaarsis zarebmac. mRvdel vladimer vaxtangaZes `mkurnalis~ Sesaxeb arasdros smenia, mis sawinaaRmdegos verafers xedavs, magram acxadebs: `nebismierma eqimma, pirvel rigSi, sakuTari misia unda Seasrulos pirnaTlad. misi valdebulebaa, pacienti gankurnos. Tuki, is kompetenturia religiur sakiTxebSi, dasaSvebia, rCeva misces, magram eqimisgan fsiqologiuri Zaladoba ar unda modiodes~. miuxedavad imisa, rom eTikis kodeqsi eqimebs avaldebulebs, pacients sruli informacia miawodon sakuTari daavadebis Sesaxeb, maT arc erT pasuxSi ar uxsenebiaT is, rom jandacvis saerTaSoriso organizaciam 1990 wels homoseqsualoba daavadebaTa klasifikatoridan amoiRo. samedicino praqtikas ki, rogorc eka aRdgomelaSvili ambobs, homoseqsualobisgan `gankurnebis~ SemTxveva ar axsovs. salome asaTianis SefasebiT, imis nacvlad, rom eqimebi sazogadoebaSi gamefebuli stereotipebis winaaRmdeg gamodiodnen, TavianTi pasuxebiT isini Tavad Tesaven Seuracxmyofel da siZulviliT gaJRenTil kliSeebs. iseT pasuxebs, rogoricaa _ homoseqsualoba udris `adamianobaze uaris Tqmas~ da `bunebis winaaRmdeg wasvlas~ _ medicinasTan araferi aqvs saerTo. es mxolod iaffasiani moralizmis magaliTia~, _ dasZens asaTiani. `mkurnalis~ redaqciaSi acxadeben, rom maTi kiTxva-pasuxis onlain sistema upirispirdeba gaumarTav jandacvis sistemas da TviTmkurnalobis SemTxvevebs, rac xSiria, imitom rom adamianebi eqimebs ver mimarTaven. Tumca, im konsultacias, rasac isedac daxurul sazogadoebaSi `mkurnali~ pacients sTavazobs, SesaZloa, kidev ufro mZime Sedegi hqondes, vidre fizikuri travmebi da sakuTar seqsualur orientaciaSi gaurkvevlobaa.

gamoiwereT Jurnali liberali


beWduri versia 12 nomeri _ 3 Tve 22 lari 24 nomeri _ 6 Tve 45 lari 48 nomeri _ 1 weli 90 lari

PDF versia 12 nomeri _ 3 Tve 13 lari 24 nomeri _ 6 Tve 25 lari 48 nomeri _ 1 weli 50 lari

Jurnalis gamosawerad dagvikavSirdiT telefonebze: 23 37 31, (899) 48 62 41 an mogvawodeT Tqveni sakontaqto informacia el-fostiT: info@liberali.ge

liberali . ivnisi - ivlisi 2010 . 37

43

sazogadoeba
Tvalsazrisi

ra elis operas?
nestan TaTaraSvili, arqiteqtor-restavratori
vili uxelmZRvanelebs. Tumca, Cndeba kiTxva _ rogor ganaaxleben operas, rusTavelisa da marjaniSvilis Teatrebis, an universitetis msgavsad xom ara? miT umetes, rom damfinansebeli igivea _ biZina ivaniSvili, rac imas niSnavs, rom finansebi uSurvelad gamoiyofa, xarisxze ki aravin iqneba pasuxismgebeli. ZeglTa dacvis saxelmwifo struqturebi rom vargodes, es ase ar iqneboda, magram CvenTvis es xom dauZleveli problemaa. operasTan erTad ganaxldeba misi mimdebare teritoriac, radgan ukve operis sakuTrebaSia TabukaSvilisa da laRiZis quCebis kuTxeSi arsebuli nasaxlari N44/3. es Senoba, romelsac adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis arqiteqturuli Zeglis statusi hqonda miniWebuli, gasul wels daingra. mis gverdiT arsebuli operis saxelosnoebic dangreulia da am Senobebis perimetrze axla administraciisa da saxelosnoebisTvis axali Senobis agebis idea muSavdeba, rac dauSvebelia, erTi mxriv, Tavad operis Senobis mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare, da N44/3 saxlis arqiteqturuli Rirsebis gamoc. 2004 wels am saxlis dacvis TxovniT mivmarTe kulturis ministris maSindel moadgiles, nikoloz vaCeiSvils, romelmac araferi iRona mis gadasarCenad. ramdenime wlis Semdeg ki saxlis zeda sarTuli daiwva da male amas Senobis sruli demontaJic mohyva. arada, me-19 saukunis Tbilisuri saxlis am nimuSs, me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi modernis stilis farTo rekonstruqcia Cautarda. mas evropuli stilis fasadebi amSvenebda TabukaSvilis da laRiZis

