TQM WITH QUALITY CIRCLE AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

The project is presented by Name Tejal Darde Smita Gujar Aruna Gujarathi Kavita Jadhav Sonal Jethi Roll No. 4 10 11 14 15

Praneela Patil

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INDEX
SR.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. TOPIC NAME INTRODUCTION OF TQM FEATURES OF TQM NEED OF TQM PRINCIPLES OF TQM BENEFITS OF TQM ELEMENTS OF TQM INTRODUCTION OF QUALITY CIRCLE HISTORY OF QUALITY CIRCLE NEED OF QUALITY CIRCLE OBJECTIVES OF QUALITY CIRCLE FUNCTIONS OF QUA;ITY CIRCLE STRUCTURE OF QUALITY CIRCLE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF QUALITY CIRCLE INTRODUCTION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE HISTORY OF QUALITY ASSURANCE

16. 17. 18. 19.

PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCESS QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SERVICE INDUSTRY QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDIT

INTRODUCTION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

Total Quality Management (or TQM) is a management concept coined by W. Edwards Deming. TQM can be defined as follows: “ TQM is a management approach that place emphasis on continuous improvement in quality, in the interest of the organization and that of its customers.” The basis of TQM is to reduce the errors produced during the manufacturing or service process, increase customer satisfaction, streamline supply chain management, aim for modernization of equipment and ensure workers have the highest level of training. The application of TQM can vary tremendously from business to business, even across the same industry. TQM is not a remedial procedure for better products. It is a march towards excellence and perfection. TQM is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. TQM has been widely used in manufacturing, education, government and service industries, as well as NASA space and science programs. TQM is a strategic approach that focuses on production of best possible

product or service through constant innovation and timely action. It places emphasis on prevention of errors rather than of its customers.”

What is TQM? What is Quality? • Quality is generally defined as conformance to requirements. It is also conformance to a standard that is required. However, many consider that quality need not just be conformance to requirements but should be an assurance of being the best in the world of that type. In addition, it should also keep a constancy of purpose.

What is Total Quality?

Total quality refers not only to the product but also to the way the product is made as well as presented to the customer. Total quality asks for customer orientation, process orientation, people management and leadership. All these are continuous processes.

What is TQM?

it deals with process orientation and continuous improvement of the process. It is a continuous improvement plan. then it is possible to meet the requirements of the external customers. • Continuous process:TQM is a continuous process. It asks people to continuously look for new ways to adapt to the changing environment. and to reduce internal costs. If the internal customers’ requirements are agreed and met. Quality improvements help the organization to face the challenges of the . FEATURES OF TQM • Customer focus:TQM places emphasis in meeting the requirements of both the internal and the external customer. In order to meet the requirements of the external customer. It strives for empowerment and autonomy of the people involved in using processes of production. with an effort to bring out the best for the stakeholders as well as for the institution.• TQM is a people driven process. it is necessary to meet the needs of the internal customer. In addition. Constant and continuous efforts are made to improve the quality. It involves changes in people’s attitudes primarily.

the way a footballer aims to shoot the penalty kick or an archer aims for the bull’s eye on a target. marketing. finance. Some examples of recognition . • Employees involvement:In TQM everyone is involved in the process from the managing director to the junior clerk or worker in the organization. Reduction in costs helps to generate higher returns to the organization. working smarter or zero defects. There is always a possibility for new and better way of doing things. The idea is to strive for perfection in the work. because at no time quality can be 100% right. Positive reinforcement through recognition and reward is essential to maintain achievement and continuous improvement in quality. • Defect-free approach:TQM place emphasis on the defect free work most of the time. Recognition is a means of encouraging individuals and groups by acknowledging their achievements.competitors and to meet the requirements of the customers. TQM is a process which goes on forever. It is not just manufacturing people. The defect free approach is phrased in various ways as right first time. but also the accounting. and even the canteen people are involved in TQM process. • Recognition and rewards:Recognition and rewards is an integral part of company’s TQM programme.

