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1. Cost of quality 2. Quality specification 3. Need of SQC 4. Concept of variation 5. Central tendency theorem 6. Acceptance Sampling 7. Control chart for variable 8. Control chart for attributes 9. TQM

Q.1

Solution:Statistical quality control: A quality Control system is called SQC, when statistical techniques are employed to control the quality or to solve quality problems. It is based on law of large numbers & Mathematical theory of probabilit ies. Modern techniques of SQC & acceptance sampling have an important role in improvement of quality, enhancement of productivity, creation of consumer confidence & development of industrial economy of country. Advantages/Benefits of SQC: 1) Efficiency & Cost reduction 2) Reduction of scrap: - It enables to forecast troubles before rejection occur & reduce the amount of spoiled work. 3) More effective pressure. 4) Easy detection of faults. 5) Easy application. 6) Reduction in consumer complaints. 7) Quality awareness creation in employees. 8) Improves productivity. 9) Reduce wastage of men & machines hours.

Q.2. Why statistics is important in Quality Control? State the benefits of SQC? Solution:STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL: 1) It is the branch of quality control which deals with collection, problem analysis and interpretation of data to solve the problem. 2) Statistical quality control applies the law of statistics to solve quality control problem. 3) It is based on the law of application to large number and theory of probability. IMPORTANCE OF STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL 1. Less amount of inspection Due to SQC, less amount of inspection is required which saves the lot of man hour of the production

2. Reduction in scrap and reworking Due to SQC techniques of production, production is possible with minimum chances of scraps and reworks. 3. Fault fining and corrective action Due to SQC, the fault finding is easy and the corrective action can be easily taken 4. Efficiency and cost reduction Due to SQC, there is increase in efficiency and reduction in cost is easily possible.

5. Better customer relation The good customer relations can be maintained by the proper use of SQC. Advantage /Benefits of SQC 1. Efficiency and cost reductions 2. Easy detection of fault. 3. Easy application 4. Reduction of scrap. 5. Reduction in consumer complaints. 6. Reduction of men and machine hours .

Solution:-

No 1

Variables When the measurement is carried out to find the quality characteristics of

Attributes When a record shows only the number of articles confirm and non confirming to any special requirement it is said to be attribute data

It is done with the help of precis ion It is recorded with the help of laid down measurement. standard. Data obtained is called discrete data

4 Ex:

The value cannot be fractions No of defects found in sample Cracks in sheet by spot weld.

Q.4. What is Variation/Variability? What are possible causes of variation? Solution:VARIATION/VARIABILITY No production process can produce all items exactly al ike. Production process consists of combination of men, materials and machine. Each of these elements of combination has some inherent or natural variability, the causes of which cannot be isolated. Reason for variation 1) Poor raw material 2) Machine vibration 3) Tool wear 4) Improper work setting 5) Faulty work holding device Two types of Variation 1) Chance variation /random variation 2) Assignable variation

Q.5. Differentiate between the Chance causes and A ssignable causes? Solution:No 1 Chance cause This cause occurs by chance. Assignable causes This cause occurs due to individual error. 2 There is a minute amount of variations. 3 They are difficult to trace and un economical to eliminate. 4 With the random variation ,the process is stable to use the sampling procedure 5. These causes flows the statistical laws of variation. There is a small and large amount of variations. They are easy to trace/detect and un economical to eliminate. With the assignable variation ,the process is not stable to use the sampling procedure These causes do not follows any statistical laws of variations.

6 Example a. vibration in machine b. variation in material Example a) Faulty set up b) Fault jigs and fixtures

Q.6:-Define

frequency

distribution.

Describe

various

ways

of

graphical

representation of frequency distribution. Solution : FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION: 1. When the measured sizes of all the products are plotted against the frequency of occurrences of each size in the form of graph, it is known as frequency distribution. 2. The height of curve at any point is proportional to the frequency of occurrence of that particular size. APPLICATION OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION 1. For producing entire lot character from sample. 2. For determining process capabil ities. 3. For comparing inspection results for two machines 4. For analysis effective of tool wear. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION 1. Frequency Histogram 2. Bar chart 3. Frequency Polygon 4. Cumulative Frequency Distribution

Frequency distribution can be represented graphically by following ways. 1. Frequency Histogram: 1) In the graph the sides of column represents the upper & lower cell boundaries & heights are proportional to the frequencies of occurrences within the cells. 2) In drawing a histogram, It is assumed that the frequency is centered at the mid value of cell or class.

