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Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning

CHAPTER NO 2.1

WORK STUDY
DEFINITION:One of the most important techniques, which are frequently employed by all management personnel, is work -study. It introduces the most effective method of working. Work study has proved to be the most effective tool in the hands of management. Every industry is facing problems concerning the efficiency at all levels and so a systematic attempt is need to eliminate unnecessary work and the make rema ining work easier. Thus productivity would automatically be increased. It is therefore, necessary to have a constant effort to reduce the waste in every phase of production. So, that there is surplus available for division to develop good life.

According to the ILO, “Work Study is a term used to embrace the techniques of method study and work measurement, which are employed to ensure the best possible use of human and material resources in carrying out a specified activity.”

According to British Standard s Institute, “Work study is generic term for those techniques, particularly ‘method study’ and ‘work measurement’ which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts and which lead systematically to the investigation of all factors which af fect the efficiency and economy of the situation being renewed, in order to effect improvement.”

Thus, the work study of human works in all aspects in order to improve productivity. It is a systematic and analytical study of work process and work methods with the objective of increasing efficiency and reducing costs. Work study helps to reduce waste through standardization of qualitative and quantitative element of the job.

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Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning

Advantages of Work Study: 1. Uniform and improved power flow. 2. Higher productive efficiency. 3. Reduced manufacturing costs. 4. Fast and accurate delivery dates. 5. Better service to customer. 6. Job security and job satisfaction to workers. 7. Higher wages to workers.

Objectives of work study: 1. Provide more and improved physical means to motivate the w orkers. 2. Improve the basic process by research and development. 3. Improve the methods of operation. 4. Simplify and improve the product and reduce the variety, standardize the product. 5. Improve organization, product planning and control. 6. Improve manpower eff iciency at all levels.

Scope of Work Study There is a school of thought that work study is applicable only in the field of industry where processes are highly repetitive. This is not true. Since it is universal in its application, it does not matter whe ther the activities studies had occurred in industry, public services or in the armed forces. It is not confined to engineering activities of a repetitive nature; it can be applied to jobbing, maintenance or similar work in which there is little or no repetition of a particular operation.

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Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning

Uses of Work study 1. Increased productivity and operational efficiency. 2. Reduced manufacturing costs. 3. Improved work place layout. 4. Better manpower planning and capacity planning. 5. Fair wages to employees. 6. Better working conditions to employees. 7. Improved work flow. 8. Reduced material handling costs. 9. Provides a standard of performance to measure labor efficiency. 10. Better industrial relations and employee morale. 11. Basis for sound incentive schemes. 12. Provides better job satisfaction to employees.

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Some of them are common to both method study and work measurement. 8. flow process chart. Install : The new method as standard practice. pre -determined motion time system and work sampling. analytical estimating method. Record: All relevant facts about the job or process or operation using suitable charting techniques such as operation process chart. 7. person and the means of doing the job/process/operation. SIMO chart (simultaneous motion chart) and man-machine chart. 2. questioning the purpose. Measure: The work content and establish the s tandard time using an appropriate work-measurement technique. 4. Maintain : The new method for the job/process/operation. sequence. 3. Module No 2 4 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . viz. Define : The new method for the job/process/operation. flow diagram. synthesis method. These steps are : 1. Examine: Critically all the recorded facts. Develop: The new method for the job/process/operation.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Work study procedure There are eight basic steps involved in a work study procedure. 6.. 5. time study using stop watch. Select: The job or the process or the operation to be studied. place.

Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Techniques of Work Study Work-study has two closely related facts: method study. which is the assessment of the time. which a job should take. an examination of the ways of doing work. Both are carried out systematically and follow very similar patterns. and work measur ement. Work study Method Study 1) Select task to be Work Measurement 1) Select task to be studied 2) Record the facts 3) Analyze the facts studied 2) Record the facts 3) Examine the facts 4) Develop and define the new method4) Measure the task 5) Install the new method 5) Compile the standard time 6) maintain 6) Define method and its related time Module No 2 5 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .

Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Module No 2 6 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .

Selection of the work to be studied 2. To reduce material handling and fatigue to the operator. 5. Install the method as standard practice. shop and workplace. Maintain that standard practice by regular machine check up. 4. 3.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning CHAPTER NO 2. Define the new method so that it can be always be identified. Develop the most practical. 3. Examine the recorded fact critically and challenge everything that is done 4. Module No 2 7 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .2 METHOD STUDY 1.STEPS IN METHOD STUDY The steps involved in the METHOD S TUDY are 1. Recording all the relevant fact of present/proposed method by observation and analysis. economical and effe ctive method considering all the circumstances 5.METHOD STUDY METHOD STUDY is a systematic recoding and critical examination of the way of doing a task/job/work and determi nation of the best method OBJECTIVES OF THE METHOD STUDY 1. material and machine. 2. 6. To improve the process and work procedure. Improved design and specification of the product. Define METHOD STUDY? State its objectives? Solution:. To improve the layout of factory. 2. To obtain effective use of man. State the brief procedure of METHOD STUDY? OR Brief the steps involved in METHOD STUDY Solution:. 7.

3) The following factor affect the selection of the job are a) Bottleneck operation holding up other production ope ration. proposed method must give a sufficient result. How work is selected for the METHOD STUDY? Solution:-Selection of work for METHOD STUDY The selection of work should be such that proposed method achieves one or more following result 1. 2. C. Increased productivity of men. Human consideration A. Module No 2 8 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . e) Backtracking of material and excessive moment of material. b) Operation involving excessive manpower. c) Operation producing lost of scrap/defects. machine and material. Economic consideration B. 4. The factor that should be kept in mind while selecting a job or work are A. Improvement in layout. d) Operation having poor utilization of resources. 3. Technical consideration. Improved working condition. Improved quality with less scrap. 2) That means by applying method study.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 3. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION 1) It is totally wastage of time to carry out th e method study if the economic importance of the job is small.

HUMAN CONSIDERATION 1) Human reaction plays an important role in method study and as such must be given due to consideration by method study engineer.e. c) Job having inconsistent quality. 2) Likewise method study should select a job in which he has a technical expertise knowledge i. 3) The following factor which favors the selection of the job are a) Operation producing a lot of scrap. 2) Certain operation often causes dis -satisfaction by workers. TECHNICAL CONSIDERAITON 1) An office clerks cannot solv e the problem in the machine shop or machinist cannot do office work with justice. he should be expert in particular field. 3) That means proposed methods should be positive about workers physical and mental condition as well as earning. C.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning B. b) When the frequency of accidents are more c) Inconsistency of payment when it is tied to output. Module No 2 9 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . d) Job in which too many man hours are spent in checking and rechecking works. b) Frequent complaint from working regarding job. 4) Following are the situation where mainly human factors are considered a) Workers complaining about unnecessary and tiring works.

Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 4.DIAGRAM a Flow and String Diagram Record the path movement of man and material Records the high speed and short time cycle operation Helps to show the proposed work place layout b Cycle Graph and Chrono cycle Graph Template and Model c Module No 2 10 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Enumerate the various RECORDING TECHNIQUES used in METHOD STUDY? What is importance of RECORDING in METHOD STUDY? OR What do you mean by RECORDING? What are various RECORDING TECHNIQUES in METHOD STUDY? Ans :-RECORDING RECORDING is defined as systematic n ote down of all relevant facts of proposed method by observation and analysis. on material done by machine. Records the activity perform by the workers hand Records the movement of man and material in the department. Record the activity of the worker.CHARTS a b c d e f Outline Process Chart Flow Process Chart Multiple Activity Chart Two Hand Process Chart Travel Chart SIMO Chart DESCRIPTION Gives overall picture of process and record the main operation and inspections. Record the activity of man and machine on the common time scale. RECORDING TECHNIQES 1. Record the movement of parts of body on the common time scale 2 .

It helps to carry out critical examination carefully.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Importance of recording 1. Module No 2 11 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . 2. Recording provides basis of critical examination and development of improved method. 3. The success of method study depends upo n on the accuracy with which facts are recorded.

TECHNIQUES OF MICROMOTION STUDY 1. What is MICROMOTION? State the techniques of MICROMOTION? Solution:MICROMOTION 1) MICROMOTION means study of small motion knows as THERBLINGS. 2.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 5. Filming the operation to be studied. 2) MICROMOTION study provides techniques for recording and timing activity. GRAPHS a) CYCLE GRAPH b) CHRONO-CYCLE GRAPH Module No 2 12 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Recording of the data using SIMO c hart. 3. Analysis of the data from the film. SIMO CHARTS 2. STEPS IN MICROMOTION STUDY 1.

Draw the various symbols used in recording the flow process charts? Solution:- Module No 2 13 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 6.

It used two symbol.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 1. It is also called as operation process chart. It shows quick and overall picture of the whole process by recoding in sequence only the main operation and inspection 3. OUT LINE PROCESS CHARTS 1. It does not reveal the place of operation and process. 2. It helps to visualize he complete sequence of operation and inspe ction in the process. operation and inspection. 5. 4. Task :Changing of refill of a ball point pen Method : Presented /Proposed Charted by :ABC Unscrew the cap Unscrew the neck Remove the old refill Chart begins :Unscrew cap Ch art ends :Screw cap Date : Assemble the spring on the new refill Place the refill in the barrel Screw the neck Check if the ball pen writing Screw the cap Summary SYMBOL FREQUENCY Module No 2 14 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .

inspection. 2) It shows the activity of operation. storage. material and machine). FLOW PROCESS CHARTS 1) It is the extension of OUTLINE PROCESS CHART. 4) Three type (man. 3) FLOW PROCESS CHART is a process chart of setting out the sequence of the flow of product or a procedure of recording all activities under reviews using appropriate process chart. transportation and delay.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 2. Module No 2 15 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .

Determining the no of machine handled by the operator. One separate bar is pales for each element and activities related to the element are represented in the bars. Each bars is divided into three parts a. time c. b. c. description of the activities b. Detecting the idle time of employees.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 3. State of working and non working. Application of MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHARTS a. Construction jobs c. State of working and non working are represented by It is prepared for a. Determine the number of workers required to perform a job involving the team work . Plant repair and maintenance b. It consists of series of bars placed against a common time scale. Planning team work Module No 2 16 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHARTS MUTLIPLE ACTIVITY CHARTS records the activities of worker with relation to machine on the common time scale.

2. Department or work centre’s are listed both row wise and columwise in the same sequence. It is helpful to locate the activities and backtracking.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 4. Module No 2 17 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Can be easily computerized as quantitative data is involved. This chart is used to determine the degree of closeness between the departments. It is a useful tool for movement analysis. 3. A travel chart is a tabular record for presenting quantitative data about the movement of the workers. The entries in the chart are scattered on both sides of the diagonal. It forms the basis of layout design that seeks to minimize the total material handling costs. 5. It records the distance and freq uency of movement between the pairs of departments. Useful for comparing alternative flows. It is quicker and more manageable techniques. 2. 4. 3. 3. Procedure 1. material or equipment between any numbers of places over a given period of time. 2. 4. Each intersecting square or cells is used to records the data from department to another. TRAVEL CHART 1. Advantages 1.

TWO HANDED PROCESS CHARTS 1) It focuses on the workers. b) To study work station layout. That is why it is called TWO HANDED PROCESS CHARTS. 2) The activities completed by worker hands in relation to one another are recorded on the chart.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 5. 5) It commonly used for repetitive and short operations 6) The amplification of this chart are a) To visualize the complete sequence of activity in a repetitive tasks. a) One for LEFT hand and b) other for RIGHT hand 4) The activities of the both hands are recorded opposite to each other on the chart. TWO HAND PROCESS CHART Charted by :ABC Date : Task :filling up ink in the fountain pen LEFT HAND SYMBOL RIGHT HAND LH Pick up the pen Hold Hold Hold Hold RH Idle Remove cap Unscrew neck Fill ink in the barrel Assemble Summary : LH SYMBOL 1 4 RH SYMBOL 04 01 Module No 2 18 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . 3) It consists of the two columns.

The time scale is placed on the column for the comparison. 9. It is based on the film analysis. 7. These movements are represented by THERBLINGS. It is used for micro motion analysis of Short cycle for repetitive jobs High order skill jobs. 8. SIMO CHART has two column One for LEFT HAND Other for RIGHT HAND 10.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 6. SIMO CHART records the rapid movement of p art of worker body’s for short duration on the common time scale. 11. Application of SIMO CHART a) PACKING b) Repetitive uses of jigs and fixtures c) Inspection SIMO CHART OPERATION : Assemble of Nut and Bolt Method :Presented/Proposed Charted by :ABC LEFT HAND To bolt Grasp bolt Move to assembly TH AB TE G TL TIME 12 10 10 FILM NO : OPERATION NO: Date : RIGHT HAND To nut Grasp nut Move to assembly TH AB TE G TL TIME 12 10 10 Head bold H 10 Put nut over the bolt. 6. SIMO CHART is recoding techniques for micro motion study. 12. SIMO CHART 5. H 10 Module No 2 19 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .

2.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning THEREBLINGS 1. 3. colour and name. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 THERBLINGS SELECT SEARCH HOLD GROUP POSITION RELEASE LOAD TRANSPORT LOADED TRANSPORT EMPTY ASSEMBLE DISS-ASSMEBLE UN –AVOIDABLE DELAY AVOIDABLE DELAY PLAN SYMBOLS ABBREVIATI ON SE S H G P RL TL TE A DA UD AD PN Module No 2 20 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Each Therblings has symbol . FRANKLIN B GILBERTH founder of method study suggested therblings. Therblings are used to describe the basic element of mo vements /fundamental hand motion of cycle.

Module No 2 21 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . The layout of the workplace is drawn to scale on sheet which is shown by W/A. FLOW DIAGRAM 1. 3. storage racks inspection tables. storage point and inspection points are marked on the sheets. STEPS IN DRAWING THE FLOW DIAGRAM 1. 3. 2. 2. work tables.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning DIAGRAM 1. 4. Relative position of machine tool. work tables. The flow diagram shows the relative position of machine tools. Each movement is seriall y numbered and indicated by arrows f or direction. Different colors are used to represent different type of moments. Flow diagram is a diagram drawn by taking suitable scale of total working areas on which moment of men and mate rial are traced by line with arrows. Path of material and men tracked by lines.

It is valuable where movements are complicated and irregular. 3. Steps in drawing the STRING DIAGRAM a.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 2. d. Module No 2 22 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . 2. The layout of the workplace is drawn to scale on sheet. Pins are fixed at the place of workstation. It is useful to shows the repetitive movement between workstation. The distance covered by the object is obtained by measuring the remaining parts of thread by subtracting it from original length. e. b. c. Pins are also fixed at the turning points of the routes. STRING DIAGRAM 1. STRING DIAGRAM is a diagram drawn by taking suitable scale of the total working areas on which the path traced by mens and material are recorded by means of string/threads. A measuring length of thread is taken to trace the movement.

why. when. 3. 1. In these techniques. where and who 4.e what. Thus the solution of different problem can be find out. Means for improvement over the current methods. very basic questions are used to find out the facts and reasons. It is a practical techniques which gives the clean idea of problem and solution to this problem Hence Critical Examination is a motive force to develo p a new product. 2.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 7. sequence and person or b. 2. how. Secondary question to determine a. CRITICAL EXAMINATION IS A MOTIVE FORCE TO DEVELOP NEW METHOD . Critical examination is a questioning technique having a set of questions. What is the CRITICAL EXAMINATION? How it is done? CRITICAL EXAMINATION Critical Examination is a questioning technique having sets of question which gives a clear idea of the problem and solution for those problems. 5. OBJECTIVES OF CRITICAL EXAMI NATION To analyze the fact critically and thereby giving the alternative which form basis of selection and development of easier and effective method STEPS OF CRITICAL EXAMINATION It is done by the means of two set of detailed questions. the alternative for place. These questions determine and reveal the facts that are not easily understood. The question are of the types i.JUSTIFY? 1. 8. 6. Primary question to find out the facts and reason behind them. Module No 2 23 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .

Module No 2 24 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . 9) It should be free from the presence of the harmful elements like smoke. following thing should be kept in mind 5) Material and tools should be located within normal working area and as close and in front of operator as possible. excessive humidity and vibrations. 4) While designing a workplace layout. heat. 8) Workplace must be properly illuminated to avoid eye strain. 2) A comfortable workplace satisfies the worker.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 9. dust. 3) Bad working condition results in dissatisfaction and poor production. Write a short note on WORKPLACE LAYOUT? OR Explain how WORKPLACE LAYOUT is designed WORKPLACE LAYOUT 1) A good workplace layout and productivity are closely related to each other. 7) Workplace must be clean as well as painted. 6) Material and tools should be located in order in which they are used in the assembly.

It records the path of movement in the form of pear shaped dots on the photographic plate. A. Module No 2 25 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . A CYCLE GRAPH is a record of path of movem ent by hand any other body part of an operator while he is performing an operation traced by the continuous source of the light on photograph.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 10. The photograph is taken by still camera and the light source shows the path of motion and path of photograph is called cycle graph. CHRONOCYCLE GRAPH A. CHRONOCYCLE GRAPH is spherical form of cycle graph in which the light source is interrupted suitab ly 10-30 times per second. CYCLE GRAPH B. These graphic techniques were developed by GILBERTH. CHRONOCYCLE GRAPH 1. 3. CYCLE GRAPH 1. 2. 2. GRAPHS GRAPHS are the part of MICROMOTION STUDY. B. A small bulb is attached to the hand of operator or other parts of body of the operator performing the operation.

B. Change the sequence of operations. 4. Simplify the unnecessary operations. Investigation selection. They are commonly used to prepare floor plan elevations. 4. Example: 3 dimensional models of chemical factory and refineries. TEMPLATES 1. Try to combine operation as possible. Evaluation. They are useful in preparing alternative plan for multi -storey plant. 3. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW METHODS 1. It is done in the following stages 1. 3. Module No 2 26 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . fittings and storage racks. It shows the plan of various facilities like machine tools. They are made up of wood or plastics. They are scale models of facilities resembling in length. TEMPLATES are two dimensional cut out of cardboard/colored paper. 2. 2.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning TEMPLATES AND MODELS A. They are prepared by scale and placed on scaled plan on the board. width and height. 2. Eliminate all the unnecessary operations. MODELS 1. 3. 2.

Module No 2 27 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . e) TRADE UNIION who support those affect ed by changes. 2. d) WORKERS who are greatly affected by the changes. It provides better satisfaction to workers and management. It improves the efficiency of the organization. c) MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT who implement and supervise the changes. 4. 3. 3. 2. HUMAN FACTOR plays a significant role in WORK -STUDY application. IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN FACTOR IN THE MOTION STUDY 1.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 11. It makes a METHOD STUDY a powerful management tool to improve the productivity. It cannot benefit the company until the everyone makes the contribution. List and give the importance of human factor consider in the MOTION STUDY? HUMAN FACTOR IN THE MOTION STUDY 1. WORKSTUDY means the changes and these changes involve the people. these people are a) WORK STUDY practitioner who makes the changes b) TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT who support the changes.

3. It forms a basis for Improving the efficiency and Reduce the fatigue in the manual work. Explain the importance of PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY? Ans:.IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY 1. 4. It helps to Eliminate the unnecessary motion and Combine and modify the motion by changing their sequence.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 12. It makes suitable changes in workplace layout by simplifying the motions. Module No 2 28 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY are particularly useful form of developing improved methods at workplace 2.