Tbilisis opera

Tbilisis operas samSeneblo Robe aqvs Semovlebuli. uaxloes xanSi misi aRdgena-ganaxlebis procesia dagegmili, rac kidev erTxel gvaxsenebs am didebuli Senobis saintereso istorias, romelic 1896 wlis 3 noembers, Tbilisis saxazino operis Teatris saxeliT, sazeimod gaixsna. Senobas rekonstruqcia pirvelad 1954 wels Cautares, magram maSin mxolod foie da darbazis morTuloba Secvales. 1961 wels operis scena daamSvena cnobili qarTveli mxatvris sergo qobulaZis mier moxatulma fardam. Tumca, 1973 wlis 9 maiss momxdari xanZris gamo, roca Teatris didi nawili ganadgurda, Senobis sruli ganaxleba gaxda saWiro. arqiteqtorebis, leri meZmariaSvilis da murTaz CaCaniZis gamarjvebuli proeqtis mixedviT, Teatris interieri gafarTovda da Tavdapirveli garegnobac srulad SeunarCunda. Tumca, sergo qobula-

dangreuli saxli TabukaSvilis quCaze

Zis mier moxatuli farda maSin ar aRudgeniaT. baton leri meZmariaSvilis TqmiT, es sakiTxi TiTqmis gadawyvetili iyo, magram amas mxatvris gardacvalebam SeuSala xeli. dRes opera kvlav SesakeTebelia. amjerad fundamentis gamagreba, fasadebisa da interieris restavracia da scenis ukana sivrcis gegmarebiTi gaumjobeseba igegmeba. Tumca qobulaZis fardis aRdgenis sakiTxi dRes saerTod ar ganixileba. operis ganaxlebis samuSaoebs kvlav arqiteqtori leri meZmariaS-

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sporti
quCebis mxridan. modernis liTonis aivnebi da sadarbazos kibis moajirebi ki, ukana ezos moxaratebul qarTul aivnebTan erTad, xuroTmoZRvrebis saukeTeso sinTezs qmnida. Zveli Tbilisis gamorCeuli Zeglis _ operisa da misi mimdebare Senobebis TviTmyofadoba aucileblad unda SenarCundes. Tumca, radgan #44/3 saxli axla sxva funqcias iZens, misi fasadebis aRdgenac sakmarisi iqneba. am azrs iziarebs xelovnebaTmcodne gia WaniSvilic, romelmac TabukaSvilis N44/3 saxlis kvleva operis dakveTiT 2009 wels ganaxorciela. operis direqtori daviT sayvareliZec aRdgenis momxrea. sabednierod, am SemTxvevaSi arc finansuri problemaa dabrkoleba da saxlis fasadebis aRdgenisTvis yvela saWiro fotoc mogvepoveba. maSin ra gviSlis xels? ratom vRelavT? imitom, rom jer kidev gasuli wlidan, roca aRniSnuli saxlebis ngreva mimdinareobda, laparaki iyo maT adgilas Tvisobrivad axali saxlis mSeneblobaze, romlis saproeqto winadadeba amjerad ukve damuSavebis stadiaSia. gaTvaliswinebulia ucxoeli arqiteqtorebis CarTvac, rac savsebiT realuria, radgan bolo wlebis TbilisSi ucxoeli ostatebis xmauriani popularizacia da konkursis gareSe maTi monawileoba sxvadasxva proeqtSi lamis tradiciad iqca. Tumca, es sqema ukve yvelasaTvis gaSifrulia da did saidumlos ar warmoadgens _ ucxoeli partniori, Tu Suamavali qarTvelebi, amaSi sarfian sargebels naxuloben da, rac mTavaria, Tavidan iSoreben yvelaze mniSvnelovan problemas _ Sedegebze pasuxismgeblobas. sazogadoebam uyuradRebod ar unda datovos es sakiTxi. Zveli Tbilisis am ganumeorebelma adgilma Tavisi xibli da TviTmyofadoba unda SeinarCunos, aRdgenil operas ki kvlav unda amSvenebdes qobulaZis eskiziT Seqmnili istoriuli farda.

