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ABSTRACT

The research is on the basis of A STUDY ON QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AT PEST CONTROL INDIA PVT. LTD. Quality of work life refers to the favorableness or un favorableness of a total job environment of the people. The basic purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for people as well as for the economic health of the organization. The purpose of this study was to explore to experience of workers towards their Quality of work life and their work environment in terms of stress, perception of employee, relationship between co-workers, work load, time pressure and work-balance etc. The aim of the study includes the following factors towards the quality of Work life. They are such as poor working condition environments, resident aggression, balance of work and family, work load, inability to deliver quality of care preferred, shift timing, lack of involvement in work process and decision making, poor relationship between supervisor/ Team Leader, role conflict, lack of recognitions and lack of opportunity to learn new skills. The study was based on the descriptive research design. The sampling design being used here is Simple Random sampling through lottery method. The sample size 50 has been used out of total universe of 100. More than half of the respondents (52%) have low level of Overall quality of work life. There is a significant relationship between the experience of the respondents with regard to various dimensions of level of Adequate income and Fair Compensation, Opportunities for growth & security, Work & life space, Social relevance & work life & quality of work life. Improving good relationship with employees and providing friendly environment in the organization. Employees may be given high motivation from the top management of the Company. The Company has to measure the quality of work life periodically.

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK S.D.N.B.Vaishnav College for Women (Autonomous) (Re-Accredited with A Grade by NAAC) (Affiliated University of Madras) Bonafide Certificate This is to certify that the thesis entitled A Study on Quality of Work Life among employees at Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd. Chennai, submitted by S. Padmapriya (Reg. No. 10PG103) is a bonafide record of the research work done by her under my guidance during the period from November 2011 to March 2012, in the Department of Social Work, S.D.N.B.Vaishnav College for Women and this thesis has not previously formed the basis for the award to the candidate, of any degree, diploma, associateship, fellowship or any other similar titles. This thesis represents entirely the independent work on the part of the candidate.

Research Supervisor

Head of the Department

External Examiner

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK S.D.N.B.Vaishnav College for Women (Autonomous) (Re-Accredited with A Grade by NAAC) (Affiliated University of Madras)
DECLARATION

I, hereby declare that the report of thesis entitled A Study on Quality of Work Life among employees at Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd. Chennai, submitted to the Department of Social Work, S.D.N.B.Vaishnav College for Women, Chennai-44, for the award of Master of Social Work is my authentic work and it has not been previously presented as the basis for the award of any degree or diploma.

Place: Chennai Date: 02-04-12

Signature of the Candidate (PadmaPriya)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to thank GOD for his blessings and to my beloved parents for providing me moral support in completion of the Research project.

I extend my sincere thanks to SDNB Vaishnav College for Women and the Department of Social Work for providing me the opportunity of doing my Research project study on Quality of work life at Pest control India Pvt. Ltd.

My deepest thanks to Internal Guide Ms.Helen Sha Diana, Head of the Department, for her guidance and support which helped me in completing the Research project in time.

My hearty thanks to the Assistant General Manager, Mr. Girish, Pest Control India Pvt. Ltd. whose encouragement, guidance and support enabled me to Data Collection and successful completion of the Research Project.

Last but not the least; I would like to thank my friends and all others for extending a helping hand for the successful completion of this project.

S.PADMAPRIYA.

A STUDY ON QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AMONG EMPLOYEES IN PEST CONTROL INDIA PVT. LTD. CHENNAI Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Degree in Master of Social Work By S.PADMAPRIYA Reg no: 10PG103 Under the Guidance and Supervision of MRS.F.Helen Sha Diana MBA, MSW, M.Phil HEAD , DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK

Department of Social Work S D N B Vaishnav College for Women Chromepet, Chennai 600 044.

CONTENT
DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES

Chapter Title
I II III IV V INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION FINDINGS , SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

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1 21 26 34 52

BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE

LIST OF TABLES
Table No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Title
DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE GROUP DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY DESIGNATION DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY DEPARTMENT DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THEIR LEVEL OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE t TEST BETWEEN THE RESPONDENTS MARITAL STATUS WITH REGARD TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE t TEST BETWEEN THE RESPONDENTS SEX WITH REGARD TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE t TEST BETWEEN THE RESPONDENTS DEPARTMENT WITH REGARD TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AMONG DESIGNATION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH REGARD TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE KARL PEARSONS COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN RESPONDENTS AGE AND VARIOUS ASPECTS OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE KARL PEARSONS COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN RESPONDENTSEXPERIENCE AND VARIOUS ASPECTS OF QUUALITY OF WORK LIFE

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50

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIG No. Title DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE GROUP 1

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DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS

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DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX

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DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY DESIGNATION

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DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY DEPARTMENT

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DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
Quality is generally defined as Conformance to requirements. Quality is as fitness for purpose. The concept of quality is not apply to all goods and services created by human beings, but also for workplace where the employees were employed.

Quality in the workplace comes from understanding and then fully meeting, the needs of all your internal and external customers, now and into the future and doing so with continual improvement in efficiency and effectiveness. Quality of work life refers to the favorableness or un favorableness of a total job environment of the people. The basic purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for people as well as for the economic health of the organization. Quality of work life provides a more humanized work environment. It attempts to serve the higher order needs of workers as well as their more basic needs. It seeks to employ the higher skills of workers and to provide an environment that encourages improving their skills.

Q U A L I T Y

Quest for excellence Understanding Action Leadership Involvement of the people Team spirit Yardstick to measure progress

The above said are very essential things to improve the work life of employees in the organization.

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THEORETICAL REVIEW: DEFINITION Quality of work life means the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experience in the organization Quality of work life could be defined as the Quality of the relationship between the man and task. MEANING Quality of work life has gained deserved prominence in the Organizational Behavior as an indicator of the overall of human experience in the work place. It expresses a special way of thinking about people their work, and the organizational in which careers are fulfilled.

Quality of work life refers to the relationship between a worker and his environment, adding the human dimension to the technical and economic dimensions within which the work is normally viewed and designed. Quality of work life focus on the problem of creating a human working environment where employees work co operatively and achieve results collectively. It also includes. The programme seeks to promote human dignity and growth Employees work collaboratively They determine work change participate The programmes assume compatibility of people and organization

Quality of work life refers to the level of satisfaction, motivation, involvement and commitment individuals experience with respect to their line at work Quality of work life is the degree of excellence brought about work and working conditions which contribute to the overall satisfaction and performance primarily at the individual level but finally at the organizational level.

CONCEPT Quality of work life is a prescriptive concept, it attempts to design work environments so as to maximize concern for human welfare. Quality of work life acts in two dimensions. Goal Process

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Quality of work life acts as goal by Creation of more involving satisfying and effective jobs Work environment for people at all levels of the organization

Quality of work life acts as process by Make efforts to realize this goal through active participation The whole essence of Quality of work life may be stated thus, the Quality of work life is co operative rather than authoritarian; evolutionary and open rather static and rigid; informal rather than mechanistic; mutual respect and trust than hatred against each other.

Objectives of QUALITY OF WORK LIFE The major three main objectives for the Quality of work life are Improve employees satisfaction strengthen workplace learning, and Better manage on going chance and transition

MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF WORK LIFE Quality of work life means having good supervision, good working conditions, good pay and benefits an interesting and challenging, and a rewarding job. The major factors that effect the Quality of work life may be stated thus.

Pay Quality of work life is basically built around the concept of equitable pay. In the days ahead, employees may want to participate in the profits of the firm as will. Employees must be paid their due share in the progress and prosperity of the firm.

Benefits Workers throughout the globe have raises their expectations over the years and now feel entitled to benefits that were once considered a part of the bargaining process.

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Job Security Employees want stability of employment. They do not like to be the victims of whimsical personal policies and stay at the mercy of employers.

Alternative Work Schedules Employees demand more freedom at the workplace, especially in scheduling their work. Among the alternative work schedules capable of enhancing the Quality of work lifefor some employees are: i. Flexi time: A system of flexible working hours, ii. Staggered hours: Here groups of employees begin and end work at different intervals. iii. Compressed workweek: It involves more hours of work per day for fever days, per week. iv. Job enrichment: It attempts to increase a person's level of output by providing that persons with exciting, interesting, stimulating or challenging work. v. Autonomous work groups (AWGs): Here a group of workers will be given some control of decision-making and have responsibility for a task area without day-to-day supervision, and with authority to influence and control both group members and their behavior. Occupational Stress Occupational mental-health programmes dealing with stress are beginning to emerge as a new and important aspect of Quality of work life programmes. Obviously, and individual suffering from an uncomfortable amount of job-related stress cannot enjoy a high quality of work life. '

Worker Participation Employees have a genuine hunger for participation in organizational issues affecting their lives. Naturally they demand far more participation in the decision making process at the workplace. Social Integration The work environment should provide opportunities for preserving an employee's personal identify and self-esteem through freedom from prejudice, a sense of community, interpersonal openness and the absence of stratification in the organization. 13

Work and total life space A person's work should not overbalance his life. Ideally speaking, work schedules, career demands and other job requirements should not take up too much of a person's leisure time and family life.