The use of human bodies. iv)Motions should be confined to the lowest degree. 1. The arrangement of workplace 3. viii)Work should be arranged to permit an easy and natural rhythm. i) Both hands should begin as well as complete their motio n. Explain the PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY RELATED TO HUMAN BODY? Principle of Motion Economy This principle is divided into 3 categories. vii) Ballistic movements are faster.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 13. iii) Motions of the arms should be made in opposite and symmetrical directions. 1. v) Momentum should be used when wherever possible but should be reduce vi)Smooth continuous curved hand motions are better to straight line motions. ix)Work should be arranged such that eye motion is limited to one comfortable area. The design of tools and equipment This principle is good for the company to apply to their workplace layout because it can reduce accidents. ii) Both hands should not idle at the same time. Module No 2 29 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . the employee feel more comfortable while working. The use of human body 2. easier and more accurate. can improve the quality of the product.

v) Material and tools should be located to permit the best sequence of motions. iv) Tool and material should be placed within the maximum working area. vii) Adequate illumination and good contrast. i) Hands should be free from all work that may be done with fixture. This is how principles of motions economy can give a good workplace area. box or container should be used to deliver material. By following this method we can improve the productivity of our product. iii) Load should be distributed in accordance to the inherent capacity of the fingers. Work place layout i) There should be definite and fixed place for tools and materials. iii) Gravity feed. iv) Handles of tools should be design so as to allow as much surface area of the hands. viii)Ergonomically design and workplace should be used . 3. vi) Drop deliveries or ejectors should be used. ii) Two or more tool should be combined. Module No 2 30 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 2. Design of tool and equipment. ii) Tools and materials should be placed first to reduce search activity.

Rhythm is essential to the smooth and automatic performance of repetitive operations. All the tools and material and actuating devices should be placed in front of the operator at a distance as near as possible. All the tool and material should be places at a definite and f ixed place within easy reach. 3. 8. Material and Equipment should be arranged to permit the best sequence of the motion 6. 3. Smooth and continuous movements of the han ds are preferred than zigzag /variable motion. Provide the adequate lightning for better vi sual inspection. Hand should be free from all works than can be done by feet. PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY RELATED TO WORKPLACE LAYOUT 1. Module No 2 31 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . which are faster easier and more accurate than controlled movements. Use both hand simultaneously and use the best motion sequence. Both hands should start as well as complete their motion at same time. 4. Material handling equipment should be arranged to deliver the material as close to the point of use as possible. The height of workplace and seat should be arranged to allow alternate standing and sitting. Both hands should not be idle at same time except during the rest. chair etc wherever possible to permit good sequence posture. Hand and body motion should be made at the lowest possible classification in order to reduce the fatigue. Keep shop in good order. 5. 7.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning PRINCIPLE OF MOTION OF ECONOMY RELATED TO HUMAN BODY 1. 2. 5. 2. Provide proper tables. Ballistic movement is preferred. 7. 4. 8. 6. neat and clean. Gravity feed bins and containers should be used to deliver the material as close to the point of use as possible.

Finger. 2. These classifications. Finger. Finger. Work that can be done by the feet should be arranged so that it is done together with work being done by the hands. are: a. upper arm motions and body motions. Momentum should be employed to assist the worker wherever possible. except during the rest periods. wrist. wrist. summarized in ascending order of time and fatigue expended in the ir performance. and it should be reduced to a minimum if it must be overcome by muscular effort. PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE USE OF HUMAN BODY: 1. Module No 2 32 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . wrist. It should be recognized. d. Continuous curved motions should be preferred to straight line motions involving sudden and sharp changes in the direction. lower arm. Finger motions b. and upper arm motions. Finger and wrist motions. The least number of basic divisions should be employed and these should be confined to the lowest practicable classifications. and • Those related to the design of tools and equipment. e. The hand motions should be made symmetrically and simultaneously away from and toward the centre of the body. lower arm. • Those related to the use of the human body. 5. c. 3.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Principles of Motion Economy: These principles can be considered under three different groups. 4. that it is difficult to move the hand and foot simultaneously. • Those related to the workplace arrangement. however. 6. Both hands should begin and end their basic divisions of activity simultaneously and should not be idle at the same instant. and lower arm motions.

All materials and tools sho uld be located within the normal working area in both the vertical and horizontal plane (see Figure ). 6. Use may be made of ejectors for removing finished parts. The index finger. fourth finger. Module No 2 33 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . To grip tools. The feet should not be employed for operating pedals when the operator is in standing position. the segment of the fingers closed to the palm of the hand should be used. and as close to the point of use as possible.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 7. 10. 5. proper ventilation and proper temperature should be provided. 4. Glare-free adequate illumination. Gravity bins and drop delivery should be used to reduce reach and move times. Fixed locations should be provided fo r all tools and materials so as to permit the best sequence and eliminate search and select . PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE ARRANGEMENT AND CONDITIONS OF WORKPLACE: 1. and little finger are capable of handling only light loads for short durations. Work table height should permit work by the operator in alternately sitting and standing posture. 8. 3. The middle finger and the thumb should be used for handling heavy loads over extended periods as these are the strongest working fingers. Twisting motions should be performed with the elbows bent. 9. 2. Dials and other indicators should be patterned s uch that maximum information can be obtained in minimum of time and error.

If simple on/off indicator is not sufficient. 2. 5. Their direction of motion should conform to stereo -typed reactions. use qualitative type indicator. either/or ind icators whenever possible. and use quantitative type indicator only when absolutely essential. 4. Use color. wheels and other control devices should be readily accessible to the operator and should be designed so as to give the best possible mechanical advantage and utilize the strongest available muscle group.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE DESIGN OF TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT: 1. All levers. 3. 6. Use stop guides to reduce the control necessary in positioning motions. handles. Use quick acting fixture to hold the part or m aterial upon which the work is being performed. Operating. shape or size coding to maximize speed and minimize error in finding controls. Module No 2 34 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Use simple on/off. set-up and emergency controls should be grouped according to the function.

Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Module No 2 35 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .

To eliminate the ineffective time. 3. 2. To provide a basis for production planning and control choice of a better layout and for process planning. To determine the number of machine a operator can run with the help of man machine chart. Module No 2 36 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Define WORK MEASURMENT ? Solution: - WORK MEASURMENT 1. Give the objective of WORK MEASUREMENT? Solution: - OBJECTIVE OF WORK MEASUREMENT 1. It provide the management with a means of measuring the time taken in the performance of an operation or series of operations in such a way that ineffective time is detected and can be separated from the effective time.3 WORK MEASURMENT 1. 5. 3. selling price and delivery dates. 2. Work measurement is the application of technique designed to establish time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance. Work Measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working. To balance the assignment of work among the workers in a team with the help of multiple activity chart. 2.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning CHAPTER NO 2. 4. To provide information that is useful for making tenders.

Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 3. 3. 6. Examine the recorded data and the detailed bre akdown critically to ensure that most effective method and motions are being used and that unproductive elements are separated from productive elements. Measure: The time required to complete each element using the appropriate work measurement techniques. Record all the relevant data relating to circumstances in which the work is being done. Select the work to be studied and determine the objectives of study. Examine the recorded data. 2. Module No 2 37 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . the methods to be used. 1. Record all the relevant data. 3. Define precisely the series of activity and method of operation of which time has been completed. 5. Define: Precisely the series of activities and methods of operation for which the time has been compiled and issue the time standards for the activities and methods specified. Measure the time required to complete each element of the work using work measurement techniques. Compile: The standard time for the operation. 5.PROCEDURE OF WORK MEASURMENT The basic procedure of WORK MEASURMENT is 1. 6. 4. Compile the standard time for the operation of work cycle by considering the allowances. 2. Explain the basic procedure of work measurement ? Solution: . 4. Select the work to be studied and determine the objective of the TIME STUDY. OR Basic procedure for work measurement : The following steps are necessary for carrying out the work measurement systematically.

State the use of WORK MEASUREMEN T? Solution: - USE OF WORK MEASUREMENT 1) To reveal the existence of ineffective time. 5) To decide the cost of production. 6) As a basis for labor budgeting and budgetary control systems. 2) To compare the efficiency of the alternative methods.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 4. 7) To determine with the help of man and machine charts. Module No 2 38 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . 8) To provide info for labour cost control. 9) To set the time standards for carrying out the work. 3) To balance the work of member of team in association. 4) To decide production time and provide useful data in planning and scheduling. the number of machines an operator can run.

Module No 2 39 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . WORK MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES Work measurement techniques are classified as 1. Activity sampling. 2. 3. Indirect method a) Standard Time Data b) Analytical Estimating c) PMTS Techniques of work measurement The following are the principle techniques by which work measurement is carried out: 1. 5. Stop watch time study.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 5. Analytical estimating. Define the WORK MEASUREMENT? State the techniques of WORK MEASUREMENT? OR List down the various method of WORK MEASUREMENT? Explain WORK SAMPLING in brief? Solution: - WORK MEASURMENT Work Measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working. Predetermined motion time systems . Synthesis from standard data. 4. Direct method a) Time Sampling b) Work Sampling 2.

Decide the number of cycle to be times. Compute the basic time. 8. It is one of the major techniques of work measurement. Define the TIME STUDY? Mention the steps taken to conduct a stop watch time study? Solution: - TIME STUDY 1. It is the study with the help of stop watch. Module No 2 40 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Timing each element with the stop watch. Steps taken to conduct a STOP WATCH TIME STUDY 1. Select the worker for time study. 4. 4.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 6. 2. It is suitable for shot cycle and repetitive jobs. Divide the work into elements. 2. 5. 7. 5. It is used to set time standards particularly in mass production. Select the work for time study. Calculate the standard time. 3. 3. Rate the performance of worker involves in manual work. 6. It is generally carried with the special purpose.

3 Stop Watch To observe the time of each element. To provide support and resting face while writing observation on the shop floor and make the hand free to write and operate the stop watch. Function and uses Plywood sheet. 4 Pencil To note down the recording of observation on time study forms. Used to hold the stop watch and time study form.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 7. Mention the TIME STUDY equipment and state its uses? Solution: - The basic time study equipment required at the time of conducting study are No Time Study Equipments 1 Time Study Board. 2 Time Study Form Provide a definite system of recording o f observation. Module No 2 41 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .

3. 4. 4. The snapback watch reading so ob tained to make subtractions which are necessary in cumulative timing methods. B. The time study man note down time at the ends of each element. FLY BACK TIMING 1. Explain the following in connection with TIME STUDY a) Cumulative timing methods b) Fly back timing Solution: - A. In fly back timing method. The watch is started at the beginning of the first element of the work cycle and the hands are simultaneously reads and snapped back to zero at the end of the first and subsequent element. the hands of stopwatch for each element start from zero. It is time studying techniques 2. It is time studying techniques 2. The stop watch in the method is started at the beginning of the first cycle of the jobs and is allows to run continuously until the required number of cycle have been timed and then its stopped . Individual element time is calculated by taking the difference between successive readings.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 8. CUMULATIVE TIMING METHODS 1. 3. Module No 2 42 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .

A work sampling study can be stopped at any time without affecting the results. Nature of state Productive No work No material Breakdown Set up time No of observation 100 30 34 22 14 Percentage of total 50 15 17 11 07 Advantage 1. With work sampling. Each observation records watts is happening at that instant and the percent of observation recorded for particular activity or delay is a measur e of the percentage of time during which that activity of delay occurs. 3. 4. Work sampling is defined as technique in wh ich large number of observation are made over period of time of one or group of machines. 3. Less cost compared to stop watch time study. 4. b) Used to determine the resource utilization pattern. Work sampling is also called as activity sampling . Application a) To determine working time and idle time of men and machine. Module No 2 43 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . it is possible to define the percentage of the day to be working and a speed at to be worked during working portion of the day can also be determined. Group operations can be easily studied by a single analyst. 2.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 2. WORK SAMPLING 1.it is one of the very common techniques of work measurement. processes or workers. Can time long operations which are almost impractical to be measured by stop watch time study. 2.

Break the job into the element like machine element . Module No 2 44 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Collect all the possible details about the job. 4. 3.constant element .etc 2. Add the allowances to normal time to fix the standard time. Rating or Efficiency of the operator can be determined correctly. Helps in estimating time required and lkabour cost. Verify the analysis of the element for the selected jobs. Provides budgeting and estimating . Synthesis from standard data It is a work measurement technique to build up normal time for a new job by adding element times collected from previously held time studies on similar hobs having similar element. 2. 4. Select the appropriate normal times for all element in the operation. 3. Advantage of standard time 1. Estimate the various allowance for each element 5. Helps in comparing two methods and determining the best method. Procedure 1. 4. 2. Economic than time study by stop watch method. Helps in determining in advance that how long it will take to perform an operation in the shop. For checking the standards established by time study. Standard time can be found even when the product is not manufactured.variable element. 6.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 3. Use /Application 1. 3.

Select the task to be measured. 7. Add allowance to the basic time under 6 to obtain the standard time of the jobs. developed to estimate the time required to carry out the element of a job at a defined level of performance is estimated partly from knowledge and practical experience of the element concerned and partly from the standard data. Break the task into the element. Add manual and machine element to the obtain the basic time of the job. Definition Analytical estimating is defined as work measurement techniques. 5. For non repetitive jobs. 4. Uses or application 1. 2. Calculate the time for each machine element. 3. Calculate the basic time for each manual element. tool rooms and job production.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 4. 6. Procedure 1. 2. In repair and maintenance works. Module No 2 45 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . jobs involving long cycle time. Decide the method to be followed by the operator. Analytical Estimating Analytical Estimating techniques determine the time value of jobs either by using standard data /on basis of the past experience of the estimator.