Engineers. etc. The systems approach starts with the commitment and leadership of the chief executive officer. promotion with higher status and pay. Rewards are in the form of financial benefits linked to performance. This includes merit pay. • Synergy in team work:The Japanese are great believers in synergy (to work together). presentation of achievement at management reviews. and workers look upon themselves as equals and communicate easily as. Without the total commitment on the part of chief executive officer & his senior executives. it is also possible to reduce time-consuming low value activities.are a letter of thanks. etc. they work side by side. statistical process control. • Techniques:TQM can take place by following various techniques such as quality circles. etc. value engineering. • System approach:TQM is a systems approach to managing business and improving performance. technicians. award of merit certificates. TQM cannot take off to a good start. . hosting of lunches or dinners.

NEED OF TQM • Customer satisfaction:TQM stresses the need to satisfy both the internal as well as the external customer. ( internal customer refers to the person within the company who receives the work of another and then adds his or her contribution to the product or service before passing it on to someone else. in a restaurant. the chef has the waiters as internal . For example.

the initial focus should be on meeting the needs of internal customer before all attempt is made to meet the requirements of the external customer. • Goodwill:TQM generates name and reputation to the company in the market. at the lowest possible cost. • Helps to face completion:A proper emphasis on TQM enables a company to face competition in the market. This leads to greater involvement and participation of the employees. The employees become aware of their importance in the company’s performance and progress. To do so. shade and other features. This is because of high quality product.design.customers and the chef must meet their requirements if they are to please the guests. the eventual buyer of the product or service. produced by a dedicated team of work force.) TQM must. colour. There is willingness on the part of the employees to identify quality improvements and waste elimination opportunities. . variety. This is because of its constant efforts in bringing the improvement in the products. • Highly motivated personnel:TQM develops a sense of dedication and discipline in the employees. focus on the customers. The company may even come out as a winner or a leader. size. shape.

• Lower rejection rate:Internal rejection rate gets reduced considerably over a period of time. The goods are produced at acceptable quality levels (AQL) or with zero defects. • Reduction in customer complaints:TQM results in less or no customer complaints. efforts are made to improve upon the customer specification so as to provide complete satisfaction. This is because the products are built to specification with zero defects.The employees receive recognition and rewards for their services. This is because of higher sales. right first time approach. those who perform exceptionally well or who provide valuable suggestions are recognized with appreciation.. just in time approach. Various initiatives such as quality circles. • Better facilitates to employees:TQM results in higher benefits to the organsation in terms of increased profits. etc. This results in enhanced ‘job ownership’ of employees. enables the company to reduce rejection rate. Since TQM is widely followed in Japan. they are in a position not only to manufacture the goods at acceptable quality levels but with zero defects. and are rewarded with promotion and monetary incentives. process control. and cost reduction . Again.

and so on. This enables a company to expand and diversify. PRINCIPLES OF TQM .efforts on the part of the company. recreation facilities. It also brings in higher returns. • Expansion and diversification:TQM generates a good name in the market. The higher profits are utilized in a way to provide better facilities to the employees in terms of training. working conditions. salary. amenities like canteen facilities. The company may be in a better position to introduce more brands or product lines. transport facilities.

• The customer is the ultimate determiner of quality. it is important to determine who the customers are and define their specific needs. Since improved quality comes from improvements during the processes leading up to the delivery of the product or service. • Achieving quality requires continuous improvements. but to every other organizations that is servicing their needs. with the needs of the customer in mind. It is important to remember that when customers are assessing quality. they are not simply comparing us to our performance last year. • Quality management requires the involvement of all staff and partners. • Quality should be built into the process from the beginning. . Expectations of customer are always changing and continue rising as quality management begins to yield results. Therefore. all levels and divisions of an organization must be involved in developing quality. All levels of an organization must be involved in producing a quality product and not just try to modify it before delivery. and not simply derive from customer complaints. Services and programs should be designed.