WAYS TO CREATE HIGH QUALITY OF WORK LIFE Quality of work life deals with the relationship between every employee and his or her work organization. This relationship is formal in sometimes less formal. This contract is psychological; contract. "Psychological contract is the set of expectations held be the individual specifying what the individual and the organization expect to give and receive from each other in the course of their working relationship". This contract represents the expected exchange of values that encourages the individual to work for the organization and motivates the organization to employ that person, (i.e.) Contribution and Inducements.

A healthy psychological contract means that inducements and contributions are balance. INDUCEMENTS = CONTRIBUTIONS (Organization to employees) = (employee to organization) This is the way for organization to create healthy psychological contract and Jobs satisfaction for their members is to provide them with High Quality of work life environment.

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ASPECTS OF HIGH QUALITY OF WORK LIFE Quality of work life is highlighted by the following Benchmarks of managerial excellence. Participation:Trust:Involving people from all levels of responsibility in decision-making Reside signing jobs systems and structures to give people more freedom at work. Reinforcement:Creating reward systems that are fair, relevant and contingent on work performance Responsiveness:Making the work setting more pleasant and able to serve individual Needs.

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE PROGRAMMES Quality of work life programmes concentrate on creating a working environment that is Conductive to the satisfaction of worker needs. This program assumes that a job and the work environment should be structured to meet as many of the workers needs as possible. Richard Walton has organized into eight categories. These should be integrated, coordinated and properly managed.

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These programmes are helped to avoid some pitfalls like Quality of work life program must be implemented with the co-operation of management and labour. Action plans must be carried to completion. Care must be taken to concentrate the focus on the joint objectives of improving the Quality of work life.

RESULTS OF HIGH QUALITY OF WORK LIFE High Productivity Increase organizational effectiveness High employee satisfaction High morale. Reduce the absenteeism and labour turn over Increase the quality of life of employees High employee involvement Peaceful industrial relation

MEASUREMENT: A recent statistical analysis of a new measure, the Work-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoWL), indicates that this assessment device should prove to be a useful instrument. The WRQoWL measure uses six core factors to explain most of the variation in an individuals quality of working life: Job and Career Satisfaction; Working Conditions; General Well-Being; Home-Work Interface; Stress at Work and Control at Work.

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The Job & Career Satisfaction (JCS) scale of the Work-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoWL) is said to reflect an employees feelings about, or evaluation of, their satisfaction or contentment with their job and career and the training they receive to do it. Within the WRQoWL measure, Job &Career Satisfaction scale is reflected by questions asking how satisfied people feel about their work. It has been proposed that this Positive Job Satisfaction factor is influenced by various issues including clarity of goals and role ambiguity, appraisal, recognition and reward, personal development career benefits and enhancement and training needs. The General well-being (GWB) scale of the Work-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoWL), aims to assess the extent to which an individual feels good or content in themselves, in a way which may be independent of their work situation. It is suggested that general well-being both influences, and is influenced by work. Mental health problems, predominantly depression and anxiety disorders, are common, and may have a major impact on the general well-being of the population. The WRQoWL General Well Being factor assesses issues of mood, depression and anxiety, life satisfaction, general quality of life, optimism and happiness. The WRQoL Stress at Work sub-scale (SAW) reflects the extent to which an individual perceives they have excessive pressures, and feel stressed at work. The WRQoWL Stress At Work factor is assessed through items dealing with demand and perception of stress and actual demand overload. Whilst it is possible to be pressured at work and not be stressed at work, in general, high stress is associated with high pressure. The Control at Work (CAW) subscale of the WRQoWL scale addresses how much employees feel they can control their work through the freedom to express their opinions and being involved in decisions at work. Perceived control at work as measured by the Work-Related Quality of Life scale (WRQoWL) is recognized as a central concept in the understanding of relationships between stressful experiences, behaviour and health. Control at work, within the theoretical model underpinning the WRQoWL, is influenced by issues of communication at work, decision making and decision control.

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The WRQoWL Home-Work Interface scale (HWI) measures the extent to which an employer is perceived to support the family and home life of employees. This factor explores the interrelationship between home and work life domains. Issues that appear to influence employee Home-Work Interface include adequate facilities at work, flexible working hours and the understanding of managers. The Working Conditions scale of the WRQoWL assesses the extent to which the employee is satisfied with the fundamental resources, working conditions and security necessary to do their job effectively. Physical working conditions influence employee health and safety and thus employee Quality of working life. This scale also taps into satisfaction with the resources provided to help people do their jobs.

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE THROUGH EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT:


One of the most common methods used to create QWL is employee involvement. Employee involvement (EI) consists of a variety of systematic methods that empower employees to participate in the decisions that affect them and their relationship with the organization. Through (Employee Involvement), employees feel a sense of responsibility, even ownership of decisions in which they participate. To be successful, however, EI must be more than just a systematic approach; it must become part of the organizations culture by being part of managements philosophy. Some companies have had this philosophy ingrained in their corporate structure for decades; Hewlett-Packard, IBM, General Motors, Ford, etc.

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AS HR STARTEGY AN ANALYSIS


Todays workforce consists of literate workers who expect more than just money from their work. In the modern scenario, QWL as a strategy of Human Resource Management is being recognized as the ultimate key for development among all the work systems, not merely as a concession. This is integral to any organization towards its wholesome growth. This is attempted on par with strategies of Customer Relation Management.

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Strategy and Tactics


Over the years, since industrial revolution, much experimentation has gone into exploiting potential of human capital in work areas either explicitly or implicitly. Thanks to the revolution in advanced technology, the imperative need to look into QWL in a new perspective is felt and deliberated upon. Major companies are tirelessly implementing this paradigm in Human Resources Development. Globalisation has lowered national boundaries, creating a knowledgebased economy that spins and spans the world. Major economies are converging technologically and economically, and are highly connected at present moment. The new global workplace demands certain prerequisites such as higher order of thinking skills like abstraction system thinking and experimental inquiry, problem solving and team work. The needs are greater in the new systems, which are participative ventures involving workers managed by so-called fictional proprietors.

Money Matters: For good QWL, cash is not the only answer. Today, the workers are aware of the job requirements of job as also the fact that the performance of the same is measured against the basic goals and objectives of the organization and more importantly, wages are paid according to the larger picture specific to the industry and the employers place in the same. The increased share of workers in wages and benefits through legislation as well as competitive interplay of superior managements in various fields of industry and business on extensive levels has reshaped the workers idea of quality of work life. Moreover, other things being equal, the employers are increasingly vying with their rivals in providing better working conditions and emoluments. Doubtlessly, the increased tendency of recruiting knowledge bases is giving the modern managements payoffs in myriad ways. Some of them are intended potentials for product innovations and cost cuttings. Talking of product, it may appear far-fetched to some that product is being assessed in the market for its quality and price by the environment created in the areas where workers and customers are dealt and transact, like ambience in facilities / amenities as also the companys pay scales. This goes to prove that Quality of Work Life of manufacturer / service provider is synonymous with the quality of product.

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Non economic Job Security: The changing workforce consists of literate workers who expect more than just money from their work life. Their idea of salvation lies in the respect they obtain in the work environment, like how they are individually dealt and communicated with by other members in the team as well as the employer, what kind of work he is entrusted with, etc. Some of these noneconomic aspect are: Self respect, satisfaction, recognition, merit compensation in job allocation, incompatibility of work conditions affecting health, bullying by older peers and boss, physical constraints like distance to work, lack of flexible working hours, work-life imbalances, invasion of privacy in case of certain cultural groups and gender discrimination and drug addiction. One or more of the problems like above can cast a job-insecurity question, for no direct and visible fault of the employer. Yet, the employer has to identify the source of workers problems and try to mitigate the conditions and take supportive steps in the organisation so that the workers will be easily retained and motivated and earn ROI. The loss of man hours to the national income due to the above factors is simply overwhelming. Employer should instill in the worker the feeling of trust and confidence by creating appropriate channels and systems to alleviate the above shortcomings so that the workers use their best mental faculties on the achievement of goals and objectives of the employer. To cite some examples, employers in certain software companies have provided infrastructure to train the children of workers in vocational activities including computer education, so that the workers need not engage their attention on this aspect. Employee care initiatives taken by certain companies include creation of Hobby clubs, Fun and Leisure Clubs for the physical and psychological well-beingness of workers and their families. After all, the workers are inexorably linked to the welfare of their families, as it is their primary concern. Dual income workers, meaning both spouses working are the order of the day. The work life balance differs in this category and greater understanding and flexibility are required with respect to leave, compensation and working hours in the larger framework.