3) Simplicity of construction & inspection of histogram makes it an effective tool. 4) A random sample is taken from the lot u nder consideration & measurements are made for selected quality characteristic. 5) When there is a large amount of highly variable data, then it may be grouped into cell. 6) As a general rule, at least 50 measurements are taken to provide sufficient data to plot the histogram.

2. Bar Chart: 1) Bar chart is a graphical representation of the frequency distribution, in which the bars are centered at the midpoint of the cells. 2) The heights of bars are proportional to the frequencies in the respective cells.

3.

Frequency Polygon: 1) Frequency Polygon is a graphical representation of frequency distribution in which series of lines joining the points are platted at cell midpoints at the height shown for frequency. 2) It consists of a series of straight line joining poin ts which are plotted at all mid points with a height proportional to the frequency. 3) The advantage of frequency polygon is that frequency polygon of several distributions may be plot on the same axis, those by making certain comparisons possible.

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4. OGIVE CURVE 1) Ogive curve are used to plot cumulative frequencies of value less than or greater than respective cell bounded. 2) Less than Ogive: Upper class boundary and less than cumulative frequency. 3) More than Ogive : Lower class boundary and more than cum ulative frequency

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Solution: -

1) Cell :While grouping the data into a frequency distribution, the cell boundaries should be chosen half way between two possi ble observations and cell intervals should be equal. The interval along the scale of measurement of each ordered class is termed cell.

2) Grouped frequency: It is an arrangement, which shows the frequency of occurrence of values in ordered classes.

3) Relative frequency: The relative frequency of any cell is the frequency for that cell divided by total numbers of observations.

5) Universe or population: The universe may be thought of as a common source, from which the total collection of unit is obtained. Statistical methods are based on the concept of a distribution of exceeding larger number of observations, termed as Infinite Universe or Population . .

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Solution: Central Tendency: When accurately measured, the dimensions of most of the components tend to concentrate close to middle of the two extreme s. This is called as Central Tendency.

1. Arithmetic Mean: - X The arithmetic mean is the average of all the values of the variable in the sample. If X1,X2,X3,.,X n are the n values of the variables X in the sample, then their arithmetic mean is given by,

X1 + X2 + X3 +.................+ X n n

i.e. X 2. Median:

When all the observations are arranged in ascending or descending order, then the median is the magnitude of middle case. Case 1:If n is odd, the observations are arranged in ascending order, then median is given by, ( Case 2:If n is even, then the median is taken as, Average of ( value.

n ) 2

th

n 1 th ) 2

value.

value or (

n 2

1)

th

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3. Mode: Mode is the value that occurs most frequently in a frequency histogram or frequency polygon. It is the observed value corresponding to the high point of the graph. For Example, The recorded observations are, 2,3,2,4,5,2,7,6,2,4,2 Here, 2 occurs most frequently, hence mode = 2

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Q.9 :- Define dispersion. How will you measure dispersion? Solution:DISPERSION: The extent to which data is scattered about the zone of central tendency is known as dispersion.

The various measures of dispersion are, 1) Range (R): Range is the difference between largest observed value & smallest observed value. It is the simplest measure of dispersion in a sample. It is partic ularly used in the control chart. Range = largest observed value smallest observed value. 2) Standard Deviation: - (RMS value) Standard Deviation is defined as the root mean square of the deviations from the arithmetic mean.

3) Variance: -

X1 X

X2 X

..........

Xn X

It is the sum of squares of deviations from the arithmetic mean divided by number of observations. In other words, Variance is the square of standard deviation i.e. 2.

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Q.10: - What is N.D. curve. Give characteristics & applications of N.D. Curve. Solution:Normal Distribution Curve In the frequency distribution, if the number of observations is increased and if only the chance causes of variation are present in the quality characteristics measured, the frequency polygon assumes a bell -shape and approximates to normal distribution curve.

Characteristics 1. Normal distribution curve is bell shaped & symmetrical about the mean. 2. The curve is fully defined by X & . 3. Theoretically N.D. curve extends from purposes, we can consider normal curve extending only 3 values to the left and 3 values to right of mean. I.e. X 3 .