In reality. • Greater mission survivability. How can this be? A focus on quality extends the time between failures on equipment and improves the efficiency of our operations. Direct benefits of TQM are as follows: • Increased pride of workmanship among individual workers. It also reduces mistakes and produces monetary savings through more efficient use of scarce resources.BENEFITS OF TQM A popular myth among military managers holds that increased quality results in increased costs and decreased productivity. improved quality ultimately results in decreased costs and increased productivity. • Improved sustainability caused by extended time between equipment failures. • Streamlined maintenance and production processes. • Increased readiness. . It reduces rework requirements as well as the need for special waivers of standards. • Better justification for budgets because of more efficient operations.

both internal and external i. rechecking.e. This concept helps to strengthen the co-operation within the organization.. revaluation.ELEMENTS OF TQM 1. 4. the customer is the next process and not just a person who pays for the product or service. the employees and the users of the end product . eliminate internal competition and drives away fear. but there is no end.the students. Universal Responsibility:- . Customer Focus:It is important to focus on the customer. valuation. 2. engineering and re-engineering are essential to ensure continuous improvement. 3. Checking. In TQM parlance. Continuous Improvement:There is a beginning to the process of TQM. Employee involvement:People at all levels make up an organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for an institution's benefit.

The quality measurement aspect of TQM asks the question: where are we and where are we going? A basic TQM concept is that quality is a measurable commodity. the commitment to do so has to start at the top. 7. and we need to have some idea of where we are going (or what quality levels we aspire to reach). "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure". A Sustained Management Commitment to Quality:An organization’s performance and culture will ultimately reflect its senior management's values. what the current quality levels are). rather than simply to detect and sort out defects. and in order to improve.A TQM leader has to learn that inspection is not a means to achieve quality. we need to know where we are (or stated differently. TQM helps us to recognize the fact that it is we ourselves who are responsible for quality work. If an organizations serious about implementing TQM. One eliminates the need for inspection by building quality into the product in the first place. not someone else who will check it after it is done. 5. and the organization’s senior management has to be unwavering in its commitment to quality. . you will probably end up somewhere" is a saying particularly relevant to TQM. 6. Addressing Deficiencies:TQM is a management philosophy that seeks to prevent poor quality in products and services. Quality Measurement:"If you do not know where you are going.

Benchmarking:Benchmarking consists of identifying other organizations that perform well and incorporating their wisdom into one's organization.8. and then adapting the best practices of these organizations to one's functioning. . This TQM philosophy consists of defining the competitors' best features from both internal and customer perspectives.

true quality circles become self-managing. analyze and solve work-related problems and present their solutions to management in order to improve the performance of the organization. but when used in group form (as is the case with quality circles). it can be devastatingly powerful and enables the enrichment of the lives of the workers or students and creates harmony and high performance in the workplace. and motivate and enrich the work of employees. which when operated on an individual basis is uneconomic. .INTRODUCTION OF QUALITY CIRCLE A quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers (or even students). having gained the confidence of management. Quality circles are an alternative to the dehumanising concept of the division of labour. usually under the leadership of their supervisor (but they can elect a team leader). where workers or individuals are treated like robots. who are trained to identify. When matured. They bring back the concept of craftsmanship.

improving product design. It implies the development of skills. It also implies the creation of facilitative conditions and environment of work. The term quality circles derive from the concept of PDCA (Plan. Do.Typical topics are improving occupational safety and health. which creates and sustains their motivation and commitment towards work excellence. information gathering and analysis. training. capabilities. confidence and creativity of the people through cumulative process of education. They meet at least once a week on company time and are trained by competent persons (usually designated as facilitators) who may be personnel and industrial relations specialists trained in human factors and the basic skills of problem identification. They are formal groups. as there are other channels through which these issues are usually considered). Quality Circle is one of the employee participation methods. Quality circles have the advantage of continuity. and solution generation. (For a comparison to Quality Improvement Teams. the circle remains intact from project to project. Quality circles are generally free to select any topic they wish (other than those related to salary and terms and conditions of work. see Juran's Quality by Design. Quality Circles have emerged as a mechanism to develop and utilize the tremendous potential of people for improvement in product quality and productivity. . work experience and participation. Act) circles developed by Dr. Edward Deming. and improvement in the workplace and manufacturing processes. Quality circles are not normally paid a share of the cost benefit of any improvements but usually a proportion of the savings made is spent on improvements to the work environment. check. W. basic statistics.