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Teamwork: Teamwork is the new mantra of modern day peoples excellence strategy. Todays teams are self-propelled ones. The modern manager has to strive at the group coherence for common cause of the project. The ideal team has wider discretion and sense of responsibility than before as how best to go about with its business. Here, each member can find a new sense of belonging to each other in the unit and concentrate on the groups new responsibility towards employers goals. This will boost the coziness and morale of members in the positive environment created by each others trust. Positive energi es, free of workplace anxiety, will garner better working results. Involvement in teamwork deters deserters and employer need not bother himself over the detention exercises and save money on motivation and campaigns.

All said and one, the workers are considered as the invisible branch ambassadors and internal customers in certain industries. It is evident that most of the managements are increasingly realizing that quality alone stands to gain in the ultimate analysis. Restructuring the industrial relations in work area is the key for improving the quality of product and the price of the stock. Without creating supportive environment in restructured environment, higher quality of work cannot be extracted.

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COMPANY PROFILE
The project was undergone in PEST CONTROL INDIA PVT. LTD. Theoretical knowledge is insufficient to cope up with the modern functioning of the companies. So in order to gain practical knowledge, the project was done in PEST CONTROL INDIA PVT. LTD. on the topic A STUDY ON QUALITY OF WORK LIFE.

Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd. was established in the year 1954 and is the first and largest pest management company in India. Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd offers a comprehensive range of Professional Pest Management Services and Quality Products and Equipment through a countrywide network of over 150 offices and 3500 employees.

The companys own product formulation and manufacturing (liquid and gas) facilities are equipped with state-of-the-art quality control, analysis and research and development (R&D) facilities. Bio-Control Research Laboratories (BIO-CONTROL RESEARCH

LABORATORIES) is a modern facility engaged in the propagation and production of various biological control agents and bio-pesticides and spearheads the companys commitment towards environment-friendly pest management techniques.

Over the years, Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd. has constantly endeavoured to introduce better and more cost-effective pest management technology for both services and products. Vision and foresight coupled with the desire to constantly improve has enabled us to retain our premier status in the country today. With over 50 years of experience, we reaffirm the companys commitment: that of providing comprehensive, one-stop solutions in the field of expertise. Corporate Vision: "To remain the standard bearer at the vanguard of the industry through exemplary ethics, technical competence, sincerity and pride; continually seeking and providing high-quality, cost-effective solutions to the varied and changing needs of customers and their total satisfaction."

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PHILOSOPHY: Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltds philosophy of client satisfaction and its resultant goodwill meant that it was often approached for solutions to problems not usually associated with pests. The medical fraternity expressed the need for alternate and better means of sterilisation for their equipment; this was developed into the first ethylene oxide gas based sterilizer, Freoster, which was patented and introduced in 1977. To ensure a smooth and reliable supply of gas mixtures, the development of a dedicated gas filling and formulation unit was also set in motion. Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd, together with Exosect Ltd. UK, introduced a new and highly- effective cockroach trap to India Exoroach. As exclusive agents, Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd. has made this a part of the companys commercial GoldSeal service, when required. It is so effective that during trials the trap caught upto 6000 roaches! It is a great tool for Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd. since it is 100% eco-friendly and is accredited with all the food safety standards.

BIO-CONTROL RESEARCH LABORATORIES launches another new product, called Lastraw. This product is a specially formulated concoction of natural salts to tackle all soft-bodied sucking pests of plants. It has been highly successful and completely ecofriendly!

Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd constantly strives to expand and has finally done so in Thailand. What started out as a technical consultancy has now grown into a strong joint venture with PCS, the largest facilities management company in Thailand. Together, PCS & Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd have named the JV Cannon Pest Management, Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd aids in the pest solutions side to the business.

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INTELLIGENT PEST MANAGEMENT: Every living creature is engaged in a constant competitive struggle for food and shelter. Some of these creatures represent the top of their evolutionary chain, having remained unchanged for millions of years, long before the first humans walked the earth. We, on the other hand, are the one species that have crossed almost all natural barriers; compounded by burgeoning population, we keep placing ever-increasing demands for means of food and shelter. And wherever we settle down, we create these means not only for ourselves but also for others, some of which are already there, and some which move in later.

As their populations grow, they come into open conflict with us, eating our food, destroying our shelter, causing disease. Thats when they become a nuisance or pest. These pests, however, play an important part in the natural eco-system and will be around for a long time to come. A blanket application of chemical pesticide only provides a temporary solution the inherent side effects to our environment render this option unacceptable in the long run. Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd believes in an integrated approach towards pest management. In cases where there is no option but to use a chemical, the choice of chemical and dosage is based on its safety profile: chemicals that are low in human toxicity (good safety profile) yet extremely effective against target pests, are the preferred choice. Most importantly, it is the decision to use or not to use a certain component that often determines success or failure. Common sense has no substitute; true IPM as we believe, is nothing but Intelligent Pest Management. Social AwarenessPest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd Responsibility:

From its inception the company has been a socially responsible company. The acronym PEST CONTROL INDIA PVT. LTD denotes priority to the Public, the Company and the Individual, in that order. These examples of Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltds social involvement and initiative, illustrate its corporate mission.

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Karma: Karma, (Karjat Agricultural Rural Management Assistance) was initiated by the rural development cell of Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd in 1975. The project seeks to promote an integrated, sustainable life-style in a rural setting. Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd contributes towards the cost of the staff and its offices as its financial contribution to rural development. Under the guidance of Chairman Mr. N.S.Rao, it initiates projects directed towards improvement of health, education and overall socio-economic development of numerous villages at Karjat, near Mumbai.

The Academy of Development Sciences (ADS): The Academy of Development Sciences (ADS) was set up subsequently to train and equip local tribals and help them attain a better quality of life and at the same time, keep their traditions and valuable knowledge alive. The food-processing factory produces jams, pickles, squashes and candy using traditional recipes and is marketed under the popular Tungi brand name. The cane factory produces fine cane and bamboo furniture and articles, while the Scientific Nursery contains various species of local and indigenous medicinal trees, herbs and shrubs and even a vaid or local medicine man in attendance. A local boys orphanage has been adopted and free eye camps are a regular feature in the area. Pied Piper Colaba: The Pied Piper rodent control campaign was carried out jointly by the Bombay Municipal Corporation, the Colaba Residents Association and Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd. between 2-19 December 1992. The well-planned exercise nominated an urban area of Mumbai for the mass eradication of rodents. The area encompassed P.J. Ramachandani Marg, Arthur Bunder Road, Shahid Bhagat Singh Road and BEST Marg including Mere-Weather Road, which contained about 70 buildings of 4-5 storeys and numerous shops, commercial establishments, milk distribution centres, a large B.P.T. recreation garden, Petrol bunk, School, Restaurants, Nursing Home and dispensaries. Around 750 families resided in the area at the time.The entire area was divided into six blocks and the campaign was was conducted in three phases - Pre-Campaign infestation, ROBAN treatment and Post Campaign infestation. Local citizens were informed 25

about the campaign and requests for their cooperation and information evoked a very good response. Occupants of some 200 residences were interviewed and presentations and demonstrations were made to spread awareness about the rodent problem. The campaign achieved 95% control and was a textbook success. It established an awareness that rodent control, earlier assumed to be an impossible task, was definitely achievable. Picture Mumbai In 1996, Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd. managed and implemented the Getty Conservation Institute's project - Picture Mumbai - Landmarks of a New Generation. This globally linked project seeks to foster through the medium of the camera, an awareness in today's youth of what they value in their surroundings. Nine young residents of Mumbai were encouraged to toam the city in search of icons of their time. The body of work was exhibited at Mumbai and has led to the formation of the Picture Mumbai Trust, which aims to uncover and showcase talent amongst today's youth in various artistic disciplines related to conservation. CIAM - Citizen's Initiative Against Mosquitoes The rainy season bring with it a deluge of mosquito-related diseases like Malaria and Dengue in Mumbai. Over the last four years, Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd., has been taking a leading part in spreading awareness on measures to prevent mosquito breeding within and around the residences. This is done with the help of societies, ALM (Advanced Locality Management) folk, local citizen volunteers and other civic body support. We believe that the key to efficient control is through collaboration and transfer of knowledge. A concerted effort to stopping breeding sites is the only way to have long-term benefits of control. Slum Rehabilitation Society On Saturday 7th July 07, a novel initiative by the local NGO, SRS - Slum Rehabilitation Society along with the local federation was implemented to educate the residents about dangers from mosquito-borne & rat-borne diseases, with the support and technical guidance of Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd its complete team of Managers & Technicians, at the Majas MMRDA Colony, established to rehabilitate affected slum dwellers from various parts of Mumbai. The venue was the open ground located in the centre of the society surrounded by residential buildings. Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltds involvement started several presentations on the major pests in that area, being mosquitoes and rats. Residents were taught how to identify these major pests, how to 26

control their breeding and the diseases that are spread by both, and the ways to control their breeding. A child-centric presentation was simultaneously shown to the kids of the area, making them active members of their community. A small treasure hunt was also initiated by SRS, and at the end of the program a quiz was presented - all were winners! At the end of the event, 10 kgs. of the companys Roban rodenticide was donated to the community to empower them to take control measures into their own hands. This initiative, with the help of SRS, ended up being very successful for all involved.