maradonas isini uyvars

sandro naveriani

italia _ slovakeTis safexburTo matCi

jer amas vityvi: erT-erT qarTul sportul veb-gverdze _ www.worldsport.ge _ komentarebSi gverdis mkiTxvelebi aqtiurad deben erT da imave links warweriT _ `amisulaSvils xmebi! eRirsaT, gadagvaswres CaTlaxebma...~ mocemuli linkiT Sedixar nalCikis `spartakis~ oficialur veb-gverdze, sadac gamotanilia ruseTis Cempionatis bolo turis saukeTeso fexburTelTa reitingi, reitings ki veb-gverdis mkiTxvelebi adgenen. amisulaSvili xan pirvelzea da xan meoreze, amis mizezi worldsport.ge-s mohakero mkiTxvelebi arian. iqve aris sxva komentaric: `totaluri gayalbeba 2: rogor mivceT amisulaSvils uTvalavi xma~... da moyvanilia instruqcia, Tu ra unda qna imisTvis, rom amisulaSvils uTvalavi xma misce. qarTveli fexburTeli internet gamokiTxviT saukeTeso fexburTeli Tu gaxdeba, mere ra vqnaT, davijeroT, rom is

saukeTesoa ruseTSi? sanam Cven aq Tavs vityuebT, samxreT afrikaSi yvelaze saintereso iwyeba _ fleiofi. frangebma ukve Caalages Cemodnebi. jobda, arc amoelagebinaT. gulwrfelad vambob, hondurasi da alJiri gacilebiT saintereso da sanaxaobriv fexburTs TamaSoben, vidre frangebi... da vidre italielebi... amitomac miyvnen frangebs. wlevandel mundialze italiis erTaderTi imedi marCelo lipi iyo, Tumca gamoCnda, rom don marCelo daberda da veRar xedavs TamaSs. jer aSkarad Secda, rodesac mundialze ar waiyvana kasano (da ara marto), romelsac gundis zurgze akideba SeeZlo da meorec, cvlilebebi, romelic gasuli sami matCis msvlelobisas gaakeTa lipim, ubralod uazro iyo. vfiqrob, esTeturi TvalsazrisiT mundials italiis da safrangeTis gavardniT araferi daakldeba.