More reliable and accurate. 5. 2. PMTS help in tool and product design. 6. 2. Set time standard for different jobs. 7. 2. Select the large number of worker doing variety of the jobs under the normal working condition in the industry. 3. Facilitated training of workers and supervisors. Note down the time for each motion from the table. The normal time for any new job can be determined by breaking the jobs into the basic elements. Analyze the film. note down the time taken to complete each element and compile down in the form of table or chart. Advantage 1. 4.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 5. Calculate the standard by adding the proper allowances. PMTS is defines as work measurement techniques where by times established for basic human motion are used to build up time for jobs at a defined level of performance. PREDETERMINED MOTION TIME SYSTEM (PMTS) 1. 4. 3. Procedure. A PMT system consist of list of all motion that a worker can utilize in doing a job together with values for these motions at specified level of performance and in specified circumstances. 1. Module No 2 46 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Record the job operation on the movie film. Adding up time values for all basic motion involved in the jobs.

State the various allowances used t o calculate the standard time? Ans: ALLOWANCE FOR CALCULATING THE STANDARD TIME The various allowances used to calculate the standard time are a) Relaxation Allowances b) Contingency Allowances c) Policy Allowances d) Interference Allowances e) Process Allowances f) Special Allowances Module No 2 47 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 9.

Women’s require more personal allowances than men. It is intended to compensate the operator for the time necessary to leave the workplace to attend personal needs like drinking water. 2.ALLOWANCE FOR CALCULATING THE STANDARD TIME The different allowances are to be considered as A. 1. 3. The amount of variable fatigue allowance varie from company to company. Relaxation Allowance are of two types a) Fixed allowance b) Variable allowance 3. smoking. Variable allowances: A variable allowance is allowed to an operator who is working under poor working conditions that cannot be improved. Module No 2 48 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 10. b. Relaxation Allowances Relaxation allowances are calculated so as to allow the workers to overcome fatigue and for fulfilling his personal needs. This allowance is given to compensate for energy spent during working. A fair personal allowance is 5% for men and 7% for women. washing hands. Explain the various allowances used to calculate the standard time? Solution: . The variable fatigue allowances is added to the fixed allowances to an operator who is engaged on medium or heavy work and working under abnormal conditions. 2. Allowances for basic fatigue 1. Personal need allowances 1. 4. A common figure considered as allowance is 4 % of the basic time . The amount of allowances depends upon the nature of the jobs. Such circumstances create stress and strain in workers. Fixed allowances are composed of a. 2.

Policy allowances are an addition to standard time intended to provide a worker an opportunity to earn a specified level of earning at specified level of performance. C. This allowance is applicable for machine or process controlled jobs. 2. Power failures of small durations. 3. Policy allowance is addition to time standard time intended to provide a worker an opportunity to earn a specified level of earning at a specifie d level of performance. It should not exceed 5%. Obtaining the necessary tools and gauges from central store. Module No 2 49 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . 4. e. Policy allowance once awarded cannot be withdrawn. 5. 5. otherwise method should be improved.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning B. 2. Some of the example of contingency allowances are c. Policy Allowances 1. Tool breakage involving removal of tool from the holder. This allowance provide for unavoi dable delay as well as for occasional minor or extra work. A Contingency allowance is a small allowance of time included in standard time to compensate the operator for the time lost due to legitimate interruption or delays which are uneconomical. 3. 4. d. Policy allowances are not genuine part of the time study and should be used with almost care and only in clearly defined circumstances. Contingency Allowances 1. insert new tool in its tool holders. Workers and their representative cannot demand for the policy allowances. Policy allowances are purely management decision.

Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning D. e. The effect of machine interference is that the work content of the job is increased E. START UP ALLOWANCE to compensate for time taken by any work and any enforced waiting time which necessarily occurs at the start of a shift or work period before production can begins. Interference allowance varies in proportion to number of machines assigned to the operator. 2. f. b. d. Cleaning allowance to compensate for waiting time occurring at the end of the day. 2. 3. It is allowance of time inclu ded into the work content of the job to be compensating the operator for the unavoidable loss of production due to simultaneous stoppage of two or machine operated by him. c. Module No 2 50 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Interference of machine increases the work content. Shut down allowance to compensate for waiting time occurring at the end of the day . Dismantling allowances to compensate for time needed for making alternation to machine or process setting after completing run of production. Such allowance may be permanent or temporarily :care should be taken to specify which a. Special allowance may be given for a ny activities which are not normally part of the operation cycle but which are essential to the satisfactory performance of the work. It is applicable for machine/process controlled jobs. 4. Interference Allowances 1. Set up allowances to compensate for time required for preparing a machine or process for productio n. Special Allowances 1. Tool allowances to compensate for time taken to cover the adjustment and maintenance of tools.

Excess work allowance to compensate for extra work occasion by a temporarily departure from standard conditions. Module No 2 51 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . k. Training allowances to compensate for time an experienced work er is required to spend instructing a trainee. Small batch allowance is required to enable a worker working on small batcher to decided what to do and how to go about it. l. which may be inherent to some process. j. h.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning g. Reject allowances to compensate for defective products. Implementation allowance given to worker asked to adopt a new method or process to encourage them to attempt an enthusiastic implementati on of new ways and prevent their loosing earning by doing so on. while both are working on jobs for which standard time have been spent. Learning allowances to compensate for extra time taken by traine e operative engaged on the work. i.

Observed timing of elements ii. Relaxation allowance iv. Define NORMAL TIME AND STANDARD TIME Or Short note on STANDARD TIME Solution: . Performance rating iii. STANDARD TIME Standard time is the total time in which a jobs or task or work cycle should be completed at a standard performance. Policy allowances STANDARD TIME =BASIC TIME + TIME ALLOWANCES Module No 2 52 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Interference and Contingency allowances v. b.NORMAL TIME AND STANDARD TIME a. NORMAL TIME: It is a time for carrying out an element of work at standard ratings.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 11. Standard Time is made up of i.

Job evolution rates the jobs and not the worker who is performing it. 7. 6. 8. To avoid inequality in wage structure. 4. To provide basis for recruitment. channels of authority and line of promotion. It is procedure to determine the relative values of the j ob in a plant and to determine the basic wages for that job. To fix up fair. 3. 3. Define the JOB EVALUTION ? State its objectives? Ans: JOB EVALUTION 1. 2. OBJECTIVES OF JOB EVALUTION 1. JOB EVALUATION is the process of comparing jobs with other jobs in wages a worker should be paid for performing the task. when checking the company salaries with those paid for. minimum and maximum salaries for each position in the company. promotion and transfer of employees. To provide line of responsibility. Industrial job evolution system defined the job evolution is a complete process of determining the worth of an individual jobs in a n organization in relation to other jobs. 4. selection. 5. Module No 2 53 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . To establish basis for comparison. 2. To improve the employer -employee relationship. To determine the relative worth of individual jobs in the organization.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 12. To convert the relative worth of each job into appropriate pay scales or wages.