Bio-Control Research Laboratories (BIO-CONTROL RESEARCH LABORATORIES) Ecological, Environmental & Agricultural Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltds pioneering work in the bio-control field led to the establishment of BIO-CONTROL RESEARCH LABORATORIES in June 1981. It was the first commercial bio-control laboratory in the country with several innovations and standards of mass production of bio-control agents to its credit. The underlying objective was to perfect lab-to-land technology; i.e., developing delivery mechanisms for various bio-control agents so that they are made available to end-users in different parts of the country at reasonable rates. Pest Control (India) Pvt. Ltd stalls are a regular feature in kisan melas and other agricultural fairs. The recently set-up Field Education and Extension (FEE) Unit, headquartered at BIOCONTROL RESEARCH LABORATORIES, has taken on this mantle. It carries out dedicated fieldwork through trials and validations of different products, imparts education, spreads awareness and collects feedback from farmers and general data and information from the field.

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Range of Pest Control Products-Residential/Commercial Products: ROBAN- A ready-to-use wax block for rodent control. Harmless to humans and pets! TRUBBLE GUM- A safe, non-toxic and eco-friendly glue-based rat and mouse trap. PEST SEAL- An effective, ready-to-use liquid formulation against all flying and crawling insects TERMISEAL- Read-to-use formulation against Termites and other wood-boring pests. PEST-O-FLASH- Indias first electrical flying insect control system SPIDER- Silent, safe & hygienic glue-based electric fly and flying insect catcher. ILLUME-Aesthetic, silent, safe & hygienic glue-based electronic fly and flying insect trap MESTO SPRAYERS- High-quality aerosol generating sprayers in many sizes for different uses, available. PLASMA STERILISERS- New age Humanmeditek Plasma Sterilisation machines provided by PEST CONTROL INDIA PVT. LTD...

Agricultural Pest Control Products:Biological Control Products Beneficial Fungi (Antagonistic Fungi- Myco-Jaal, Niprot. Beneficial Bacteria (Antagonistic Bacteria)- Su-Mona. Beneficial Viruses- Heli-cide, Spodo-cide. Botanicals- Neem Baan Organic Salts- Lastraw Pheromone Lures and Traps

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PEST CONTROL SERVICES: Gold Seal Service- Gel-baiting system to control cockroaches, ants & silverfish also available for your car! WBM Service- Service to control the wood borer/powder post beetle larvae. Bug Buster Service- Specialised service against the menacing Bed Bug. Termiseal Service- A customized post-construction and pre-construction service to control or prevent the attack from termites. IMM Service- Comprehensive and customized mosquito control services for residential and commercial venues. Pied Piper Service- Safe, eco-friendly rodent control services for commercial establishments and common areas of residences. AFT Service- Anti-Fungal treatment for commercial and office areas. House-keeping, Cleaning & Support- This is the facility management extension of PEST CONTROL INDIA PVT. LTD.., providing cleaning and housekeeping needs to the customers. Pro-Guard Service- This service is primarily designed to battle common warehouse pests on surfaces of your structure, and also to prevent them from coming back in. Pest Aware Service- Community and commercial awareness programs to help customers and non-customers build awareness into pest problems and their prevention. Sea Transport Pest Management- An integrated approach that tackles the essential and perhaps the non-essential pest issues on board shipping vessel

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CHAPTER II

30

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Various authors and researchers have proposed models of Quality of working life which include a wide range of factors. Selected models are reviewed below.

The distinction made between job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in quality of working life reflects the influence of job satisfaction theories. Herzberg (1959) used Hygiene factors and Motivator factors to distinguish between the separate causes of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. It has been suggested that Motivator factors are intrinsic to the job, that is; job content, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. The Hygiene factors or Dissatisfaction-avoidance factors include aspects of the job environment such as interpersonal Relationships, salary, working conditions and security. Of these latter, the most common cause of job dissatisfaction can be company policy and administration, whilst achievement can be the greatest source of extreme satisfaction. An individuals experience of satisfaction or dissatisfaction can be substantially rooted in their perception, rather than simply reflecting their real world. Further, an individuals perception can be affected by relative comparison am I paid as much as that person - and comparisons of internalized ideals, aspirations, and expectations, for example, with the individuals current state (Lawler and Porter, 1966). Walton (1974) attributes the evolution of Quality of Work Life to various phases in history. Legislations enacted in early twentieth century to protect employees from jobinjury and to eliminate hazardous working conditions, followed by the unionization movement in the 1930s and 1940swere the initial steps in this direction. Emphasis was given to job security, due process at the work place and economic gains for the worker. The 1950s and the 1960s saw the development of different theories by psychologists proposing a positive relationship between morale and productivity that improved human relations. Attempts at reform to acquire equal employment opportunity and job enrichment schemes also were introduced. Finally in the1970s the idea of Quality of Work Life was conceived which according to Walton, is broader than these earlier developments and is something that must include the values that were at the heart of these earlier reform movements and human needs and aspirations. 31

Hackman and Oldham (1976) drew attention to what they described as psychological growth needs as relevant to the consideration of Quality of working life. Several such needs were identified; Skill variety, Task Identity, Task significance, Autonomy and Feedback. They suggested that such needs have to be addressed if employees are to experience high quality of working life.

Taylor (1979) more pragmatically identified the essential components of Quality of working life as; basic extrinsic job factors of wages, hours and working conditions, and the intrinsic job notions of the nature of the work itself. He suggested that a number of other aspects could be added, including; individual power, employee participation in the management, fairness and equity, social support, use of ones present skills, self development, a meaningful future at work, social relevance of the work or product, effect on extra work activities. Taylor suggested that relevant Quality of working life concepts may vary according to organization and employee group.

Warr and colleagues (1979), in an investigation of Quality of working life, considered a range of apparently relevant factors, including work involvement, intrinsic job motivation, higher order need strength, perceived intrinsic job characteristics, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, happiness, and self-rated anxiety. They discussed a range of correlations derived from their work, such as those between work involvement and job satisfaction, intrinsic job motivation and job satisfaction, and perceived intrinsic job characteristics and job satisfaction. In particular, Warr etal. found evidence for a moderate association between total job satisfaction and total life satisfaction and happiness, with a less strong, but significant association with self-rated anxiety.

Thus, whilst some authors have emphasized the workplace aspects in Quality of working life, others have identified the relevance of personality factors, psychological well being, and broader concepts of happiness and life satisfaction. Factors more obviously and directly affecting work have, however, served as the main focus of attention, as researchers have tried to tease out the important influences on Quality of working life in the workplace.

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Mirvis and Lawler (1984) suggested that Quality of working life was associated with satisfaction with wages, hours and working conditions, describing the basic elements of a good quality of work life as; safe work environment, equitable wages, equal employment opportunities and opportunities for advancement.

Miller, 1978; Kirkman, 1981; Metz, 1982; Mirvis & Lawler, 1984; Cooper, 1988) define the qualities of work life are broadly similar to the study on Singaporean Employees Development suggest four dimensions of Quality of work life labeled as, i) Favorable work environment ii) Personal growth and autonomy iii) Nature of job and iv)Stimulating opportunities and co-workers Good performance is recognized in addition to rewards being based upon performance while employees are respected and treated like mature people.

Baba and Jamal (1991) listed what they described as typical indicators of quality of working life, including: job satisfaction, job involvement, work role ambiguity, work role conflict, work role overload, job stress, organizational commitment and turn-over intentions. Baba and Jamal also explored routinisation of job content, suggesting that this facet should be investigated as part of the concept of quality of working life.