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45

sporti
sakmaod kargi gundi hyavT amerikelebs. pragmatul fexburTs TamaSoben, magram maTTvis jerjerobiT yvelaze mniSvnelovani Sedegia _ brazilieli gulSematkivariviT maT ver mosTxov, _ Tan Sedegi maCvene da Tan lamazado. vfiqrob, amerikelebi kidev Sors wavlen da naxevarfinalamde miaRweven, sadac maTi metoqe holandia an brazilia unda iyos. meore naxevarfinalSi erTmaneTs, darwmunebuli var, espaneTi da argentina daupirispirdebian. espanelebi mervedfinalSi portugaliasTan iTamaSeben, ufro sworad kriStianu ronaldusTan, romelsac jerjerobiT araferi gansakuTrebuli ar gaukeTebia. meoTxedfinalSi espanelebs, wesiT, mowesrigebuli iaponelebi Sexvdebian, kunZulelebis damarcxeba ki ar unda gauWirdeT. mundialis dawyebamde da axlac sokeris bevri moyvaruli Tu specialisti skeptikurad uyurebda maradonas mwvrTnelobas, maT Soris _ mec. simarTle giTxraT, arc axla mgonia, vTqvaT, fatih Terimze didi taqtikosi, magram samuzeumo saxelis garda, mas aqvs is, rac unda hqondes yvela mwvrTnels da mgoni, aravis aqvs _ maradonas uyvars, Zalian uyvars Tavisi fexburTelebi. arasodes vyofilvar argentinis gulSematkivari, magram minda-ar minda, roca maT TamaSs vuyureb, msiamovnebs, ubralod imitom, rom fexburTi miyvars, da maJrialebs, rodesac vxedav, rom maradona kocnis diego militos, romelic moedanze parketiviT iyo da araferi saintereso ar gaukeTebia. amitomac Semiyvarda maradona, rogorc mwvrTneli, amitomac momwons axla misi taqtikuri monaxazic da TamaSis gadawyobac, cvlilebebic, romelsac akeTebs da misi pijakic, romelSic Zalian sasaciloa. sokeris yvela moyvaruls vusurveb, male gvenaxos uJmuri mourinio, romelic Tavis moTamaSeebs kocnis. da sxvebic.

vedrebis dro
gio axvlediani, londoni

am Jurnals rom gadafurclavT, ukve gecodinebaT, rogor damTavrda kviras, naSuadRevs germaniainglisis mervedfinali. me kidev, marCielobas rom averido, mogaxsenebT, rom msoflio Cempionatis

dasrulebamde bevri aRaraferi darCa da Cempioni ki kvlavac ucnobia. aseTi Tviseba aqvs msoflio Cempionats, sul bolo wuTamde Cempioni ucnobia xolme. kai, ar gabra-

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sporti
warmoSva, _ Tqveno, yvelasTan ase siyvaruliT xarTo, biWebs exveviT da kocniTo, da rogor fiqrobT, es saqmes exmarebao? maradonam Sua TargmanSi daatyo, rom gei ambavSi xlarTavdnen, Tumca es mTargmnelis brali ufro iyo, vidre SekiTxvis avtorisa da, _ ara Zmao, qalebis trfiali varo. ras gaugeben samxreTeli kacebis xvevna-kocnas Crdiloelebi, anda pirjvris weras da krialosanis mravaljer ambors. imaT Taviseburi ambavi aqvT, amaT _ Taviseburi. ai, wina kviraSi inglisma rom orgzis Seircxvina Tavi, ambavi gavrcelda, _ meore fres Semdeg nirwamxdarma kroidonis episkoposma locva dawerao. es locva imaze ganuzomlad mokle gamodga, vidre maradona butbutebs xolme TamaSebis win. iq sul ori sityva aRmoCnda: `oh, RmerTo~, da simarTle rom iTqvas, ingliselebisTvis lood dedamisma anelka televizorSi galanZRa, xolo sarkozim tieri anri miiwvia, _ gamagebine erTi, ra xdebao. mTel am ambavSi metad xarobda irlandiuri presa da SegaxsenebT ratomac: safrangeTi mxolod imitom moxvda msoflio Cempionatze, rom irlandias mougo gadamwyveti TamaSi erTaderTi goliT. es goli ki imgvarad gavida, rom xsenebulma tieri anrim burTi lamis orive xeliT aiRo da carieli karis win daudo viliam galass, _ gaitaneo. imanac gaitana, msajma ki xeli ver dainaxa. maSin irlandia aRSfoTda, magram saqmes raRas uSvelida. erTaderTi irlandieli, vinc Tqva, _ Cvenc kargi xviToebi varT, vinaidan saqarTvelos ufro unamusod movugeT, vidre Cven safrangeTma mogvigoo, roi kini iyo, magram maSin gaalmase-

