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ganaCeni gamoZiebisa da sasamarTlos gareSe gv. 26 ninia kakabaZe: telekritika gv. 8 mark maleni: jaSuSebi niu-jersiSi gv.

16 mixeil `aTagurji~ gv. 29 brZola xodorkovskisTvis da mis winaaRmdeg gv. 19 mooqrovili nazarbaevi gv. 21 me-20 saukuneSi darCenili baga-baRebi gv. 38 entoni Sadidis `Rame axlovdeba~ gv. 41 rati amaRlobeli: qarTuli epataJis dabadeba gv. 44
fasi 2 lari

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gv. 12

"gcems - ese igi uyvarxar"

# 38 / 5 - 11 ivlisi / 2010

ansambl `rusTavis~ gamosvla, saqarTvelos kulturis dReebi berlinSi, seqtemberi 2009

nomerSi: 02 fosta 04 mokled 06 fotoreportaJi 07 vrclad 08 mediakritika aRmovaCinoT telemedia xelaxla 10 ori azri unda daafinansos Tu ara kultura saxelmwifom? magda guruli vs vaxtang megreliSvili 12 mTavari Tema `gcems - ese igi uyvarxar~ 16 Tvalsazrisi jaSuSebi niu-jersiSi mark maleni 17 interviu Tavisufali, magram regulirebuli giorgi qadagiZe msoflio 19 brZola xodorkovskisTvis da mis

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winaaRmdeg yazaxeTi mooqrovili nazarbaevi Tvalsazrisi `ra nomeria evropis telefoni?~ mezoblebi somexi eri robert koCarianis winaaRmdeg konfliqtebi nebisa da logikis uqonloba Jurnalisturi gamoZieba ganaCeni gamoZiebisa da sasamarTlos gareSe saubrebi liberalizmze mixeil `aTagurji~ adamianis uflebebi da samarTali moqalaqeebi qveynis winaaRmdeg sazogadoeba maSin, roca ruka ver xdeba teritoria ganaTleba

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marto, `mausis~ pirispir skolamdeli aRzrda me-20 saukuneSi darCenili baga-baRebi kultura rogor `gavakeToT~ evrokulturuli saqarTvelo wignebi entoni Sadidis `Rame axlovdeba~ Tvalsazrisi poetebi da Talibani laSa buRaZe Tvalsazrisi qarTuli epataJis dabadeba rati amaRlobeli sporti HUP HOLLAND HUP sandro naveriani roca brazilieli xar gio axvlediani qalaqSi moxetiale kacis Canawerebi vaSa, metromSens! kaxa Tolordava

garekanze:
`gcems - ese igi uyvarxar~

Jurnali `liberali~ gamoicema fond `Ria sazogadoeba - saqarTvelos~ mxardaWeriT. avtoris / avtorebis mier sainformacio masalaSi gamoTqmuli mosazreba ar gamoxatavs fondis `Ria sazogadoeba-saqarTvelos~ pozicias. Sesabamisad, fondi ar aris pasuxismgebeli masalis Sinaarsze. The views, opinions and statements expressed by the authors and those providing comments are theirs only and do not necessarily reflect the position of Open Society Georgia Foundation. Therefore, the Open Society Georgia Foundation is not responsible for the content of the information material.

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

fosta
gundistani rogori degradirebis gzas daadga `maestros~ sainformacio: http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=wIIoKHutrrY&feature =player_embedded naxeT es siuJeti da daakvirdiT, Tu arsebobs gansxvaveba `maestros~ am siuJetsa da `imedis~ da `kurieris~ Sav-piarul siuJetebs Soris? erosi kiwmariSvilma axali `kurieri~ Seqmna etyoba, sadac axali ambebis formatidan isev gadauxvia. mxolod jerjerobiT misi samizne ufro yofil aliansSi gaerTianebuli politikuri Zalebi arian. sainteresoa, rom mTavrobis Temebis gaSuqebaze jerjerobiT mSrali niusebis formats inarCuneben, magram esec albaT droebiTia, jer sxvebis gaSavebiT arian dakavebulebi. aqve vityvi, rom, Cemi dakvirvebiT, Zveli `maestros~ `ukomentarod~ iyo bevrad ufro axlos sainformacios standartebTan _ iyo mSrali da informaciuli formatis, vidre is, rac daiwyo, ganaxlebuli `maestros~ axali ambebis eTerSi. ana, 29 ivnisi, 2010 fexze wamodgomaSi) ise uaryofiTi mizniT (gamoiyeno megobroba piradi gamorCenisaTvis). magram isev bolo nawils davubrundebodi _ gvaCvenos avtorma erTi demokrati mainc (Savgvremani kacis CaTvliT), romelmac omis pirvelive dReebSi dagmo ruseTis moqmedeba... Tumca xoo, omi xom Cven daviwyeT? aba, ratom unda daegmo? makeinma sityviT mainc gamoxata TanagrZnoba da miuxedavad imisa, rom misi gvaris manqanis nomrad dawera srul xixoobad mimaCnia, mag kacma mainc daikava cotaTi gamorCeuli adgili CvenTvis... yovel SemTxvevaSi, CemTvis. Solveig, 29 ivnisi, 2010

www.liberali.ge

rom ufro ukeTesad moifiqra, rogor `Caataros~ arCevnebi Tavis sasargeblod. es xom sakuTari Tavis motyuebaa. ar vici, icis Tu ara batonma markma, magram saqarTveloSi antidasavluri ganwyobilebebi samwuxarod Zalian Zlierdeba. es iyo yvelaze ufro usamarTlo garemoSi Catarebuli arCevnebi, rac ki Catarebula bolo wlebSi da rodesac amerikelebi an evropelebi am arCevnebs aqeben, antidasavluri ganwyobilebebi Zalian izrdeba da sapasuxod, Zlierdeba nacionalisturi an prorusuli ganwyobilebebi. solar, 29 ivnisi, 2010 weli gvWirdeba Tu ara axalgazrdobisa da sportis saministro? raRac uazro memarjveneoba gaCnda saqarTveloSi _ yovlad suleluri sqemebidan glejen azrebs da abraxuneben win da ukuRma. problema saministros Seqmna ki araa, problema isaa, rom idioti Cauyenes mag saministros saTaveSi. saministros Seqmna problema rogor ar aris, sruliad zedmeti saministroa. ra saxelmwifos saqmea axalgazrdobis mwyemsva. jobia kerZo bizness Seuqmnan pirobebi, rom kultura da sporti daafinansos. problemaa, Cveni fuli omis dros gaqceuli gubernatoris dasaqmebas rom xmardeba, sxva mizani am saministros ar aqvs. veTanxmebi mowinaaRmdeges. vaxtangi, 28 ivnisi, 2010

an Targmani veraa mTlad zusti, an m-ri maleni ver ayalibebs azrs Tanmimdevrulad (bolo nawils vgulisxmob). erTi-ori saintereso mosazrebaa da veTanxmebi avtors, rom saqarTveloSi megobris instituti sul sxvagvaria, vidre e. w. civilizebul dasavleTSi da gamoiyeneba rogorc dadebiTi (xeli Seuwyo gaWirvebul megobars

`bolo xanebSi es situacia, Cemi azriT, gamosworebis gzazea da amis mizezi bolo arCevnebSi xelisuflebis warmatebaa~. _ romel warmatebaze saubrobs batoni marki? mniSvneloba ar aqvs am `warmatebis~ ukan ra dgas? an ra gaiTvaliswina, an gamoaswora xelisuflebam? is,

redaqtorebi: mTavari redaqtori Sorena SaverdaSvili /aRmasrulebeli redaqtori nino jafiaSvili / politika da saerTaSoriso ambebi sofo Waava / kavkasia da konfliqtebi sofo bukia / Jurnalisturi gamoZieba beso kurtaniZe / sazogadoeba Tamar babuaZe / adamianis uflebebi da samarTali nino beqiSvili / axali ambebi naTia axalaSvili Jurnalistebi: maia wiklauri, nino gogua, marika qoCiaSvili, eka WiTanava, rusudan fanoziSvili, anita Tvauri, Tamar faradaSvili, nino CimakaZe, rusudan ruxaZe, nino robaqiZe, iago yuraSvili, naTia guliaSvili, daviT buxrikiZe kontribucia: mark maleni, giorgi cxadaia, kaxa Tolordava, gio axvlediani, laSa buRaZe, sandro naveriani redaqcia: foto-redaqtori levan xerxeuliZe / grafikuli dizaini Tornike lorTqifaniZe / redaqtor-stilisti nino svaniZe / koreqtori nino saiTiZe gamomcemloba: proeqtis menejeri qeTi babunaSvili / proeqtis menejeris asistenti lela SubiTiZe / reklamis da gayidvebis direqtori Salva CubiniZe / marketingi da sazogadoebasTan urTierToba naTia rusaZe / distributori zviad Sengelia gamomcemeli: Sps `liberali~. misamarTi: Tbilisi 0162, faliaSvilis q. 108. tel.: (995 32) 232235, 233731, 912326. el-fosta: info@liberali.ge sxva gamocemebi: `cxeli Sokoladi~, `cxeli Sokoladi _ literatura~, `biznesi: adamianebi, meTodebi, strategiebi~. `liberalis~ saavtoro uflebebi daculia. JurnalSi gamoqveynebuli masalebis nawilobrivi da/an mTliani gamoyeneba redaqciis Tanxmobis gareSe akrZalulia. beWdva: stamba `favoriti~. misamarTi: Tbilisi, CubinaSvilis q. 50. tel.: (995 32) 95 19 52. www.phfavorite.ge gamodis kviraSi erTxel, yovel orSabaTs. pirveli nomeri gamocemulia 2009 wlis maisSi. rekomendebuli sacalo fasi 2 lari.

www.liberali.ge 2

ISSN 1987-7528

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

radio nacnobi gepatiJebaT klubSi nacnobi


tradiciuli qarTuli samzareulo cocxali musika

misamarTi: abanos q. N 3

mokled
Tavdasxma ganmuxurze
qarTuli policiis saguSagoze, romelic okupirebul sofel otobaiasTan mosazRvre zugdidis municipalitetis sofel ganmuxurSi mdebareobs, SeiaraRebuli Tavdasxma moxda. qarTvel policielebze Tavdasxma okupirebuli regionidan moxda _ rusi samxedroebi avtomaturi cecxlsasroli iaraRidan isrodnen. srolis Sedegad mZimed daiWra qarTveli policieli daviT beWvaia, romelic administraciuli sazRvridan 100 metris moSorebiT saguSagoze msaxurobs. daWrili varaudobs, rom snaiperma esrola, ris Semdegac man sapasuxo cecxli gaxsna. afxazeTis mxridan sofel ganmuxuris dacxrilva uarhyo okupirebuli galis raionis miliciis ufrosma vadim Rvinjiam. ruseTis uSiSroebis federaluri samsaxuris sasazRvro sammarTvelos afxazeTis ganyofilebis warmomadgeneli vasili malaevi ki acxadebs, rom sofel otobaiasTan mdebare saguSagosTan Ramis 3-dan 4 saaTamde SualedSi srolis xma marTlac ismoda.

"TbilaviamSenis" axali patroni


`TbilaviamSeni~, `samxedro saremonto-samrewvelo kompleqsis~ Camoyalibebis mizniT, Tavdacvis saministros mflobelobaSi gadadis. saministroSi acxadeben, rom es iniciativa Tavad aviamSenis xelmZRvanelobas ekuTvnis da `TbilaviamSeni~ sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri gaxdeba. 2004 wels aviamSeni misma xelmZRvanelobam saxelmwifosgan gamoisyida 67 milion aSS dolarad da dReisaTvis misi aqciebis 90 procentis mflobeli kvlav aviamSenis xelmZRvanelobaa, xolo danarCenis _ TanamSromlebi. kompaniis generaluri direqtoris, pantiko Tordias TqmiT, maTi ZiriTadi damkveTi aqamdec Tavdacvis saministro iyo da swored aman ganapiroba maTi gadawyvetilebac. `vifiqreT, rom orive mxarisTvis momgebiani iqneboda erToblivi muSaoba. erTobliv preskonferenciaze kiTxvis dasmis saSualeba Jurnalistebs ar miscemiaT.

TurqeTi da israeli
TurqeTma israelis TviTmfrinavebs sahaero sivrce Cauketa. es akrZalva TurqeTis mTavrobam israelis specrazmis mier `Tavisuflebis flotiliaze~ Setevis sapasuxod daawesa. sahaero sivrcis daxurvis vadis da sxva detalebis Sesaxeb informacia ar vrceldeba. samagierod, gavrcelda informacia imis Sesaxeb, rom briuselSi TurqeTisa da israelis ministrebis ahmet CavuSoRlusa da benjamin ben eliezeris saidumlo Sexvedra Sedga. israelis samxedro radios cnobiT, Sexvedra vaSingtonTan SeTanxmebiT momzadda. aSS mis mokavSireebs Soris urTierTobis gafuWebis gamo SeSfoTebulia. es pirveli maRali donis Sexvedraa flotiliaze Tavdasxmis Semdeg, rasac 9 Turqi aqtivisti Seewira. TurqeTs surs, rom israelma bodiSi moixados da daTanxmdes saerTaSoriso gamoZiebis Catarebas.

ricxvebi
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ministri Seicvala bolo 7 wlis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi.

25 wlis Semdeg lari kingi CNN-is


Sous tovebs.
liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

mokled
meTerTmeted gamocxadebuli ndoba
saqarTvelos parlamentma sami axali ministriT dakompleqtebul kabinets ndoba bolo 7 wlis ganmavlobaSi ukve meTerTmeted gamoucxada. mTavrobisa da misi programisTvis umciresobas mxari ar dauWeria. premier-ministrma nika gilaurma deputatebs ganucxada, rom mTavrobis miznebi da amocanebi ucvlelia. mTavrobis programis saxelwodebac igive rCeba _ `erTiani saqarTvelo siRaribis gareSe. gilauris TqmiT, prioritets qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdgena warmoadgens, `mSvidobiani, diplomatiuri saSualebiT da saerTaSoriso monitoringis meqanizmis maqsimaluri gamoyenebiT. premieri acxadebs, rom wels ekonomikaSi dadebiTi niSnebi ukve gamoCnda da, zomieri prognoziT, 4,5-procentiani wliuri zrdaa mosalodneli.

citatebi

`ukraina suverenuli da damoukidebeli saxelmwifoa, romelsac aqvs ufleba Tavad amoirCios mokavSireebi. nato-s kari maTTvis Ria rCeba, magram gadawyvetileba Tavad unda miiRon~. hilari klintoni 2 ivlisi, kievi `Tqven ebrZviT kanonier qurdebs, magram es ministrebi [vano merabiSvili da zurab adeiSvili] xom ar arian kanonieri qurdebi Tqvens mTavrobaSi?~ levan vefxvaZe 2 ivlisi, Tbilisi

mosmenebi parlamentSi
parlamentma pirveli mosmeniT miiRo axali sagadasaxado kodeqsis 267-gverdiani proeqti. proeqtis ganxilvaze misulma finansTa ministrma deputatebs mTavrobis gadawyvetilebis Sesaxeb amcno, rom damatebiTi Rirebulebis gadasaxadiT ar daibegreba presa, ganaTlebis sistema da jandacvis aparaturis miwodeba. dRes moqmedi sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobiT arc erTi es sfero dRg-Ti ar ibegreba, magram kodeqsis Tavdapirvel proeqtSi maTi dabegvra gaTvaliswinebuli iyo. mesame da saboloo mosmeniT ki sakanonmdeblo organom kidev erTi sagadasaxado amnistiis Sesaxeb iniciativa miiRo, romelic nacionaluri da regionuli televiziebis mier martamde dagrovili sagadasaxado davalianebis Camoweras iTvaliswinebs. televiziebisTvis daaxloebiT 36 mln laris SeRavaTis gaweva, aqedan mxolod ori milioni laria regionuli televiziebis davalianeba. Tumca romel da ramden telekompanias ra konkretuli Tanxa Camoewereba, kanonproeqtSi ar aris miTiTebuli, im motiviT, rom es informacia `sagadasaxado saidumloebas~ warmoadgens.

`parlamentSi mTavroba ufro kompetenturad unda wardges, ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ministrobis kandidatebma ki sakanonmdeblo organos ara ese, aramed konkretul cifrebze gaTvlili gegma unda warudginon~. guram CaxvaZe _ parlamentari 30 ivnisi, Tbilisi `mzad var muSaobisTvis dRiTa da RamiT, SabaTsa da kviras, rom saqarTveloSi mudmivad ar ismodes: `gveSveleba rame?~, aramed vambobdeT: `ra gavakeTo, rom Cems Svils ukeTesi momavali Sevuqmna~. vera qobalia 29 ivnisi, Tbilisi

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aTasi palmis sanacvlod, baTumSi xeivans arabi Seixis Seix nahaian mabaraq al nahaianis saxeli daerqmeva.

miliard aSS dolars Cadebs amerika internet-qselis ganviTarebaSi.

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liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

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misaRebi gamocdebi 2010


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liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

foto marika qoCiaSvili

vrclad

ruseTis 11 megobari
msoflio interesiT adevnebs Tvals amerikaSi rusi agentebis dakavebis istorias.
naTia axalaSvili
rodesac vizitiT kmayofilma medvedevma aSS datova, ruseTSi veravin warmoidgenda, rom 3 dReSi gamoZiebis federaluri biuro ruseTis 11 agents daiWerda. erTaderTi, rac SemiZlia vTqva, dakavebis momenti gansakuTrebulad daxvewilad iyo SerCeuli, _ aseTi iyo lavrovis pirveli gancxadeba jaSuSebis dakavebis Semdeg. ruseTis sagareo uwyeba jer aSS-s ganmartebebs eloda. mogvianebiT ki amis gareSec ganacxades, rom mzad arian, SpionaJSi eWvmitanil Tavis moqalaqeebs daexmaron da kidev erTxel aRniSnes, rom momxdaris Sesaxeb vrcel informacias ar floben. amerikeli oficialuri pirebis gancxadebiT, eWvmitanilebis amocana SeerTebuli Statebis politikur wreebTan kavSirebis ganviTareba da moskovSi sadazvervo cnobebis gadagzavna iyo. maTi interesis sferos ganekuTvneboda samxedro saqmeebi, sagareo politika da kongresis sakiTxebi. dakavebulebi sxvadasxva StatSi cxovrobdnen, ise _ rogorc Cveulebrivi amerikelebi; hqondaT yalbi pasportebi; zogi ojaxuri wyvilis saxiT, zogic marto saqmianobda. maT ori ram braldebaT _ farulad muSaoba ucxo saxelmwifosTvis da fulis gaTeTreba. dakavebuli 28 wlis ana Cepmeni axali Taobis Spionia da swored is gaxda am jaWvis Semkvreli. 26 ivniss is Sexvedraze daTanxmda gamoZiebis federaluri biuros im agents, romelic Tavs rezidenturis TanamSromlad asaRebda. mas SesakeTeblad swored is leptopi gadasca, romliTac ruseTSi Setyobinebebs bs giraoTi gaTavisuflebaze uari uTxra. jaSuSebis dakavebaze ruseTis reaqcia sakmaod TavSekavebulia. cixeSi Casmuli adamianebis bediT Sewuxebuli putini imiT Semoifargla, rom imedi gamoTqva, _ am faqtiT aSS-sTan bolo dros mopovebul pozitivs ziani ar miadgebao. sxva dros aseTi SemTxvevebisas reaqcia yovelTvis sxvagvari iyo. magaliTad, 4 wlis winaT _ roca ruseTis jaSuSebi saqarTveloSi daiWires. Tbilisidan dakavebuli oficrebis deportacia rom mimdinareobda, swored maSin gadawyda kremlSi saqarTvelos finansuri, satransporto da safosto blokadis dawesebis sakiTxi da elCic gaiwvies. putini maSin ambobda, _ saqarTvelos xelisufleba berias tradiciebs mihyvebao. aSS-s iusticiis saministroSi acxadeben, rom 100-ze meti daSifruli gzavnili aqvT, saidanac irkveva, rom jaSuSebs kavSiri hqondaT erTmaneTTan da informacias moskoSi, sagareo dazvervis centrSi agzavnidnen. ruseTisTvis rodis sjobda jaSuSebis dakaveba _ medvedevis aSS-Si vizitamde, vizitis dros, Tu mis Semdeg? eqspertebi miiCneven, rom aSSs arCevani ruseTisTvis yvelaze damndobi aRmoCnda. axla ki maTTvis mTavaria, putinis imedi gamarTldes da am faqtma gadatvirTvis reJimSi myof rusul-amerikul urTierTobebze zegavlena ar iqonios. amis fasad ki ruseTi, rogorc Cans, mzad aris, saerTaSoriso skandals, rusuli specsamsaxurebis kraxsa da finansur danakargebs Seeguos.

agzavnida. misgan ki sxva jaSuSisTvis gadasacemi yalbi pasporti miiRo. magram anam es davaleba ar Seasrula, gamoZiebis federalur biuroSi darwmundnen, rom ana raRacs mixvda da swored amis Semdeg daiWires aSS-s sxvadasxva StatSi erTdroulad 10 agenti, romlebsac ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi uTvalTvalebdnen. meTerTmete Zebnili kviprosze daakaves da is giraos sanacvlod gaTavisuflebis Semdeg miimala. aSS-Si dakavebuli 8 adamianis sasamarTlo ukve gaimarTa. oris _ riCard da sintia merfebis procesi ki gadaido. mosamarTlem 250 aTasi aSS dolari giraos gadaxdis Semdeg SinapatimrobaSi mxolod erTi, viki pelaesi gauSva, romlis meuRlemac jaSuSoba dakavebisTanave aRiara da isic daadastura, rom misi aSS-Si cxovrebis xarjebs ruseTi faravda, konkretulad ki dazvervis samsaxuri. im gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom kviprosze dakavebuli da giraos sanacvlod gaTavisuflebuli robert metsosi miimala, aSS-s sasamarTlom danarCen braldebule-

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

mediakritika

aRmovaCinoT telemedia xelaxla


ninia kakabaZe
didi xnis ganmavlobaSi gazeT `24 saaTSi~ mimyavda rubrika `telekritika~. jer fondi `Ria sazogadoeba _ saqarTvelos~ grantis farglebSi, Semdeg ki _ damoukideblad. erTi sityviT, momwonda televiziaze dakvirveba da wera. gavida dro da Cemi xmauriani yuTis mimarT sruli gaucxoeba gamiCnda, erTgvari zizRic ki, da yuTmac dakarga funqcia. masTan dabruneba albaT erT-erTi yvelaze mZime nabiji iqneba Cems arcTu imdenad xanmokle cxovrebaSi. maS ase, vagrZeleb an kidev erTxel viwyeb televiziis kritikas da kidev erTxel vrTav televizors. qarTul televizias xSirad akritikeben, magram kritika ZiriTadad politikuri Toq-Souebis an sainformacio gamoSvebebis misamarTiT ismis. iqidan gamomdinare, rom saqarTveloSi momavalSi politikuri stabilurobaa mosalodneli, vfiqrob, axali satelevizio sezonis mimarTac moTxovnebi gaizrdeba da qarTveli mayurebeli ara mxolod politikosebis oponirebis yurebas, aramed sxva tipis sanaxaobasac moiTxovs. uaxloesi 2 wlis ganmavlobaSi winasaarCevno isteria mosalodneli aRar aris. amitom, Cveni mizania, movisminoT da vnaxoT arsebiTi msjeloba, kamaTi, sxvadasxva politikur, socialur Tu sazogadoebriv Temaze. aRar daviwyeb im banalobad qceuli mizezebze saubars, ris Sedegadac ver, an ki Zalian nel tempSi viTardeba qarTuli televizia. pirvel rigSia araprofesionalizmi, cenzura, TviTcenzura, gemovnebis deficiti da

gaunaTlebloba. am mizezTa yvelaze mtkivneuli Sedegia ara mdare xarisxis televizia, aramed danaSaulebrivi elementebis matarebeli telemedia. eTikuri normebis sruli ugulebelyofa, adamianis uflebebis Selaxva, qsenofobiuri ritorika _ es problemebi ara mxolod mediaSia, es problemebi sazogadoebaSia da amitom swored amaze unda daviwyoT saubari. Tavis erT-erT pirvel gadacemas swored televizias uZRvnis eka xoferia da svams kiTxvas _ ras uyurebs xalxi? xalxi uyu-

rebs imas, rasac sTavazobs satelevizio media da ar arsebobs mayurebelTa homogenuri erToba, romelic erTsa da imave sanaxaobas iTxovs. umjobesia vikiTxoT, ras gvTavazobs media?! sazogadoebrivi televizia swored is adgilia, sadac amgvari kiTxvebi unda ismodes da amaze unda midiodes msjeloba. problema ki isaa, rom Cven arasworad vsvamT aqcentebs da araswori gziT mivdivarT. magaliTad, sazogadoebrivi televiziis xelmZRvanelobis problemaa, rom ver