This is known as analysis. Compare the job with predetermined job and prepared suitable wage structure. Specify the features possessed by employee to perform the jo b satisfactory. Module No 2 54 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Describe the requirement of the job. This is known as job classification.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 13. 2. This is known as job specification. This is known as job description. This is knows as wage determination. 3. Discuss the JOB EVALUTION procedure? Ans: JOB EVALUTION PROCEDUR In general the steps involved in job evaluation are as follows. 5. 1. Determine the detailed data or facts about the job. 4. Determine the relative value or worth of the job.

1. Questionnaire method. This set of question is circulated to the workers and the supervisors for answering the questions. In this method. 3. skill. 1. By questionnaire. There are three methods to obtain the information about the job in the company. Module No 2 55 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . What is Job Analysis? Explain the methods of obtaining the information about a job in question? Ans: JOB ANALYSIS Job analysis is the process of determining the facts relating to te jobs. The jobs analyst interviews the worker for the purpose of securing all information and facts about the job and conditions under which it is performed. Interview Method. 2. By interview 3. Later than questionnaire with complete information and facts are returned to job evalution decision where they are processed. a questionnaire is prepared which covers all phases of the job and the environment in which it is performed. Observation method In this method. It is the collection of data about task s.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 14. to analyst observes the working of worker and collects the information. This method helps to collect the accurate information. abilities and responsibilities required for successful performance. knowledge. By observation 2. but analyst must have detailed knowledge of the jobs. The analyst must observe the worker on the job before any questions about the job.

Manipulative d. Noise Module No 2 56 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Skill involved a. Physical b. b. Safety of equipment. Workers conditions. c. 4. a. Efforts required a. Versatility 2. Experience b. Job knowledge.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Generally for worker’s job following information is collected 1. Surrounding b. Sense of hearing 3. Quality of product. Responsibility a.

The method involves detailed analysis of the job are then ranked in respect of predetermined factors. Job classification methods 3. 1. The rank is decided by committee. What is Job Evalution? Explain the methods of Job Evaluation Ans: JOB EVALUTION Job evalution is the process of selecting on appropriate job evaluation system. comparison and evalution of the jobs are skill. d. 3. 2. phy sical effort. There are four methods of job evaluation. The grade differences are defined in terms of difference in the level of duties. For ranking. job is considered as a whole and it is not broken down into various element or tasks. Factor Comparison Methods 4. c. Factor Comparison Methods a. Module No 2 57 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . The five factors are considered for the analysis. mental effort. Job classification methods a. Ranking methods 2.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 15. These grades or classes are established well in advance by the committee or experts. c. 1. b. b. In this method. responsibilities and working conditions. responsibility and requirement of speci al skills. Ranking methods a. b. In these methods all jobs are divided into classes or grades. Job ranking is the simplest and oldest methods of the evalution. jobs are ranked in hierarchical order from the most important one. Point rating method. evaluating the jobs and fitting them into grades.

Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning

4. Point rating method. a. This method was developed by Merill .R .Lott in 1925. b. The method evaluates jobs based on carefully selected factor such as education, experience, physical effort, responsibilities for machine and materials which are common to majority jobs. c. For example if experience factor is 25% and the factor is split up into 4 degrees ,then the points for the degrees are

Degree 1 2 3 4

Point value for the degree 25 50 75 100

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16. Define the MERIT RATING? State its objectives?
Ans - MERIT RATING

1. Merit rating is a systematic and orderly approach to assess the relative work of an employee working in an organizing in terms of his job performance, integrity, leadership, intel ligence and behaviors. 2. MERIT RATING is also called the PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL.

OBJECTIVES OF MERIT RATING 1. To increase the industrial productivity and to reduce the hostility between the employee and employers. 2. To identify the training needs of the em ployee. 3. For taking the decision about the incentives, increment to be given to the workers. 4. To provide the sound basis in making decision for promotion, transfer of the employee. 5. Review of the result of selection of the employee. 6. To motivate the employee t o perform better. 7. Helps in counseling employees regarding strength and weakness.

METHODS OF MERIT RATING 1. Ranking plan 2. Checklist plan 3. Scales plan 4. Man to man comparison plans.

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1. Ranking plan. a) The workers are arranged in rank orders from best t o worst /most satisfactory to least satisfactory. b) Ranking plan is of several types c) The aim of ranking is to designate grade, each denoting a specified level of merit. d) The another way of ranking is Classifying the jobs in terms of various levels of skills, responsibility and rank the worker accordingly.

2. Scale plan a) This is mainly used in industry. b) There are many variable scale plan and all consist of list of attributed or trails, each being accompanied by scale, for rating the worker. c) Scale plan are of two types 1) Continuous Scale 2) Discontinuous Scale.

3. Check list plan a) These are list made up of series of statements/questions which concern the importance aspect of the employee performance of the jobs. b) The comparison among the employers is easier and better tha n this plan.

4. Man to man comparison plan a) These plans are widely used in USA in rating military officers. b) It is based on study of five characteristics i.e. Physical quantities, Intelligence, Leadership, Personal qualities, General value. c) Each of the characteristic is divided in five degrees and value is assigned to each degrees. d) Thus a person to person comparison is made and his position is determined e) Therefore it is knows as man to man comparison plan.

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4 ERGONOMICS 1. State the various ergonomics considerations and factors in details.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning CHAPTER NO 2. Define Ergonomics? Discuss the objectives of human engineering and human factor affected by environment? 10 marks 2. 6. Also comment on the Ergonomics? 10marks 4. Define Ergonomics and Antiptrometry? Discuss the various ergonomics factors and anthropormntic data in details? 10marks 5. Module No 2 61 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Discuss the following :Ergonomics and its objectives 4marks 3.

Thus another definition which highlights the man -machine system is: “The design of human tasks. the benefits being measured in terms of human efficiency and well -being.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Q1. and effective accomplishment of the job. man -machine system.” The human factors or human engineering is concerned with man -machine system. In USA and other countries it is called by the name ‘human engineering or human factors engineering”. Module No 2 62 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . limitations and needs of people. ILO defines human engineering as. controls for human operations and complex man -machine systems. including displays for presenting information to human sensors. “The application of human biological sciences along with engineering sciences to achieve optimum mutual adjustment of men and his work. Human engineering seeks to change the things people use and the environment in which they use the things to match in a better way the capabilities. equipment facilities and environments used in the work. So it is the study of the man in relation to his work.” Human engineering focuses o n human beings and their interaction with products. Define Ergonomics? Discuss the objectives of human engineering and human factor affected by environment? 10 marks OR Discuss the following: Ergonomics and its objectives 4marks Ans:ERGONOMICS (HUMAN ENGINEERING ) The word ‘Ergonomics’ has its origin in two Greek words Ergon meaning laws.