Singh-Sengupta (1993) in her study observed that one of the most critical and one of the least discussed elements in Quality of work life is the issue of power relations. In their series of observations in a wide range of organizations the top management is suffering from deficit of power as the non-managerial cadres amass all powers because of the strength of trade unions and their numerical strength. The study disclosed that the two groups, managers and workers seemed to be currently interdependent. Appropriate intervention programme may change the relationship to co-operatively interdependent. By correlating the Quality of Work life at Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT) with special reference to its Jammu & Kashmir Unit, Gani and Ahmad (1995) examined the empirical level of various components of QWL from their theoretical expositions. The study was carried out by personal interviews of the workers there. The results of the study are (i) the existing QWL in the organization under study is of an average standard (ii) compared to working 33

environment, rational and job factors, the financial factors present a dismal picture (iii) the absence of participative management culture, has given rise to harder beaurocratic controls, which has eroded creativity initiative and innovative capabilities of excellent performers. In an attempt to establish an inevitable linkage between the Quality of Work Life and the industrial relations processes, Mankidy (2000) observes that the more positive the Industrial relations processes, the greater the possibility of improved Quality of Work Life. Positive Industrial Relations should ensure better wages, flexible hours of work, conducive work environment, employment benefits, career prospects, job satisfaction, meaningful employee involvement in decision making etc. leading to better Quality of Work Life. The study concluded that the improved Quality of Work Life will naturally help to improve the family life of the employees and would also improve the performance of the organization. Sirgy et al.; (2001) suggested that the key factors in quality of working life are: Need satisfaction based on job requirements, Need satisfaction based on Work environment, Need satisfaction based on Supervisory behaviour, Need satisfaction based on Ancillary programmes, Organizational commitment. They defined quality of working life as satisfaction of these key needs through resources, activities, and outcomes stemming from participation in the workplace. Maslows needs were seen as relevant in underpinning this model, covering Health & safety, Economic and family, Social, Esteem, Actualization, Knowledge and Aesthetics, although the relevance of non-work aspects is play down as attention is focused on Quality of work life rather than the broader concept of quality of life.

Ellis and Pompli (2002) identified a number of factors contributing to job dissatisfaction and quality of working life in nurses, including: Poor working environments, Resident aggression, Workload, Unable to deliver quality of care preferred, Balance of work and family, Shift work, Lack of involvement in decision making, Professional isolation, Lack of recognition, Poor relationships with supervisor/peers, Role conflict, Lack of opportunity to learn new skills.

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Bearfield, (2003) used 16 questions to examine quality of working life, and distinguished between causes of dissatisfaction in professionals, intermediate clerical, sales and service workers, indicating that different concerns might have to be addressed for different groups.

The Study on Singaporean Employees development, Cheng S says in a high Quality of work life there should be a positive impact on personal life, an opportunity to be involved in decision as well as an acceptable level of physical comfort. Jobs seen to exist within high Quality of work life work situations are those in which there is minimal negative impact on ones personal life, and hopefully one which has a positive impact on ones personal life.

Cheng S in his paper Quality of work life through employee participation in Singapore has discussed the following four different approaches to Quality of work life Employee share option scheme, Joint management consultation, Quality circle and Industrial relations circle. National Seminar on improving the quality of working life (1982) was convened to enquire into the direction of Quality of Work Life activities in India and prepare an action plan for implementing the Quality of Work Life concepts. The recommendation from the National seminar published in the Journal of Productivity (1982) states that at the enterprise level, improvement of quality of work life should be through the co-operative endeavor between Management and unions. The conference pointed out that the Government could help in improving Quality of Work Life through legislation, executive policy and action through its entrepreneurial role in the public sector recommended the need for engaging and involving staff in the management and policy decisions for improvement in Quality of Work Life.

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CHAPTER III

36

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. This chapter states the Methodology adapted for the study by the researcher. This chapter deals with the methodology adopted for the study by the researcher. It includes Title, significance of the study, statement of the problem, aims and objectives, research hypothesis, research design, tools for data collection, statistical testing, definitions, limitation of the study, chapterisation of the study.

Title of the Project: The Research was done on the topic A STUDY ON QUALITY OF WORK LIFE at Pest Control India Pvt. Ltd.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Quality of work life covers various aspects under the general umbrella of supportive organizational behavior. Thus, the Quality of work life should be broad in its scope. It must be to evaluate the attitude of the employees towards the personnel policies. The research will be helpful in understanding the current position of the respective company. And provide some strategies to extent the employees satisfaction with little modification which is based on the internal facilities of the company. The purpose of this study was to explore to experience of workers towards their Quality of work life and their work environment in terms of stress, perception of employee, relationship between co-workers, work load, time pressure and work-balance etc.

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: The aim of the study includes the following factors towards the quality of Work life. They are such as poor working condition environments, resident aggression, balance of work and family, work load, inability to deliver quality of care preferred, shift timing, lack of involvement in work process and decision making, poor relationship between supervisor/ Team Leader, role conflict, lack of recognitions and lack of opportunity to learn new skills. Training is an important area were the workers can utilize for their self development and updating of their work knowledge. Ultimately every effort that the management takes for the worker and perseverance of the worker on their physical and the mental well being inside the organization that help in maintaining their motivation and satisfaction level which is important for effective performance of any worker. Thus the present study is an attempt describing their factors as a tool to access the Quality of work life of the employees.

AIM: To study the QUALITY OF WORK LIFE of the employees at PEST CONTROL INDIA PVT.LTD.

OBJECTIVES: To study the Socio-demographic details of the employees respondents. To study the perception level of employees to determine the Quality of work life of the Employees. To study the Social Relevance with work life pattern of the employees at Pest Control India Pvt. Ltd. To study the balance between the work and Home life of the employees. To study the overall Quality of work life of employees at Pest Control India Pvt. Ltd.

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RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: There is a significant difference between the departments of the respondents with regard to various dimension of QWL. There is a significant difference between the sex of the respondents with regard to various dimension of QWL. There is a significant difference between the marital status with regard to overall QWL. There is a significant difference among the designation of the respondents with regard to various dimension of QWL. There is a significant relationship between the age of the respondents with regard to overall dimensions of QWL. There is a significant relationship between the experiences of the respondents with regard to overall QWL.

RESEARCH DESIGN: A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. The researcher used Descriptive research design, because it helps to describe a particular situation prevailing within a company. Descriptive study was necessary to ensure the complete interpretation of the situation and to ensure minimum bias in the collection of data.

PILOT STUDY: The purpose behind the pilot study was to find out the feasibility and suitability of the study and to formulate the problem more specifically. The researcher carried out the pilot study and realized the need for study.

PRE-TEST: The researcher tested the questionnaire with 5 respondents and checked the suitability and aptness of the questionnaire. The necessary changes were made at the end of pretesting .The questionnaire is enclosed in the appendix.

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SAMPLE DESIGN: UNIVERSE: The universe constituted the various Departments includes Marketing, Product Sales, Service, Quality Assurance, Customer Care, Accounts & Administration and Finance Department. The total no. of employees of the above mentioned departments are 100. SAMPLE SIZE: For a research study to be perfect the sample size selected should be optimal i.e. it should neither be excessively large nor too small. Hence the sample size selected for the study was 50 employees of Pest Control India Pvt. Ltd.

SAMPLE METHOD: The researcher used Probability Sampling method. The data was collected using Simple Random method through Lottery method. RELIABILITY OF THE SCALE: The reliability of the scale is 0.689, alpha value.

TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION: The researcher used a standard questionnaire on Quality of work life(1999) was developed including all 8 dimensions basic major factors which were developed by Richard E. Walton (1975) The first part deals with Socio-Demographic details and the second part deals with the Dimensions.The dimensions of the question are as follows:
SL.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 QUALITY OF WORK LIFE DIMENSIONS TOTAL NO OF ITEMS 3 5 9 5 6 4 3 9

Adequate and fair compensation Safe and healthy working condition Opportunities for Development Opportunities for growth and security Social Integration Constitutionalism Work and life space Social relevance and working life

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SCORING: The perception of the workers were measured by giving scores to each response as 5,4,3,2,1 as instructed in the standard scale (i.e) 5- Strongly agree 4-Agree 3-undecided 2-disagree 1-Strongly Disagree It indicates the increase the score, higher the quality of work life.

DATA COLLECTION: The researcher distributed the questionnaire to the respondents and got the filled up questionnaire after a week for the staffs at Managerial level. The researcher used interview schedule to collect the responses of the questionnaire from the technicians. STATISTICAL TESTING: The researcher converted the data into tables To analyze the data, The statistical data namely karl-pearsons co-efficient of correlation was used to find out the relationship between two variables, studentt test was used to find out the difference two groups and one way analysis of variance was used to find out the variance between the groups and within the groups.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD: Both the Primary and Secondary data collection method were used in the project. First time collected data are referred to as primary data. In this research the primary data was collected by means of a Structured Questionnaire. Data which has already gone through the process of analysis or were used by someone else earlier is referred to secondary data. This type of data was collected from the books, journals, company records etc.