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

mediakritika
eleva satelevizoo `brendebs~. yovelkvireuli (Tu yoveldRiuri ara) Toq-Sous arseboba sazogadoebriv Temebze aucilebelia, magram ara imisTvis, rom `feisebis~ xaTriT gadacemas mayurebeli hyavdes, aramed imisTvis, rom problema warmoCindes. gadacema `auditoriis~ pirveli nawili mxolod imis mtkicebas mieZRvna, rom problema ar aris teleserialebis Tu sxvadasxva gasarTobi gadacemis maRali reitingi, problema aris maTi ualternativoba. qarTul satelevizio sivrceSi ar arsebobs kargi SemecnebiTi, saganmanaTleblo gadacemebi, mediaSi ar saubroben sazogadoebriv problemebze... da Tuki saubroben, saubroben ase: eka xoferias erTerTi stumari, sadac is satelevizio mediaze laparakobs, gadacema `simarTlis dros~ prodiuseria. Toq-Sous wamyvans smenia, rom am gadacemis mimarT xSirad ismis pretenziebi da mis konteqstSi xSirad laparakoben adamianis uflebebis [lesboseli-n.k. ] an is [somexi- n.k.] an is [vTqvaT, ieRovas mowme- n.k.]... ra mniSvneloba aqvs. ai, aq ras sTxovT Tqven?~ naTlad Cans, rom wamyvans ar esmis, raSia gadacema `simarTlis dros~ problema da amitomac svams amgvar gaurkvevel kiTxvas. ar esmis, rom problema marginaluri jgufebis mimarT negatiuri damokidebuleba da am damokidebulebis gamJRavnebaa da ara an imis, an imis, an imis mowveva studiaSi. problemaa, rom gadacema `simarTlis dros~ wamyvani nanka kalatoziSvili pietetiT esaubreba mxedrionel dodo gugeSaSvils (qarTveli mebrZoli qalis xats) da dascinis Tea TuTberiZes (`marTlmadideblobis mters~). wamyvani sazogadoebaSi arsebuli koniunqturis tyveobaSia da Tavad aris am sazogadoebisa da koniunqturis Semqmneli, sadac omis propagandisti dodo gugeSaSvili reveransebs imsaxurebs, xolo sakuTari, Tavisufali azris gamoTqmisTvis

gamoiwereT Jurnali liberali


beWduri versia 12 nomeri _ 3 Tve 22 lari 24 nomeri _ 6 Tve 45 lari 48 nomeri _ 1 weli 90 lari

xalxi uyurebs imas, rasac sTavazobs satelevizio media da ar arsebobs mayurebelTa homogenuri erToba, romelic erTsa da imave sanaxaobas iTxovs.
Selaxvaze. `auditoriis~ erT-erTi stumari, Teo xatiaSvili ambobs, rom rodesac `simarTlis droSi~ homoseqsuali, lesboseli, transvestiti, warmoSobiT somexi Tu sxva nebismieri umciresobis warmomadgeneli mogvyavs, imisaTvis, rom ar moxdes qsenofobiis tiraJireba, unda viyoT metad frTxilebi da koreqtulebi. amasTan dakavSirebiT eka xoferia svams kiTxvas: `ai mesmis, magram davuSvaT is stumari movida da nu, sWirdebaT saintereso gmiri, da is [gmiri] aris an is [homoseqsuali-n.k.] an is Tea TuTberiZe _ wamyvanis qedmaRlur, Seuracxmyofel damokidebulebas. unda viswavloT mediisa da sazogadoebis problemebis aRmoCena da Semdeg maTze adekvaturad msjeloba. vcadoT Cven, da daviwyoT saubari konkretul gadacemebze, maT wamyvanebze, gadacemis struqturasa da Sinaarsze, calkeul Jurnalistebze, reportaJebze da, rac mTavaria, vcadoT, rom davsvaT swori aqcentebi, amisTvis saWiroa.... (ixileT momavali nomridan)

PDF versia 12 nomeri _ 3 Tve 13 lari 24 nomeri _ 6 Tve 25 lari 48 nomeri _ 1 weli 50 lari

Jurnalis gamosawerad dagvikavSirdiT telefonebze: 23 37 31, (899) 48 62 41 an mogvawodeT Tqveni sakontaqto informacia el-fostiT: info@liberali.ge

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

ori azri

momxre magda guruli Tanamedrove xelovnebis kuratori

kulturas saxelmwifos subsidia sWirdeba. Tu Cven SevTanxmdebiT, rom saqarTveloSi gvinda kulturis da xelovnebis ganviTareba, da Tu saxelmwifos aqvs kulturis politika, maSin, misgan didi Tu mcire daxmarebis gareSe, am sferos ganviTareba SeuZlebelia. saqarTvelo aris Raribi qveyana, da mosaxleobas ar aqvs imdeni SesaZlebloba, rom kulturam mis xarjze iarsebos _ Tundac Zvirad Rirebuli bileTi SeiZinos. am faqtoris gaTvaliswineba yvela saxelovnebo dawesebulebas uwevs. msoflios yvelaze cnobil xelovnebis kerebsac ki uWirT Tavis rCena mxolod sakuTari SemosavlebiT, Tumca maT dafinansebaSi Zalian mcire wili aqvs saxelmwifos. magaliTad, amerikaSi kulturis dafinansebaSi saxelmwifos wili daaxloebiT 13%-ia (amaSi Sedis federaluri, Statis da qalaqis dafinanseba), TviTdafinanseba _ 40-44%, danarCeni ki fondebis, korporaciebisa da individualuri Semowirulobebia. saqarTveloSic ase unda moxdes. es dargebi ise unda ganviTardes, rom maT, TviTdafinansebis naxevari Tu ara, 30-40%is Tavad mopoveba mainc SeZlon. magram amgvar ganviTarebas xels bevri ram uSlis. pirvel rigSi mniSvnelovania, rom Seicvalos kanonmdebloba kulturis Sesaxeb. mecenatoba unda gaTavisufldes dabegvrisgan. swored es uwyobs xels nebismier qveyanaSi kulturis ganviTarebas, radgan SeZlebul adamianebs meti motivacia aqvT, daafinanson kultura. es maTi imijisTvis aris sasargeblo da maTTvis reklamacaa, Tan amiT isini gadasaxadebisgan Tavisufldebian. galerea aris komerciuli dawesebuleba, sadac saxelmwifo SeiZleba ar Caerios, garda imisa, rom xeli Seuwyos mis ganviTarebas _ magaliTad, sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi misces. qveyanaSi Tanamedrove xelovnebis arseboba demokratiulobis ganmsazRvrelia, radgan is provokaciulia. rogorc wesi, is mkafiod asaxavs xolme socialur problemebs, da misi ganviTarebis xelSewyoba imas niSnavs, rom saxelmwifos am kritikis miReba SeuZlia.

unda daafinan kultura saxe


Tu Cven SevTanxmdebiT, rom saqarTveloSi gvinda kulturis da xelovnebis ganviTareba, maSin, saxelmwifosgan didi Tu mcire daxmarebis gareSe, amis miRweva SeuZlebelia.
liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

10

ori azri
mowinaaRmdege vaxtang megreliSvili Tavisufali institutis kvlevis centris direqtori
saxelmwifo subsidia niSnavs qveynis mTeli mosaxleobisaTvis fulis iZulebiT gamorTmevas, Semdeg adamianebis mcire jgufis Sexedulebis Sesabamisad am fulis gankargvas. gadawyvetilebis motivad asaxeleben or arguments: 1. xalxs unda, magram gaWirvebis gamo ver ixdis produqtis Rirebulebas; 2. xalxs ar esmis produqtis saWiroeba da amitom ar unda fulis gadaxda. im adamianebs, vinc aseTi gadawyvetilebis miRebis uflebas aZlevs Tavs, miaCniaT, rom xalxi sakuTari TavisTvis sasargeblo gadawyvetilebis miRebis unars moklebulia da saWiroa maT nacvlad fiqri. adamianis Tavisufali nebis SezRudvas aranairi motivi ar amarTlebs. aseTi qmedeba amoraluria, es ki Teoriuladac gamoricxavs nebismieri produqciis xangrZlivvadiani subsidirebiT pozitiuri Sedegis miRebis SesaZleblobas. gansxvavebiT sxva seqtorebis subsidirebisagan, kulturisa da xelovnebis sferoSi sxvadasxva RonisZiebis dafinansebis SedegiT xalxis mcire nawili sargeblobs. mwarmoebeli orientirebulia klientze. Sedegad, misi amocana xdeba, daakmayofilos saxelmwifos moTxovna. Sesabamisad, subsidirebuli kultura da xelovneba bunebrivad gardaiqmneba propagandis instrumentad, risi kargi magaliTicaa sabWoTa dros komunisturi partiisadmi miZRvnili xelovnebis Sedevrebi. ra aiZulebs subsidirebul xelovnebas gaxdes propagandis instrumenti? adamianis racionaluri buneba _ naklebi SromiT miiRos meti sargebeli. momxmareblis sasurveli produqtiT mudmivad momarageba rTulia, momxmarebeli ar uwevs angariSs reJisoris, mwerlis an poetis warsul damsaxurebas. mas minimalur fasad maqsimaluri xarisxis produqti sWirdeba, raTa warmodgenis naxva an moTxrobebis krebulSi fulis gadaxda gadawyvitos. kulturuli memkvidreobis Zeglebis saxelmwifosgan eqskluziuri flobis valdebulebac ar aris erTmniSvnelovnad misaRebi. procesi swrafi ver iqneba, magram Zeglebis kerZo sakuTrebaSi gadacemis procesis dawyeba erTi mxriv xels Seuwyobs maT SenarCunebas, movlapatronobaSi finansurad dainteresebuli mxaris mier, xolo meore mxriv gamoaTavisuflebs saxelmwifos resurss iseTi Zeglebis droebiT SesanarCuneblad, romelTa mimarT kerZo seqtors jer interesi ar gaaCnia. xalxis da kulturis urTierTobaSi, cnobili gamoTqmis ar iyos, mesame zedmetia.

nsos Tu ara elmwifom?


subsidirebuli kultura da xelovneba bunebrivad gardaiqmneba propagandis instrumentad, risi kargi magaliTicaa sabWoTa dros komunisturi partiisadmi miZRvnili xelovnebis Sedevrebi.
liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

foto marika qoCiaSvili

11

mTavari Tema

Zaladoba genderuli niSniT

"gcems - ese igi uyvarxar"


saqarTveloSi yoveli mesame qali fiqrobs, rom Tuki mamakaci sakuTar cols scems, es normaluria.
naTia guliaSvili
gaaCnia cemis mizezs, SeiZleba, man daimsaxura galaxva. Tumca, marto virs unda cema. Tu qalze xels awev, saxlidanac unda gauSva~... _ ase fiqrobs erTi saSualo statistikuri qarTveli mamakaci, romlis pasuxic, gaero-s mosaxleobis fondis bolo kvlevis mixedviT, qarTvel mamakacTa Soris tendenciaa. dRes rom aseT Sedegs miviRebdiT, amis niSnebi jer kidev 5 wlis winaT gamoCnda, UNICEF-is kvlevaSi saTauriT _ `qalebi, romlebic qmris mier colis cemas garkveul SemTxvevebSi amarTleben~. maSin aRmoCnda, rom qmrisgan cemas saqarTveloSi 15-dan 49 wlamde qalebis TiTqmis 7 procenti amarTlebs. im fonze, rom es maCvenebeli eTiopiaSi, zambiasa da iordaniaSi gacilebiT ufro maRali iyo _ 81, 85.4 da 90%, saqarTvelos monacemebi maSin arc ise katastrofuli Canda. Tumca SeSfoTebisTvis damatebiT safuZvels qmnida Tundac es monacemi _ imave wels, magaliTad ukrainaSi, qmrisgan cemas qalebis sul 3,6 procenti miiCnevda normad.

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liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

ilustracia sofo kirTaZe / wignis saxelosno

mTavari Tema
wels, UNICEF-is angariSidan 5 wlis Semdeg Catarebul kvlevaSi qalTa ukve 34.1% amarTlebs qmris mier colis cemas, rac maSindel monacemze 28 procentiT metia. qalebis nawili dRes miiCnevs, rom qmari Tu cols Ralatis gamo scems, es normaluria, zogisTvis ki qmris eWvianobac sakmarisi mizezia. patriarqalur sazogadoebebSi qalebs imdenad safuZvlianad aqvT Camoyalibebuli stereotipebi sakuTari rolis Sesaxeb, rom kacebis mxridan damamcirebel mopyrobas jer kidev bunebrivad miiCneven. es ki miuTiTebs ara mxolod imaze, rom saqarTveloSi genderuli Zaladobis problema mwvaved dgas, aramed imazec, rom qalebi pirvel rigSi sakuTarive stereotipebisa da crurwmenebis msxverplni arian. albaT, swored amitom fiqroben qarTveli qalebi, rom: `martoxela qali imdenad codoa, rom Tu qmari Zalian ar gcems, jobia, masTan da mis ojaxTan darCe. garda amisa, ganqorwinebul qals yovelTvis garkveuli stigma dasdevs sazogadoebaSi~ (citata kvlevidan). rac Seexeba Zalian cemis~ SemTxvevebs, es Tema nebismieri kvlevis dros yvelaze rTulad gamosavlenia, radgan respondentTa mcire nawili Tu bedavs, mkvlevrebTan bolomde gulwrfeli iyos da autaneli Seuracxyofis Sesaxeb Riad isaubros. 6.9% _ es gamokiTxuli qalebis is nawili iyo, romelmac gaero-s kvlevaSi qmrisgan miyenebuli fizikuri Zaladoba aRiara. kidev ufro mtkivneul Temaze, seqsualur Zaladobaze ki qalebis mxolod 3,9% saubrobda. gacilebiT advilia Tqva, rom qmari gikrZalavs ojaxTan, megobrebTan kontaqts, vidre aRiaro, rom is gcems, an sqesobriv kavSirs gaiZulebs, _ ambobs kvlevis xelmZRvaneli marina CitaSvili, _ qalebis 7 procenti, romelTac fizikuri Zaladoba aRiares, mxolod mcire nawilia da warmodgena ar gvaqvs, am maCveneblis miRma kidev ramdeni qalia darCenili~. CitaSvilis TqmiT, fsiqologiuri Zaladoba, rasac gamokiTxuli qalebis mesamedi, anu 35% aRiarebs, imdenad maRali maCvenebelia, rom amis fonze fizikuri Zaladobis maCvenebeli daaxloebiT 11-12% mainc unda yofiliyo, radgan, rogorc wesi, fsiqologiuri zewola mxolod winapirobaa `Zalian cemisTvis~. rogorc Cans, kvlevaSi monawile qalebi TavianT mTavar saTqmels da tkivils interviuebis dros gulmodgined malavdnen. kvlevis avtorebi aRniSnaven imasac, rom gamokiTxuli qalebis gulaxdili pasuxi didwilad iyo damokidebuli maT sacxovrebel adgilsa da ekonomikur damoukideblobazec. gadaWriT ver vityvi, rom Tuki qali dakavebulia da muSaobs, Zaladobis problema misTvis avtomaturad ixsneba, magram kvlevam aCvena, rom saqmiani qali bevrad ufro martivad iwyebs saubars sakuTar problemaze da agvarebs mas, vidre _ diasaxlisi~, _ acxadebs CitaSvili. iseve rogorc msxverpli qalebi, aseve moZalade mamakacebi, rogorc wesi, ver acnobiereben, rom bavSvobaSi Tavad gaxdnen mSoblebisa da sazogadoebis msxverpli. kanadeli eqsperti maikl kaufmani, romelmac jer kidev 20 wlis win Seqmna moZraoba `TeTri lenti~, ibrZvis imisTvis, rom

"qalTa mimarT ojaxuri Zaladobis erovnuli kvleva saqarTveloSi" Caatara gaero-s mosaxleobis fondma 2009 wels
gamokiTxul qalTa 35.9% acxadebs, rom mas akontrolebs meuRle/ partniori maTgan: 29.0% - partniori ukrZalavs sakuTar ojaxTan kavSirs; 11.6% - partniori aiZulebs misgan aiRos nebarTva, vidre eqims mimarTavs; 11.1% - partniori brazdeba, Tu misi coli sxva mamakacs daelaparakeba; 5.5% - partniori xSirad eWvianobs da RalatSi debs brals; 4.0% - partniori ar aZlevs megobrebTan Sexvedris saSualebas; 3.9% - partniori ignorirebas ukeTebs da gulgrilad epyroba; 3.8% - samsaxuri miatova, radgan mis qmars/partniors ar undoda emuSava; 2.4% - partniori daJinebiT moiTxovs, mudmivad icodes, Tu sad aris igi; 1.4% - qmari/partniori ukrZalavs Sexvedrebze daswrebas, an romelime organizaciaSi monawileobas. morCileba 50.7% - kargi coli qmars unda ujerebdes, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu ar eTanxmeba; 44.9% - aucilebelia, mamakacma cols/partniors kargad daanaxos, vin aris ojaxis ufrosi; 16.0% - colis movaleobaa qmarTan sqesobrivi kavSiri hqondes, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu im momentSi Tavad es ar surs. gamokiTxul qalTa 34.1% - qmris mier colis cemas garkveul SemTxvevebSi amarTlebs Tu: 28.5% - mamakacma gaigo, rom qali Ralatobs; 4.0% - mamakaci eWvobs, rom qali Ralatobs; 3.1% - qali mamakacs ar emorCileba; 1.5% - qalma saxlis saqme mamakacis mosawonad ar gaakeTa; 1.4% - qali uars ambobs sqesobriv kavSirze; 0.6% - qali eWvianobs da ekiTxeba mamakacs sxva qali xom ar hyavs.

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

13

mTavari Tema
mamakacebic aqtiurad CaerTon qalTa uflebebis dacvisTvis brZolaSi. `is, vinc ar amarTlebs diskriminacias, magram xmas ar iRebs, danaSauls Cadis~, _ ganacxada man saqarTveloSi yofnisas `liberalTan~ saubarSi. maikl kaufmanis azriT, `ojaxis ufrosis~ roli, romelsac ufleba aqvs, `coli moarjulos~, bavSvebSi pataraobidanvea waxalisebuli. ojaxuri Zaladoba Caketil wred meore kulturuli stereotipis gamoc rCeba _ Sinauruli problemebis gamomzeureba uRirs saqcielad iTvleba. swored aseTi damokidebulebis gamo, gamokiTxuli qalebis TiTqmis 80%-s miaCnia, rom ojaxuri problegierT protestantul kulturaSi xerxdeba. marTalia, sasuliero pirma SeiZleba dagmos Zaladobis faqti, magram saqarTveloSi, marTlmadidebluri eklesiis mkveTrad patriarqaluri bunebis gamo, genderuli rolebis araTanabari gadanawilebiT gamowveul Zaladobis mizezebze eklesias mkveTri reaqcia ver eqneba. pirveli, vinc am axali kvlevis Sedegebs unda miaqcios yuradReba, samTavrobo da sakanonmdeblo organoebia. statistika, erTi mxriv, efeqturi xerxia problemis mimarT maTi yuradRebis mosapoveblad, magram meore mxriv, saSiSroebasac swored riTvis waxaliseba saWiroa imisTvis, rom erTi mxriv ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevebi Semcirdes, meore mxriv ki, ybadaRebuli genderuli balansi davicvaT. vidre es ar moxdeba, mudam fiqciad darCeba qalTa da mamakacTa konstituciiT aRiarebuli Tanasworoba, romelsac crurwmenebiT savse realoba iolad Caanacvlebs. gaero-s mosaxleobis fondis Tvisobrivi kvlevis respondenti kaxeTidan: `ratomac ara, Tu qalebsa da mamakacebs Tanabari uflebebi aqvT, maSin qalebma unda Toxnon, mouaron naxirs da, Tu saWiro iqneba, omSic ibrZolon~.

qarTveli qalebi fiqroben, rom: `martoxela qali imdenad codoa, rom Tu qmari Zalian ar gcems, jobia, masTan da mis ojaxTan darCe. garda amisa, ganqorwinebul qals yovelTvis garkveuli stigma dasdevs sazogadoebaSi~.
mebi, romlebic cemiTa da SeuracxyofiT mTavrdeba, mxolod wyvils Soris unda rCebodes. Sesabamisad, qalebis 38%-s arc erTi ojaxuri konfliqtis dros aravisTvis uTxovia daxmareba. mSoblebi, megobrebi, policia, eqimi da sulieri moZRvari _ maT mxolod ukiduresi safrTxis dros mimarTaven. regionebSi ki stereotipebis msxverplni arian ara mxolod rigiTi qalebi, aramed isinic, visac, wesiT, problemis gadaWra evaleba. kvlevis raodenobrivi nawilis xelmZRvaneli, nino javaxiSvili ixsenebs SemTxvevas, roca qmrisgan nacemma qalma, eqimisgan saTanado daxmarebis nacvlad, moralisturi qadageba miiRo. arada, kvalificiuri eqimi aseTi incidentis dros saTanado kiTxvebs unda usvamdes qals da cdilobdes, gaigos, ra aris misi sxeulis dazianebis namdvili mizezi. rac Seexeba eklesiis rols, problemis mogvarebaSi misi efeqturad CarTuloba dRemde mxolod zocxvebi qmnis: sakiTxiT zedapirulad dainteresebuli deputati xSirad ricxvebs iqiT verafers xedavs da aseT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba isic Tqvas, rom fizikuri Zaladobis msxverpli _ 7 % _ umniSvnelo maCvenebelia. roca pretenziaa cifrebis masStaburobaze, SegviZlia ganvixiloT orsulebis Tema. kvlevis mixedviT, 100 orsulze 2 an 3 qali fizikuri Zaladobis msxverplia. Tu aviRebT 2008 wlis monacemebs, roca 57000 qali iyo fexmZime, es niSnavs imas, rom minimum 570 da maqsimum 1140 qali iyo fizikuri Zaladobis msxverpli. am ricxvebSi igulisxmeba ara mxolod deda, aramed nayofic, romelic Zaladobis problemiT ibadeba~, _ CitaSvili miiCnevs, rom SeuZlebelia, qveyana Tvals xuWavdes da ambobdes, rom weliwadSi saSualod 1000 aseTi bavSvis dabadeba problema araa. kvlevam daadastura saxelmwifosgan kidev erTi nabijis gadadgmis aucileblobac. sazogadoebriv da politikur cxovrebaSi qalebis Carmoderatori: `unda akeTos Tu ara kacmac qalis samuSao?~ mamakaci kaxeTidan: `rogor, warmoudgenelia! kaci ver gazrdis Svilebs. ojaxs movla sWirdeba, sarecxia dasarecxi, sadilebi mosamzadebeli da am yvelafers kaci ver gaakeTebs. igi ver darecxavs sarecxs, es mis genetikaSi ar devs~. SedarebisTvis, sqesTa balansiT, srulfasovnad realizebuli moqalaqeebiT da cxovrebis maRali standartebiT cnobil SvedeTSi, wlevandeli monacemebiT, Svilis dabadebisas dekretul Svebulebas mamakacebis 85% procenti iRebs. saqarTveloSi ki, sadac qalTa diskriminacia yoveldRiur salaparako leqsikaSic ki isea gamjdari, rom qalis socialuri statusis Sefasebisas damkvidrebul anaqronistul da stereotipul gamoTqmebs, rogoricaa gauTxovari, gasaTxovari, ganaTxovari, yuradRebas arc ki vaqcevT, Tanasworobis Sveduri xarisxis miRweva kidev aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi SeuZlebelia.