. Quality Circle is a problem solving technique. Quality Circle is a form of participation management. experience. his wisdom. b. It is "a way of capturing the creative and innovative power that lies within the work force". It is based upon the human resource management considered as one of the key factors in the improvement of product quality & productivity. as someone who willingly activises on his job. Quality Circle is a human resource development technique.Quality Circle is a small group of 6 to 12 employees doing similar work who voluntarily meet together on a regular basis to identify improvements in their respective work areas using proven techniques for analyzing and solving work related problems coming in the way of achieving and sustaining excellence leading to mutual upliftment of employees as well as the organization. intelligence. The concept of Quality Circle is primarily based upon recognition of the value of the worker as a human being. attitude and feelings. Quality Circle concept has three major attributes: a. c.

ref Don Dewar who together with Wayne Ryker and Jeff Beardsley first established them in 1972 at the Lockheed Space Missile Factory in California. as it (was not properly understood and) turned out to be a fault-finding exercise although some circles do still exist. By 1978 it was claimed that there were more than one million Quality Circles involving some 10 million Japanese workers. . There are now Quality Circles in most East Asian countries. The movement in Japan was coordinated by the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). Kaoru Ishikawa has been credited with their creation. it was recently claimed that there were more than 20 million Quality Circles in China.HISTORY OF QUALITY CIRCLE Quality circles were first established in Japan in 1962. However this was not successful in the United States. and QCFI (Quality Circle Forum of India) is promoting such activities. Quality circles have been implemented even in educational sectors in India. The first circles were established at the Nippon Wireless and Telegraph Company but then spread to more than 35 other companies in the first year.

There are different quality circle tools. Others have experimented with quality circles with the best intentions and faced several obstacle.  Process Mapping.which analyses different causes by frequency to illustrate the vital cause. spot charts and pie charts NEED OF QUALITY CIRCLE The need for public and private businesses to improve quality of services is no longer an option but a necessity. This trend has been more heightened with the onset of free open trade and Customers demanding so much more for their dollars. Since the early 1960’s businesses across the Globe have been searching for ways to improve overall operational efficiency. Data gathering tools such as Check Sheets and graphical tools such as histograms. frequency diagrams.which shows hierarchies of causes contributing to a problem  The Pareto Chart . Some organizations have successfully implemented the use of quality circles as part of an ongoing improvement programme. . but what is true is that this type of participatory management brings several benefits to all concerned. namely:  The Ishikawa or fishbone diagram .

OBJECTIVES OF QUALITY CIRCLE The objective of QCC is to improve and upgrade quality of work through: (a) The problem solving capability of the workers. (e) High motivation for work. (d) Involvement and interest in work. the group. and (f) Awareness of responsibility towards oneself. (c) The cultivation and assimilation of positive values and work ethics. . (b) Team work. the department / office and the nation.

to discuss work-related issues and to offer suggestions and ideas for improvements. but no matter the name. Generally. Normally. the quality circle is a small group of employees who voluntarily meet at regular times to identify. analyze and solve quality and other problems in their working environment. The ideal size of a quality circle is from eight to ten members. members of a quality circle face and share similar problems in their daily work lives and create a programme to tap human creative energy that is capable of generating handsome rewards. often with management. as in production methods or quality control. their functions share similar characteristics. Quality circles are also commonly known as work improvement or quality teams. . Quality circles can recommend and implement improvement strategies and be a useful reservoir for the generation of new ideas.FUNCTIONS OF QUALITY CIRCLE A group of employees who perform similar duties and meet at periodic intervals.

TOP MANAGEMENT: The success of the quality circles depends solely on the attitude of the Top management and plays an important role to ensure the success of implementation of quality circles in the organization. The meetings are conveyed at . STEERING COMMITTEE: Steering committee called middle management consists of chief executive heads of different divisions or a coordinator plays a positive role in quality circles activities for the success of the efforts. 2.STRUCTURE OF QUALITY CIRCLE ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES 1.