ras gaugeben samxreTeli kacebis xvevna-kocnas Crdiloelebi, anda pirjvris weras da krialosanis mravaljer ambors.
es ori sityva locvis survils Znelad gaaRviZebs, radgan imaT enaSi `oh, RmerTo~ ubralod gakvirvebas niSnavs. asea Tu ise, msoflio Cempionati mieqaneba kvanZis gaxsnisken da marTla vatyob, rom am svets udroo dros vwer, radgan yovelTvis Znelia Sua gzaze mitovebuli ambebis gamo wera. mogexsenebaT, safrangeTma Tavi Seircxvina msoflio Cempionatze _ ara mxolod finTad iTamaSa, aramed gaifica, ar ivarjiSa, gavarda, kutoki-kutoks daemdura; nikolas anelka Sin gaagdo ufrosobam mwvrTnel domenekis dedis ginebisTvis; TviTon domenekma xeli ar CamoarTva samxreTafrikelTa mwvrTnels sruliad gaugebari mizeziT; sabobuli irlandia msoflio Cempionatze adgilis damatebasac ki iTxovda, magram vin daumatebda. hoda, samarTalma puri Wama aqac da iqac, da aba, ra gasakviria, rom maradona gaCqarebiT kocnides krialosans. rac amas RmerTis xeli mouxmaria da gamoucxadebia Tavis mxardamWerad. wina kviraSi brazilielma luiS fabianum aseve xeldaxel gaitana lamazi goli da mere Tqva, _ esec RmerTis xeli iyoo; ramac maradona gaanawyena, _ eg ranairi RmerTis xeli iyo, mTelma msofliom imwamsve dainaxao. mokled, gaCqarebul locvaTa Jami Camodga samxreT afrikaSi, uein runisac jvari daunaxes yelze. Tumca, Cemgan gansxvavebiT, Tqven ukve iciT germania-inglisis TamaSis Sedegi.

safrangeTi _ irlandiis safexburTo matCi

zdeT. vxumrob, da mgoni _ arcTu vargisad. diego maradona rom locvaSi iyo mTeli es dro, mogexsenebaT da misma xvevna-kocnebma erTi ingliseli Jurnalistis TavSi SekiTxvac

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47

qalaqSi moxetiale kacis Canawerebi

ukanaskneli tramvai
`rac unda yofiliyo TbilisSi tramvais gauqmebis mizezi, dRes absoluturad darwmunebuli var imaSi, rom Cven kidev erTxel unda davfiqrdeT misi ukan dabrunebis SesaZleblobebze~.
kaxa Tolordava
am ramdenime wlis winaT megobarTan erTad ukanaskneli Tbilisuri tramvaiT vimgzavre. amisTvis TemqaSi wavediT, jer fexiT avuyeviT ukve gauqmebul tramvais marSruts Temqidan lamis Tbilisis zRvamde, mere ki ukan gamovyeviT balaxiT dafarul relsebs, metrosTan pirvelive tramvais SevaxtiT da bolo gaCerebamde gavyeviT. im dRes orive kidev erTxel davrwmundiT imaSi, rom tramvai didebuli transportia da is Zalian, Zalian uxdeba Tbiliss. ramdenime Tvis Semdeg Tbilisi ukve tramvais gareSe darCenili qalaqi gaxda. rac unda yofiliyo TbilisSi tramvais gauqmebis mizezi, dRes absoluturad darwmunebuli var imaSi, rom Cven kidev erTxel unda davfiqrdeT misi ukan dabrunebis SesaZleblobebze. mesmis, tramvai ver daubrundeba qalaqis centralur nawils, Tu _ ratom, amis detaluri axsna albaT saWiro araa, magram is Zalian lazaTianad SeiZleba moergos qalaqis farToquCebian gareubnebs. msoflios Zalian bevrma qveyanam raRacnairad moaxerxa tramvais SenarCuneba, Cven ki, rogorc xSirad gvemarTeba xolme, mgonia, rom avCqardiT, da davkargeT is, rac dasakargi namdvilad ar iyo. gavimeoreb _ tramvai albaT verasdros daubrundeba Tbilisis centralur nawils, radganac amisTvis lamis qalaqis mTeli am seqtoris satransporto marSrutebis Tavidan dagegmareba da Seneba mogviwevs, es ki advili namdvilad araa. arc qalaqis gareubnebSia advili tramvais qselis Tavidan dagegmareba. sakmarisia, Tundac `vikipediaSi~ naxoT gverdebi tramvaize, amaSi rom darwmundeT, radganac, rogorc yvela satransporto saSualebas, tramvaisac aqvs Tavisi upiratesobebi da naklovanebebi. magram, Tbilisis gareubnebi am upiratesobebis da naklovanebebis kidev erTxel gadaxedvis saSualebas mainc iZleva. maS ratom unda vTqvaT uari amaze, miT umetes, Tu ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, Tbilisis gareubnebis didi nawili jer kidev `limbSi~ imyofeba? Sedegi? wminda esTetikuri TvalsazrisiT, es upirveles yovlisa Tbilisis usaxuri gareubnebis saintereso da moulodneli kontrastuli elementiT gamdidreba iqneba. moulodnelobis efeqti mniSvnelovania da tyuilubralod ar mixsenebia. is nebismieri saintereso qalaqis `aRmoCenisTvis~ aucilebeli elementia, Tundac _ turistebisTvis. Tbiliselebis is nawili, vinc qalaqis `komunistur~ raionebSi siarulze uars ambobs, SeiZleba SemekamaTos, _ romeli turis-