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liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

Tvalsazrisi

jaSuSebi niu-jersiSi
kviris yvelaze sensaciuri axali ambavi aSS-Si rusi agentebis qselis gaSifvra iyo. arsebobs mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba, Tu rogor aRiqves es ambavi amerikaSi, ruseTsa da saqarTveloSi.
mark maleni
isini iyvnen aTni, da aTi wlis gan- _ visac meti informacia hqonda, is amerikuli cxovrebiT. maT ufrosebs mavlobaSi iRebdnen brZanebas, rom ufro Zlieri iyo. amis safuZvels is moskovSi ubralod ver warmoudgeniaT, gamxdariyvnen amerikelebi da damego- warmoadgenda, rom yvela, an sul mci- rogori gaxsnilia amerikuli sazogabrebodnen gavlenian amerikelebs, rac re yvelaze mniSvnelovani adamianebi doeba. Tu amerikas SeuZlia iyos mdimaT moaxerxes kidec. albaT iyo grZel- mainc, saidumloebebs inaxaven. aqedan dari da warmatebuli qveyana da amavadiani boroti miznebic, magram bolo gamomdinare, saidumlo informaciebi vdroulad aseTi gaxsnili, ras ambobs aTwleulis manZilze isini ubralod ufro mniSvnelovani iyo, vidre saja- es ruseTis mTavrobis mmarTvelobis cxovrobdnen rogorc amerikelebi da ro informacia. gaxsovT gamgeblebis stilze? saqarTveloSi amgvari azrovnebis xandaxan werdnen naklebad saintereso daxSuli karebi, romlebic xmas ar ataangariSebs. rebda? amerikelebi aseve ar fiqroben. kvali kvlav SeimCneva. yvela Cemi nacruseTis normaluri pasuxi iqneba yvela, vinc amerikelebs icnobs, ityvis, nobi, vinc romelime NGO-s an opoziamis uaryofa, magram eWvmitanilebs rom maT uyvarT yvelafris xmamaRla ciuri partiisTvis muSaobs, miiCnevs, 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi uTvalTvale- da dawvrilebiT Tqma. Cven, amerikele- rom maT telefonebs usmenen. garkveubdnen, sasamarTlos dokumentebi in- bi swored ase vmoqmedebT. amerikuli li periodis manZilze ise Canda, rom ternetSi devs (da Rirs maTi yovel saRamos televiziiT gawakiTxva), erTi sityviT, fadmoicemoda im adamianis sairusi jaSuSebis ambavi komikurad qtebi sruliad aSkara da sakdumlod Cawerili saubari, gamoiyureba. yvelaferi, rac maT marisia. aqedan gamomdinare, romelic mTavrobas ar moswonamerikaSi gaiges, internetiT ar mogveca saSualeba, kremlis da. ar mikvirs, rom mTavroba imedgacruebul moqmedebas daxarjavs drosa da fuls am moskovidan gacilebiT ufro iafad vkvirvebodiT _ Tu rogor uasaubrebis CawerisTvis. me iqneboda xelmisawvdomi. ryofda imas, rac yvelam icis, makvirvebs, rom isini televirom man Caidina. rusul presaSi ziiT gadaica. es qveyanaSi araSeecadnen faqtis mniSvneloba daeknine- azrovnebis wesi is aris, rom yvelas jansaR tons amkvidrebs. mTavroba amiT binaT da Tqves, _ daWerili adamianebi, gaagebino, ras fiqrob, radgan kargi ambobs, _ daimaxsovre, Cven gismenT. ubralod, Cveni lobistebi iyvneno. adamiani xar da yvelam unda icodes, amgvari azrovnebis Sedegi mTavrobas marTalia, rom isini moqmedebdnen ro- rom boroti miznebi ar gaqvs. aqedan ukanve miubrunda, roca imedis Sous gorc lobistebi, magram vinaidan imas gamomdinare, yvelas moewonebi. is idea, skandali atyda. yvelas mier yvelas Camalavdnen, rom ruseTis mTavrobisTvis rom xmamaRla raRacis Tqma SeiZleba wera imis muqariT, rom am Canawers temuSaobdnen, es maT ubralod jaSuSebad saSiSi iyos, amerikelebisTvis gaugeba- leviziiT an internetiT gaavrceleben, aqcevs. es yvelaferi Zalian sasaciloa. ria. iseT sazogadoebas ver warmoSobs, roTu romelime maTgani gulwrfelad ase rom, amerikaSi rusi jaSuSebis melic Cven yvelas gvinda. mTavrobam ityoda, rom ruseTis mTavrobas emsa- ambavi komikurad gamoiyureba. yve- magaliTi unda misces sxvebs. pirad, poxureboda, amerikelebisgan mainc imave laferi, rac maT gaiges im gavleniani litikur da komerciul cxovrebaSi pasuxebs miiRebdnen, rac miiRes. adamianebisgan, romlebTanac konta- saidumloebebi yovelTvis saSiSia, da sinamdvileSi, amerikelebi am faqtiT qti daavales, maTTvis internetiT aramxolod maSin, rodesac televiziiT Sokirebulebi ar arian, ufro piriqiT moskovidanve gacilebiT ufro iafad gadaicema. saidumloebebiT bavSviviT _ kargad gaerTnen, radgan es aCvenebs, iqneboda xelmisawvdomi. sasamarTlos Sepyrobili ruseTi sulelurad gaTu rogori dabneulia kremli ameri- dokumentebis mixedviT, naTelia, rom moiyureba. kiT da Tanamedrove samyaroTi. sabWo- am adamianebs es gaazrebuli hqondaT. Ta drois mTavari principi is gaxldaT isini ubralod tkbebodnen TavianTi inglisuridan Targmna giorgi cxadaiam

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interviu

Tavisufali, magram regulirebuli


interviu erovnuli bankis prezidentTan, giorgi qadagiZesTan

ivnisSi lari dolaris mimarT 10-mde niSnuliT daeca. ratom moxda kursis aseTi vardna da ratom gaZvirda produqtebi?
ra viTarebaa savaluto bazarze axla, rogoria laris kursis cvlilebis tendencia? ivnisis dasawyisTan SedarebiT, dRes lari gamyarebulia. savaluto bazari stabiluria. arsebobs valutis kursis ramdenime ZiriTadi reJimi _ sruliad mcuravi kursi, fiqsirebuli da marTvadi, romelic Cven gvaqvs da sadac erovnuli bankis mxridan intervencia xdeba mxolod makroekonomikuri stabilurobis miznebiT. radgan Cven mcuravi kursis savaWro politika gvaqvs, erovnuli banki mxolod im SemTxvevaSi awesebs valutis fiqsirebul kurss, roca ryeva didia da ekonomikur procesebs emuqreba. sxva SemTxvevaSi, laris kurss ucxour valutasTan mimarTebaSi bazarze moTxovna-miwodebis principi aregulirebs. sruliad mcuravi politika ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT yvelaze jansaRia, radgan qveyanaSi romelime valutis kurss adgens ara erovnuli banki, aramed uSualod valutis yidva-gayidvis procesi, rogorc, vTqvaT, bazarze TavisiT dgindeba pomidvris Rirebuleba fqvilTan mimarTebaSi. am SemTxvevaSi bazari Tavis Tavze iRebs sagareo Sokebs. sruliad mcuravi savaluto politikis fufuneba mxolod didi ekonomikis qveynebs aqvT. patara qveyanaSi, sadac savaluto bazrebi jer kidev ar aris mTlianad ganviTarebuli, valutis kursze nebismieri individualuri SeTanxmeba zogadad bazarze axdens gavlenas. regulirebis ararsebobis pirobeb-

Si aris riski, rom erT dRes kursi 2,2 iyos da meore dRes _ 1,8. aseTi meryeoba seriozul safrTxeebs uqmnis ekonomikis ganviTarebasa da zrdas. amitom, CvenTan bazris yoveldRiuri brunvis analizis Semdeg erovnuli banki adgens laris oficialur kurss, rac principSi aris kidec bazris obieqturi kursis amsaxveli. ratom gaufasurda ivnisis dasawyisSi lari dolarTan mimarTebaSi? gansakuTrebuli araferi momxdara _ unda SeveCvioT, rom valutis mcire meryeoba iqneba da es araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar niSnavs, rom raime tipis fundamentur ekonomikur problemasTan gvaqvs saqme. valutis kursze gavlenas axdens qveyanaSi fulis Semodineba da gadineba.

2004 wlidan ufro meti ucxouri valuta Semodioda pirdapiri investiciebis saxiT da Sedegad erT larze sul ufro bevri ucxouri valuta modioda. Sesabamisad, myardeboda lari. 2008 wlis Semdeg saqarTvelom erTdroulad ramdenime Soki gadaitana _ omi, finansuri krizisi da 2009 wlis saprotesto aqciebi. Semcirda pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi. marTalia, ucxouri fuli grantebis da daxmarebis saxiT Semovida, magram qveynis SigniT larze moTxovna Semcirda. mimdinare wels ucxoeTidan 900 milioni dolaris odenobis gzavnilia mosalodneli, xolo pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi _ 700 milionis odenobiT. SedarebisaTvis, 2008 wlis mxolod pirvel naxevarSi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi miliard 200 milions Seadgenda.

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

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foto levan xerxeuliZe

interviu
axla nel-nela stabilizaciis gzas vadgavarT. laris kursze gavlenas axdens sezonuri faqtoric _ Tu saqarTvelo turistebs moizidavs, larze moTxovna gaizrdeba da gamyardeba kidec. mTavari problema is ki araa, rom Cven uaryofiTi savaWro balansi gvaqvs _ anu sxvaoba fulis eqsport-imports Soris, aramed is, Tu ra wyaroebidan Seivseba es sxvaoba. Cveni amocanaa, rom Semosulsa da gasul fulis masas Soris balansi daculi iyos. am balansis SesanarCuneblad erovnuli banki an Seisyidis bazarze Warbad arsebul romelime valutas, daarezervebs, an piqiriT _ maqsimalurad uSvebs mimoqcevaSi. magram balansi ver iqneba daculi yoveldRiurad. ivnisSi, pirobiTad, SeiZleba ufro meti fuli gavides qveynidan, vidre ivlisSi. ra SemTxvevaSi Caereva erovnuli banki savaluto bazris muSaobaSi? Tu qveyanis ekonomika ver axdens bazris dafinansebas da fuli mudmivad gaedineba, maSin balansis aRdgenis uzrunvelsayofad unda Seicvalos kursi. Tu cvlileba imdenad masStaburia, rom SeiZleba ekonomikur stabilurobasac Seuqmnas safrTxe, mxolod am SemTxvevaSia saWiro erovnuli bankis seriozuli Careva. omi iyo swored aseTi SemTxveva, roca erovnuli banki aqtiurad CaerTo savaluto bazris muSaobaSi. CvenTan did rols TamaSobs fsiqologiuri faqtori _ sazogadoebis damokidebuleba gacvliTi kursis cvlilebis mimarT. rogorc wesi, es emociuri mxare gacilebiT didia, vidre Tavad momxdari cvlilebis ekonomikuri Sinaarsi. amis Sedegad omis Semdgom kvirebSi Cveni depozitebis 10%-ze meti davkargeT _ adamianebma daiwyes bankebidan fulis gatana. gaCnda uzarmazari moTxovna dolarze. dairRva balansi fulis eqsport-imports Soris. bankebma amowures dolaris rezervi. amitom erovnulma bankma maTgan Seisyida larebi da sanacvlod gasca dolarebi. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, deficitis gamo, gaZvirdeboda dolari da gaufasurdeboda lari, es ki gamoiwyvevda damatebiT panikasa da depozitebis kidev ufro gadinebas. miT umetes, rom xalxs Zalian kargad axsovs `kuponizacia. dRes riTia moqalaqe laris mkveTri gaufasurebisgan daculi? Cven gvaqvs daaxloebiT 2 miliardi dolaris savaluto rezervi. es saqarTvelos ekonomikisTvis da brunvaSi arsebul laris masasTan SedarebiT, adekvaturia. es aris imis garantia, rom yvelaze didi Sokis SemTxvevaSic ki, SevZlebT Cvens moqalaqeebs maqsimalurad umtkivneulod movugvaroT problemebi. ra Tqma unda, ar unda gvqondes iluzia, rom SeiZleba moxdes raime Soki da mosaxleobam da biznesebma es saerTod ver igrZnon. Cvenze globalur procesebs didi gavlena aqvs, magram erovnuli banki saimiso resurss flobs, rom yvelaferi maqsimalurad umtkivneulod gadavitanoT. laris kursis dacemisTanave TiTqmis yvela saxis produqti gaZvirda. ramdenad adekvaturi da obieqturi iyo fasebis aseTi swrafi zrda? kursis aseTi tipis meryeoba araa fasebis zrdasTan pirdapir kavSirSi. fasebis zrda, anu inflaciuri procesi, damokidebulia fulis masaze _ raodenobaze. kursis cvlileba ki ar cvlis fulis masas. Tu lari ufasurdeba dolaris mimarT da myardeba evros mimarT, es niSnavs, rom dolariT nayidi produqcia unda Caanacvlos evroTi nayidma. aseT dros fasebi izrdeba im seqtorSi, sadac yvelaze naklebi konkurenciaa. iq ki, sadac konkurencia araa, SesaZloa, adgili hqondes spekulacias. is, rac moxda Cvens farmacevtul bazarze, karteluri garigebaa. did moTamaSeebs Soris garigebis safuZvelze, medikamentze fiqsirebuli fasi dawesda. rogorc ki kursma aiwia, meore dResve medikamentebi axali kursiT daiangariSes. saqarTvelos bazarze sami kategoriis medikamenti iyideba _ adgilze warmoebuli, razec dolars Zalian mcire gavlena aqvs, evroTi nayidi, romelzec dolaris gamyareba saerTod ar unda asaxuliyo da mesame _ wamlebi, romlebic dolariTaa nayidi. Tu kursi pirobiTad ufasurdeba, vTqvaT 10%-iT, SesaZloa, odnav gaZvirdes mxolod is medikamentebi, romlebic Semotanilia da nayidia dolariT. arada, CvenTan kursis 10%-ian cvlilebas medikamentebis fasis 30%-iT momateba mohyva. ra kavSirSia valutis kursis cvla inflaciasTan da ra tendenciaa am mxriv dRes? magaliTad, ganvixiloT aseTi situacia _ 10 lariT vyidulobdiT 5 laris karaqs, 3 laris Saqars da 2 laris purs. Tuki aRmoCndeba, rom fasi mxolod erT produqtze gaizarda da amitom imave 10 lariT mxolod karaqis da puris yidvaRa SegiZlia, ese igi, is valuta gaZvirda, romliTac Saqari SemohqondaT. magram, Tu fasebi yvela produqtze proporciulad gaizarda, ese igi, gvaqvs inflacia. fasebis stabiluroba erovnuli bankis mTavari amocanaa. maisis Tvis monacemebiT, inflaciis maCvenebeli wliurad 4,0%-ia. dRes erovnuli bankis amocanaa 2012 wlamde inflaciis 6%-ian niSnulze stabilizeba. es savsebiT realuri da SesaZlebelia. maRali inflaciis safrTxe am etapze ar arsebobs. esaubra nino gogua

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msoflio
ruseTi

brZola xodorkovskisTvis da mis winaaRmdeg


xodorkovskis pirovneba ruseTis uaxles istoriaSi kidev erT gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens _ mas putinsa da medvedevs Soris farul, Tumca aSkara dapirispirebaSi, SesaZloa, gadamwyveti roli ergos.
olga alionova, moskovi
kompaniis eqs-xelmZRvanel mixail xodorkovskisa da `menatepis~ jgufis xelmZRvanel platon lebedevis winaaRmdeg axali saqmis aRZvris Taobaze ganacxada. maT bralad edebodaT 892 miliardi rublis Rirebulebis navTobis moparva da misi gayidvis Sedegad miRebuli saxsrebis legalizeba. am droisTvis xodorkovski da lebedevi ukve ixdidnen pirveli saqmisTvis misjil 8-wlian sasjels. procesi 2009 wlis 3 marts daiwyo. 2010 wlis dasawyisisTvis braldebam daasrula mtkicebulebaTa wardgena, da sityva dacvam aiRo.17 maiss xodorkovskim protestis niSnad uvado SimSiloba gamoacxada, misi patimrobis vadis 17 agvistomde gagrZelebis gamo. SimSiloba or dReSi Sewyda. rogorc Cans, xodorkovski arc gegmavda SimSiliT Tavis mokvlas. man Tavis mizans miaRwia: ruseTsa da dasavleTSi liberaluri sazogadoeba imaze alaparakda, rom sasamarTlo organoebi prezident medvedevis im brZanebulebis sabotaJs ewevian, romlis mixedviTac, ekonomikuri saqmianobis sferoSi braldebulTa dapatimreba ikrZaleba. es revoluciuri cvlilebebi kanonSi, dmitri medvedevis iniciativiT, jer kidev ama wlis aprilSi Sevida.

mixail xodorkovskis procesi

mixail xodorkovskis saqme kvlav Sidapolitikuri skandalebis centrSia. rusma senatorebma sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobaSi iseTi Sesworebebi Seitanes, ramac prezidentis mier manamde Setanili Sesworebebis efeqturoba gaaufasura. es Sesworebebi iTvaliswinebda samewarmeo saqmianobiT dakavebul pirTaTvis aRmkveTi RonisZiebis Secvlas gausvlelobis xelweriliT. sxvadasxva informaciiT, senatorebma es sarisko nabiji premier puti-

nis zegavleniT gadadges. putins ubralod ar SeuZlia dauSvas misi piradi mtris _ xodorkovskis gaTavisufleba. uaxloes xanSi ruseTis saxelmwifo saTaTbiroSi axali kanonproeqtis mosmena gaimarTeba. am process SeiZleba putinsa da medvedevs Soris gamarTuli brZola ewodos. jer kidev 2005 wlis ianvarSi, rodesac `iukosis~ saqmis ZiriTadi procesi mimdinareobda, generalurma prokuraturam navTobis

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msoflio
sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis humanizacias biznesisa da mTlianad sazogadoebis mxridan mxurvale mxardaWera hqonda. prezidentis Sesworebebs axlda kidev erTi aspeqti, romelzec cotas laparakobdnen, Tumca es sakiTxi yvela liberalur sivrceSi ganixileboda: kanonmdeblobis liberalizacia dapatimrebul xodorkovskis Tavisuflebas uqadda. moskovSi didi xania, dadis Wori, rom medvedevs Zalian aRizianebs xodorkovskisTan dakavSirebiT Seqmnili situacia. dasavleTSi, sadac medvedevi garkveuli qulebis dagrovebas cdilobs, xodorkovskis politikur patimrad sisustis demonstracia. swored amitom, vladimir putini yvelafers gaakeTebs, rom xodorkovski cixeSi datovos. es Tezisi jer kidev 14 maiss dadasturda, rodesac moskovis xamovniCeskis sasamarTlom xodorkovskis TavdebiT gaTavisuflebaze uari ganacxada da mas patimrobaSi yofna imis safuZvelze gauxangrZliva, rom man danaSaulebebi arasamewarmeo saqmianobis sferoSi Caidina. SimSiloba, romelic xodorkovskim 17 maiss gamoacxada, ufro metad erT mizans isaxavda: xma miewvdina medvedevisTvis, eCvenebina misTvis, Tu rogor sruldeba misi brZanebebi loT da ara _ mdidrisadmi Raribis revoluciuri siZulviliT~. am frazis Semdeg naTeli gaxda, rom qveynis politikuri neba xodorkovskis mxaresaa. Tumca, sakuTari TavisTvis safrTxis aridebis mizniT, samarTaldamcavebma sxvadasxva zomebs mimarTes: xodorkovskis SimSilobidan zustad ori kviris Semdeg ramdenime rusma senatorma sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi Sesworebebis proeqti Seitana. am proeqtis mixedviT, Tavad sityva `mewarmeobis~ gageba icvleboda. proeqtSi aRniSnuli iyo, rom, axali kanonmdeblobiT, patimroba ascdeba mxolod `im moqalaqeebs,

Tavisufali xodorkovski _ es aris medvedevis siZlierisa da putinis sisustis demonstracia. swored amitom, vladimir putini yvelafers gaakeTebs, rom xodorkovski cixeSi datovos.
miiCneven. es misi diskreditaciaa dasavleTis winaSe da im rusebis TvalSic, visac swams, rom `medvedevi putini ar aris~. amave dros msxvili biznesi, romelic Tavis imedebs putinze bevrad ufro liberalur medvedevs ukavSirebs, darwmunebulia, rom xodorkovski unda gaTavisufldes: amiT bolo moeReboda ruseTis xelisuflebis misamarTiT dasavleli politikosebis da samarTaldamcavebis braldebebs. aseve garkveul garantiebs miscemda saerTaSoriso bizness, romlisTvisac ruseTi ufro mimzidvel sivrced iqceoda, vidre dResaa. da bolos, xodorkovskis gaTavisufleba iqneboda prezident medvedevis damoukideblobis aRmniSvneli Zlieri niSani, romelsac dRemde putinis xelisuflebis sistemis nawilad miiCneven. anu Tavisufali xodorkovski _ es aris medvedevis siZlierisa da putinis adgilebze. SimSilobis irgvliv Seqmnili aJiotaJis gaTvaliswinebiT, SeuZlebeli iyo prezidents misi mizezi ar Seetyo. Tumca, 22 maiss moskovis saqalaqo sasamarTlom xamovniCeskis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba ZalaSi datova. sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis Taobaze prezident medvedevis reaqcia cnobili ar aris. SeiZleba mxolod vivaraudoT, rom reaqcia mainc iyo. isic SeiZleba davuSvaT, rom prezidenti sakmaod gabeduladaa ganwyobili _ amaze metyvelebs Tundac uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomaris viaCeslav lebedevis gamonaTqvamebi, romelic cnobilia medvedevisadmi loialurobiT. xodorkovskis saqmis komentirebaze lebedevma uari ganacxada, Tumca patara, magram arsebiTi replika mainc gaakeTa: `kanonis axleburi redaqciis gamoyenebisas misi samarTlebrivi aspeqtebiT unda vixelmZRvaneromlebic samewarmeo saqmianobas ewevian da ar arian iuridiuli pirebi da saxelmwifo registracia gavlili aqvT rogorc individualur mewarmeebs~. aRsaniSnavia, rom am kanonproeqtis avtorTa Soris bevria samarTaldamcavi organoebis muSaki. Znelia imis mtkiceba, rom es adamianebi vladimir putinTan uSualo kavSirSi arian da mis miTiTebebs asruleben, Tumca imaSi eWvi aravis epareba, rom am senatorebis iniciativa asaxavs mTeli samarTaldamcavi sistemis ganwyobas, romelic medvedevis moqmedebebiT daSinebulia da gabrazebuli. uaxloes xanebSi ruseTis saxelmwifo saTaTbiroSi gadamwyveti Tu ara, qveynisTvis Zalian mniSvnelovani Serkineba moxdeba: Tuki deputatebi senatorebis Sesworebebs miiReben, es dmitri medvedevis morigi marcxi iqneba.

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msoflio
yazaxeTi

mooqrovili nazarbaevi
nazarbaevi SeiZleba axali den siaopini gaxdes, romelic prezidentis posts ki datovebs, magram sicocxlis bolomde yazaxeTis mmarTveli iqneba.
Tamar kakabaZe
baa, romelsac Tavad nazarbaevi ar awers xels. aw gansvenebuli TurqmenbaSisgan gansxvavebiT, romelmac mezobel TurqmeneTSi sakuTari Tavis mZlavri kulti Seqmna, nazarbaevi Tavis gamosvlebSi `pirovnebis kults~ akritikebs da ufro moxerxebulad moqmedebs _ man uari Tqva axali kanonis xelmoweraze, im motiviT, rom damatebiTi garantiebi ar sWirdeba. Tumca, amave dros mas `eris lideris~ iniciativaze veto ar daudia. yazaxuri kanonmdeblobiT ki, Tu sakonstitucio iniciativas prezidentis veto ar adevs, adgilobriv presaSi gamoqveynebisTanave ZalaSi Sedis. `es xalxis arCevani iyo~, _ ganacxada nazarbaevma, roca kanoni avtomaturad amoqmedda. analitikosebis azriT, am kanonis miRebiT yazaxeTi avtoritaruli, magram stabiluri qveynis imijs kidev ufro gaimyarebs. nazarbaevi, 21 welia, msoflios am erT-erT udides qveyanas marTavs. mis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli damoukidebeli yazaxeTis yvela warmateba Tu warumatebloba. miuxedavad imisa, rom yazaxeTSi 130-mde sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgeneli cxovrobs, is regionSi erTaderTi qveyanaa, romelic sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg eTnokonfliqtSi ar aRmoCnda CaTreuli. nazarbaevis megobrebic da kritikosebic Tanxmdebian, rom igi pragmatuli politikosia, romelsac kargad exerxeba piradi da qveynis

nursulTan nazarbaevi

misi sicocxlis xelyofa terorizmia. misi Seuracxmyofeli sityviT moxsenieba, misi gamosaxulebis dazianeba da mis biografiaSi faqtebis damaxinjeba _ sisxlis samarTlis danaSauli. amieridan, konstituciis Tanaxmad, is ubralod yazaxeTis prezidenti ki ara, elbasi anu `eris lideri~ gaxda. es statusi nursulTan nazarbaevs, ramdenime kviraa, mieniWa. kanoni daCqarebulad miiRes _ specialurad nazarbaevis 70 wlis iubilesTvis, romelic 6 ivlissaa. konstituciis Tanaxmad, mxolod `eris lideri~ gansazRvravs saxelmwifoebrivi mniSvnelobis sakiTxebs, magaliTad, usafrTxoebasa da

teritoriul mowyobas. igi uflebamosili iqneba, icodes yvela saxelmwifo saidumlo, magram amave dros Tavisufali iqneba yovelgvari pasuxismgeblobisa da valdebulebisgan. `eris lideris Sesaxeb~ axali kanonis Tanaxmad, SeuZlebelia `eris lideris~ sisxlis samarTlebriv Tu administraciul pasuxisgebaSi micema, aseve kanonSi weria, rom qveynis pirveli prezidentisa da misi ojaxis wevrebis qoneba xelSeuxebelia. Tu `eris lideri~ gadawyvets, rom qveynis prezidenti saTanadod ver asrulebs Tavis movaleobas, prezidenti unda wavides. kanoni `eris lideris Sesaxeb~ pirveli konstituciuri cvlile-

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msoflio
interesebis ise gatareba, rom wlebis ganmavlobaSi SeinarCunos metnaklebad stabiluri urTierTobebi Tavis mTavar politikur da ekonomikur partniorebTan _ ruseTTan, CineTTan da aSS-sTan. 2008 wlis agvistos omis dros nazarbaevma mxari dauWira ruseTis qmedebebs cxinvalSi, Tumca, miuxedavad ruseTis mxridan zewolisa, ar aRiara samxreTi oseTisa da afxazeTis damoukidebloba. 2006 wels nazarbaevma xeli moawera SeTanxmebas azerbaijanTan `baqoTbilisi-jeihanis~ navTobsadenis erToblivad gamoyenebis Sesaxeb, romelic ruseTis gverdis avliT gadis. 2007 wels ki SesTavaza ruangariSi, romlebic yazax Cinovnikebs, maT Soris Tavad nazarbaevsac, ekuTvnodaT. rogorc aRmoCnda, fuli am angariSebze ZiriTadad amerikuli navTobkompaniebidan iricxeboda. saubari iyo 1 miliard dolarze met Tanxaze. es saqme `yazaxgeitis~ saxeliTaa cnobili). miuxedavad nazarbaevis marTvis stilisa, gansxvavebiT igive TurqmenbaSisgan, `yvela yazaxis mama~ sazRvargareTac popularulia. yazaxeTi erTaderTi muslimuri qveyanaa, romelic euTo-s Tavmjdomareobs. amave dros yazaxeTi iseT saeWvo reputaciis mqone samxedropolitikuri organizaciebis wevria, rogoricaa odkb (koleqtiuri usayazaxi politikuri komentatorebi miiCneven, rom im fonze, roca regionSi viTareba daZabulia (yirgizeTis movlenebi), `yazaxeTs sakuTari stabilurobis gamyareba ar awyenda~. `eris lideris~ iniciativis SemoRebiT, yazaxuri elitis warmomadgenlebma pirvel rigSi sakuTar Tavze ifiqres _ isini Seecadnen, Tavidan aecilebinaT safrTxe, romelic SeiZleba mohyves qveyanaSi xelisuflebis gadacemis process. 2012 wels yazaxeTSi saprezidento arCevnebi gaimarTeba. nazarbaevis axali statusi garkveul gavlenas iqoniebs arCevnebis procesze.