. innovator. This is at the top of the structure.least once in one to two months interval. It is headed by a senior executive and includes representatives from the top management personnel and human resources development people. plans and directs the program and meets usually once in a month. He may be a senior supervisory officer. (i) Communicating with all levels of management and obtaining their support and assistance. promoter and teacher and is nominated by the management. CO-ORDINATOR: Co-ordinator also acts as facilitators is an individual responsible for coordinating and directing the quality circles activities within an organization and carries out such functions as would make the operations. It establishes policy. He may be a Personnel or Administrative officer who co-ordinates and supervises the work of the facilitators and administers the programme. 3. He co-ordinates the works of several quality circles through the Circle leaders. 4. (ii) Providing training to QCC leaders and assisting in training of QCC members where required. FACILITATOR: Facilitator also acts as a catalyst.

(i) Training members on problems-solving techniques with the assistance of the facilitator where required. 1. and (vii) Evaluating the costs and benefits of the QCC programme and reporting to the Management. As a resource person to the Circle. (v) (vi) As a mediator in problem-solving. LEADER: Leader of the quality circles is chosen by the members among themselves and they may decide to have a leader by rotation since the members are the basic elements of the structure of quality circle. .(iii) (iv) Maintaining an open and supportive environment. Ensuring QCC members direct their activities to work-related problems.

(iii) Assisting the Circle members in record keeping and in the preparation of management presentations.(ii) Responsible for the smooth operation of QCC activities and fostering the spirit of cooperation and harmony among members. . (iv) Conducting meetings in an orderly and effective manner. 1. MEMBERS: Members of the quality circles are the small group of people from the same work area or doing similar type of work whereas non-members are those who are not members of the quality circle but may be involved in the circle recommendation. (vi) Encouraging other workers to become members. Directing their efforts towards solving work-related problems. (v) Showing interest and support to the Circle. and (i) Enforcing team discipline. (vii) Assisting members in problem-solving. (i) (ii) Attending meetings regularly.

contributing ideas. (iv) Participating in management presentations.(iii) Identifying problems. INTRODUCTION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE . undertaking research and investigation (where necessary) and assisting the QCC in problemsolving.

services related to production. Whatever is the business. quality is the most important aspect. The popularity of your product or service will enhance. Low price is also another way to increase sales. if your product or service does not have standard quality. Quality assurance is a . one should never ever compromise with the quality aspect.Quality assurance is the main pillar of any business. which affects the level of success of the business. products and components. assemblies. Being an entrepreneur. only if you provide quality. but makes this more likely. you have to assure the quality of your product or service by conducting some scientific measures. But. Quality assurance. even if it has the lowest price. QA. Two key principles characterize QA: "fit for purpose" (the product should be suitable for the intended purpose) and "right first time" (mistakes should be eliminated). refers to planned and systematic production processes that provide confidence in a product's suitability for its intended purpose. either finance or a storage facility or any service. QA cannot absolutely guarantee the production of quality products. and management. QA includes regulation of the quality of raw materials. reliable fashion. production and inspection processes. Thus. then a customer will never use it in future. unfortunately. It is a set of activities intended to ensure that products (goods and/or services) satisfy customer requirements in a systematic. Quality assurance is the process of verifying or determining whether products or services meet or exceed customer expectations.

Check: Monitor and evaluate the implemented process by testing the results against the predetermined objectives • Act: Apply actions necessary for improvement if the results require changes. ✔ This system of checking your organization’s quality is an ongoing process. These steps are commonly abbreviated as PDCA. This process considers design. ✔ QA can also be a way of measuring what your organization does against other organizations doing similar work or against set. The monitoring of what your organization does and how it does it is . and service. The four quality assurance steps within the PDCA model stand for: • Plan: Establish objectives and processes required to deliver the desired results. ✔ A QA system is a way of checking. developed by Dr. The most popular tool used to determine quality assurance is the Shewhart Cycle. Edwards Deming.process-driven approach with specific steps to help define and attain goals. This cycle for quality assurance consists of four steps: Plan. and Act. Check. development. Do. members. • • Do: Implement the process developed. production. ✔ Quality Assurance (QA) is a way for your organization to make sure that it is always delivering the best it can to its service users. volunteers and funders. recognized standards. through continuous monitoring and evaluation of your performance and through the collection of evidence. W. that your organization is continuously improving what it does and how it does it.

continuous to ensure that you are always meeting the new standards that are always developing. .