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DEFINITION CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION: Quality of work life It refers to the physical and mental well being of the workers in their work life is studied through the determinants of QWL like adequate and fair compensation, safe and healthy working condition, opportunities for development, opportunities for growth and security, social integration, constitutionalism, work and life space, social relevance and working life.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: Adequate and fair compensation: It is a just and equitable balance between effort and reward. The compensation should help the employee in maintaining a socially desirable standard of living.

Safe and healthy working conditions: Quality of work cannot be high unless the work environment is free from all hazards detrimental to the health and safety of employees. Reasonable hours of work, cleanliness, pollution free atmosphere, risk free work, etc are the main elements of a good physical environment for work.

Opportunity to use and develop human capacities: The job should contain sufficient variety of tasks to provide challenge and to ensure the utilization of talents. Today work has repetitive and mechanical so that the worker has little control on it. Quality of work life can be improved if the job allows sufficient autonomy and control, provides timely feedback on performance and uses a wide range of skills.

Opportunity for career growth: Opportunities for promotions are limited in case of all categories of employees either due to educational barriers or due to limited openings at the higher level. QWL provides future opportunity for continued growth and security by expanding ones capabilities, knowledge and qualifications.

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Social integration in work force: The worker should be made to feel a sense of identity with the organization and develop a feeling of self-esteem. Openness, trust, sense of community feeling, scope for upward mobility, equitable treatment is essential for its purpose.

Constitutionalisation in the work organization: QWL provides constitutional protection to the employees only to the level of desirability as it hampers workers. It happens because the managements action is challenged in every action and bureaucratic procedures need to be followed lat that level. Constitutional protection is provided to employees on such matters as privacy, free speech, equity and due process.

Work and personal life: There should be proper balance between work life and personal life of employees. The demands of work such as late hours, frequent travel, and quick transfers are both psychologically and socially very costly and detrimental to quality of work life.

Social relevance of works: QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial manner. The workers self esteem would be high if his work is useful to the society and the vice versa is also true.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: Converting qualitative data into quantitative data may often lead to inaccurate results. The respondents may not have expressed them strong negative feelings about the policies, which results in the error of central tendency. Few respondents were reluctant while answering the questions.

PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED BY THE RESEARCHER: Being a service oriented industry, matching time with technicians was a constraint.

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CHAPTERISATION: Chapter 1:- Introduction of the topic and organizational profile. Chapter 2:- It deals with review of literature. Chapter 3:- This chapter presents the research methodology. Chapter 4:- It deals with Analysis and interpretation. Chapter 5:- This chapter deals with findings, suggestion and conclusion.

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CHAPTER IV

45

DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION


Table 1 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE GROUP S. No. 1 2 3 4 Age Group 24 to 32 Years 33 to 40 Years 41 to 48 Years Above 48 Years No. of Respondents 21 11 10 8 Percentage 42.0 22.0 20.0 16.0

INFERENCE: The above table indicates that nearly half of the respondents (42%) belong to the age group of 24-32 years, while nearly one fourth of the respondents (22%) belong to the age group of 33-40 years, nearly 20% of the respondents belong to the age group of 41-48 years & rest of the respondents (16%) belong to the age group of above 48 years.

AGE GROUP
24 to 32 Years 33 to 40 Years 41 to 48 Years Above 48 Years 16%

42% 20%

22%

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Table 2 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS S. No. 1 2 INFERENCE: The above table shows that vast majority of the respondents (82%) were married, and 18 % of the respondents were unmarried. Marital Status Married Unmarried No. of Respondents 41 9 Percentage 82.0 18.0

unmarried 18%

Marital Status
married 82%

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Table 3 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX S. No. 1 2 INFERENCE: The above table shows that vast majority of the respondents (92%) were Male, rest of the respondents (8% ) were Female. Male Female Sex No. of Respondents 46 4 Percentage 92.0 8.0

Female 8%

Sex
Male 92%

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Table 4 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY DESIGNATION S. No. 1 2 3 4 INFERENCE: The above table indicates that nearly half of the respondents (40%) were Technicians, one third of the respondents (36%) were officers, one fourth of the respondents (24%) were Executives, & rest of the respondents (20%) were Managers. Designation Manager Officer Executive Technician No. of Respondents 10 8 12 20 Percentage 20.0 16.0 24.0 40.0

Technician 40%

Manager 20%

Designation
Executive 24%

Officer 16%

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Table 5 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY DEPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION S. No. Department Classification 1 2 INFERENCE: The above table shows that more than half of the respondents (68%) belong to Technical department and rest of respondents (32%) belong to Nontechnical department. Technical Non-Technical No. of Respondents 34 16 Percentage 68.0 32.0

RESPONDENTS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO DEPARTMENT

Non-Technical 32%

(Technical) 68%

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Table 6 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY EXPERIENCE S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Experience Upto 5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 years 21-25 years Above 25 years No. of Respondents 23 7 3 8 5 4 Percentage 46.0 14.0 6.0 16.0 10.0 8.0

INFERENCE: The above table shows that nearly half of the respondents (48%) have experience up to 5 years, nearly one third of the respondents (16%) have experience between 16 and 20 years, 14% of respondents have experience between 6 and 10 years, 10% of the respondents have experience between 21 and 25 years, 8% of the respondents have experience above 25 years and rest of the respondents (6%) are experienced between 11 and 15 years.

EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS


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14 6 Upto 5 years 6-10 years 16 10 8 11-15 years 16-20 years

21-25 years Above 25 years

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Table 7 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THEIR LEVEL OF QUALITY OF WORK LIFE S. No. of Respondents Level of Quality of Work Life Percentage No. (n:50) A 1 2 B 1 2 C 1 2 D 1 2 E 1 2 F 1 2 G 1 2 H 1 2 I 1 2 Level of Adequate & Fair Compensation Low Level High Level Level of Safe & Healthy Working Condition Low Level High Level Level of Opportunities for Development Low Level High Level Level of Opportunity for Growth & Security Low Level High Level Level of Social Integration Low Level High Level Level of Constitutionalism Low Level High Level Level of work & Life Space Low Level High Level Level of Social Relevance & Work Life Low Level High Level Level of Overall Quality of Work Life Low Level High Level 45 5 36 14 30 20 90.0 10.0 72.0 28.0 60.0 40.0

28 22 45 5 34 16 32 18 28 22 26 24

56.0 44.0 90.0 10.0 68.0 32.0 64.0 36.0 56.0 44.0 52.0 48.0

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INFERENCE: TABLE-7 A. Majority of the respondents (90%) have low level of Quality of work life due to Inadequate and Unfair Compensation. B. Majority of the respondents (72%) have low level of Quality of work life due to Unsafe & Unhealthy working condition. C. Majority of the respondents (60%) have low level of Quality of work life due to lack of Opportunities for development. D. Majority of the respondents (56%) have low level of Quality of work life due to lack of Opportunities for growth and security. E. Majority of the respondents (90%) have low level of Quality of work life due to low level of Social Integration. F. More than half of the respondents (68%) have low level of Quality of work life due to lack of Constitutionalism. G. More than half of the respondents (64%) have low level of Quality of work life in terms of Work & life space. H. More than half of the respondents (56%) have low level of Quality of work life in terms of Social relevance & work life. I. More than half of the respondents (52%) have low level of Overall quality of work life.

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Table 8 t TEST BETWEEN THE RESPONDENTS MARITAL STATUS WITH REGARD TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE S. No 1 Marital Status Level of Adequate & Fair Compensation Married Unmarried 2 41 9 12.20 10.56 1.83 2.35 N Mean Std. Deviation Statistical Inference t=2.309 df=48 P<0.05 Significant t=0.568 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=1.392 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=1.669 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-1.498 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-0.224 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=0.618 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=0.189 54

Level of Safe & Healthy Working Condition Married Unmarried 41 9 20.54 20.11 2.04 2.03

Level of Opportunities for Development Married Unmarried 41 9 35.80 34.22 2.78 4.32

Level of Opportunity for Growth & Security Married Unmarried 41 9 18.66 17.33 1.96 2.96

Level of Social Integration Married Unmarried 41 9 25.56 27.22 3.16 2.11

Level of Constitutionalism Married Unmarried 41 9 15.80 16.00 2.32 2.60

Level of work & Life Space Married Unmarried 41 9 11.88 11.56 1.40 1.51

Level of Social Relevance & Work Life

Married Unmarried 9 Level of Overall Quality of Work Life Married Unmarried

41 9

37.24 37.00

3.50 3.57

df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=0.945 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant

41 9

177.68 174.00

9.80 13.86

INFERENCE: There is a significant difference between the marital status of the respondents with regard to various dimension level of Adequate income and Fair Compensation. There is no significant difference between the marital status of the respondents with regard to the different dimension level of Safe and Healthy Working condition, Opportunities for development, Opportunities for growth & security, Social Integration, Constitutionalism, Work & life space, Social relevance & work life & Overall quality of work life.