SesaZloa, nazarbaevma 2012 wels arCevnebSi kenWi aRar iyaros, radgan amis aucilebloba

aRar iqneba. igi Seecdeba, minumumamde daiyvanos prezidentis uflebamosilebebi da, rogorc `eris liderma~, kvlav erTpirovnulad ganagrZos qveynis marTva.
seTs, kaspiis navTobsadenis konsorciumis gafarToeba yazaxuri navTobis xarjze. energoresursebis eqsportis sakiTxSi yazaxeTis strategiis mTavari mimarTulebaa saeqsporto marSrutebis diversifikacia. ruseTi cdilobs, akontrolos yazaxeTis navTobis eqsporti, Tumca am dromde yazaxeTi axerxebs daiZvrinos Tavi ruseTis sruli kontrolisgan da amave dros moskovTan konstruqciul urTierTobasac inarCunebs. nazarbaevis yazaxeTi avtoritaruli qveyanaa, sadac yvela mmarTvel Tanamdebobaze nazarbaevis ojaxis wevrebi da naTesavebi muSaoben. energoresursebiT mdidari, kaspiis zRvis auzis sxva qveynebis msgavsad, korufcia aqac did masStabebs aRwevs. nazarbaevi Tavad iyo erT-erTi gaxmaurebuli korufciuli saqmis mTavari figuranti (1999 wels Sveicarielma samarTaldamcavebma aRmoaCines da gayines ramdenime sabanko frTxoebis xelSekrulebis organizacia) da Sanhais organizacia. raoden paradoqsulic unda iyos, nazarbaevis pirveli Zeglic ara astanaSi, aramed TurqeTis dedaqalaq ankaraSi aRimarTa. `Turquli warmoSobis xalxebis ganviTarebaSi Setanili uzarmazari wvlilisTvis~ TurqeTis prezidentis, abdula giulis iniciativiT, ivnisSi ankaraSi nazarbaevis brinjaos Zegli daidga. am informaciam `eris lideris~ iubiles samzadisSi myofi yazaxeTi kidev ufro aaforiaqa. erT-erTi deputati adgilobriv parlamentSi sityviT gamovida: `rogor unda dagvaswros ankaram da pirvelma rogor unda dadgas nursulTan abiSeviCis Zegli?~ nazarbaevis 17metrian brinjaos mooqrovil monuments, romelze muSaobac ukve dawyebulia, yazaxeTSi male dadgamen. `eris lideris~ statusi, romelic nazarbaevs mieniWa, qveynis cxovrebaSi garkveul cvlilebebs moitans. yazaxi eqspertebi imasac amboben, rom ar aris gamoricxuli, nazarbaevma 2012 wels arCevnebSi kenWi aRar iyaros, radgan amis aucilebloba aRar iqneba. nazarbaevi Seecdeba, minumumamde daiyvanos prezidentis uflebamosilebebi da, rogorc `eris liderma~, kvlav erTpirovnulad ganagrZos qveynis marTva. rac Seexeba saerTaSoriso reaqcias _ nazarbaevsac da yazaxeTis politikur elitasac kargad esmiT, rom saerTaSoriso politikis wamyvani moTamaSeebisTvis, romlebic sruliad uZlurni aRmoCndnen, SeeCerebinaT yirgizeTSi sisxlisRvra, bevrad ufro mniSvnelovania stabiluri yazaxeTi, romelsac energoresursebis ulevi maragi aqvs, vidre demokratiuli procesebi am qveyanaSi. centraluri azia karga xnis ganmavlobaSi ar gaxdeba is regioni, sadac saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis prioriteti demokratia iqneba.

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Tvalsazrisi

"ra nomeria evropis telefoni?"


samxreT kavkasielma liderebma regionul ganzomilebaze unda ifiqron. amis xelSewyobis mizniT ki, evrokavSirma regionSi specialuri warmomadgenlis posti unda SeinarCunos.
Tomas de vaali, saerTaSoriso mSvidobisaTvis karnegis centris vaSingtonis ofisis ufrosis asocirebuli TanamSromeli es aseve niSnavs samxreTi kavkasiis samxreTi kavkasiis sakiTxebze mo- ecxadebina. aman, savaraudod, afxamuSaveebs Jruantelma dauaraT, ro- zeTi potenciur samxedro Setakebas sam Crdilovan konfliqtur regionTan muSaobas. 2008 wlis agvistos desac xmebi gavrcelda, rom evroka- gadaarCina. vSiris sagareo samsaxuri samxreT samwuxarod, verc semnebim da verc Semdeg samxreTi oseTi gare samyakavkasiaSi evrokavSiris specialuri sxvebma igive xerxi ori Tvis Semdeg rosTvis daketilia, magram mTeli warmomadgenlis postis gauqmebas samxreT oseTSi krizisis gamwvavebi- regionis saxeliT moqmedma semnebim sakmaod warmatebulad SeinarCuna apirebs. sas ver gamoiyenes. ratom aris mniSvnelovani evrokaam postis meore mniSvneloba imaSi sasicocxlo kavSirebi afxazeTis de vSiris axal, lisabonis xelSekru- mdgomareobs, rom samxreTi kavka- faqto respublikasTan _ rasac mxolebis Semdgom epoqaSi am postis siis mimarT saerTaSoriso politi- lod Tbiliss mimagrebuli diploSenarCuneba, romelic amJamad Sved ka xelborkildadebuli aRmoCndeba, mati ukve veRar SeZlebs. regionis mesame mougvarebeli diplomat piter semnebis ukavia? Tu igi sam sxvadasxva ormxriv poupirveles yovlisa, samxreT ka- litikad gadaiqceva _ saqarTvelos, konfliqti _ somxeTsa da azerbaijans Soris mTian yarabaRTan vkasiis qveynebis Zvelmodur, dakavSirebiT, yvelaze didi, vertikalur ierarqiebSi samxeT kavkasiis qveynebis liderebs yvelaze faruli da yvelaze calkeul pirovnebebs did uyvarT, rodesac regularuli saSiSia. amJamad evrokavSirs mniSvnelobas aniWeben. samSvidobo molaparakebebSi am qveynebSi gadawyvetileTanamosaubre hyavT. evrokavSiris jerovani roli ar aqvs. bebis mimReb pirebs uyvarT, specialuri warmomadgenlis saxiT adre Tu gvian, Tu am samSrodesac regularuli Tavidobo process xorcSesxma namosaubre hyavT, visTamaT hqondaT pasuxi henri kisinjeris uweria, evrokavSirs igive nac saqmis keTeba SeuZliaT. cnobil kiTxvaze _ `ra nomeria rolis Sesruleba mouwevs, evrokavSiris specialuri evropis telefoni?~ rac man deitonis Semdgom warmomadgenlis saxiT sabalkaneTSi aiRo Tavis TamxreTi kavkasiis liderebs vze _ rogorc rekonstruqhqondaT pasuxi henri kisinjeris cnobil kiTxvaze _ `ra nome- somxeTis da azerbaijanis mimarTu- ciis, usafrTxoebis da politikuri ria evropis telefoni?~ lebiT. Tu am regions surs ganvi- reformis garantorma. magram, isev ramdenime SemTxvevaSi, warmomad- Tardes, bolos da bolos man, ro- da isev, amisTvis mTeli regionis genlis diplomatia gadamwyveti gorc regionma, ise unda imoqmedos. masStabis elCia saWiro, romelaRmoCnda. semnebis winamorbedma, es konfliqtebis mogvarebas, dan- sac am misiis Sesasruleblad ufro finelma haidi taliavinim aWaris greuli rkinigzis aRdgenas, sabaJo msuye mandati eqneba. samxreTi kavkasia evrokavSiris avtonomiuri respublikis 2004 barierebis gauqmebas da sazRvrebis wlis krizisis mSvidobian mogva- gaxsnas gulisxmobs, rac samxreT ka- yvelaze daucveli mezobelia, marebaSi didi wvlili Seitana. 2008 vkasias ruseTs, TurqeTs da irans gram potenciurad _ yvelaze sainwlis ivnisSi, semnebim gviani Ramis Soris mimzidvel derefnad aqcevs. tereso da xelsayreli. am misiis misaubrebis dros SeZlo saakaSvilis regionuli integraciis efeqturi saRwevad ki evrokavSirs erTi darwmuneba, rom am ukanasknels lobireba mxolod garedan mosuls saerTo despani sWirdeba regionSi, afxazeTSi myofi ruseTis samSvido- SeuZlia, romelic amavdroulad rac samive qveynis problemebis fokusirebisTvis efeqturi iqneba. bo Zalebi aralegalurad ar gamo- mTel regionTan muSaobs.

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

23

mezoblebi
somxeTi

somexi eri robert koCarianis winaaRmdeg


haagis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloSi Setanilia sarCeli somxeTis meore prezidentis robert koCarianis winaaRmdeg.
liana xaCaturiani, erevani
10 aTas kacze meti uWers mxars somxeTis pirveli prezidentis levon terpetrosianis da misi momxreebis mier haagis saerTaSoriso kriminalur sasamarTloSi somxeTis eqs-prezidentis winaaRmdeg Setanil sarCels. sarCelis mizezia somxeTis eqs-prezidentis robert koCarianis (is qveyanas 1997-2008 wlebSi edga saTaveSi) politikaSi dabrunebasTan dakavSirebiT gavrcelebul xmebi. opozicia mas somexi eris winaaRmdeg Cadenil mZime danaSaulebebSi sdebs brals. 4500-gverdiani sarCeli, romelic somxeTis opoziciam koCarianis winaaRmdeg haagaSi miavlina, somxeTis uaxlesi istoriis erT-erT yvelaze sisxlian epizodsac Seicavs. opoziciis mtkicebiT, koCariani 1999 wlis 27 oqtombers somxeTis parlamentSi ganxorcielebuli teraqtis organizatoria. maSin sxdomaTa darbazSi SeWrilma SeiaraRebulma teroristebma rva gavleniani politikosi daxvrites, maT Soris _ premier-ministri vazgen sargsiani da parlamentis spikeri karen demirWiani. sarCeli aseve Seicavs 2008 wlis saprezidento arCevnebis Semdeg opoziciasa da xelisuflebas Soris momxdari sisxliani Setakebebis detalebsac. opozicia saprezidento arCevnebis Sedegebs aprotestebda, romelTa mixedviTac, xelisuflebis kandidatma serJ sargsianma gaimarjva. Setakebebis Sedegad 10 adamiani daiRupa da asobiT daSavda. opozicia irwmuneba, rom koCarianma piradad gasca demonstrantebis daSlis brZaneba. Tumca, somxeTSi bevri skeptikurad eri robert koCarianis winaaRmdeg winaswar ganxilvazea miRebuli. am cnobam opozicionerebi kidev ufro gaamxneva. kerZod, werilSi aRniSnulia, rom Setyobineba Sesabamisi wesiT Setanilia gancxadebaTa registrSi. Cven ganvixilavT mas, Sesabamisi rigiT, saerTaSoriso kriminaluri sasamarTlos romis statusis wesdebis gaTvaliswinebiT. aRniSnul sarCelTan mimarTebaSi erTiani pozicia ar arsebobs somxeTis eqspertTa wreSic. sakuTari qveynis politikosebis saerTaSoriso sasamarTloebisTvis gadacema, SesaZloa, seriozul gamowvevad iqces Cveni qveynis damoukideblobisTvis, _ aRniSna liberalTan saubarSi analitikuri centris mitk-is prezidentma grant melik-Sahnazarianma. misi TqmiT, opozicia somxebs Soris SuRls aRvivebs. politikur mimomxilvel manvel sargsians gansxvavebuli azri aqvs. is miiCnevs, rom opozicias sarCelis Sesatanad seriozuli safuZveli hqonda. aRsaniSnavia, rom sarCeli winaswari ganxilvisTvis iqna miRebuli. rogorc Cans, safuZveli mainc arsebobs, _ ganucxada manvel sargsianma liberals. miuxedavad imisa, Tu ra bedi eweva am sarCels, erTi ram cxadia _ mas upirveles yovlisa politikuri datvirTva eqneba. erevanSi dRes bevrs saubroben imaze, rom yofili prezidenti robert koCariani, romelsac dResac mniSvnelovani gavlena aqvs qveynis politikaSi, kvlav ibrZolebs saprezidento savarZlisTvis. Tu es marTlac ase moxdeba, maSin qveynis Sida politikuri viTareba mniSvnelovnad daiZabeba.

robert koCariani

haagis saerTaSoriso kriminaluri sasamarTlodan miRebuli werili ityobineba, rom sarCeli somexi eri robert koCarianis winaaRmdeg winaswar ganxilvazea miRebuli.
uyurebs aRniSnul sarCels da mas qveynis pirveli prezidentis da opoziciis lideris levon ter-petrosianis morig piar-kampaniad afasebs. Tavad koCariani dumilis uflebas iyenebs. am dReebSi haagis saerTaSoriso kriminaluri sasamarTlodan miRebuli werili ityobineba, rom sarCeli somexi

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liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

konfliqtebi
Tvalsazrisi

nebisa da logikis uqonloba


qarTuli filmis sayureblad da qarTuli saubris mosasmenad afxazuri sazogadoeba mzad ar aris.
axra smiri, soxumi
qarTveli reJisoris mamuka yufaraZis filmi `nebis uqonloba~ mTavar Temad iqca afxazeTis Sidapolitikur cxovrebaSi. am filmis ganxilva im darbazis farglebsac gacda, sadac misi Cveneba Sedga, da im arxsac, romelzec misi translireba moxda. weliwadze meti xnis winaT saqarTveloSi gadaRebuli es filmi dRes afxazeTSi masobrivi politikuri isteriis sababi gaxda. isteria wamoiwyo parlamentis opozicionerma deputatma, `afxazeTis nacionaluri erTobis forumis~ warmomadgenelma daur arSbam, romelmac Tavis gancxadebaSi am filmis afxazeTSi Cvenebas `qarTuli strategiis gatareba~ uwoda. Semdeg televiziasTan Seikribnen afxaz dedaTa moZraobis `mSvidobisa da socialuri samarTlis~ warmomadgenlebi, da filmis CvenebasTan dakavSirebiT aseve gamoTqves kritikuli mosazrebebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom kargad mesmis da viziareb im qalbatonebis satkivars, romlebmac saqarTvelosTan omSi Svilebi dakarges, maTma gancxadebebma mainc Soki momgvara. Tumdac imitom, rom isini im televizias ki ar `erCodnen~, romelmac es filmi gauSva, aramed im adamianebs, romlebic am filmis ganxilvas daeswrnen. swored qarTul-afxazuri omis Sesaxeb diskusia da dialogi gaxda maTTvis miuRebeli. `moRalateebi~, `qveynis Semarcxvenlebi~, `saqarTvelos wisqvilze wylis damsxmelebi~ _ ase uwodes yvelas, vinc am diskusiaSi monawileobda. arada, es filmi naxa da ganixila aslan kobaxiam, afxazeTis omis gmirma, Rirseulma adamianma, romelic aseve `saqarTvelos megobrad~ moixsenies. arc erT kritikoss ar gasCenia im upasuxismgeblo qmedebebze, ramac uaxloes warsulSi aseT tragikul da sisxlian movlenebamde migviyvana. da bolos, es aris filmi, romelsac dRemde ar uCveneben saqarTvelos nacionalur telearxebze, radgan eSiniaT. guldasawyvetia, rom adamianTa garkveuli jgufis mier politikuri qulebis daes aris pirveli filmi, grovebis survilma, sakusadac qarTvelebi(!) uSveben im Tari xelmZRvanelebis mxardaWeris, an ubralod azrs, rom afxazeTs SeuZlia piradi angariSsworebis iyos damoukidebeli(!!!) Jinma am filmis Sinaarsobrivi mxare SeumCneveli da aqvs ufleba ibrZolos datova. damoukideblobisTvis. mokled, axalSobili daRvril wylebs gaayoles. warmoudgenelia, Tu rokiTxva, Tu rogor moxvda es filmi gor gamoiwvia `nebis uqonlobam~ republikis prezidentis mier kon- logikis aseTi usaSvelo uqonloba trolirebad arxze, Tuki is aseTi afxazur sazogadoebaSi. samwuxamavnebelia afxazuri sazogadoe- roa, rom Cveni sazogadoeba ar bisTvis. aris dRes mzad, ganviTarebis Serac yvelaze samwuxaroa, arc mdgom etapze gadavides. ar aris erT kritikoss ar Seufasebia Ta- mzad mtkivneul Temebze dialovad filmi. arada, Cemi Rrma rw- gisTvis. meniT, es Zalian sasargeblo da kargi filmia. es filmi aris sastatiaSi gamoyenebuli qarTveloSi momxdari omebis WeS- terminologia ekuTvnis avtors, da mariti mizezis Ziebis uiSviaTesi ara `liberals~. mcdeloba. es aris pirveli filmi, sadac qarTvelebi(!) uSveben im azrs, rom afxazeTs SeuZlia iyos damoukidebeli(!!!) da aqvs ufleba ibrZolos damoukideblobisTvis. statia momzadebulia hainrih biolis fondis es aris filmi, sadac laparakia mxardaWeriT. am publikaciaSi gamoTqmuli Sexedulebebi da mosazrebebi ar aris saqarTvelos xelisuflebis, misi aucilebeli, gamoxatavdes hainrih biolis elitisa, da zogjer mTeli eris fondis Sexedulebebs.

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

25

Jurnalisturi gamoZieba

incidenti balRojianis sajaro skolaSi

ganaCeni gamoZiebisa da sasamarTlos gareSe


ramdenime dainteresebuli piris saCivris safuZvelze, zurab Tabagari ise gaaTavisufles skolis direqtorobidan, rom aravin dainteresebula, marTlac Caidina Tu ara man danaSauli.
lela xeCoSvili
2010 wlis 9 ivniss telekompania imedis dilis sainformacio gamoSvebaSi gasul siuJetSi yvarlis raionis sofel balRojianis sajaro skolis direqtori zurab Tabagari me-9 klasis moswavlis gaupatiurebis mcdelobaSi daadanaSaules. direqtors brals sdebda sami maswavlebeli. imave dRes, 20:00-saaTian qronikaSi balRojianis mkvidri levan kekenaZe acxadebda, rom skolis direqtori garyvnil qmedebaSi adrec iyo SemCneuli da mas amis gamo mosaklavad dasdevdnen. ganaTlebis saministros miTiTebiT, skolis sameurveo sabWom direqtors uflebamosileba SeuCera, prokuraturam ki garyvnili qmedebis muxliT sisxlis samarTlis saqme aRZra da gamoZieba daiwyo. zurab Tabagari, balRojianis skolis yofili direqtori, hyveba: 9 ivniss SuadRe iqneboda, roca raionidan sofelSi davbrundi. soflis

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liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

Jurnalisturi gamoZieba
gamgeobis SenobaSi policiis TanamSromlebi da is maswavleblebi iyvnen, romlebic miCivian. is gogonac iq hyavdaT. vicodi, rom es maswavleblebi _ nino modebaZe, liana kupataZe da eldino iobaSvili Cems winaaRmdeg moqmedebdnen, magram ver warmovidgendi, Tu aseT raRacas damabralebdnen. is bavSvi Cemi qaliSvilis klaselia. misi maswavlebelic viyavi. gakveTilebs ver swavlobda, gonebasustia, metyvelebac uWirs. skolas xSirad acdenda da 9 klasis atestati rom aeRo, 4 ivniss, gakveTilis dros vuTxari, erTi sakiTxi mainc eswavla, rom niSani damewera. gakveTilis Semdeg bavSvebisTvis uTqvams, rom Cemi eSinoda. roca bavSvebs ukiTxavT, _ ratom geSiniao, _ gogonebi calke gauyvania da uTqvams, rom masze vZaladob. mari gogSeliZe, balRojianis sajaro skolis moswavle: paraskevs zura maswavleblis gakveTili gvqonda. is gogo klasSi orjer aris darCenili. direqtorma gakveTili hkiTxa, ar icoda. direqtorma uTxra, _ ori abzaci mainc iswavle da gakveTilebis Semdeg Camabareo. Cvenc gvTxova, _ daexmareTo. gakveTili rom damTavrda, tirili daiwyo, _ ar davrCebi, radgan gakveTilebis Semdeg mtovebs da Zaladobs, miSveleTo. am dros qarTulis maswavlebeli nino modebaZe Semovida da ikiTxa, _ ra xdebao. adga da mouyva yvelaferi. meore dRes nino modebaZesTan wavediT, sadac misi mazli akaki kekenaZec dagvxvda. kekenaZemac gamohkiTxa Cven klasels. mere Cven gamogviSves, is gogo ki daitoves. maia cercvaZe, klasis xelmZRvaneli: yvelaze bolos es ambavi me gavige. SabaTs qarTuli enisa da literaturis maswavlebelma nino modebaZem damibara. miTxra, _ Turme Tqvens klasSi aseTi saSineli ambavi xdebao. imave saRamos mivedi gogonas ojaxSi, mSobels avuxseni mdgomareoba, movayvanine bavSvi da man igive gaimeora. dedamisma miTxra, _ meore bavSvi avad myavs, xval TbilisSi mivdivar da rom davbrundebi, ra gadawyvetilebasac miviReb, es Cemi saqmeao. nino modebaZem policiis saxelze gancxadeba Seadgina, bavSvma rac mogviTxro, aRwera da xeli mogvawerina. nino modebaZe, qarTuli enisa da literaturis maswavlebeli: es ambavi rom movismine, Zalian aRvSfoTdi. klasis damrigebelsac vuTxari. dedas uTqvams, _ am ambis gaxmaureba ar minda, TbilisSi mivdivar da roca davbrundebi, me TviTon mivxedavo. _ magram dedis pozicia ar gaiTvaliswineT da policias SeatyobineT. _ policiisTvis me ar damirekavs. orSabaTs eldino iobaSvilma daureka gakveTilebis Semdeg, rom dedas bavSvi ar waeyvana da direqtors es faqti ar SerCenoda. _ direqtorTan dapirispirebuli iyaviT? _ ki, radgan erTxel skolaSi ar viyavi da erT-erTi moswavle Cems nacvlad Seafasa dabali niSnebiT, razec kamaTi mogvivida. _ manamde, SabaTs is gogona, misi klaseli da klasis damrigebeli maia cercvaZe Tqvens saxlSi ratom daibareT? _ gogonas kidev erTxel gavesaubreT. detalebi movismineT. gogonam gaimeora, rom direqtori mas mkerdSi xels udebda, Sarvals xdida da efereboda. _ am Sexvedras Tqveni mazli akaki kekenaZe ratom eswreboda? _ rogor Tu ratom eswreboda. akaki maSin jer kidev soflis deputati iyo municipalitetis sakrebuloSi. profesiiT iuristia da konsultaciebs gviwevda. _ direqtoris winaaRmdeg policiis saxelze gancxadeba Tqven SeadgineT? _ eldinom dawera da me gadavwere. _ saCivarze xeli im gogonasac moawerineT? _ ki, moawera. mis garda, maswavleblebmac movawereT xeli _ me, maia cercvaZem, liana kupataZem da eldino iobaSvilma. amiT davadastureT, rom yvelaferi rac gancxadebaSi SevitaneT, bavSvma mogviTxro. akaki kekenaZe yvarlis municipalitetis 2006 wlis mowvevis sakrebulos wevri iyo sofel balRojianidan. 2010 wlis 30 maisis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebSi `nacionaluri moZraobis~ siiT man kenWi isev sofel balRojianSi iyara. maia cercvaZe balRojianis saubno-saarCevno komisiis wevri iyo erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis kvotiT; nino modebaZe kekenaZis rZalia da winasaarCevnod sofelSi agitacias mis sasargeblod eweoda; liana kupataZe erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis agitatori iyo balRojianSi, xolo eldino iobaSvili amave sofelSi saxelisuflebo partiis koordinatori. kekenaZe arCevnebSi damarcxda. sofel balRojianis maJoritari deputati opoziciis warmomadgeneli kaxi kapanaZe gaxda, romelic arCevnebSi erovnuli sabWodan monawileobda. zurab Tabagari: kekenaZe rom damarcxda, es ambavi me mbraldeba. skolis direqtori viyavi, fiqrobdnen da mTxovdnen, rom sofelSi avtoriteti gaqvs da kekenaZes daexmareo. me xalxSi ver Camovivlidi da ver vetyodi, xma visTvis miecaT. maswavleblebi, vinc garyvnil qmedebaSi madanaSauleben, arCevnebamdec ar malavdnen, rom Tu deputati kekenaZe gaxdeboda, misi daxmarebiT momiSorebdnen da skolaSi Tanamdebobebs TviTon gainawilebdnen. kekenaZe deputati ver gaxda da es braldebac amas mohyva. balRojianis sajaro skolaSi sul 25 maswavlebeli muSaobs. Cven 14 pedagogi gamovkiTxeT. maT aRniSnes, rom skolis yofili direqtori msgavs qmedebaSi arasodes yofila SemCneuli. aseTi maswavleblebi, romlebic Tanamdebobebis dasakaveblad yvela xerxs iyeneben, skolaSi saerTod ar unda muSaobdnen; amitomac, roca sameurveo sabWom, ganaTlebis saministros miTiTebiT, skolis direqtorisTvis uflebamosilebis