. For this reason. Centuries later. for example the four sides of the base of the Great Pyramid of Giza were required to be perpendicular to within 3. Royal governments purchasing material were interested in quality control as customers. guilds adopted responsibility for quality control of their members. it was possible for workers to control the quality of their own products. Samuel Pepys. The Industrial Revolution led to a system in which large groups of people performing a similar type of work were grouped together under the supervision of a foreman who was appointed to control the quality of work manufactured. During the Middle Ages. setting and maintaining certain standards for guild membership.5arcseconds.HISTORY OF QUALITY ASSURANCE Early efforts to control the quality of production Early civil engineering projects needed to be built from specifications. Secretary to the British Admiralty. Prior to the extensive division of labor and mechanization resulting from the Industrial Revolution. appointed multiple such overseers. King John of England appointed William Wrotham to report about the construction and repair of ships. Working conditions then were arguably more conducive to professional pride.

which was required during the Second World War. Some of the initial work for SQC is credited to Walter A. Standard statistical techniques allow the producer to sample and test a . Shewhart of Bell Labs. Quality control by inspection in the 1920s and 1930s led to the growth of quality inspection functions. even where 100 per cent inspection is not practicable. when some attention was given to the cost of scrap and rework.Wartime production Around the time of World War I. To counter bad workmanship. it provides inspectors with control tools such as sampling and control charts. separately organized from production and big enough to be headed by superintendents. or SQC. full time inspectors were introduced into the factory to identify. This period saw the widespread introduction of mass and piecework. it became necessary to introduce a more appropriate form of quality control which can be identified as Statistical Quality Control. By extending the inspection phase and making inspection organizations more efficient. SQC came about with the realization that quality cannot be fully inspected into an important batch of items. which created problems as workmen could now earn more money by the production of extra products. manufacturing processes typically became more complex with larger numbers of workers being supervised. With the impact of mass production. starting with his famous one-page memorandum of 1924. The systematic approach to quality started in industrial manufacture during the 1930s. mostly in the USA. quarantine and ideally correct product quality failures. which in turn led to bad workmanship being passed on to the assembly lines.

and these groups utilized these concepts in the redevelopment of the Japanese economy.S. many countries' manufacturing capabilities that had been destroyed during the war were rebuilt. . General MacArthur involved two key individuals in the development of modern quality concepts: W. Although there were many individuals trying to lead United States industries towards a more comprehensive approach to quality.S. essentially ignoring advances in QA for decades.certain proportion of the products for quality to achieve the desired level of confidence in the quality of the entire batch or production run. Both individuals promoted the collaborative concepts of quality to Japanese business and technical groups. Postwar In the period following World War II. continued to apply the Quality Control (QC) concepts of inspection and sampling to remove defective product from production lines. The U. the U. During this time. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran. sent General Douglas MacArthur to oversee the re-building of Japan.

various activities are performed.PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE Understanding Product Quality Assurance The term Product Quality Assurance has a very wide scope. Product quality assurance plays a critical role during this stage. It is important to assure the quality at each stage in order to meet the customer requirements consistently. During the entire product lifecycle from concept to obsolescence. quality control evaluates and validates the product i. the quality control engineer will compare the product designed with respect to the product and customer . Let us try to understand it. Given below are the product quality assurance activities at each stage of product lifecycle Introduction In this stage. the concept is developed and the product is designed and introduced into the market. It decides the customer requirements and based on that decides the product requirements. During the design stage.e.

the competition further increases and the pressure on margins is felt. The processes for higher production have to be implemented. it is released for manufacturing. the demand for a product increases and so the quantity of production increases. the organization does not compromises on quality. the customers become more demanding. Quality control also has to make sure that the processes being used to manufacture and inspect the product are correct.requirements and confirm whether the design would meet them. Maturity During the maturity stage. Since during this stage the competition increases and the costs have to be kept low. with various options available. which are used by quality control to do periodic inspection of the products. They also have to create the standard inspection procedures. Growth During this stage. Moreover. At this stage. the role of quality control is to make sure that in the race to manufacture more. Value for money is the theme. various low cost alternatives are explored. Decline . Once the product is validated. Role of quality control almost remains similar to the one during the growth stage. If some processes involved in manufacturing the product are outsourced then product quality control also has to ensure that the processes followed by the vendor are capable of delivering the required quality.