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Table 9 t TEST BETWEEN THE RESPONDENTS SEX WITH REGARD TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE S. No 1 Sex Level of Adequate & Fair Compensation Male Female 2 46 4 11.80 13.00 2.07 0.00 N Mean Std. Deviation Statistical Inference t=-1.143 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=1.526 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-1.689 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-2.589 df=48 P>0.05 Significant t=-1.480 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-0.141 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-0.264 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=0.119 56

Level of Safe & Healthy Working Condition Male Female 46 4 20.59 19.00 2.04 1.15

Level of Opportunities for Development Male Female 46 4 35.30 38.00 3.14 1.41

Level of Opportunity for Growth & Security Male Female 46 4 18.20 21.00 2.15 0.00

Level of Social Integration Male Female 46 4 25.67 28.00 3.11 0.00

Level of Constitutionalism Male Female 46 4 15.83 16.00 2.44 0.00

Level of work & Life Space Male Female 46 4 11.80 12.00 1.47 0.00

Level of Social Relevance & Work Life

Male Female 9 Level of Overall Quality of Work Life Male Female

46 4

37.22 37.00

3.63 0.00

df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-1.389 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant

46 4

176.41 184.00

10.80 2.45

INFERENCE: There is a significant difference between the male & female of the respondents with regard to various dimension level of Opportunities for growth & security. There is no significant difference between the male & female of the respondents with regard to the different dimension level of Adequate income and Fair Compensation Safe and Healthy Working condition, Opportunities for development, Social Integration, Constitutionalism, Work & life space, Social relevance & work life & Overall quality of work life.

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Table10 t TEST BETWEEN THE RESPONDENTS DEPARTMENT WITH REGARD TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE S. No 1 Marital Status Level of Adequate & Fair Compensation Technical Non-Technical 2 34 16 12.03 11.63 1.83 2.39 N Mean Std. Deviation Statistical Inference t=0.659 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=1.738 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-1.039 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-2.034 df=48 P<0.05 Significant t=-0.220 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-0.200 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-0.832 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-0.069 58

Level of Safe & Healthy Working Condition Technical Non-Technical 34 16 20.79 19.75 1.97 2.02

Level of Opportunities for Development Technical Non-Technical 34 16 35.21 36.19 3.25 2.79

Level of Opportunity for Growth & Security Technical Non-Technical 34 16 18.00 19.31 2.22 1.92

Level of Social Integration Technical Non-Technical 34 16 25.79 26.00 2.89 3.46

Level of Constitutionalism Technical Non-Technical 34 16 15.79 15.94 2.52 1.98

Level of work & Life Space Technical Non-Technical 34 16 11.71 12.06 1.59 .93

Level of Social Relevance & Work Life

Technical Non-Technical 9 Level of Overall Quality of Work Life Technical Non-Technical

34 16

37.18 37.25

3.84 2.65

df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant t=-0.503 df=48 P>0.05 Not Significant

34 16

176.50 178.13

11.44 8.69

INFERENCE: There is a significant difference between the respondents Department with regard to various dimension level of Opportunities for growth & security. There is no significant difference between the male & female of the respondents with regard to the different dimension level of Adequate income and Fair Compensation Safe and Healthy Working condition, Opportunities for development, Social Integration, Constitutionalism, Work & life space, Social relevance & work life & Overall quality of work life.

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Table 11 ONE WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AMONG DESIGNATION OF THE RESPONDENTS WITH REGARD TO QUALITY OF WORK LIFE S.No 1 Designation SS df MS Mean Sig.

Level of Adequate & Fair Compensation Between Groups Within Groups 20.308 178.192 3 46 6.769 3.874 G1=11.90 G2=12.63 G3=10.83 G4=12.25 F= 1.748 P>0.05 Not Significant

Level of Safe & Healthy Working Condition Between Groups Within Groups 12.770 187.650 3 46 4.257 4.079 G1=20.80 G2=20.00 G3= 19.75 G4=20.90 F= 1.043 P>0.05 Not Significant

Level of Opportunities for Development Between Groups Within Groups 41.280 435.200 3 46 13.760 9.461 G1=36.40 G2=37.00 G3=34.50 G4= 35.10 F= 1.454 P>0.05 Not Significant

Level of Opportunity for Growth & Security Between Groups Within Groups 18.788 217.392 3 46 6.263 4.726 G1=19.10 G2=19.38 G3=17.83 G4= 18.05 F= 1.325 P>0.05 Not Significant

Level of Social Integration Between Groups Within Groups 97.228 358.792 3 46 32.409 7.800 G1=23.50 G2=26.38 G3=27.67 G4= 25.75 F= 4.155 P<0.05 Significant

Level of Constitutionalism Between Groups Within Groups 11.403 257.317 60 3 46 3.801 5.594 G1=15.70 G2=16.75 G3=16.08 F= 0.680 P>0.05 Not Significant

G4= 15.40 7 Level of work & Life Space Between Groups Within Groups 8 3.105 94.275 3 46 1.035 2.049 G1=11.80 G2=12.38 G3=11.75 G4= 11.65 F=0.505 P>0.05 Not Significant

Level of Social Relevance & Work Life Between Groups Within Groups 10.350 581.650 3 46 3.450 12.645 G1=37.70 G2=37.50 G3=37.50 G4= 36.65 F=0.273 P>0.05 Not Significant

Level of Overall Quality of Work Life Between Groups Within Groups 245.413 5235.567 G1=176.90 G2=182.00 G3=175.92 46 113.817 G4=175.75 3 81.804 F=0.719 P>0.05 Not Significant

G1=Manager G2=Officer

G3=Executive

G4=Technician

INFERENCE: There is a significant difference among the Designation of the respondents with regard to various dimension level of Social Integration. There is no significant difference among the Designation of the respondents with regard to the different dimension level of Adequate income and Fair Compensation Safe and Healthy Working condition, Opportunities for growth & security Opportunities for development, , Constitutionalism, Work & life space, Social relevance & work life & Overall quality of work life.

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Table 12 KARL PEARSONS COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN RESPONDENTS AGE AND VARIOUS ASPECTS OF QUUALITY OF WORK LIFE S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7 8 9 Age Age Vs Adequate & fair compensation Age Vs Safe & healthy Working Conditions Age Vs Opportunities for development Age Vs Opportunities for growth & Security Age Vs Social Integration Age Vs Constitutionalism Age Vs Work & life Space Age Vs Social relevance & working Life Age Vs Quality of Work life Correlation Value .368 -.049 .175 .294 -.274 .024 .263 .213 .204 Statistical Inference P<0.01 Highly Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P<0.05 Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P>0.05 Not Significant

INFERENCE: There is a highly significant relationship between the Age of the respondents with regard to level of Adequate income and Fair Compensation. There is a significant relationship between the Age of the respondents with regard to level of Opportunities for growth & security. There is no significant relationship between the Age of the respondents with regard to the different dimension level of Safe and Healthy Working condition, Opportunities for development, Social Integration, Constitutionalism, Work & life space, Social relevance & work life & Overall quality of work life. 62

Table 13 KARL PEARSONS COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION BETWEEN RESPONDENTSEXPERIENCE AND VARIOUS ASPECTS OF QUUALITY OF WORK LIFE S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7 8 9 Experience Experience Vs Adequate & fair compensation Experience Vs Safe & healthy Working Conditions Experience Vs Opportunities for development Experience Vs Opportunities for growth & Security Experience Vs Social Integration Experience Vs Constitutionalism Experience Vs Work & life Space Experience Vs Social relevance & working Life Experience Vs Quality of Work life Correlation Value .355 -.111 .174 .315 -.113 .139 .299 .285 .295 Statistical Inference P<0.05 Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P<0.05 Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P>0.05 Not Significant P<0.05 Significant P<0.05 Significant P<0.05 Significant

INFERENCE: There is a significant relationship between the experience of the respondents with regard to various dimensions of level of Adequate income and Fair Compensation, Opportunities for growth & security, Work & life space, Social relevance & work life & quality of work life. There is no significant relationship between the experience of the respondents with regard to the different dimensions of level of Safe and Healthy Working condition, Opportunities for development, Social Integration & Constitutionalism. 63

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CHAPTER V

65

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS & CONCLUSION


MAJOR FINDINGS:

Nearly half of the respondents (42%) belong to the age group of 24-32 years. Vast majority of the respondents (82%) were married. Vast majority of the respondents (92%) were Male. Nearly half of the respondents (40%) were Technicians. More than half of the respondents (68%) belong to Technical department. Nearly half of the respondents (48%) have experience up to 5 years. FINDINGS RELATED TO RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: 1 There is significant difference between marital status of the respondents with regard to various dimensions of quality of work life. NULL HYPOTHESIS: There is no significant difference between marital status with regard to overall quality of work life. STATISTICAL TEST APPLIED: T-test has been applied for this analysis. FINDINGS: There is no significant difference between marital status with regard to overall quality of work life. Hence Null Hypothesis is accepted.