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Jurnalisturi gamoZieba
SeCerebis sakiTxze imsjela, uflebamosileba im maswavleblebsac SevuCereT; direqtoris mimarT Zalian angaJirebulebi iyvnen. yovelTvis mizezs eZebdnen, rom misTvis ziani mieyenebinaT; zurab Tabagarisgan wyenac gvaxsovs da uxeSobac, magram es ambavi rom daabrales, mis mxardasaWerad aq is xalxic movida, vinc masze nawyeni iyo, _ aRniSnes maswavleblebma maia cercvaZem, naira martiaSvilma da sxvebma. sofel balRojianis macxovreblebis gancxadebiT, gogona, romlis gaupatiurebis mcdelobaSic maswavleblebi zurab Tabagars adanaSauleben, cota xnis winaT garyvnil qmedebaSi sofelSi mcxovreb ramdenime axalgamcdelobis, an masTan garyvnil qmedebasTan dakavSirebiT mxolod erTi sisxlis samarTlis saqmea aRZruli, romelic 2010 wlis 9 ivnisiT TariRdeba. policiis sammarTveloSi daadastures, rom gogona gakveuli xnis win Tanasoflelebs garyvnil qmedebaSi adanaSaulebda, magram winaswari mokvlevis Sedegad danaSaulis niSnebi ar gamovlinda da saqme ar aRiZra. Cven davinteresdiT da sofel balRojianSi is mamakacic movZebneT, romelmac 2010 wlis 9 ivniss telekompania imedis korespondents interviu misca da zurab Tabagari daadanaSaula, TiTqos garyvnil qmedebaSi is adrec iyo SemCneuli da amis gamo mas mosaklavad dasdevdnen. levan kekenadakavSirebiT gurjaanis raionul prokuraturaSi kidev erTi sisxlis samarTlis saqme aRiZra. amjerad gamoZieba ssk-is 332-e muxlis I nawiliT daiwyo, rac samsaxurebrivi uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyenebas gulisxmobs. eldino iobaSvilma, nino modebaZem da liana kupataZem zurab Tabagari amjerad skolis biujetis Tanxebis aramiznobriv xarjvaSi daadanaSaules. hqondaT Tu ara maswavleblebs mSoblis nebarTvis gareSe gogonas gamokiTxvis ufleba da ramdenad sandoa gogonas Cveneba gamoZiebisTvis? saxalxo damcvelis aparatis bavSvisa da qalis uflebebis centris iuristis ana abaSiZis ganmartebiT, roca sakiTxi exeba arasrulwlovnis mimarT uflebebis darRvevas, kanonieri warmomadgeneli valdebulia, ganaxorcielos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli valdebulebebi, maT Soris _ danaSaulis Sesaxeb samarTaldamcavebs informacia miawodos. im SemTxvevaSi, roca mSobeli ar icavs arasrulwlovnis uflebebs, saxelmwifo, amjerad skola, rogorc sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri, valdebulia, daicvas bavSvis uflebebi. zogadi principis Tanaxmad, piris braleulobis dadgenis safuZveli unda iyos mtkicebulebaTa erToblioba. rac Seexeba SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone bavSvs, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 95-e muxlis meore nawilis Tanaxmad, is mowmed SeiZleba daikiTxos mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mcirewlovnobis, fizikuri naklis an fsiqikuri daavadebis miuxedavad, SeuZlia sworad aRiqvas, daixsomos an aRidginos saqmisaTvis mniSvnelobis mqone garemoebebi da misces Cveneba, _ acxadebs abaSiZe.

roca mSobeli ar icavs arasrulwlovnis uflebebs, skola, rogorc sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri, valdebulia, daicvas bavSvis uflebebi.

zrdasac adanaSaulebda. goneri guruli, balRojianis mkvidri: mag bavSvma, cota xnis win Cems Svils da kidev 5 biWs zustad igive braldeba wauyena. ambobda, rom TiTqos Cemma Svilma sami lari SesTavaza da masTan seqsualuri urTierTobis damyareba moiTxova. policiaSi ramdenjerme migviyvanes. bolos darwmundnen, rom gogona tyuoda da Tavi dagvanebes. rac Seexeba eldino iobaSvils, eg qali arCevnebamde dadioda da gveubneboda, rom xma akaki kekenaZisTvis migveca da skolis direqtori zurab Tabagari aRar iqneboda. gogonas adgilsamyofeli ucnobia. mamis ganmartebiT, dedam is soflidan waiyvana. me mwyemsi var. verafers getyviT. mag ambavze dedas unda hkiTxoT, deda kidev sad aris, ar vici, _ gviTxra gogonas mamam. Ss yvarlis raionuli sammarTvelos informaciiT, sofel balRojianSi mcxovrebi e.k-s gaupatiurebis

Ze akaki kekenaZis mama aRmoCnda. _ batono levan, vin adanaSaulebda kidev zurab Tabagars garyvnil qmedebaSi da vin dasdevda mas mosaklavad? _ man da misma meuRlem Cems Svils xma ar misces da rac daemarTaT, Rirsebi arian. Ss saministros sainformacio centris cnobiT, zurab Tabagaris winaaRmdeg an faqtze, razedac zurab Tabagars eWvmitanilis statusi eqneboda, garyvnili qmedebis muxliT, 2000-2009 wlebSi sisxlis samarTlis saqme aRZruli ar yofila. prokuraturas zurab Tabagaris mimarT sisxlis samarTlebrivi devna am dromde ar dauwyia. 2010 wlis 16 ivniss, balRojianis skolasTan

statia momzadebulia evrokavSirisa da evraziis TanamSromlobis fondis mxardaWeriT. statiis Sinaarsi ar gamoxatavs evrokavSirisa da evraziis TanamSromlobis fondis mosazrebebs da Sexedulebebs.

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liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

saubrebi liberalizmze
Tvalsazrisi

mixeil "aTagurji"
qemalizmi mkvdaria, didxans icocxlos qemalizmma~. qemalizmma mTavari dartyma konservatori da religiuri biznes elitisgan miiRo.
giorgi cxadaia

wina saukunis erT-erTi yvelaze gavleniani politikis mecnieri semuel hantingtoni werda, rom TurqeTis modeli saukeTesoa modernizaciis modelebs Soris. TurqeTis respublikis damfuZnebeli mustafa qemal aTaTurqi iwyebda reformebis ganxorcielebas iq, sadac yvelaze did mxardaWeras moipovebda, Semdeg ki wina safexurze dayrdnobiT momdevno safexurze gadadioda. pirveli prioriteti mustafa qemalisTvis nacionaluri ideis Camoyalibeba iyo. panTurquli ideologiisgan gansxvavebiT, romelic eTnonacionalistur, rasistul da religiur safuZvlebs emyareboda, qemalis idea sekularuli iyo; sekularuli im gagebiT, rom aRiarebda Turqobis ganmsazRvrel mxolod erT kriteriums: moqalaqes unda gaeziarebina TurqeTis respublikis damfuZnebeli principebi da idealebi imisTvis, rom Turqad CaTvliliyo. eTnonacionalizmisgan gansxvavebiT, es ganmarteba gacilebiT ufro demokratiuli iyo da imis safuZvels qmnida, rom Zlieri, erTgvarovani nacionaluri sazogadoeba Seqmniliyo, romelic TurqeTis mamas _ mustafa qemal aTaTurqs modernizaciis Semdeg safexurze gadasvlis

saSualebas miscemda. nacionalur erTobaze dayrdnobiT, aTaTurqi fiqrobda sazogadoebaSi efeqturi politikuri, modernuli (Tanamedrove _ imdroindel dasavleTSi gavrcelebuli) institutebis Camoyalibebas. am procesSi ki socialuri, kulturuli, religiuri da samarTlebrivi reformebi unda ganxorcielebuliyo. mxolod mas Semdeg, rac tradiciuli institutebi da Cveulebebi (wodebrivi elitis privilegiebi, religiuri institutebis gansakuTrebuli roli, nepotizmi, qalebis mimarT diskriminacia) Sesustdeboda, TurqeTi mzad iqneboda, rom ganviTarebis momdevno safexurze gadasuliyo _ industrializacia da ekonomikuri reformebi daewyo. aTaTurqs sjeroda mecnierebis, racionalizmis da pragmatizmis (religiuri moZRvrebebisgan sapirispirod) gansakuTrebuli rolis sazogadoebaSi. mecniereba sazogadoebis saukeTeso gidia cxovrebaSi, _ ambobda is. misi azriT, nacionaluri, progresuli da racionaluri ganaTleba unda yofiliyo axali sazogadoebis mTavari dasayrdeni. saswavlo gegmidan dominanturi religiis moZRvrebis _ sunituri isla-

mis swavleba unda amoeRoT. mustafa qemalis moZRvreba anu qemalizmi gulisxmobda da gulisxmobs ideas, rom ufaso sajaro ganaTleba socialuri reformebis ganxorcielebis saukeTeso meqanizmia da xels uwyobs socialur mobilobas. termini socialuri mobiloba sazogadoebis dabali fenidan maRal fenaSi adamianebis gadasvlas aRniSnavs. ganaTlebis reformiT, aTaTurqs surda, rom Seeqmna inteligenciis, ganmanaTleblebis da biurokratebis axali fena, romelic TurqeTis respublikis nacionaluri ideis erTgulni iqnebodnen. amgvarad, adreul Caketil inteleqtualur elitas Secvlidnen axali inteleqtualebi, romlebic TavianT statuss saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi maRali poziciisTvis brZolaSi moipovebdnen. aTaTurqis socialuri mobilobis modeli vrceldeboda TurqeTis respublikis axal armiazec, romelic inteligenciasTan, ganmanaTleblebTan da biurokratebTan erTad mis mTavar socialur dasayrdens warmoadgenda. Zalovan struqturebSi wamyvan poziciebs ikavebdnen adamianebi, romlebic iqamde wodebriv privilegiebs da gansakuTrebul statuss ar flobdnen. armiis ofi-

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29

saubrebi liberalizmze
crebis rekrutireba qveda saSualo da Raribi fenidan xdeboda. am gziT aTaTurqi qmnida erTgul da nacionaluri ideisTvis Tavdadebul armias, romelic TurqeTis axali respublikis principebs daicavda. es iyo modernizacia zemodan, anu saxelmwifosgan da misi liderisgan wamosuli reformebi. Tavis erT-erT mniSvnelovan gamosvlaSi, 1919 wels, aTaTurqma aRniSna, rom struqtura, romelic qvemodan zemoT warmoiqmneba, ra Tqma unda, yvelaze myaria. amis miuxedavad, dasawyisSi arsebobs imis saWiroeba, rom es struqtura qvemodan zemoT ki ara, zemodan qvemoT Camoyalibdes. Tu pirveli modeli ganxorcieldeboda (anu qvemodro mmarTvelobas Caenacvlebina. mizezi, ris gamoc gadatrialebebi xdeboda, demokratiuli institutebis simyife iyo. aTaTurqis mier daarsebulma respublikurma saxalxo partiam 1960ian wlebSi, popularuli memarcxene moZraobebis gavleniT, qemalizmis principebis memarcxene-centristuli Sesworebebi daiwyo. 1970-ian wlebSi ki demokratiuli memarcxeneobis ufro radikalurma talRam qemalizmis principebis axali redaqciiT Camoyalibeba scada: qveynis da sazogadoebis winaSe mdgari problemebis gadaWris gzebi ara mxolod unda avuxsnaT xalxs, aramed maTTan erTad unda gamovnaxoT; xalxi Cveni mier-ministri rejef Taif erdoRani swored am axali elitis warmomadgenelia. es konservatori da religiuri biznesmenebis fenaa, romelic energiis, finansebis, mrewvelobis da mediis seqtorebs TandaTanobiT epatroneba. 1997 wlis gadatrialebis dros da iqamdec, TurqeTis media qemalizmis principebis aqtiuri damcveli iyo. am statiis daweris mizani is iyo, rom qemalizmsa da mixeil saakaSvilis mier ganxorcielebul modernizaciis modelebs Soris paralelebi gagvevlo da msgavsebebi aRmogveCina. me vfiqrob, rom msgavsebebi marTla gansacvifrebelia. konservatori da religiuri biznesmenebis fenam Tur-

am statiis daweris mizani is iyo, rom qemalizmsa da mixeil saakaSvilis mier ganxorcielebul modernizaciis modelebs Soris paralelebi gagvevlo da msgavsebebi aRmogveCina. me vfiqrob, rom msgavsebebi marTla gansacvifrebelia.

dan zemoT reformebi - g.c.), mTeli kacobrioba Tavis keTilSobilur survils aisrulebda, magram radgan amis ganxorcielebis praqtikuli gzebi jer ver gamoinaxa, zogierTi reformatori gvTavazobs, rom erebs mivceT saWiro gza da mimarTuleba. roca regionebSi vmogzaurobdi, aRfrTovanebuli davrCi imiT, rom davinaxe _ Cvenma modelma zemodan qveviT qveda dones ukve miaRwia da adamianebma Tavad daiwyes qvevidan zeviT cvlilebebis moxdena~. mustafa qemals sjeroda, rom samxedroebi ar unda Careuliyvnen samoqalaqo saqmeebSi, Tumca amis miuxedavad, misi sikvdilis Semdeg Turqma samxedroebma ramdenime saxelmwifo gadatrialeba moawyves (bolos 1997 wels), im sababiT, rom arCeuli xelisufleba qemalizmis principebisgan uxvevda. es gadatrialebebi ar iyo mimarTuli imisken, rom samoqalaqo mmarTveloba samxe-

Zalauflebis mTavari wyaroa; xalxi ar aris konservatori da mcdaria mosazreba, rom isini ver igebdnen da ar uWerdnen mxars aTaTurqis reformebs. am fonze daibada saxalxo seqtoris (daaxloebiT sabWoTa kooperativebis tipis sakuTrebis) Camoyalibebis idea, romelic saxelmwifo da kerZo seqtorTan erTad unda arsebuliyo, magram es idea ver ganxorcielda. qemalizmis ideas mTavari dartyma, logikurad, ara memarcxeneebisgan, aramed im Zlieri fenisgan unda mieRo, romelsac TiTqmis mTeli saukunis ganmavlobaSi gamoxatvis saSualebas ar aZlevda. qveynis ganviTarebam saSualo burJuaziis, saSualo fenis warmoqmna ganapiroba, romelic ukve aRar iyo kmayofili imiT, rom saxelmwifos mfarvelobis qveS unda ecxovra _ am fenas gauCnda pretenzia, rom Tavad emarTa saxelmwifo. TurqeTis axlandeli pre-

qeTSi albaT yvelas levan gaCeCilaZe da 2008-2009 wlebis mitingebi gagaxsenaT, sadac tradiciebis da religiuri Rirebulebebis dacvis ritorika wamyvani iyo. konservatoruli saSualo fenis aRmavlobis Sesaxeb wels aprilSi Jurnal Foreign Affairs-Si gamoqveynda statia saTauriT qemalizmi mkvdaria, didxans icocxlos qemalizmma (`Kemalism is Dead, Long Live Kemalism~), romelSic avtorebi amtkiceben, rom saSualo fenis batonoba qemalizmis principebidan gadaxveva ki ara, maTi dadasturebaa, rac xels Seuwyobs bazris Tavisuflebasa da mSvidobas. avtorebi urCeven qemalistebs, rom Tavis gadarCenisTvis iseTi principebis absoluturoba aRiaron, rogoricaa biznesis saqmianobaSi Caurevloba, samxedroebze samoqalaqo kontrolis daweseba da konfliqtur zonaSi qurTi umciresobisTvis meti kulturuli uflebebis miniWeba.

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adamianis uflebebi da samarTali


saqarTvelo da evropuli sasamarTlo

moqalaqeebi qveynis winaaRmdeg


saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi strasburgis sasamarTloSi saxelmwifos yvelaze xSirad wamebis muxliT uCivian.
nino TofuriZe, giorgi WeiSvili
2004 wlis 30 ivliss gia facuriam strasburgis sasamarTlos mimarTa. patimari Cioda, rom saqarTvelos prokuraturam mas ukanonod Seufarda winaswari patimroba, romlis ganmavlobaSic mas janmrTeloba Seerya. ori TviT adre generalurma prokuraturam gia facuria saxelmwifo qonebis gaflangvisa da sabanko dokumentaciis gayalbebis braldebiT daakava. mas winaswari samTviani patimroba Seufarda. facuriam ganaCeni gaaprotesta, Tumca, isani-krwanisis sasamarTlom misi moTxovna ar daakmayofila, motivad ki mimalvis safrTxe da sagamoZiebo saqmianobisTvis xelis SeSla daasaxela. saqmis Semdgomi mosmenisas raionulma sasamarTlom facurias, sabuTebis gayalbebis braldebiT, 3 weli miusaja. msjavrdebuli, romelic Tavs damnaSaved ar Tvlida, amtkicebda, rom misi ukanono winaswari patimrobiT adamianis uflebaTa evrokonvencia dairRva da, moraluri zaralis anazRaurebis moTxovniT, saqarTvelos saxelmwifos strasburgis sasamarTloSi uCivla. 2006 wlis 7 noembers gia facurias saqme evropulma sasamarTlom miiRo warmoebaSi, ganxilvis Semdgom ki daadgina: 2004 wlis 8 maiss, facurias dapatimrebidan sam dReSi udanaSaulobis prezumcia gaTavisuflebis sasargeblod unda yofiliyo gadawyvetili, rasac facurias gaTavisufleba unda mohyoloda. evrosasamarTlom miiCnia, rom mimalvis safrTxe, romliTac erovnuli sasamarTlo apelirebda, mosamarTlem saTanadod ver daasabuTa. WeSmaritebis dadgenisaTvis xelis SeSlis safrTxe ki strasburgma brmad

saqarTvelodan strasburgis sasamarTloSi Setanili saqmeebis statistika 2000-2009 wlebi

2122 1771

7 2000

22 2001

29 2002

35 2003

48 2004

72 2005

105 2006

162

2007

2008

2009

28.1%

adamianis uflebaTa sasamarTloSi qveeynebis winaaRmdeg Setanili sarCelebi

11.0% 8.4% 8.2% 6.0% 4.0% 3.4%

ruseTi

TurqeTi

rumineTi

poloneTi

ukraina

moyvanilad CaTvala. gia facuriam sasamarTlo procesi moigo, qarTul mxares, zaralis anazRaurebis mizniT, evrosasamarTlom 3670 evros gadaxda daakisra. swored facurias saqmis Semdeg evropulma sasamarTlom mkacrad ga-

akritika saqarTvelos sasamarTlo sistema imis gamo, rom is, winaswari patimrobis Sefardebis garda, sxva alternatiuli sasjelis zomas ar iyenebda. evropuli sasamarTlo da saqarTvelos Sida kanonmdeblobac winaswari