and inspection.During this stage. The most important role to be played during this stage is planning for the obsolescence of the existing product. there will be customer complaints because of some errors during the process or due to component quality or due to the misuse of the product. the alternate products start eating up the market share and hence sales start declining. This is generally done in order to keep a check on the entire process of procurement. Apart from these roles. The product quality control has to find out the root cause of the complaints and put processes in place to ensure that such occurrences do not get repeated. . Another such role is handling customer complaint. Product quality control has a little role to play during this stage. Product quality audit is one such role wherein the quality control team does random audits of the products ready to be dispatched to the customers. production. some product quality control roles remain active throughout the life of the product. During the entire life of the product.

it is necessary to document the quality goals. with reference to the organizations own benchmark performance. competitors performance. These goals should be set according to the quality standards. Define the Objectives The first step while undertaking QA of any project is to define its requirements. from the product concept to the launch of the product to its obsolescence. if the quality planning process has to be evolved for launching a new product or service in the market. according to the law and so on. Understanding Customer Needs .g.QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCESS Steps In Quality Assurance Process The product quality assurance process is a series of steps taken at the different stages of the product life cycle i. For e. then the first step in quality planning should be to understand and document the need of this project and its ultimate goal. At this stage. customer requirements.e.

Product Pilot Testing Once the product design is ready. . there are many other internal customers in an organization. The product is tested for various attributes in accordance with the standards. i.e. internal and external customers. So. The cost benefit analysis also has to be done in order to ensure that the product will be manufactured at low cost with high quality in order to be successful in the market. customer requirements. The pilot batch of the product is manufactured. This is to ensure that the product meets the set goals. Similarly.The next step in product QA process involves knowing and understanding the needs of the customers. For example. it is necessary to understand the needs of both internal and external customers. the product is approved. the next step of QA process is product testing. All these needs should be fully explained and documented so that it can be accessed by all the involved personnel whenever required. There are two kinds of customers. and regulatory requirements. Once everything is found satisfactory. Designing the Product The product should be designed keeping in view the quality goals and needs of the customers defined in step 1 and step 2 respectively. the manufacturing department is an internal customer of the design department as the designs for manufacturing are supplied by them.

the required process controls are put in place. will also act as inputs for product and process corrections and improvements. the quality will be periodically monitored through inspections and audits. Life Cycle Management During the life of the product. Process capability is also measured during this stage of QA process to ensure that the processes are capable of meeting design requirements. the entire lists of tasks and activities that will be required for manufacturing the product are listed. .Process Development Once the product design has been approved. Audits are planned to periodically measure the performance and give feedback to the manufacturing and design department. Customer complaints. Hence. The teams are formed and given specific responsibilities. if any. Start Manufacturing Once the processes are developed. The workflow plan is developed. The timelines for each and every task are specified. Actions are initiated for high-risk items. These inputs will result in improvements of the processes or the product design. Tools like process failure mode and effects analysis are used to identify the likely modes of failures of the process and the effect of those failures on the product performance. the product quality assurance process plays an important role during the entire life of the product to ensure that the customer gets a quality product.

Steps To Implement QA in Service Industry Identify the Expectations of the Customers . Each service industry is different and has different ways to implement quality assurances procedures and systems. Also. more and more service industries are nowadays implementing QA systems that help them to improve their services and woo their customers. Hence. it is difficult to measure quality parameters in the service industry. the importance of delivering quality service cannot be overlooked.QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SERVICE INDUSTRY How Quality Assurances Are Implements in Service Industry Quality assurances are very important for the service industry in order to deliver services in accordance to the expectation of the customers. maintaining and delivering quality services is not very easy as the expectations and needs of customers are different and ever-changing. With so much competition in the market today. However.