ti dadis varkeTilSi an afrikaSio, _ magram am adamianebs SemiZlia, darwmunebiT vuTxra, rom Cemma lamis yovelkvireulma `sadazvervo gasvlebma~ gareubnebSi damarwmuna, rom es ase araa. gldanSi, diRomSi, isanSi _ yvelgan, sadac unda waxvide, Sexvdebi zurgCanTamogdebul ucxoelebs, interesiT rom aTvaliereben iqaurobas. maTi ricxvi albaT TandaTan gaizrdeba. hoda, swored aseTi dainteresebuli adamianebi arian Senive qalaqis sasargeblod an sazianod rom weren xolme TavTavianT blogebSi; me ki ar wamikiTxavs arc erTi aseTi Canaweri, sadac Tundac yvelaze ufro ukmayofilo adamians Tbilad ar moexsenebina ama Tu im qalaqis is nawilebi, sadac tramvais xazia. Tbiliselebs davubrundebi. moxerxebulobasTan erTad tramvai nawilobriv mainc moacilebs Tbiliselebs oflian samarSruto taqsebs da mouxeSav avtobusebs. is Tundac mcired Seamcirebs qalaqis gamonabolqviT dabinZurebas da, rac mTavaria, is Tbiliselebis nawils sakuTari qalaqis sxvanairad, odnav auCqareblad SegrZnebis saSualebasac daubrunebs, rasac aranairi kavSiri ar aqvs nostalgiasTan. magaliTisTvis, saqsofonis Tu dramis saundi dResac iseve aranostalgiurad aqtualuria jazSi, rogorc adre. Sesabamisad, tramvais borblebis xmauriT azrialebuli saxlebis fanjris SuSebma SeiZleba gansxvavebuli ritmi SesTavazon indiferentulad mogugune Tbilisis gareubnebs, da sxvanairad `gaajazon~ isini ara marto TbiliselebisaTvis, aramed Camosuli stumrebisTvisac. amis gulisTvis ki namdvilad Rirs kidev erTxel dafiqreba, zemoT Tqmulis garda, kidev ra sargebloba SeiZleba moutanos dabrunebulma tramvaim Tbiliss.

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D - dRe
pirveli

24

saaTi

dRe, romelmac gadawyvita meore msoflio omis bed-iRbali!


wigni moicavs mowinaaRmdegeTa calkeuli taqtikuri manevrebis detalur aRwerilobas D-dRes desantis gadmosxmis TiToeul zonaSi pirveli 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi. specialurad am wignisTvis Seqmnil ferad rukebze gamosaxulia normandiis sanapiro zolis xuTive monakveTi da D-dRis monawile ZalovanTa marSruti 1944 wlis 6 ivnisis SuaRamemde. wigni gaformebulia sanapiroze mimdinare movlenaTa amsaxveli dokumenturi fotoebiT.

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