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

saqarTvelo

italia

31

adamianis uflebebi da samarTali


patimrobis Sefardebisas iTvaliswinebs oTx aucilebel pirobas, romlidanac minimum erT-erTi unda arsebobdes. esenia: 1. mimalvis safrTxe, 2. sagamoZiebo procedurebis arasaTanadod ganxorcielebis safrTxe, 3. recidivis ganmeorebis safrTxe, 4. SesaZlebeli wesrigis darRvevis safrTxe, anu linCis wesiT gasamarTlebis safrTxe _ am oTxi pirobidan erTis arsebobis SemTxvevaSic ki SesaZlebelia winaswari patimrobis Sefardeba. evropuli sasamarTlos erT-erT daskvnaSi, romelic wamebis sakiTxebis ganxilvas mieZRvna, naTqvamia, rom saqarTveloSi patimarTa gazrdili raodenobis mizezia sasamarTlos mxridan sxva tipis sasjelis Sefardebisadmi gulgrili damokidebuleba. es miTiTeba saqarTvelos xelisuflebam 2007 wels miiRo. dRes ki sasjelaRsrulebiT dawesebulebaSi kidev ufro meti _ 25-dan 30 aTasamde patimari imyofeba. `sasamarTloebSi winaswari patimrobis Sefardebisas braldebis teqstSi mxolod sami ram icvleba _ saxeli, gvari da TariRi. mosamarTleebi ar asabuTeben imas, Tu ratom ar SeiZleba konkretul gansasjels sxva sadamsjelo RonisZieba Seefardos. winaswari patimrobis Sefardebis SemTxvevaSi, mosamarTle safuZvlianad unda gaesaubros braldebuls, is darwmunebuli unda iyos am RonisZiebis aucileblobaSi, rac dRevandel sasamarTloebSi ar xdeba, _ ambobs `liberalTan~ saubarSi adamianis uflebaTa eqsperti beso boxaSvili. am problemas evropuli sasamarTloc aRiarebs da xazs usvams mosamarTleTa kvalifikaciis sakiTxs. strasburgSi moxvda daviT gorgilaZis saqmec, romelzec evrosasamarTlom gadawyvetileba 2009 wlis 20 oqtombers gamoitana. msjavrdebuls miaCnda, rom sasamarTlo kolegia, romelmac is pirveli instanciiT gaasamarTla, ar iyo kanonierebis safuZvelze Seqmnili. gorgilaZis mtkicebiT, msajulebs, romlebic mis saqmes ganixilavdnen, ar gaaCndaT Sesabamisi iuridiuli ganaTleba da gamocdileba. daviT gorgilaZes brali edeboda mama-Svilis mkvlelobaSi. gorgilaZe Tavad gamocxadda lanCxuTis policiis ganyofilebaSi; samedicino eqspertizis Catarebis Semdgom mas winaswari samTviani patimroba Seufardes. uzenaesma sasamarTlom, romelic ori msajulisagan da erTi mosamarTlisgan Sedgeboda, gorgilaZe damnaSaved maleve cno da 18 wliT patimroba miusaja. daviT gorgilaZis saqme ganixiles arakvalificiurma msajulebma, romlebic mosamarTlis Tanabari uflebamosilebiT sargeblobdnen. maT xma misces gorgilaZis gamamtyunebel ganaCens, risi uflebac maT, arakompetenturobis gamo, ar hqondaT. strasburgis sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom amgvari sasamarTlo ar iyo kanonis safuZvelze Seqmnili da daadgina konvenciis me-6 muxlis I paragrafis darRveva, rac samarTliani sasamarTlos uflebis darRvevas iTvaliswinebs. strasburgma qarTul mxares kompensaciis saxiT 5000 aTasi laris gadaxda daakisra. eqspertTa ganmartebiT, saqarTveloSi samarTlian sasamarTlosTan mimarTebaSi strasburgma sakanonmdeblo problemac gamokveTa, romelmac msajulTa institutis gauqmebis Semdeg iCina Tavi, rac, evrokonvenciis mixedviT, samarTliani sasamarTlos uflebis darRvevas gulisxmobs. saqarTveloSi mosamarTleTa kvalifikaciis sakiTxi saerTod ar eqvemdebareba ganxilvas. mosamarTleTaTvis mTavaria, adamianma ar dauSvas is faqti, rom SeiZleba moigos procesi, _ ganmartavs advokatTa asociaciis Tavmjdomare zaza xatiaSvili. strasburgma saqarTvelos meore problemazec miuTiTa _ saqarTvelos sasamarTlo ver uzrunvelyofs miRebuli gadawyvetilebis sisruleSi moyvanis gakontrolebas _ anu, sasamarTlo Tavs ikavebs braldebulisTvis, patimrobis garda, sxva tipis sasjelis Sefardebisagan, radgan ar gaaCnia Sesabamisi pirobebi SromagamosworebiTi sasjelis aRsrulebisTvis. ombudsmenis statistikur monacemebSi naTlad Cans, rom saqarTveloSi warmoebul saqmeTa umravlesoba saxelmwifosa da prokuraturis sasargeblod wydeba. bolo 4 Tvis manZilze gamotanili ganaCenebidan, romelTa saerTo raodenoba 5636-ia, 3188 adamians Tavisuflebis aRkveTa miesaja, 4 ganTavisuflda, gamosasworebeli samuSao ki arc erTisTvis ar SeufardebiaT. 2010 wlis statistika gvaCvenebs imasac, rom aRmkveTi RonisZiebebis 53% dapatimrebaze, 45% _ giraoze, 1,2% ki sxva sapatimro RonisZiebebze modis. 2010 wlis 1 ianvars evropulma sasamarTlom sazogadoebas Tavisi arsebobis 50 wlis angariSi da statistikuri monacemebi warudgina. am angariSis mixedviT, saqarTvelo, mosaxleobis maCveneblis gaTvaliswinebiT, strasburgSi mis winaaRmdeg Setanili saqmeebis mixedviT pirvelia. adamianis uflebaTa eqsperti, beso boxaSvili strasburgis sasamarTloSi saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg sarCelebis raodenobis gazrdis mizezebs asaxelebs. saCivrebis gazrdis mTavari mizezi, ruseT-saqarTvelos agvistos omia. rusebis waqezebiT, osebma SeTiTxnili saqmeebi Seadgines da daaxloebiT 2000-mde sarCeli gagzavnes strasburgSi. aman uaryofiTad imoqmeda saerTo suraTze, _ ganmartavs beso boxaSvili. strasburgSi saqarTvelodan Sesuli 4373 sarCeli daregistrirda. aqedan evrosasamarTlom _ 293 dauSveblad cno, an amoiRo gansaxilveli saqmeebis siidan. ganixila 35 sarCeli, romelTaganac 28-Si evrokonvenciis darRveva daadgina 2009 wels evropulma sasamarTlom saqarTvelodan gagzavnili 11 sarCeli ganixila da 11-ve mosarCelis sasarge-

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adamianis uflebebi da samarTali


blod daakmayofila. aqedan 7 darRveva araadamianur da pativis Semlaxav mopyrobas Seexeboda; 1 _ efeqturi gamoZiebis SeuZleblobas; 6 _ Tavisuflebasa da usafrTxoebas; 1 _ piradi cxovrebis upativcemlobas; saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg warmoebuli saqmeebis umetesoba mesame muxlis _ wamebis, araadamianuri an Rirsebis Semlaxveli mopyrobis akrZalvas exeba. saqmeSi, ramiSvili da koxreiZe saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg, dava swored wamebis muxlis darRvevas exeboda. Salva ramiSvili da daviT koxreiZe jgufuri gamoZalvis braldebiT ixdidnen sasjels rusTavis me-5 sapyrobileSi. msjavrdebulebma evropul sasamarTlos saCivriT mimarTes. isini maT mimarT damamcirebel mopyrobasa da sapyrobileSi arsebul gausaZlis pirobebs asaCivrebdnen. mosmenis Semdgom evrosasamarTlom daadgina konvenciis me-3, me-4 da me-5 punqtebis darRveva. wamebis muxlis darRvevis safuZvelze, sasamarTlom saqarTvelos mxare daavaldebula, ramiSvili-koxreiZisTvis 20 694 evro gadaexada. sapatimroebSi, patimarTa mZime mdgomareobas adasturebs beso boxaSvilic, romlis TqmiT, strasburgis sasamarTloSi patimarTa wamebaze wardgenili saCivrebi _ ara patimrebis fizikurad wamebas, aramed penitenciur sistemaSi arsebul pirobebs, samedicino dawesebulebebSi gamefebul mZime situaciasa da dakavebisas gadametebuli Zalis gamoyenebas exeba. Tumca, rogorc wesi, fizikuri angariSsworebis faqtebze saubars msjavrdebulebi Tavs arideben. rusTavis mkacri reJimis koloniis patimari imeda buTxuzi Civis, rom mas fizikurad araerTxel gasworebia rusTavis meeqvse sapyrobilis ufrosi, gvarad gigineiSvili. cemis faqts adasturebs roman ovakimianic, romlis mtkicebiT, 2006 wlis ivlisSi meeqvse sapyrobilis TanamSromlebma daviT mamukaZem da zurab zviadaZem mas umowyalod scemes, ris Sedegadac man xerxemlisa da Tavis araerTi mZime dazianeba miiRo. patimrebi uaxloes momavalSi evrosasamarTloSi Civils apireben. rogorc adamianis uflebaTa centris iuristi, nikoloz legaSvili ganmartavs, mzaddeba Sesabamisi sarCeli strasburgSi gasagzavnad. msjavrdebulTa dakavebisas, winaswari patimrobis garda, sxva saxis sadamsjelo RonisZiebebis arSefardebis gamo, sapatimro dawesebulebebi patimrebis raodenobas veRar audian. patimarTa gadaWarbebuli raodenobis gamo, cixeebSi gausaZlisi mdgomareobaa. amitom, isini saxelmwifos strasburgis sasamarTloSi yvelaze xSirad wamebis muxliT uCivian. mosamarTleTa arakvalificiurobisa da bralis dausabuTeblobis gamo ki, davebis umravlesoba saxelmwifos sawinaaRmdegod wydeba. ukanaskneli ori wlis manZilze wagebul 17 davaSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifom mosaxleobis biujetidan momCivanTa sasargeblod 342899 evro gadaixada.

saerTaSoriso sasamarTloebSi saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi arsebul davebze informaciis miReba izRudeba


ivnisis bolos, saqarTvelos zogad administraciul kodeqsSi, sityvisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb mesame TavSi cvlileba Seva, romlis Tanaxmadac, mosaxleobisaTvis saxelmwifos mier warmoebuli davebis da sasamarTlo procesebis Sesaxeb informacia xelmisawvdomi aRar iqneba. cvlilebis iniciatoria mmarTveli partiis saparlamento umravlesoba. avtorTa ganmartebiT, kanonis mizania, daicvas saxelmwifo, rogorc mxare, saxelmwifos gareT warmoebuli davebisas. axalgazrda iuristTa asociaciis iuristis _ Tamar korZaias ganmartebiT, cvlileba sityvisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis SezRudvaa. `konstituciiT, informacia SeiZleba ar gaices im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is warmoadgens _ saxelmwifo, pirad, komerciul an profesiul saidumloebas. es Camateba, da ara cvlileba, arc erT am kriteriums ar akmayofilebs. amas garda, kanoni informaciis gamcem organos valdebulebas akisrebs, daasabuTos, ratom ver gascems informacias _ am iniciativiT yvela es gonivruli winapiroba moxsnilia, yovelgvari dasabuTebis gareSe gveubnebian, rom saerTaSoriso sasamarTloebze ar vrceldeba informaciis Tavisufleba. am qmedebiT, romel Rirebulebas icavs saxelmwifo, sruliad gaugebaria; amaze arsad gvpasuxoben!~ _ ganmartavs korZaia. misive TqmiT, kanonproeqtis avtorTa argumentacia _ daicvan mxareTa Tanasworoba saxelmwifos farglebs gareT, samarTliani marTlmsajulebis ganxorcilelebis mizniT, informaciis gavrcelebiT veranairad ver dairRveva. parlamentis iuridiul sakiTxTa komitetis Tavmjdomaris pirveli moadgile da cvlilebis iniciatori laSa Tordia, radio `TavisuflebisTvis~ micemul interviuSi amtkicebs, rom cvlilebebi ar ewinaaRmdegeba aranair saerTaSoriso valdebulebas, sajaro informaciis miReba problema ar iqneba mxareebisTvis, Tumca saxelmwifos interesebSi ar Sedis Tavisi poziciis sajaro diskusiis sagnad qceva. kiTxvaze, Tu ratom unda daifaros saxelmwifos pozicia, Tordia pasuxobs: `winaswar ar unda iyos cnobili, Tu ra poziciaze dgaxar... rasac icav, is rom ar gaxdes sajaro diskusiis Tema... es cnobili ar unda iyos, radganac es xdeba sasamarTlo procesis dros, sanam mimdinareobs dava... gadawyvetilebis gamotanis Semdeg ukve SesaZlebeli iqneba, yvelam Tavisuflad isaubros am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT~... iurist Tamar korZaias ganmartebiT, Camateba kanonSi TvalnaTliv ewinaaRmdegeba evrokonvenciis meaTe muxls. kanonSi cvlilebis Setana qarTuli sityvis Tavisuflebas ukan daxevs.

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

33

sazogadoeba
gamosaSvebi gamocdebi

maSin, roca ruka ver xdeba teritoria


2011 wlidan atestatis misaRebad moswavleebs daaxloebiT aT saganSi mouwevT gamocdis warmatebiT Cabareba. am gadawyvetilebis miRebis mizezad mTavrobam _ moswavleebis mobilizebis xelSewyoba, swavlis motivaciis, moswavleebis codnis xarisxisa da moculobis gazrda daasaxela. am miznebis misaRwevad gamocdebis sistemis gamoyeneba utopiuri da arakompetenturi gzaa.
simon janaSia
lyofs gamocdis formati amas. warmoidgineT moswavle, romelic maTematikaSi gamosaSveb gamocdas abarebs. davuSvaT, rom testze ormocdaaTi kiTxvaa. maT Soris aris erTi, ori an sami, romelic procentis gamoTvlas exeba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu testze dawesebulia gamsvleli qula (mag. swori pasuxebis 50%), maSin dasaSvebi xdeba, rom moswavle, romelsac ar ecodineba procentis gamoTvla, sxva codnis safuZvelze, e.w. minimaluri kompetenciis zRvars mainc gadalaxavs. erTaderTi gza, romliTac Cven uzrunvelvyofT imas, rom testirebis farglebSi warmatebul moswavles ecodineba procentis gamoTvla, is aris, rom konkretul SekiTxvaze swori pasuxebis gacema iyos savaldebulo da ara gamsvleli qulis gadalaxva. apirebs aseTi moTxovnebis SemoRebas saxelmwifo gamosaSveb testebze? savaraudod _ ara! imis dasadgenad, Tu ramdenad uzrunvelyofs gamocda ganaTlebis minimalur xarisxs an codnas, mniSvnelovania testis Sinaarsic SeviswavloT. TvalsaCinoebisTvis gadavxedoT ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros veb-gverdze gamoqveynebul `2011 wlis atestatis minimaluri kompetenciis programas~ istoriaSi. gTavazobT mcire eqsperiments. sanam statiis kiTxvas gaagrZelebT, gamoicaniT, CamoTvlilTagan romeli sakiTxebi ar iqneba

erTiani erovnuli gamocdebi, Tbilisi, 1 ivlisi 2010

imisTvis, rom gavarkvioT Tu ramdenad moemsaxureba es gamocdebi qarTveli moswavleebis codnis, unarebisa da damokidebulebebis ganviTarebas, unda gaviazroT am gamocdis formati da Sinaarsi. ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros gancxadebiT, moswavles gamocdaze mouwevs `minimaluri kompetenciis zRvaris~ gadalaxva, imisTvis, rom daadasturos sakuTari mzadyofna skolis atestatis misaRebad. ra SeiZleba igulisxmebodes minimaluri kompetenciebis zRvarSi? pasuxis sailustraciod ministri xSirad ambobs, rom gamocdebze moswavles dasWirdeba maTematiku-

ri operaciebis SesrulebaSi imgvari kompetenciis floba, rogoric magaliTad 80-is xuTi procentis gamoTvlisTvis aris saWiro. aseve iTqva isic, rom es gamocda uzrunvelyofs, rom moswavle, romelmac ar icis, Tu ra iwvevs bunebrivi sezonebis cvlas, ver miiRebs atestats. erTi SexedviT, mSvenieri iqneba, Tu atestatis yvela mflobels eqneba amgvari kompetenciebi. aseve saucxoo iqneboda, gamosaSvebi gamocdebi am kompetenciebis miRwevas marTlac rom uwyobdes xels. imis dasajereblad, rom moswavle, romelsac procentis gamoTvla ar ecodineba, atestats ver aiRebs, is unda vicodeT, Tu rogor uzrunve-

foto marika qoCiaSvili

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liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

sazogadoeba
gaTvaliswinebuli minimaluri kompetenciebis dasadgeni skolis damamTavrebeli testis farglebSi? 1. Zveli egviptis civilizacia 2. Zveli SuamdinareTis civilizacia 3. Zveli induri da Cinuri civilizaciebi 4. mezoamerikuli civilizaciebi 5. xalxTa didi gadasaxlebebi 6. otomanTa imperia 7. Sua saukuneebis didi geografiuli aRmoCenebi 8. msoflio religiebi 9. mecnierebisa da teqnologiebis ganviTareba 10. saxelmwifoebis mowyobis modelebi 11. istoriuli wyaroebi, maTi analizi da interpretireba 12. istoriuli kvlevis dagegmva da ganxorcieleba Tu fiqrobT, rom romelime es sakiTxi Sesulia e.w. `minimaluri kompetenciebis standartSi~, cdebiT. gamosaSveb testSi sakiTxebi am Temebis Sesaxeb ar iqneba. samagierod, aris Sesuli 39 dasaxelebis sxva sakiTxi. magaliTad, skoladamTavrebulma gamocdaze unda daadasturos, rom icis _ vin iyo farsman qveli da murvan yru. amave dros mas ar sWirdeba imis gamovlena, rom icis, vin iyo ramzesi, Sarlemani, kolumbi an imis codna, Tu ra gansxvaveba da msgavsebaa monarqiasa da demokratias Soris. rogor SeiZleba es gamocda kompetenturobis sazomi iyos, Tu moswavles aseT mniSvnelovan codnis dadasturebas ar vTxovT? erTi SexedviT gamocdis Sinaarsobrivi naklis problemis gadaWra martivia. davamatoT es sakiTxebi sagamocdo programas, da yvelaferi mogvardeba. Tu raime gamogvrCeba, momavalSi maTac aucileblad davamatebT. Sesabamisad, Cven SevZlebT gamosacdel sakiTxTa wre mudmivad gavafarTovoT. kacma rom Tqvas, Tu gamosaSvebi gamocdebis ideis avtorebs daveTanxmebiT, gamocda xom swored codnas ganapirobebs da rasac SevitanT gamocdaze, is ecodinebaT Cvens moswavleebs. es midgomaa swored utopiuri. ganaTlebis sistema am gziT verafers miaRwevs. samagierod, ase, SesaZloa, realobaSi gavacocxloT borxesisa da luis kerolis nawarmoebebSi aRwerili sasacilo viTareba, rodesac kartografebi rukis sizustis gasazrdelad sul ufro metad detalizebuls xdian mas. saqme bolos iqamde midis, rom ruka 1:1 masStabis xdeba da TiTqmis zustad imeorebs landSafts. aseTi ruka azrs kargavs, radgan praqtikulad gamousadegaria. aseve SeiZleba damTavrdes Cveni mcdeloba, rom imis nacvlad, rom ruka navigaciisTvis gamoviyenoT, landSaftis Sefasebis mTavar instrumentad ganvixiloT. bunebis gasacnobad ruka arasodes iqneba sakmarisi, iseve rogorc testi verasodes iqneba moswavlis mravalwliani gamocdilebis Sedegebis mTavari sazomi. testi verc misi kompetenturobis sawyao iqneba, radgan kompetencia niSnavs konkretuli amocanis SesrulebisaTvis saWiro unars. igi moicavs unarebis, codnisa da qcevis erTobliobas (ganmartebiTi leqsikoni ganaTlebis specialistebisTvis - avt.). cxovrebiseuli problemebisa da amocanebis nairgvarovneba ki iseve SezRudulad SeiZleba avsaxoT testSi, rogorc bunebrivi mravalferovneba rukaze. erTi mxriv, ideis avtorebi marTlebi arian. testi imiT gansxvavdeba rukisgan, rom mas imis Secvla SeuZlia, rasac is aRwers. ar sWirdeba moswavles actekebisa da inkebis Sesaxeb codna, radgan es minimalur kompetenciebSi ar Sedis. arc imis codna sWirdeba, Tu ra aris iudaizmi. arc imis codna sWirdeba, Tu rogor unda gaarkvios istoriuli wyaro avTenturia Tu ara, radgan es sakiTxebi gamocdaze ar iqneba. samagierod, moswavles SevuwyobT xels, rom is sakiTxebi `iswavlos~, rac gamocdaze iqneba. es midgoma ki imas hgavs, rom iseTi ruka SevqmnaT, romelic, Tavisi SezRudulobis gamo, bunebriv garemosac ubiZgebdes SezRudulobis, magram gazomvadobisa da standartizebulobisken. samagierod, aseTi ruka arasdros mogatyuebT da iseve, rogorc gamosaSvebi gamocdebiT gamyarebuli atestati, mxolod `WeSmarit~ informacias mogawvdiT.

is, rac Cven gvinda rom moswavlem icodes

is, ris Semowmebasac gamocdiT SevZlebT is, rasac moswavle iswavlis

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

35

sazogadoeba
ganaTleba

marto, "mausis" pirispir


miuxedavad imisa, rom pirvelklaselebic ki ukeT floben kompiuters, maswavleblebis umravlesoba bejiTad cdilobs axali teqnologiebis aTvisebas.
Tamar faradaSvili

maswavleblebi axali teqnologiebis aTvisebisas

ganaTlebis saministroSi gaxsnili sainovacio teqnologiebis centri momavlis saklaso oTaxis models warmoadgens. erT-erTi mTavari atributi eleqtronuli dafaa, romelic leptopTanaa SeerTebuli da aTasnair funqcias asrulebs. magaliTad, testirebis dros dafa maswavlebels saSualebas aZlevs, mowafeebis pasuxebi pirdapir leptopSi miiRos _ bavSvebi merxebTan isxdnen, xelSi pultebi hqondeT momarjvebuli da swori pasuxebi pirdapir leptopSi gagzavnon, Sedegebi ki kompiuterulma programam momentalurad daajamos. qimiis gakveTilze ki eleqtronuli dafa pirdapir virtualur laboratoriad gardaiqmneba. eleqtronul dafebs `hitaCi~ da `samsungi~ awarmoebs. saqarTvelos gana-

Tlebis saministros veb-gverdze weria, rom dafa siaxlea ara mxolod saqarTveloSi, aramed bevr ganviTarebul qveyanaSic. iaponiis 30 aTasamde dawyebiT da damamTavrebel skolaSi eleqtronuli dafebi erTi Tvis win Seitanes, momavali saswavlo wlis dawyebisTvis ki gegmaven saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebis 50 procentis gacifrulebas. `eleqtronuli dafa da cifruli saxelmZRvaneloebi bavSvebs swavlaSi udavod daexmareba, magram SeZleben ki maswavleblebi am maRali teqnologiebis aTvisebas?~ _ eWvoben iaponeli ganaTlebis eqspertebi. Tbilisis 187-e skolis informatikis kabinetSi 12 maswavlebeli wriulad ganlagebul kompiuterebTan zis da cdilobs, miTiTeba Seasrulos _

`erT dRes maTematikis maswavlebelma mTxova, _ ver vakeTeb da Tu SegiZlia, fauerfoinTSi prezentacia amiwyveo. cota gamikvirda, magram mere, klasi Cems momzadebul masalas rom uyurebda, vamayobdi~.
meilidan CamotvirTos eqselis dokumenti. nawili amas swrafad akeTebs da meore etapze gadadis _ dokumentSi moswavlis niSnebs ajamebs. maswa-

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liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

foto levan xerxeuliZe

sazogadoeba
vlebelTa meore nawili ki meilis funqciebs gaubedavad aTvalierebs. Rilakze dawkapunebas ver bedavs da treners elodeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom meilidan dokumentis CamotvirTva ramdenime dRis winaT iswavles, am operaciis Sesasruleblad ganmeorebiT axsna mainc sWirdebaT. `saxeli da gvari sad unda Cavwero?~ _ kiTxulobs erTi maswavlebeli. meore moswavlis saxelsa da gvars qarTuli fontiT ver wers. S-s nacvlad s iwereba, r-s nacvlad _ R, zogi aso ki saerTod ar Cans. ramdenime maswavlebeli Tavs exveva, klaviaturas erTad aTvaliereben da cdiloben, sasurveli asoebi gamoaCinon ekranze. treneris daxmareba mainc aucilebeli xdeba, radgan arc erTma pedagogma ar icis, rom, Rilak Caps Lock-ze daWeris SemTxvevaSi, yvela aso ar iwereba. es maswavleblebi trenings eswrebian, romlis mizani saswavlo procesSi informaciul-sakomunikacio teqnologiebis gamoyenebis swavlebaa. maT `eleqtronuli dafis momavlamde~ didi dro aSorebT, gakveTilebs dResac tradiciulad _ standartuli dafiTa da saxelmZRvaneloebiT xsnian. treningebis ZiriTadi mizania: sertifikatebis gacemis Semdeg pedagogebma SeZlon, rom, magaliTad, mizidulobis Zala anda winadadebebis wevrebis garCeva moswavleebs kompiuterSi momzadebuli prezentaciiT auxsnan. 70 aTasi pedagogidan dRemde sertifikats mxolod 1724 maswavlebeli flobs. Tumca, sertifikati ar niSnavs imas, rom yvela treninggavlil pedagogs SeuZlia, magaliTad, klass `SuSanikis wameba~ kompiuterul programa `fauerfoinTSi~ gakeTebuli prezentaciT auxsnas da ase SeZlos bavSvisTvis warsulTan asocirebuli, ZvelqarTuli teqsti, `Tanamedrove~ gaxados. amis mizezi isicaa, rom treningis Semdeg maswavleblebis umetesoba kompiuterTan urTierTobas wyvets da programebis gamoyeneba aviwydeba. marTalia, sajaro skolebSi yovel 22 moswavleze erTi kompiuteria gamoyofili, pedagogebs mainc ar hyofniT motivacia, gakveTilebis Semdeg skolaSi darCnen da codna aRidginon, Tundac im saxelmZRvanelos meSveobiT, romelic treningze dauriges. `mirCevnia, davjde da bavSvebi movamzado. risTvis vxarjo amdeni dro?~ _ ambobs Tbilisis sajaro skolis erTerTi pedagogi, romelic imitom, rom 200 larad muSaoba ar uRirs, moswavleebs qarTul enasa da literaturaSi amzadebs. `xandaxan maswavleblebi davalebis gareSe modian da amboben _ panaSvidze viyavi, Svilma ar damsva kompiuterTan, daRlili viyavi, trimestris boloa da niSnebi gamomyavda, _ ambobs pedagogebis treneri, zaza qarsauliZe, _ arada, treningi zustad imisaTvisaa, rom niSnebi eqselis programiT gamoiyvanon da kalkulatorze aRar iwvalon~. meore donis treningze mosaxvedrad maswavleblebma unda icodnen teqstur redaqtorSi muSaoba, imeilis Semowmeba da internetSi Zieba. Tumca imitom, rom kompiuteri mainc ar aris pedagogebis yoveldRiurobis nawili, meore donis treningze sertificirebul maswavleblebsac ki zogjer iseTi gancda aqvT, TiTqos kompiuters pirvelad xedaven. trenerebi ixseneben, rom xSirad maswavleblebs mausTan Sexebisac ki eSiniaT, fiqroben, rom programa aireva, dokumenti daikargeba an masala, romlis Seqmnazec didxans iwvales, waiSleba. ase iyo 187-e skolis dawyebiTi klasis pedagogis, dodo danelias SemTxvevaSic. Tumca, treningSi monawileoba mainc gadawyvita, radgan mixvda, rom Tuki kompiuteris daxmarebiT Caatarebda gakveTils, amiT sakuTari moswavleebis enaze daiwyebda laparaks da maTgan ufro met ndobasac moipovebda. `megona 58 wlis asakSi kompiuters ver aviTvisebdi. masTan mikarebisac meSinoda, magram trenerma kompiuteris iseTi SesaZleblobebi maCvena, erTi suli maqvs, rodis daveuflebi im doneze, rom gakveTilze gamoyeneba SevZlo~, _ ambobs dodo danelia. `kompiuterTan muSaoba momavali Taobis prerogativaa. meSinia, rom prezentaciis dros rames ise ver gavakeTeb, bavSvebi gamomiWeren SecdomaSi da sul daZabuli unda viyo~, _ ambobs Tbilisis erT-erTi skolis qarTuli enisa da literaturis 55 wlis maswavlebeli. am qalbatonma, romelic vinaobas ar amxels, treningSi monawileoba skolis direqtoris TxovniT miiRo (romlis movaleobacaa maswavleblebis kontroli), sertifikatic aiRo, magram Tanamedrove teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT gakveTili arc erTxel ar Cautarebia. meTerTmete klasis moswavle, erekle gamyreliZe yoveldRe iRebs fotoebs da maT fotoSopSi amuSavebs. muvimeiqeris saSualebiT patara filmebic gaukeTebia. `erT dRes maTematikis maswavlebelma mTxova, _ ver vakeTeb da Tu SegiZlia, fauerfoinTSi prezentacia amiwyveo. cota gamikvirda, magram mere, klasi Cems momzadebul masalas rom uyurebda, vamayobdi~, _ ambobs erekle. sainovacio teqnologiebis centris gaxsnas ganaTlebis saministroSi did miRwevad miiCneven. amboben, rom centrSi nebismier maswavlebels SeuZlia gakveTilis Catareba, Tumca qarTveli pedagogebis umravlesoba jer isev imeilis gaxsnas da eqselis primitiuli operaciebis Sesrulebas swavlobs. radgan maswavleblebs kompiuterTan muSaobisas problemebi eqmnebaT, amis gamo nu viqnebiT skeptikurebi. ar veTanxmebi azrs, rom moTxovna warmoSobs miwodebas, Tu miwodeba ar iqneba, moTxovnac ar gaCndeba, axla swored am SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme~, _ ambobs ganaTlebis saministros infrastruqturis ganviTarebis saagentos direqtoris moadgile, badri niauri. vidre skolebSi eleqtronul dafaze moTxovna gaCndeba, maswavlebelTa profesiuli ganviTarebis erovnuli centri wlis bolos Seajamebs, ramdenad efeqturad aiTvises maswavleblebma axali teqnologiebi da momavali treningebis dagegmvis dros gamovlenil xarvezebs gaiTvaliswinebs.