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RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: 2 There is significant difference between the sex of the respondents with regard to various dimensions quality of work life. NULL HYPOTHESIS: There is no significant difference between the sex of the respondents with regard to various dimensions quality of work life. STATISTICAL TEST APPLIED: T-test has been applied for this analysis. FINDINGS: There is no significant difference between the sex of the respondents with regard to various dimensions quality of work life. Hence Null Hypothesis is accepted.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: 3 There is significant difference between the Departments of the respondents with regard to various dimensions quality of work life. NULL HYPOTHESIS: There is no significant difference between the Departments of the respondents with regard to various dimensions quality of work life. STATISTICAL TEST APPLIED: T-test has been applied for this analysis. FINDINGS: There is no significant difference between the Departments of the respondents with regard to various dimensions quality of work life. Hence Null Hypothesis is accepted.

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RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: 4 There is significant difference among the designation of the respondents with regard to various dimensions quality of work life. NULL HYPOTHESIS: There is no significant difference among the designation of the respondents with regard to various dimensions quality of work life. STATISTICAL TEST APPLIED: F-test has been applied for this analysis. FINDINGS: There is no significant difference among the designation of the respondents with regard to various dimensions quality of work life. Hence Null Hypothesis is accepted.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: 5 There is significant relationship between the age of the respondents with regard to overall dimensions quality of work life. NULL HYPOTHESIS: There is no significant relationship between the age of the respondents with regard to overall dimensions quality of work life. STATISTICAL TEST APPLIED: Karl Pearsons correlation test has been applied for this analysis. FINDINGS: There is no significant relationship between the age of the respondents with regard to overall dimensions quality of work life. Hence Null Hypothesis is accepted.

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RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: 6 There is a significant relationship between the experience of the respondents with regard to overall dimensions of quality of work life. NULL HYPOTHESIS: There is a significant relationship between the experience of the respondents with regard to overall dimensions of quality of work life. STATISTICAL TEST APPLIED: Karl Pearsons correlation test has been applied for this analysis. FINDINGS: There is a significant relationship between the experience of the respondents with regard to overall dimensions of quality of work life. Hence Null Hypothesis is rejected.

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SUGGESTIONS
The employees of Pest Control India Pvt. Ltd. may be provided with the following from the Company. o Improvement in rewarding and awarding policies. o Introduction of Promotion policy at operation level Improving good relationship with employees and providing friendly environment in the organization. The Company may establish career development systems. Employees may be given high motivation from the top management of the Company. All employees may be given more compensation, in the form of incentives from the Company as a token of recognition of high achievers. Employees may be given special training from the Company related to their job during working period. The Company has to measure the quality of work life periodically.

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CONCLUSION
From the study it is clear that Quality of work life of employees in Pest Control India Pvt. Ltd is good. This research highlights some of the small gaps in employees satisfaction towards the Company. The Quality Mission should include not only the quality of products; but also the quality of work life of the employees. Quality of work life can be improved upon by having good supervision, good working conditions, good pay and benefits, an interesting and challenging, and a rewarding job, more positive the Industrial relations processes, the greater the possibility of improved Quality of Work Life. Positive Industrial Relations should ensure better wages, flexible hours of work, conducive work environment, employment benefits, career prospects, job satisfaction, and meaningful employee involvement in decision making etc. ultimately leads to better Quality of Work Life. Since the employees are the backbone of the company, the company should satisfy them in order to improve the business in higher competitive market of the liberalized economy considering the above mentioned factors.

71

ANNEXURE

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. K. Aswathappa (1997), Human Resources and Personal Management Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi 110 001. 2. John M. Ivancevich (2003), Human Resources and Personal Management Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi 110 001. 3. C. R. Kothari (2001) Research Methodology of Wishwa Prakashan Publishing, Chennai 17, Edition 4. C. B. Mamoria and S. V. Gankar (2001), Personnel Management Text & Cases, Himalaya Publishing house Mumbai, XXI Edition. 5. Biswaject pattanayak (2001), Human Resources and Personal Management Prentice Hall of India Pvt., Ltd. New Delhi. 6. Biswaject pattanayak (2001), Human Resources and Personal Management Prentice Hall of India Pvt., Ltd. New Delhi. 7. Quality of Work Life, Lee M. Ozley and Judith S. Ball, HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT HANDBOOK, edited by William R. Tracey, Ed. D., AMACOM, 1985. 8. Wozner, Y. (1982). Assessing the quality of internal life. Human Relations, vol. 35 (11): 1059-1072 9. Lau, R.S.M., and B.E. May. "A Win-Win Paradigm for Quality of Work Life and Business Performance." Human Resource Development Quarterly 9, (1998): 211226. 10. Cole, J. "Building Heart and Soul: Increased Employer Concern for Employees." HR Focus, September 1998, 9. no. 3

WEBSITES: www.citehr.hr.edu www.sribd.com www.wikipedia.com www.ask.com

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ANNEXURE QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


Objective I would be obliged if you fill in the questionnaire for the study. I promise that the data given by you will be kept confidential and will be used for academic purpose only. Please answer all the questions truly and objectively.

Personal Data
1. Age 2. Marital Status 3. Sex 4. Designation 5. Department 6. Experience : : : : : : married male unmarried Female

You are requested to tick any one of the following options. 1. SA-StronglyAgree 2.A-Agree 3.UD-Undecided 4.D-Disagree 5.SD-Strongly Disagree.

Adequate and fair compensation


07. 08. 09. I am satisfied with the income from the work. My financial needs are fulfilled adequately I will continue in the present job regardless of pay.

SA

UD D

SD

Safe and healthy working condition.


10. I am so occupied with my work that I hardly spare time for my coworkers. 11. My working conditions of working place is irritating. 12. My organisation is over crowded and dirty.

13.

The noise and illumination of working place 74

is irritating. 14. The work environment places more emphasis on machines then individuals.

Opportunities for development


15. The information passed from one person to another in the organisation is deliberately made in accurate. 16. Almost everyone here knows who is working under whom. 17. New ideas to bring changes in the organisation is appreciated. 18. I get adequate information about what is going on in other department and units in the organisation. 19. I have freedom of taking decision for my job and implement them. 20. My job provides with meaningful information about total work process and results. 21. The organisation facilitates the self improvement of the members. 22. 23. I get correct information about my job. I feel isolated from my organisation in terms of the total task.

SA

UD D

SD

75

Oppurtunities for growth and security.


24. My work is too challenging and trying the limit of my ability. 25. There are facilities and opportunities for individual creative work in the organisation. 26. In my work group my own achievements are not given importance . 27. 28. I get opportunities to improve my job skills. I have opportunities to advance in the Organisational career.

Social Integration.
29. All the member of the organisation have the sense of one community . 30. The member of the organisation is not discriminated by others on cast, religion and life style 31. The member of the organisation is not discriminated on the basis of status, physical appearance. 32. 33. Working in the group is no problem here. I think that the senior staff members pay attention to grievances of the junior staff. 34. I prefer to accomplish work individually then in the team.

SA

UD D

SD

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Constitutionalism
35. My views are taken into account resolving work related problem. 36. I think that the inner group relation of the organisation is satisfactory. 37. The organisation encourages the mutual help in the work group. 38. The organisation takes care of the welfare of the person of all ages.

Work and life space


39. I receive equal treatment in all matters like employee compensation, job security . 40. My organisation believe that there is one best for every one . 41. My organisation function as a socially responsible unit .

Social relevance and working life.


42. 43. 44. I think that my job lowers my social prestige. My job has to improve social security I feel that my organisation is too heavily Production orientated. 45. My work life matches the social life than I am leading. 46. My organisation is aware of methods of prevention of industrial pollution. 47. 48. My job satisfies my needs in general. I neglect my health due to my job. schemes.

SA

UD D

SD

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49.

My social and individual requirements are neglected in the present organisation.

50.

The energy and time that I spent on the job affect my life adversely.

Thank You

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