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1 (a) Octane is a hydrocarbon compound and belongs to alkane homologues series. It is a component of petrol. Diagram 1.1 shows a molecule of octane. Oktana ialah sebatian hidrokarbon dan berada dalam siri homolog alkana. Ia adalah sebatian yang terdapat dalam petrol. Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan satu molekul oktana Diagram 1.1 Rajah 1.1 (i) What is meant by hydrocarbon compound ? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan sebatian hidrokarbon ? ................................................................................................................................ [1 mark] What is the molecular formula of octane ? Apakah formula molekul oktana ? 1(a)(i) 1(a)(ii 1 (ii) 1(a)(ii) 1(a)(ii) ............................................................................................................................... [1 mark] (iii) State the empirical formula of octane Nyatakan formula empirik bagi oktana. …………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (iv) Octane burns completely in excess oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. Write the chemical equation for the reaction that takes place. Oktana terbakar lengkap dalam oksigen yang berlebihan untuk membentuk karbon dioksida dan air. Tuliskan persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas yang berlaku. ................................................................................................................................ [2 marks] (b) Diagram 1.2 shows two isomers, P and Q of an alkene. Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan dua isomer, P dan Q bagi suatu alkena. 1 1(a)(iii) 1 1(a)(iv) 2 Isomer P Rajah 1.2 Isomer Q (i) What is meant by isomer? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan isomer ? ....................................................................................................................... [1 mark] Name isomer P. Namakan isomer P. 1(b)(i) 1 (ii) 1(b)(ii) 1 ……………………………………………………………………………... [1 mark] (iii) Draw the structural formula for one other isomer of P and Q. Lukiskan formula struktur bagi satu lagi isomer P dan Q . 1(b)(iii) 1 [1 mark] (iv) Diagram 1.3 represents the chemical reaction between isomer Q and steam at 300oC with phosphoric acid as catalyst. Rajah 1.3 mewakili tindak balas antara isomer Q dan stim pada 300oC dengan asid fosforik sebagai mangkin. Diagram 1.3 Rajah 1.3 Complete the table below. Lengkapkan jadual di bawah Name of R Nama bagi R Homologous series of R Siri homolog bagi R [2 marks] 1(e)(iv) 2 Total A1 10 1. Diagram 9 shows the flow chart for the conversion of alcohol P. Rajah 9 menunjukkan carta alir penukaran bagi alkohol P. Compound Q Sebatian Q Carboxylic acid Asid karboksilik Alcohol P Alkohol P Propene Propena C3H6 Compound R Sebatian R C2H5COOH Diagram 9 /Rajah 9 (a) Alcohol P has two isomers. Draw the structural formula for the two isomers of alcohol P. Alkohol P mempunyai dua isomer. Lukis formula struktur bagi keduadua isomer alkohol P. [2 marks] (b) Compound Q is produced when alcohol P reacts with carboxylic acid. By using carboxylic acid that has less than four carbon atoms, state the name and draw the structural formula of compound Q. Sebatian Q dihasilkan apabila alkohol P bertindak balas dengan asid karboksilik. Dengan menggunakan asid karboksilik yang mempunyai kurang daripada empat atom karbon, nyatakan nama dan lukis formula struktur sebatian Q. [2 marks] (c) Alcohol P undergoes dehydration reaction to produce propene and alcohol P also can undergo oxidation reaction to produce compound R. Alkohol P menjalani tindak balas pendehidratan menghasilkan propena dan alkohol P juga menjalani tindak balas pengoksidaan menghasilkan sebatian R. (i) Describe an experiment on how alcohol P undergoes dehydration to produce propene. Your answer should include a labeled diagram and a chemical equation. Huraikan satu eksperimen bagaimana alkohol P menjalani pendehidratan menghasilkan propena. Jawapan anda perlu merangkumi gambar rajah berlabel dan persamaan kimia. [8 marks] (ii) State the name of compound R and identify its functional group. Nyatakan nama sebatian R dan kenalpasti kumpulan berfungsinya. [2 marks] (iii) Describe two chemical tests to differentiate propene and compound R. Huraikan dua ujian kimia untuk membezakan propena dan sebatian R. [6 marks] 2. Diagram 10.1 shows five structural formula of carbon compound. Rajah 10.1 menunjukkan lima formula struktur bagi sebatian karbon. Diagram / Rajah 10.1 (a) Choose any one of the compound in Diagram 10.1, state the products formed when the compound burn completely in excess oxygen gas. Write the chemical equation involve. Pilih mana-mana satu sebatian dalam Rajah 10.1, Nyatakan hasil-hasil yang terbentuk apabila sebatian itu terbakar dengan lengkap dalam gas oksigen berlebihan. Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang terlibat. [3 marks] State the name of two compounds in Diagram 10.1 that are isomer. Explain your answer. Nyatakan nama dua sebatian dalam Rajah 10.1 adalah isomer. Terangkan jawapan anda. [3 marks] (b) (c) Describe a chemical test to differentiate between compound A and compound B. Huraikan satu ujian kimia bagi membezakan antara sebatian A dan sebatian B. [4 marks] (d) Diagram 10.2 shows the reaction between compound E and carboxylic acid. Rajah 10.2 menunjukkan tindak balas antara sebatian E dengan asid karboksilik. → → Compound E Sebatian E + + Carboxylic acid Asid karboksilik ester ester Diagram / Rajah 10.2 (i) State the name an example of a member of carboxylic acid and state the name of ester that formed when the named carboxylic acid react with compound E. Draw the structural formula of named carboxylic acid and ester that formed. Nyatakan nama satu contoh ahli bagi asid karboksilik dan nyatakan nama ester yang terbentuk apabila asid karboksilik yang dinamakan bertindak balas dengan sebatian E. [4 marks] Describe an experiment to produce ester in (d) (i) in laboratory. Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk menghasilkan ester dalam (d) (i) dalam makmal. [6 marks] (ii)