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

37

sazogadoeba

fotoebi levan xerxeuliZe

skolamdeli aRzrda

me-20 saukuneSi darCenili baga-baRebi


sabavSvo baRebi moZvelebuli meTodologiiT muSaoben.
naTia axalaSvili
`aba daviwyeT! xmamaRla!~ _ amzadebs baRis direqtori 37 aRsazrdels. `mowyenili saxeebi dRes ar iqnebaaa~... _ mTeli mondomebiT, erTxmad iwyeben patarebi simReras. jgufi gamosaSvebi zeimisTvis emzadeba. weliwadSi minimum 4 zeimi yvela baRSi dauwereli kanoniviTaa _ Semodgomis, saaxalwlo, sagazafxulo da saswavlo wlis bolos. am dResaswaulisTvis mzadeba baRebis dRis grafikis ZiriTadi Semadgeneli nawilia. `mowyenili saxeebi...~, `Cito, Cito, nacara~, `sayvarelo mamulo~ _ es is simRerebia, TiToeuli baRis arsebobidan dRemde yvela Taobis aRsazrdels rom umReria. ukve 10 weliwadze metia, baRebs axali programa ar miuRiaT. wesiT, skolamdeli aRzrdis dawesebulebas saganmanaTleblo programebs, zogad meTodikas, saxelmZRvaneloebsa da damxmare literaturas ganaTlebis saministro unda awodebdes. magram, erTiani saswavlo programa skolamdeli saaRmzrdelo dawesebulebebisTvis ar arsebobs. TiToeuli bavSvi baRSi yofnis dros ras gaakeTebs, es baRis direqtorisa da pedagogis mondomebaze, fantaziasa da gamocdilebazea damokidebuli. imis gamo, rom, yovelgvari strategiis gareSe, ukve Taobebi izrdeba, baRis zogierTi xelmZRvaneli aRar elodeba nanatr programas da cdilobs, Tavad moZebnos sxva qveynebis skolamdeli aRzrdis programebi da sakuTar garemos moargos. zog baRSi sxvadasxva arasamTavrobo organizaciis mier SeTavazebul saswavlo programebsac (programa `nabij-nabij~) iyeneben. adre pedagogebs treningebic utardebodaT, rac bolo wlebSi Sewyda. `adre specialistebi modiodnen, gvqonda leqciebi, ukve ramdeni welia, aravis Semouxedavs da mivdivarT Zveli programiT~, _ amboben 27-e baRSi. baRis maswavleblis xelfasi 80-dan 250 laramde meryeobs, ris gamoc, arc axalgazrdebs uCndebaT imis survili, rom baRis pedagogad imuSaon. maSin, roca baRebisTvis Tanamedrove saswavlo programa ar arsebobs, aRmzrdelebi gamosavals `saskolo garemos~ SeqmnaSi pouloben. Sedegad, baRis zogma aRsazrdelma skolaSi misvlamde ukve werac icis, kiTxvac da angariSic. am `SedegebiT~ yvela

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sazogadoeba
weliwadSi minimum 4 zeimi yvela baRSi dauwereli kanoniviTaa _ Semodgomis, saaxalwlo, sagazafxulo da saswavlo wlis bolos. am dResaswaulisTvis mzadeba baRebis dRis grafikis ZiriTadi Semadgeneli nawilia.

172-e baga-baRi, Tbilisi

kmayofilia _ mSoblebic, pedagogebic, baRis direqciac da am waxalisebiT gaxarebuli bavSvebic. magram ganaTlebis eqspertebi da fsiqologebi miiCneven, rom es araswori midgomaa. `roca pirvel klasSi mosuli bavSvi ukve kiTxulobs, angariSobs da wers, rogorc wesi, mTeli weli ar viTardeba. misTvis swavla mosawyenia, hgonia, rom ukve yvelaferi icis, da aRar cdilobs raime daamatos. arada, baRebSi bavSvTa motorikaze unda muSaobdnen, roca es ar xdeba, skolaSi Seferxebebi iCens xolme Tavs~, _ ganmartavs skolis fsiqologi TinaTin cercvaZe. baRSi bavSvis xelovnuri momzadeba ar moxdeboda, Tuki aRmzrdelebs specialuri TamaSebiTa da savarjiSoebiT bavSvis msxvili da wvrili motorikis, yuradRebis, mexsierebis, koordinaciis ganviTarebis saSualeba eqnebodaT. baRis TiTo jgufSi 35-40 bavSvia. erTdroulad amden bavSvTan srulfasovnad muSaoba erT aRmzrdels uWirs da amitom programis Sedgenisas es faqtoric moqmedebs. baRebs iseTi programis Sedgena uwevT, rom TamaSSi yvela bavSvis CarTva moaxerxon.

`Zalian rTulia amden bavSvTan srulfasovani muSaoba. ezoSi Tu gavdivarT, xom sul bavSvebs viTvli~, _ acxadebs vake-saburTalos raionSi mdebare erT-erTi baRis pedagogi. misive TqmiT, bavSvebs im masalebiT aZerwineben an axatvineben, rac aqvT. `Tixa, ukve ramdeni welia, aRar gvqonia. axla ZiriTadad plasteliniT vZerwavT, kviraSi erTxel~. swored am faqtoriT xsnis TinaTin cercvaZe imas, rom baRebSi, maTTvis gankuTvnili meTodebis nacvlad, amjobineben, skolas mimsgavsebuli mecadineobis formebs mimarTon. `gamoricxulia, koordinaciis savarjiSoebi 35-40 bavSvs Tundac kviraSi erTxel Cautaro. am dros es yoveldRea saWiro. 35 bavSvTan, erT oTaxSi TamaSis organizebac ki warmoudgeneli mgonia. maSin bavSvebis `gawvrTnaze~ unda iyos mimarTuli pedagogi da Sedegadac gawvrTnili bavSvi unda miiRos. sxva gza ar aqvs, Tundac idealur maswavlebels~. Tbilisis baRebSi kidev erTi problemaa jgufebisTvis gankuTvnili mcire farTobi. sabWoTa periodSi baRis TiTo jgufs sami oTaxi hqonda: erTi _ ZilisTvis, erTi _ kvebisTvis da erTic _ sxvadasxva aqtivobisTvis. dRes ki erTi jgufisTvis erTi, an ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, ori oTaxia gamoyofili. baRebSi mxolod baga-jgufis bavSvebi iZineben. Tbilisis meriaSi oTaxebis simcires imiT xsnian, rom baRebSi bavSvebis raodenobam ukanaskneli 4 wlis ganmavlobaSi mkveTrad imata. 2007 wels Tu 27 aTasi bavSvi dadioda Tbilisis 195 baRSi, dReisaTvis darCenil 158

baRSi maTi raodenoba ukve 40 aTass aRwevs. municipalitetSi amboben, rom baRebis raodenobis kleba imitom moxda, rom zogi Senoba avariuli iyo, zogan ki devnilebi Casaxldnen. Tumca, 2006 wlis Semdeg, rac baRebi adgilobriv municipalitetebs gadaecaT, TbilisSi ramdenime axali baRic gaxsnila, iseT adgilebSi, sadac didi moTxovna iyo. Tumca, rogor Cans, moTxovna TiTqmis mTeli qalaqis masStabiT didia. Tbilisis sxvadasxva baRSi misulebs gancxadebebis dafaze gafrTxilebebi gvxvdeba, rom baRSi adgilebi aRar aris. meriaSic aRiareben, rom baRebs farTobis problema aqvT da bavSvebs ver iteven, magram konkretuli gamosavali jerjerobiT napovni ar aris. baRebi TbilisSi municipalitetisgan vauCeruli sistemiT finansdebian. dafinanseba baRSi bavSvebis raodenobazea damokidebuli da weliwadSi 600-dan 1000 laramde meryeobs. rac ufro metia bavSvi baRSi, miT naklebi dafinanseba modis TiTo bavSvze. am TanxaSia gaTvaliswinebuli yvelaferi, rac baRs sWirdeba. meriam, amis garda, mxolod kapitaluri remontis pasuxismgebloba daitova. sarekomendacio xasiaTis saswavlo gegmisa da meTodologiuri masalebis SemuSavebas ganaTlebis saministroSi 2010 wlis bolosTvis apireben. manamde ki ukve Taobebi asruleben baRs ise, rom yvelaze sayvarel da sasargeblo Zerwvas, xatvas da TamaSebs ufrosebi, sxvadasxva garemoebebis gamo, mecadineobas da sxvadasxva sezonis zeimisTvis mzadebas amjobineben.

liberali . ivlisi 2010 . 38

39

kultura

rogor "gavakeToT" evro-kulturuli saqarTvelo


kulturis, ZeglTa dacvisa da sportis saministros sagareo proeqtebi
daviT buxrikiZe
kinopublikas qarTul kinoproduqcias sTavazobda. madridis centrSi, salvador dalis moedanze gaxsnili samxatvro galerea `saqarTvelo~, cxadia, Tbilisis samxatvro akademiis reqtorma gia buRaZem ministrTan erTad `akurTxa~. upativcemulod arc SoTa rusTaveli darCa, romlis biusti romSi, `vila borgezes cnobil parkSi, goeTesa da hiugos gverdiT daidga. cxadia, rogorc yvelgan, iqac uxvad iyo evrozonasTan misaaxloebeli salam-qalami, ministr nika ruruas mokle da amaRelvebeli `spiCi~, lirikuli purisWama da `Teliani velis~ Rvinoebi ansambl `rusTavis~ simRerisa da pianist valerian SiukaSvilis mier Sesrulebul Sopen-Sumanis fonze. savarskvlavod gamzadebul sofo niJaraZes `evroviziis~ sakonkurso simReris _ `Sainis~ Sesruleba meored mouxda osloSi, sadac qarTuli kulturis dReebi moewyo. mas zurgs modernistuli jgufi `Sin~ da klasikuri folkloruli `erisioni~ umagrebdnen. da mainc, yvelaze mniSvnelovani aRmoCnda maisis bolos parizSi, Tanamedrove xelovnebis centr `pale de tokioSi~ gamarTuli `qarTuli gazafxulis~ gaxsna. gamofenas daeswro prezidenti saakaSvilic, romlisTvisac es nikola sarkozisTan Sexvedris win erTgvari moTelva iyo. `magnumis~ fotografebis TvaliT danaxuli saqarTvelo 2008 wlis ruseTsaqarTvelos omis Semdeg mniSvnelovani sainformacio garRvevaa evropisaTvis. marTalia, kulturis politikis sagareo Sedegebi uzarmazari ar aris, magram imdenad xelSesaxebia, saSinaos bevrad aRemateba. am TvalsazrisiT ki, Tbilisis meris msgavsad, jazis moyvarul nika ruruasac gasakeTebeli jer kidev bevri aqvs.

sulxan cincaZis simebiani kvarteti, berlini, seqtemberi 2009

parizi, berlini, amsterdami, madridi, romi, oslo... evropis aTvisebis masStabiT gasakeTebeli kulturis saministros gacilebiT naklebi darCa, vidre gigi ugulavas _ Tbilisis ulifto da cudad gadaxurul gareubnebSi. ministr nika ruruas saqmiani kreatiuloba da mizandasaxuloba zenits aRwevs. mas saministroSi verasdros naxavT, Tumca, araoficialuri wyaroebiT, paraskevi bednieri gamonaklisia. ministri xan kanis kinofestivalis wiTel xaliCazea, xan oslos operaSi, xanac parizis `pale de tokios~ sagamofeno darbazSi. mokled, iq, sadac qveyanas sWirdeba. es omgavlili da krizisdaleuli saqarTvelos axali da TiTqmis improvizebuli strategiaa, romelic qveynis SigniT iarebis moSuSebasa da daviwyebas gulisxmobs, xolo sazRvargareT didi kulturul-istoriuli arqetipebis gacocxlebas. reprezentaciis formebi arc axalia da arc moulodneli. saministro ZiriTadad, TvalisTvis da yurisTvis saamo erovnuli proeqtebis evropaSi gatanis koxtad SefuTvaze muSaobs. es, erTi mxriv, amartivebs saministros politikas

da mis saqmianobas da, meore mxriv, aZnelebs finansuri gamWvirvalobis xarisxs. strategia TiTqmis erTi da igivea: jer xangrZlivi moTelviTi samuSao, romelic saministros mier finansebis moZiebis naklebad mtkivneul procesTan erTad, sandod daxvewil da karTan daaxloebuli xelovanebis natif gavarjiSebas gulisxmobs; Semdeg programaSi aucilebelia folkloris cecxlovani elementebis Setana da ufro msubuqad klasikuri Tu Tanamedrove musikaluri Jestis damateba. plus fotogamofena pirobiTi saxelwodebiT `me miyvars saqarTvelo~ an `saqarTvelo vardebis revoluciis Semdeg~. amas mosdevs aqtiuri sainformacio piari, telereportaJebi parizis Tu madridis RirsSesaniSnavi xedebiT, sanaqebo qarTuli Rvinis odnav morcxvi reklama da bolos, qveynis pirveli piris daswreba qarTuli kulturis dReebis gaxsnaze. saministros bolodroindeli sagareo proeqtebidan aRsaniSnavia kanis kinofestivalze wardgenili sakmaod vrceli qarTuli pavilioni, romelic, erovnuli kinocentris daxmarebiT, kruazetis sanapiros gazarmacebul prodiuserebsa da

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wignebi

entoni Sadidis "Rame axlovdeba"


vaSington postis Jurnalistma entoni Sadidma saerTaSoriso ambebis gaSuqebisTvis puliceris premia wels meored daimsaxura.
rusudan ruxaZe
sakuTar Tavsac ewinaaRmdegeboda, _ es ukve wignis dasasrulisken, magram misi arc erTi SiSi ar gamarTlda. wignma mowoneba daimsaxura, avtorma ki puliceris premia. baRdadi mogonebebis qalaqia _ am frazas xSirad SexvdebiT wignSi. Tuki sxva qalaqebi TavianTi istoriuli ZeglebiT, arqiteqturuli SedevrebiT iwoneben Tavs, TvalnaTeli da xelSesaxebia maTi warsuli, erayis dedaqalaqi misi mkvidrebis mogonebebSi inaxavs istorias da Zvel didebas. is ver xedavs Tavis warsuls, mas mxolod SeuZlia axsovdes. socialuri eTikis profesors donald Srivers Tavis statiaSi Jurnalistika da demokratiuli mexsiereba erTi saintereso magaliTi mohyavs: 1993 wels ABCis reportiorma serb jariskacs hkiTxa: ratom ebrZviT bosniel musulmanebs?. pasuxad Jurnalistma miiRo: imisTvis, rac maT kosovoSi gagvikeTes. arada, omi kosovoSi 1389 wels iyo, _ ixsenebs profesori da ganmartavs, rom mexsierebas politikosebTan, religiur winamZRvrebTan erTad didwilad Jurnalistebic ayalibeben da metic, isini istoriis pirvel versiasac ki qmnian. aseTi mexsierebisTvisaa es wignic. entoni Sadidi okupaciamde Cavida eraySi da iq 2003 wlis martidan 2004 wlis ivnisamde darCa. is yvelafris mowme gaxda _ naxa omis molodini, Semzaravi Setakebebi da misi Sedegebi adamianebis TvalebSi. me yovelTvis vgrZnob Tavs arabad amerikaSi da amerikelad arabul samyaroSi _ arabuli warmoSobis amerikeli JurnalistisTvis es aris eTikis mTeli kodeqsi, riTic is axerxebs obieqturoba SeinarCunos. mTeli xibli ki isaa, rom obieqturoba TanagrZnobiT weras ar gamoricxavs. erayis omi garkveuli gamowveva da axali etapi iyo mediisTvis da JurnalistebisTvis. konkurencia axali ambebis bazarze sakmaod gaizarda da marTalac didi profesionalizmi da Zalisxmeva iyo saWiro, rom Sen aerCie mkiTxvels erayze ambebis mTxrobelad. iq momxdari ambebi ki ar Jonavda, aramed vrceldeboda Tavad samxedro pirebis mier socialuri qselebis meSveobiT. omis gaSuqebam, iseve rogorc Tavad omebma, forma da Sinaarsi icvales. pirveli msoflio omis dros frontze saerTod ar SeuSves fotoreportiorebi, meore msoflio omis dros dabeWdvamde cenzuras gadioda yvela masala, raTa ar gamoewvia mosaxleobis kompromisuli ganwyoba. vietnamis dros media ukve regularulad sTavazobda mkiTxvels daxocili da daWrili jariskacebis fotoebs. bolo aTwleulSi ki omebi pirdapir eTerSi iwyeba... aseT sainformacio sivrceSi Sadidis wigni damsaxurebulad xdeba erayis omze namdvili ambebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani wyaro. amerikelebi movidnen rogorc

Tavisuflebaze metia hurriya, nostalgia ver itevs hanin-s, mTlad kabac ar aris abaya _ es is sityvebia, romlebsac entoni Sadidi Tvis wignSi Rame axlovdeba (Night Draws Near) ar Targmnis inglisurad, arabuladve tovebs da miaxloebiT mxolod erTxel ganmartavs teqstSi. wigni erayze, omze da Tavisuflebaze, RmerTze da adamianebzea. Jurnalistika arasrulyofilia, rac ufro meti icis reportiorma, miT ufro rTulia ambis gadmocema da, am profesiis bunebidan gamomdinare, naklebad vaxerxebT vweroT Sesabamisi samarTlianobiT, _ wignis SesavalSive Sadidi gulwrfelad ubodiSebs mkiTxvels. ramdenadac met xans vrCebodi eraySi, miT ufro miWirda movlenebis aRqma da gageba. xalxi, romelsac vxvdebodi, xandaxan erTmaneTs da

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wignebi
ganmaTavisufleblebi da iqcnen dampyroblebad _ es aris wignis mTavri RerZi. baRdadelebi sxvadasxvagvarad gadmoscemen imas, raSic erTsulovanni arian: sadami cudi iyo, magram is erayeli mainc iyo, ar gviyvarda sadami, magram arc okupacias mivesalmebiT, bevrs velodiT amerikelebisgan da veraferi miviReT SiSis garda, gvinda mmarTveli, romelic arabia, Cven varT islamis mxardamWerebi, arc sadamis da arc amerikelebis, isini sadamis Camosagdebad movidnen da mis msxverplebs gvebrZvian... am wignSi yvela gverdze ismis adamianis xma da yvela gveradevnos Tvalyuri. britanuli mediis kontent-analizis Sedegad mkvlevrebma gamoarkvies, rom erayis omis Sesaxeb statiebi yvelaze xSirad Seicavda sityvebs: omi, navTobi, erayi, buSi. Sesabamisad, mosaxleobis 44%, Pew research center-is monacemebis mixedviT, iziarebda navTobis Teorias erayis omis mizezebSi. bunebrivia, aseTi tipis gaSuqebaSi daikargnen adamianebi, statiebi acda realobas. maRaltiraJiani Jurnalebis ydebze erayis omis Sesaxeb saTaurebi da ilustracia buSisa da sadam huseinis personebamde dadioda da omma dakarga misi namdvili gmirebi, adamianebi omma Secvala qalaqi, xalxi aRar scems pativs erTmaneTs, junglebs daemsgavsa aqauroba, baRdadSi 5 milioni ali baba cxovrobs. Sahla eqimia da misi bedniereba axla imiT Semoifargleba, rom Svilebi ar hyavs. misma bavSvobam da axalgazrdobam mudmiv omebsa da areulobaSi gaiara: me yovelTvis veubnebodi dedas, _ kriminali xar imis gamo, rom gvSobe. me Tu ukeTes cxovrebas ver SevTavazeb Cems Svilebs, arasodes movavlen maT am qveynad. muhamed gani skulptoria, bevri iSroma baRdadis Tanamedrove ierisTvis, dRes ki afeTqebebis Sedegad misi qandakebebis deta-

rvaSviliani qvrivi karimasTvis saukeTeso dRe isaa, rodesac araferi xdeba. moxdeniT ki baRdadSi rame Tu afeTqdeba da vinmes Tu dakrZalaven mzis Casvlamde. cxovreba arc cudia da arc kargi, TamaSia mxolod, _ ambobs igi.
dze SexvdebiT RmerTs _ RmerTi dagvifaravs, RmerTi gansjis, RmerTi Tu isurvebs, RmerTma icis... fatalizms, gaurkveveli momavlis SiSs, Tavisuflebis wyurvils, cvlilebis dauokebel survils, wyeuli qveynis gancdas RmerTamde mihyavs TiToeuli erayeli da Tanmdevia Ziebac _ risTvis isjebian, sad Sescodes... wignSi uxvadaa istoriuli pasaJebi: omi iranTan, quveiTTan, dapirispireba amerikasTan, Siitebisa da sunitebis daundobeli winaaRmdegoba. darTul bibliografias Tu CavxedavT, entoni Sadidi istoriaSi gasarkvevad samecniero literaturas efuZneba. wignis erT-erTi personaJi _ omari baRdadidanaa da londonSi cxovrobs. iqidan iwereba, rom samSoblos Sesaxeb ambebis gagebas naklebad axerxebs inglisuri mediis saSualebiT da amitomac yoveldRiurad uwevs al-jaziras da jariskacebi. maT ki Sadidis wignSi ipoviT. avtori madlierebiT ixseniebs yvela im adamians, romelmac sakuTari sicocxlis riskis fasad gauRo kari da gulwrfeli iyo masTan. isini mendnen da gamiziares wuxilica da imedebic, _ wers Sadidi. rvaSviliani qvrivi karimasTvis saukeTeso dRe isaa, rodesac araferi xdeba. moxdeniT ki baRdadSi rame Tu afeTqdeba da vinmes Tu dakrZalaven mzis Casvlamde. cxovreba arc cudia da arc kargi, TamaSia mxolod, _ ambobs igi, omebSi dabrZenebuli. misi patara gogo amali dRiurebs wers, romelic wignis erT-erTi wyaroa. amali wers Zmaze, romelic jarSi msaxurobs, sikvdilis SiSze, SimSilze, uSuqobaze, skolaze, magram ara politikaze; xandaxan gansakuTrebuli sasowarkveTiT... fatima ki mSobliur qalaqs veRar cnobs: lebi qalaqis quCebSia mimofenili, nawili kvlav mis saxelosnoSi dabrunda. baRdadi lamazi gogoa, magram Selaxuli tansacmeli acvia. Tma gawewili aqvs, Tumca Sinaganad isev Zveleburad mSvenieria, _ Seyvarebulia gani baRdadze. Carlz polardi ki amerikis armiis serJantia da usamarTlobad miaCnia, rom Cveni jari sakuTari sicocxlis fasad sxvis qveyanas aSenebs. ra icvleba amerikelTa okupaciis Semdeg eraySi? _ zogisTvis meti usafrTxoeba, zogisTvis yoveldRiurad sadili Svilebs, zogisTvis mxolod GQ-s axali nomeri yuranis gverdiT da terminatori 3-is da matrica 2-is posterebi baRdadis quCebSi. erayelebisTvis ki fasi sul sxva rames aqvs _ hurriya, romelic Tavisuflebaze metia.