Analyze The organization should find the cause of the gap. market surveys. banks etc should set their own quality standards.The company has to first identify the expectations of their customers. providing good experience to the customers. the organizations can use feedback forms. In a similar manner each industry like hospitals. Measure and Compare Performance The current performance should then be measured. property management services. The entire workforce should be encouraged to participate in the process so that they can help to find the root cause of customer complaints and dissatisfaction. The customer feedback can also be used to set performance standards. To know the feedback and expectations of the clients and customers. the organization can determine its quality standards. spas.A restaurant that wants to improve its quality should set goals for itself like minimum time to deliver the orders. For example . the organization can set the performance standard as 90 percent of customer satisfaction score and so on. reducing wastage etc. Like. secret shoppers etc. Determine the Standards Depending on the feedback and the expectations. quality of food. This current performance can be also compared with target quality standards to find the gap. The various .

This can only be possible if the changes made to achieve the target have been made part of the quality systems and are reviewed periodically. . Else. if it has trained and experienced QA staff. customer loyalty. Plan Depending upon the gap and the problems. the organization can hire the QA management services. Various teams can be formed in order to address different areas identified in the gap. train employees. customer satisfaction. Control Once the organization achieves its set quality goals. market surveys etc. The organizations that have successfully implemented QA systems benefit from the increased margins. The organization can implement these systems on its own. and Control. Analyze. Improve. and satisfied workforce. ensure compliance with standards. the final step should be to maintain it consistently. These teams should be given a time target to bridge that gap. increase customer satisfaction.departments of the organizations should work proactively to analyze the present situation. expansion. the organization should plan to achieve its set quality goals. This type of approach used in service industry for quality assurances is also known as DMAIC approach. which means Define. These services help the organizations to improve their quality. Measure.

It also highlights the need for any improvement in the systems in order to consistently deliver good quality products or services. Any non-conformity during a system audit is critical. the output is likely to be wrong. Product or Service Audit The product or service audit is performed on the product or service to find out if the product or service meets the requirements of the customers and the standards set by the organization. There are various stages at which this can . The audits are also performed to make sure that the organization is following the legal and regulatory requirements.QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDIT Types of Quality Assurance Audits Quality assurance audit is performed in order to ensure that the systems are in place and being followed religiously to provide good quality to the customers. A system audit is an audit performed on any of these systems. Some audits are conducted by internal auditors whereas some are performed by external ones. Various Quality Assurance Audit Types Are System Audit The organization has various systems which when put together make a whole system. since if the system itself is wrong.

or even after the product is packed and ready to be delivered to the customer. The scope of the audit covers all the activities performed. Process Audit Various processes are critical for the smooth running of an organization. the department audit is performed with a focus on a given department. Process audit also covers the audit of some special manufacturing processes that are critical for the quality of the end product.be performed. Conformance Audit The external parties normally perform this QA audit. It is a form of third party audit where the auditing party evaluates if the organization does meet . all the procedures followed and all the systems available in the department. Actually speaking. after the product has been manufactured. This audit highlights the areas for improvement in that department. Department Audit As the name suggests. since all these nonconformities are equivalent to customer complaints. The nonconformities found during this quality assurance audit are taken very seriously. These processes may be in-house or at the suppliers place. the one to whom that process has been outsourced to. an audit of such processes is performed to identify the areas for improvement. Hence. all the activities from order inquiry to delivery of products follow a defined process in any organization. It could be during the process of product manufacturing.

the requirements as are supposed to by the systems. but to find the areas for improvements. Compliance Audit Compliance audit is performed by regulatory agencies to confirm if the organization is meeting the legal and regulatory requirements. system. The purpose of the re-audit is to ensure the effectiveness of the corrective actions taken. The certificate-awarding agency also conducts the conformance audit periodically to make sure that the organization is meeting the certification requirements. This could also be for any kind of system certifications that organizations wish to apply for. legal or regulatory requirements. If it is taken by the auditor and the audited party in this spirit. In case of any non-conformity. The purpose of any type of QA audit is not to find mistakes. a re-audit may be required. the organization can be sure that it is on the path to improvement and will be able to consistently meet all customers. The output of the audit is an audit report that is circulated to all the concerned people. .

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