2. reduced errors and increase in productivity. in general the scope and objective of ergonomics is “designing for human use and optimizing working and living conditions”. comfortable and effective human use. To enhance certain desirable human values including safety reduced stress and fatigue and improved quality of life. This accounts for increased productivit y. Ergonomics aims at providing comfort and improved working conditions so as to channelize the energy. systems. tasks. skills of the workers into constructive productive work. To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness with which the activities (work) is carried out so as to increase the convenience of use. safety and reduces the fatigue. Thus human factors (ergonomics) discover and apply information about human behavior. safe. Module No 2 63 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Thus. machines. This helps to increase the plant utilization. abilities and limitations and other characteristics to the design of tools. jobs and environment fo r productive.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning OBJECTIVES OF HUMAN ENGINEERING Human engineering (ergonomics) has two broader objectives: 1.

The primary aim of ergonomics is to optimize the functioning of a system by adapting it to human capacities and needs 3. Ergonomics is a scientifically based Discipline which integrated knowledge delivered from many sciences. healthy and safety should all embody ergonomics principles if well designed. The designer might not known who are the ends users and the buyer cannot influence the design of the product .Ergonomics is the only the link between these four actors. Ergonomics comes into everything which involves people. Why Ergonomics 1.the job demand (physical and mental) and the condition (physical and organization environment )under whi ch the people is carrying out the job. 2. Ergonomics is defines as the scientific study of the rela tionship between a man and his working environment. 3. A Stone Age human in an environment using a flint stone as a knife could modify the shape of the stone fitting the hand and task.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Q2. Today a producer might be designed in one country manufactured in second country. Module No 2 64 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . purchased b y a wholesaler (buyer) in the third country and used by a customer in the fourth country . Write short notes on Importance of Ergonomics? Ans: IMPORTANCE OF ERGONOMICS Definition of Ergonomics 1. The scope of Ergonomics is extremely wide and is not limited to any particular industry or application. Work systems. 2. 3. 2. sports and leisure. The ability of peoples to do their job is influenced by the persons capabilities (physical and mental) . The Scope of Ergonomics 1.

Module No 2 65 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . Accident frequency and severity :jobs where accid ents occurs frequently or where they occurs in frequently but results in disabling injuries. 5. The key words are health. Infrequency performed jobs: workers may be at greater risk when undertaking non –routing jobs and FWA provides a means of reviewing workplace contributing f actors. Factors to be considered 1. Potential for severe injuries or illness. Ergonomics is concerned with both employees well being as well as orgnaistiaon well being. 4. Modified jobs: new workplace contributing factors may associate with changes in job procedures. 3. Ergonomics aims to ensure that human needs for safe and efficient working are meet in the design of work system. health. comfort and performance. 2. The Objective of Ergonomics is to enhance the effectiveness with which work and other human activities are carried out and to maintain or enhance certain desirable human values in the pro cess. 5. safety and satisfaction. 4. 2. 3. workplace contributing factor may not evident or anticipat ed.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning The Objective of Ergonomics 1. Newly established jobs: due to lack of experience in the jobs. The aim of ergonomics is to enhance and preserve human health and satisfaction and to optimize the human performance in a system perspective.

Static dimension are measurements taken when the body is in a fixed positions. children etc. Contour dimensions. males. Dynamic dimension are taken under conditions in which the body engaged in some physical activity. inertial properties and masses of body segments. 7. Module No 2 66 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Q3. Designing for minimum population value is an appropriate strategy if a given minimum value of some design feature has to accommodate all. These consist of a. Static and dynamics . centers of gravity. Principles in the application of Anthropometric Data 1. the data used should be specific for such group in the country or culture in que stions. Example: Distance of control from the operator and force required to operate the control. 5. 6. There are two primary types of body measurement. Design for extreme individual: Designing for maximum population value is the recommended strategy if a given maximum value of some deign feature should accommodate of doors. Skeletal dimensions b. 2. There are differences in anthropometrics of male and female. 3. Anthropometry deals with the measurements of the dimensions and certain other physical characteristics of the body such as volumes. Body measurement varies as function of age. sex and for different countries. 4. Use of Anthropometric Data It is very much essential in the design where items are designed for specific groups such as adult. Define Ergonomics and Anthropometry? Discuss the various ergonomics factors and Anthropometry data in details? 10marks Anthropometry 1.

Designing for average: There is average individual and a person may be average on one or two dimensions. In design it is a produce to provide for adjustment to cover the range from 5 percentile male of the relevant population characteristics. th 3. desk height. Module No 2 67 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik .Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning 2. chair . Example: Automobile seats. Designers often design for the average as a compromise as they do not give to deal with anthropometric data. Designing for average range: In the design features of equipment or facilities the provision for adjustment should be there for the individual who use them. etc.

Increasing the rate of productio n. safety may be considered from t he mechanical side (equipment. Module No 2 68 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . tools etc) or from legal angles of workmen’s compensation or even as a matter of training in and motivation towards safe work practices for workers. 3. Reducing production cost. Reducing damage to equipment and machinery. Need for safety Safety in industry helps 1.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Safety in industry 1. 2. 5. 4. The importance of industry safety was realized because every millions of industrial accident occur which result in either death or in temporary or permanent disablement of the employees and a good amount of cost such as resulting from wasted man -hours . Preventing needless pain and suffering from its employees.machine hours. In an industry. 2. 3. processes and operations an d by educating and raining workers and supervisors regarding safe practices on the shop floor.etc. Preventing premature death of talented workers who are an asset to the society. Safety results from safe plant.

processes and storage facilities in such a way as to limit the possible com bination of oxygen. The second principle is to eli minate or reduce the sources of heat or ignition. Every work place should have an emergency plan with information detailing the role of every worker in case of fire and other emergencies. unobstructed exits leading to the area of safety. There should be at least two clear. There must be a way of notifying personnel of a need to evaculate .such as an alarm system . for example where there is a high level of noise . properly marked. Preparedness for the emergencies should always be organized by management along the following lines.visual signals such as flashing or revolving light are also frequently used. The first principle of fire prevention is to design building. b.in some applications.Industrial Engineering and Entrprise Resources Planning Safety measures and the safety devices Fire prevention and protection 1. Module No 2 69 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik . 2. thus limiting the rise in temperature 3. c. a. fuel and an increase in temperature.