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Tvalsazrisi

poetebi da Talibani
laSa buRaZe, mwerali
oriode dRis win erT-erT radioarxze axalgazrda poetebisadmi miZRvnil gadacemas wavawydi da, miuxedavad imisa, rom realurad (an modi, ase vTqvaT, Cemi azriT) eseni sulac ar iyvnen poetebi, mainc bolomde movusmine maT saubars. sruliad uwignur da sakuTar TavSi darwmunebul poetebs ra gamolevs saqarTveloSi, magram mxolod egocentrizmTan da gaunaTleblobasTan rom gvqonoda saqme, kidev ra gviWirda _ Cven winaSea socialuri poetis axali saxeoba: `poeti-Talibi~. cxadia, aq ar vsaubrob marTlac niWier, saintereso da `daxvewil~ Tanamedrove qarTvel poetebze, romelTac saerTo araferi aqvT am myvirala qorosTan, Tumca ra qoro, qoro ki ara, mTeli armiaa! Tqven warmodgenac ara gaqvT, ramdeni adamiani wers saqarTveloSi erTnairad xmaurian leqss! gegoneba, _ yvelas erTi avtori hyavso, _ weren da weren erTsa da imave Temaze, erTnairad brazoben da erTnairad RaRadeben. erT-erT universitetSic gaxldiT amas winaT, kvlavac `poeti-Talibebis~ saRamoze (mgoni, gangeba damcinis) da swored iq mivxvdi: es meleqse jeelebi (umetesad biZiobasa da bavSvobas Soris gaCxerili axalgazrda biW-kacebi), rogorc poetebi, mxolod oTxad oTx Temas utrialeben. es Temebia: ekliani gza da RmerTTan dialogi (norCi galaktionis stilSi _ wyenaSereuli isteriulobiT); poeti _ rogorc jvarze gakruli mesia; RvinoSi Catumbuli cxovrebiseuli problemebi da, cxadia, qalebi _ qali, rogorc satana, qali, rogorc angelozi... vinc ki iq iyo (an radiogadacemaSi kiTxulobda), yvela erTsa da imaves Cioda leqsad: rom jvars acvamen, rom satana-qalebs uars etyvian, da rom uRiarebel geniosebad aRiarebs STamomavloba (esec galaktionisgan). gaunaTlebeli poeti (anu poetis es saxeoba) sami qarTveli poetis produqtia. eseni gaxlavT: galaktion tabiZe, terenti graneli da lado asaTiani. Tuki rames kiTxuloben, mxolod am poetebis leqsebs. oRond, cxadia, amasac uaRresad zedapirulad. es naftali-

_ raRac amis magvari... Talibi-poeti qalebi kidev calke Temaa) alag-alag lirikul sadRegrZeloebsac ambobda: `goCa (mgoni, goCa erqva mis erT-erT stumars), es sityvebi Seni cremlebia, Seni sulidanaa gadmomdinari, me ase mesmis, Seni tkivilebia es~... poet-Talibebs msmenel-Tayvanismcemlebic blomad hyavT da, rac Zalian mniSvnelovania, sruliad gulwrfeli Tayvanismcemlebi _ msmenel gogonaTa mrevliana. ar davmalav, didi mowonebis mowme Seviqeni, didi Wyivilebis, intimuri da gacxadebuli cremlis... anu maT namdvilad ver davdebT brals farisevlobaSi: marTla moswondaT. da es bunebrivicaa: roca did poetad iTvleba, vTqvaT, muxran maWavariani, swored aseT poeturmsmenelur muSaxels iReb. da mainc, SeiZleba ar dameTanxmoT, magram ratomRac darwmunebuli var, rom

kadri federiko felinis filmidan `amarkordi~

nuri mesianizm-egocentrizmi, mlaSe da `ukvercxebo~ patriotizmi, qalTa `uarmyofeloba~ da loToba sul-sul amaTganaa. oRond, Tuki geniosTa SemTxvevaSi, dramasTan gvqonda saqme (Tundac maTi biografiebis gaTvaliswinebiT), aq ukve karikaturac aRaraa. esaa karikaturis karikatura. RmerTo, Tan ramdens svamen! radioSic svamdnen (Wiqebis Waxunis xma ismoda) da im saRamozec svamdnen, me rom viyavi. xolo radiowamyvani gogona (esec poeti aRmoCnda bolos _ amanac waikiTxa erTi leqsi: `Sen rom gegona, ar giyvarvaro~...

mTeli es surogati didi useqsobis Sedegia. roca qarTveli poeti Tavis leqsSi `eklian gzas~ Seudgeba, ese igi, seqsi ara aqvs _ qarTveli poeti (da ara mxolod poeti da ara mxolod qarTveli) maSin xdeba myvirala da agresiuli, roca gogoebi moswons, eseni ki zed ar uyureben... Voglio una donna! _ xom gaxsovT, is xeze Semxtari kaci `amarkordidan~ _ sinamdvileSi, swored es amoukiTxavi mudara ismis am leqsebidanac... msmenelTa muSaxeli ki verafers xvdeba, mxolod tiris da taSs ukravs. am dros ki sul sxva ramea saWiro...

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Tvalsazrisi

qarTuli epataJis dabadeba


rati amaRlobeli

roterdamis poeziis festivalze erT friad ucnaur da RirsSesaniSnav ambavs Seveswari. skandinavieli poeti qalis Svilma, 8-9 wlis magnusma, Tu ar vcdebi, ase erqva am bavSvs, roterdamis didi sakoncerto darbazis foieSi, sadac msoflios mravali kuTxis poeti erTmaneTs saqmianad da yalbad uRimoda, poeti-dedis xangrZlivi Ziebis Semdeg sruliad martod STenilma patara magnusma, yovelgvari mikib-mokibvis gareSe, qarTulad, qalaqurad rom vTqvaT, aiRo da Caijva. TiTqos didi araferi, magram magnusi sruliadac ar iyo netari Cvili. mas arc dRis enurezi (mozardis uneblie Sardva) da arc sxva raime problema hqonia. igi 8-9 wlis janmrTeli, loyebRaJRaJa, fizikurad Zlieri, skandinavieli mebrZoli vikingebis Camomavali magnusi gaxldaT. me masTan sakmaod kargi urTierToba mqonda, misi inglisuri yvelaze ukeT mesmoda da imis gamo, rom bavSvis poeti-deda festivalis dawyebisTanave serb poet kacs daumegobrda, magnusic realurad Cven Cagvbarda. ase moxda TavisTavad, uneburad. magnusis da Cveni, misi axlad SeZenili mzrunvelebis problemac es gaxldaT _ mas surda deda! festivalis bolo dRes magnusma Tavisi gamarTuli inglisuriT, romlis TiToeuli sityvac mesmoda da Sesabamisad siamovnebas mgvrida es faqti, sayovelTao da trafaretuli fusfusi daarRvia da ganacxada: `me var magnusi, amis da amis Svili, ipoveT dedaCemi da uTxariT, rom Cavijvi!~ movlenebis swrafi da ucnauri ganviTarebis Semdeg me mivxvdi, rom es iyo uzustesad gaazrebuli aqti, aseTive sizustiT SerCeuli dro da adgili bavSvis mier, romelsac dedasTan araTu yofnis, aramed ukve misi xilvis imedic dakarguli hqonda. es ar iyo saqarTvelo, sadac mswrafl da mkvircxl gamoCndeboda gulaCuyebuli qarTveli qali, romelic bavSvisadmi sinanulis da bavSvis dedisadmi zizRis narevi grZnobebiT gamohbanda magnuss mis loyebiviT RaJRaJa takoebs. saqarTveloc rom ara, Tavad damoukidebeli magnusi ar miscemda amis uflebas aravis, garda dedisa. roterdamis poeziis saerTaSoriso festivali gaisu-

sa. aseTi yuradReba aqamde arc erT gamomsvlels ar Rirsebia, rogoric im wuTebSi Cems Rirseul megobar magnuss. organizatorebma imarjves mobilurebi, eZebdnen serbs, eZebdnen magnusis dedas! poeti-deda ramdenime wuTSi marTlac gamoCnda. foieSi gaisma taSic. es taSi, rasakvirvelia, magnuss ekuTvnoda. man daibruna deda, da `nabiji~, romelic magnusma saamisod `gadadga~, namdvilad Rirda amad. rasakvirvelia CemTvis, da mxolod CemTvis _ TiTqos raRac msgavsi xdebao qarTul literaturaSic. qarTuli literaturuli epataJic xom, umkiTxvelod, utiraJod, uhonorarod, sazogadoebis mier mitovebul, gaudaburebul da cariel sivrceebSi daibada, rogorc Tundac uSno da araesTeturi aqti, yuradRebis molodinSi myofi, rom igi _ esa da es aris, diax aris da yvelafris miuxedavad, arsebobs, rom man Seigina, SeifurTxa, gaafuWa imis molodinSi, rom dainaxon, aRiaron da uTxran martivi ram _ `me gxedav, Sen xar, Sen arsebob~. sazogadoebis totalurma uinteresobam da uyuradRebobam Sva is, rac dauintereseblad, gauazreblad, waukiTxavad ase aRizianebs umravlesobas. Cvensa da magnuss Soris ki gansxvaveba is aris, rom magnusma mkafiod da zustad uwyoda, rac surda da mizansac miaRwia, Cven?

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sporti

HUP HOLLAND HUP

sandro naveriani Tornike lorTqifaniZem da levan ZnelaZem miTxres, _ prognozebSi pele xaro. amas vin rogor gaigebs, kacma ar icis da amitomac ori sityviT getyviT: CemTvis pele da dRevandeli fexburTi ise gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan, rogorc kalaTburTi da NBA. rTuli gasagebi ar iqneba, magram amasac vityvi: peles dros tingicaoba iyo, dRes _ fexburTi; kalaTburTi yovelTvis kalaTburTi iyo (da iqneba), NBA ki _ kalaTburTi da kide ufro meti. pele CemTvis igivea, rac kalaTburTi, dRevandeli fexburTi ki _ NBA. hoda, imitomac ar mivaqcie yuradReba, ro maT TviTon ar icodnen, ras gulisxmobdnen. orive kargi adamiania. magram fexburTis inCi Tu ician, binCimde jer ar miuRweviaT. es yvelaferi ki mniSvnelovania, magram dRes ufro mniSvnelovani rame moxda _ pirvelad vigrZeni, rom mundiali daiwyo... sanam vinme amas waikiTxavs, oTxive naxevarfinalisti ecodineba, amitomac me im naxevarfinalistze vilaparakeb, romelic ukve vici. HUP HOLLAND HUP. Zalian bevri fiqrobda, rom isev brazilia icekvebda sambas koindarze... sambas ki icekveben, mara saxlebSi, kopa kabanas plaJebze. malandroebi isev ise gaagrZeleben forToxliT TamaSs da oTxi wlis Semdeg, 2014-Si yvelaze didi Sansi swored maT eqnebaT. farisevluri warmatebebi maT. am TamaSSi iyo kidev erTi gundi, holandia, romlis gamovardnis SemTxvevaSic me, ubralod, lamazi fexburTis gulSematkivari vrCebodi. ra Tqma unda, es ar iyo kruif-repis holandia, an Tundac kluvertberkampisa... da arc van basten-raikaard-gulitisa. _ albaT, sadme SuaSi gamomrCa. magram es iyo is holandia, romelsac 88-is Semdeg elian misi gulSematkivrebi. 88 wlis Semdeg holandias ar hyolia iseTi brZolisunariani gundi, rogoric dRes. ra Tqma unda, iseTi TamaSisTvis, rogoriTac dRes holandielebma iTamaSes, mfrinavi holandielebis saxeli namdvilad ar daumsaxurebiaT, magram dRes me pirvelad vnaxe holandieli fexburTelebi, romlebic mzad arian CempionobisTvis. am TamaSSi SesamCnevi iyo im holandielebis Savi muSaoba, romlebic arasdros ar Canan kruifis, gulitis da berkampis fonze. ki, am TamaSSi yvelaze sanaxaobrivad Canda robenis fintebi, magram yvelaze mniSvnelovani ukana zona iyo; zona, romelic holandias yovelTvis susti hyavda. ise gols, romelic felipe melos avtogolad CauTvales, inglisSi, espaneTSi, germaniaSi, safrangeTSi, holandiaSi da a.S. Semtevis saxelze weren da sworadac iqcevian, imitom rom goli, romelic sneiderma Seagdo, holandiis goli iyo, da ara avtogoli. didi imedi maqvs, rom finalSi evropul TamaSs vnaxav, Tu arada, isic kargi iqneba.

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sporti

roca brazilieli xar


gio axvlediani, londoni

uein runi da fabio kapelo

albaT Zalian kargia, brazilieli fexburTeli rom xar. imitom ki ara, rom magari xar, aramed imitom, rom rogorRac ar javrob amaze da didad arc mtkiceba giwevs, _ magari varo. hoda, ai, ingliseli fexburTeli

rom xar, didad sanerviulo saqmea, gansakuTrebiT, Tu nakrebSi migiwvies da, jvari geweros, Tu nakrebi msoflio Cempionatze moxvda. swored mand iwyeba, rac iwyeba. aucileblad Tavs gawirav da imis mtkicebas daiwyeb, rom magari xar.

sityviT ki ar daiwyeb _ saqmiT, imitom, rom sul eleTmeleTebi gemarTeba, rodesac samlomian maisurs moirgeb da Zveleburi wesiT ityvian, ai kaci, ukve kepi moixveWao. mere kidev mindorze gaxval, da kinaRam mokvdebi, sanam RmerTo daifare de-

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sporti
doflis sityvebi CamTavrdeba. sul Jruanteli dagivlis da ifiqreb, _ rogor damafases, Cemi eri dgas axla da miyurebs, me ki misi saxeliT saqme unda gavakeToo. imgvari Jruantelia, rom verc ifiqreb, rom sxvasac SeuZlia dauaros, imasac ar fiqrob, rom fexburTis saTamaSod mosulxar, aramed samSoblos winaSe valis mosaxdelad, da meti rodisRa unda moindomo kacma, Tu ara samSoblosadmi valis moxdis Jams, miT umetes, Seni qveynis mTavar moedanze qvas aweria _ inglisi imedovnebs, rom yoveli moqalaqe moixdis vals. hoda, mondomebis da Tavganwirvis imgvari talRa mogawveba, rom erTi suli gaqvs, sanam msaji sastvens Caberavs. imgvarad mondomebuli xar, rom aqamde ise araferi ginerviulia. milioneri xar, Seni suraTebi yoveldRe gazeTebSia, cxovrebaSi Sens SviliSvilebsac araferi gauWirdebaT, araTu Svilebs, magram ai, mainc nerviulob; oRondac ingliseli xar da am nerviulobas rogorRac malav, fiqrob, _ egeb biWebic egreve nerviuloben, magram saqmec eg aris, rom TamaSis win yvelam Zmurad gavamxneveT erTmaneTi da pirobac miveciT, rom ar gavtydebiT da rac viciT da ar viciT, yvelafers moedanze davdebT, gulTan erTad, imitom, rom Cven inglisi varT. Demn it! Cven inglisi varT, Cven fexburTi movigoneT, Cven erTmaneTis mxarSi amodgoma viciT, viciT, gundi ra aris. me kidev wels saerTod mSvenivrad viTamaSe, amitomac damiZaxes nakrebSi? msoflios yvelaze Zvel nakrebSi. Cveni gamCerebeli vin unda iyos? naxe, ramdeni xalxi mosula Cvens sanaxavad. msoflioSi aravis ar dahyveba imdeni fani, ramdenic Cven. rogor vuyvarvarT! RmerTo, ramdeni gvmarTebs maTi, ramden fuls xarjaven Cvens devnasa da cqeraSi. rogor gvamxneveben da gvimRerian. babuaCemi! ra amayi iqneboda dRes babuaCemi. ubralo maRaroeli iyo, kviraSi ramdens iSovida, da mainc axerxebda, rom fuli gadaedo saSabaTo TamaSisa da erTi tkbili fainTisTvis. navi rom vuyide, kinaRam gagiJda. rogor gaexardeboda, axla rom miyurebdes. RmerTo, rogor meSinia, amdeni xalxi miyurebs. rom miyureben imis ki ar meSinia, arc am mowinaaRmdegis meSinia. raRacas rom elian Cemgan, imaze vRelav. ki, namdvilad. rame rom ise ar gamomivides, vinRa var? ra ici, aseTi mniSvnelobis sanakrebo TamaSia. es ucxoelebi Cven ingliselobas saerTod arafrad agdeben. viTom aravinac ara varT. Tan iolad gamosdiT yvelaferi, Cven kidev _ yvelaferi rTulad. Cven samjer ukeTesebi unda viyoT, rom movigoT. da ratom? me ra vici, ratom. mere gazeTebSi gagvlanZRaven. dagvcineben, _ idiotebi ariano. viTom wina dRes ar gvadidebdnen. ra jandabaa, araferi vici! Cems poziciaze sufTad unda viTamaSo. danarCeni, kiseric utexiaT. Cems poziciaze Tavs davdeb, romc wavagoT, veraferi miTxran. ramxela pasuxismgeblobaa es nakrebi. es jimic rogorRac almacerad miyurebs, mgoni, didad ar moswons, rom me unda damazRvios. varjiSzec etyoboda. magan Tu ar damazRvia, CaTvale, rom gaxeuli var. ra ubedurebaa es nakrebi. ucnobi biWebi, simkacre. ara, me is mainc unda SevZlo, rom raRacnairad saxe SevinarCuno. inglisi varT da imitom gvaqvs amxela pasuxismgebloba. guSin mSvenivrad vivarjiSe aha, daiwyo. ra jandabaa, muxlebi SeSis napobebiviT maqvs. is mainc daeweraT, manamde rom travma mqonda. da ai, swored am dros gamoirkveva, rom rac am TamaSisa ici, erTbaSad dagaviwyda. Tu ratom, amoucnobia. mgoni, imitom, rom ingliseli fexburTeli xar. albaT kargia, brazilieli fexburTeli rom xar, imitom, rom rac ici da ar ici, yvelaferi erTbaSad gaxsendeba TamaSis dros.

ikiTxeT

liberalis
portalze

www.liberali.ge
blogi: marika qoCiaSvili

koaqsili aikrZala
3 dRis win saqarTveloSi koaqsilis Semotana aikrZala. saqarTveloSi preparatis Semotana 2003 wels daiwyes, Tumca, narkologebma maleve aRmoaCines, rom narkomanebisTvis koaqsili narkotikad iqca.

multimedia:

gamocdebi 2010
multimedia:

laris gaufasureba
ivnisSi lari dolaris mimarT 10amde niSnuliT daeca. bolo 4 wlis ganmavlobaSi es laris yvelaze maRali gaufasurebaa. ratom moxda kursis aseTi vardna, ramac medikamentebi da kvebis produqtebi gaaZvira? savaluto politikis Sesaxeb erovnuli bankis direqtori giorgi qadagiZe saubrobs.

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qalaqSi moxetiale kacis Canawerebi

vaSa, metromSens!
kaxa Tolordava
erTxel tonino gueras masterklass daveswari. bolo dRes masterklasis monawileebma moklemetraJiani, sakmaod martivi filmisTvis scenaris Seqmna gadavwyviteT, ra Tqma unda _ gueras daxmarebiT. yvelam Cven-Cveni siuJeti SevTavazeT gansaxilvelad. Cemi ambavi Tbilisis metroSi viTardeboda. rodesac ambavi vuambe, gueras gaeRima da miTxra: `cudi araa ymawvilo, magram Tqven erTi mniSvnelovani Secdoma dauSviT, rac filmis gadaRebas SeuZlebels xdis~. `ras gulisxmobT?~ _ SevekiTxe me. `TbilisSi xom metro ar aris!~ _ mipasuxa man. zustad ramdenime wuTSi is gaocebuli gviyurebda masterklasis monawileebs da kidev da kidev gvekiTxeboda, _ `ar matyuebT? TbilisSi marTla aris metro?~ bolos, rogorc iqna, davarwmuneT. `RmerTo Cemo, _ amoioxra man RimiliT, _ yovelTvis miyvarda Tbilisi, axla ki ufro Semiyvarda. metro nebismieri qalaqisTvis ganZia. saidumlod getyviT, rom metro Tqveni SemoqmedebiTi muxtis ganmsazRvrelia. metroSi SeiZleba x e l o v n e b a moxdes!~ im dRes bednieri viyavi, radganac gueram Tqva is, raSic adreuli axalgazrdobidan viyavi darwmunebuli. Tbilisis metro udavod didebuli ramaa. es arc ironiaa da arc gadametebuli xotba. is swrafia, mosaxerxebeli, sufTa da, rac mTavaria, jer kidev SesaZleblobebiT savse. es ki yvelaze mTavaria. aq yvelaferi SeiZleba moxdes, magram ukeTesi iqneba, Tu is, satransporto saSualebasTan erTad, S e m o q m e d e b i T i sivrcec gaxdeba. es procesi, ukve didi xania, dawyebulia msoflios Zalian bevr qalaqSi da rogorc Cans, drois ganmavlobaSi sul ufro da ufro moikrebs Zalebs. ai, saintereso faqtebi metroSi xelovnebis arsebobisa: niu-iorks ukve metrosadgurebSi arsebuli xelovnebis nimuSebis onlain megzuri aqvs qristodan roi lixtenStainamde (http://www.nycsubway.org/perl/artwork), naxeT, saocari ramaa; stokholmSi, 100 sadguridan 90 sadgurSi 140-mde artistis namuSevari arsebobs (http://www. flickr.com/photos/vargklo/sets/72057594140322750); parizis metro lamis vizualuri xelovnebis muzeumia; lisabonis metros y v e l a sadguri adgilobrivi artistebis ZalisxmeviTaa gaformebuli; igive xdeba miunxenSi, santiagoSi, tokioSi, londonsa Tu praRaSi. yvelaferi es sruliad gasaognebeli sanaxavia da Zalian minda, Tbilisic rom Seematos maT ricxvs. erT-erT wina statiaSi vsaubrobdi imaze, Tu rogor aklia Tbiliss Tbiliselebis xeli da am mxriv

Tbilisis metro gamonaklisi namdvilad araa. aq jer kidev stalinis suni trialebs da itrialebs manam, vidre gadawyvetilebebis mimRebi pirebi Tbiliselebs, gansakuTrebiT ki qalaqis axalgazrda artistebs ar miscemen imis saSualebas, rom maTi kreatiuli energia qalaqs moxmardes. Tbilisi icvleba da misi momavlis saxe dResve unda davinaxoT, Tundac _ bundovnad. qalaqi ar unda SeuSindes riskze wasvlas da Tamam gadawyvetilebebs, magram es Tamami gadawyvetilebebi viRac idiotma, moxveWis surviliT Sepyrobilma developerebma ki ara, Tbiliselebma unda miviRoT. namdvilad ar vici, Tu rogor unda moxdes es, Tumca darwmunebuli var, rom es SesaZlebelia. `yvelaferi miedineba... erTsa da imave nakadSi veravin Seabijebs~... es sityvebi pirvelad Tbilisis metroSi amovikiTxe momcro zomis wignSi, romelic mTlianad metroSi yofnisas wavikiTxe axalgazrdobaSi. ho, mTeli dRe metros vagonSi vijeqi da heraklites vkiTxulobdi. nu mkiTxavT _ ratom. ver gipasuxebT. samagierod, metroSi kiTxvis Sedegad miRebuli codna namdvilad damexmara Tundac imis gacnobierebaSi, rom ramdenadac mniSvnelovani unda iyos raRac, im raRacas axali, Tu SesaZlebelia, kidev ufro mniSvnelovani ram unda Semato da Semdgomi cvlilebebisTvis Seamzado. Tbilisis metro swored am axlis misaRebadaa mzad. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu survili da Tamami x e d v a iqna. manamde ki ai, aqac http://been-seen.com/index.php/articles/passport/creative-subways-around-the-world SeixedeT da iocnebeT. CemsaviT.

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