4. The most coated limits in connection with the curve are as follows Specification Limits X X X 2 3 Percent Of Total Area 68.26% 95.46% 99.73%

When we select 3 limits, we are 99.73% sure that the observations will lie within these limits.

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Applications of N.D.curve : 1. The frequency of occurrence of the parts are plotted against their respective classes are sizes. If the curve is approximates to N.D. Curves, it means no assignable causes of variation are present i.e. chance causes are present. 2. It is useful in process capability study to find whether the process is capable of meeting the specified tolerance or not. 3. The area under the curve between two limits re presents the total percents of production that will fall either these limits. Q.11: - Define Control Chart. State its purposes?What are its objectives? Solution: Control Chart: 1) It is a graphical representation of the collected information. 2) The information may pertain to measure quality characteristic (e.g. length, diameter, thickness etc.). 3) Control chart is a device for specifying state of statistical control & for attaining quality control. 4) It is a tool to judge whether a state of statistical control has attended. Purpose of Control Chart: 1) To find out the changes in the quality of product; so that rectification can be equally made to correct the process before large quantity of defectives (or scrap) are produced. i.e. the chart gives warning of cha nge in trend of production towards the increasing number of defective articles. 2) To determine whether the given process can meet the existing specification without a fundamental change in production process. 3) To secure information to be used in establishing or changing production procedure. 4) To give a feedback of information, which can be used for planning & control purposes. 5) To ensure product quality level.

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Objectives of different control charts: The commonly used control charts are, 1.

centering of process

2. R Chart: - It shows uniformity or consistency of process i.e. it shows variations ranges of samples. 3. Charts: - It shows variation of the proces s.

TYPES OF CONTROL CHARTS: -

CONTROL CHART

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Q.12: -Describe the method of constructing X & R cha rts & explain how these charts help in determining lack of controls. Solution: Step I Calculate the average X & range for each sample: A good number of samples of items manufactured are collected randomly at different intervals of time & their quality characteristics (e.g. diameter, thickness, wt., etc.) are measured. For Examples: If a sample contains five items, whose dimensions are X 1, X2, X3, X4 & X5, then

X X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 + X5 5

& R = largest value smallest value. Step II Calculate grand average X & average range R . It is obtained by dividing the sum of X value by number of samples i.e. subgroups, i.e. X

X N

R N

Step III Calculation of 3 limits for X chart, The control limits are given by , Upper control limit X = UCL X = X + 3 . X Lower control limit X = LCL X = X - 3 . X Step-IV Calculation of 3 limits for R chart, UCL R = D4 R UCL R = D3 R where the values of various factors A, A 1, A2, D1, D2, D3, D4 are based on normal distribution & can be found from standard tables for a particular sample size.

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Step V Plot X & R chart: For X chart, the central line on X chart should be drawn as solid horizontal line as X . The upper & lower control limits should be drawn as dotted horizontal lines at the calculated value. For R chart, central line will be indicates R & control limits are shown by dotted horizontal lines.

Step VI Plot the average of samples in X chart in the order collected & points outside the control limits are indicated by cross. Plot the ranges in R chart & points outside the control limits are indicated by circles. Step VII Interpretation/preliminary conclusions from the control charts. The lack of control is indicated by points falling outside control limits on either X & R chart. When all the points fall inside, it means the process is in control. 1 out of 35 or 2 out of 100 points can be tolerated & process is said to be in control.

Q.13: -Differentiate between a defect & defective. Solution: A. Defective: 1. An item is said to be defective if it fails to conform to the specifications in any of the quality characteristics. B. Defect: 1. Each characteristic that does not meet with the specifications is called as defect . 2. An item is said to be defective if it contains at least one defect. 3. For e.g. if a casting contains undesirable hard spots, blowholes, cracks etc., the casting is defective and hard spots, blowholes, cracks are called as defects.

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Q.14: Define Fraction Defective. How will you draw P chart? Solution: FRACTION DEFECTIVE: It is defined as the ratio of number of defective articles to the total number of articles actually inspected. It is always expressed as decimal fraction.

P- Chart It is an attribute control chart i.e. for quality charact eristics that can be classified as either conforming or non -conforming to the specifications. For e.g. dimensions checked by GO & NO - GO gauges.

Step to draw P Chart: 1) Record the data for each subgroup on no. of articles inspected and no. of defectives 2) Compute P (fraction defective) for each subgroup

Total No. Of defectives in a period Total No. of articles inspected in a per iod

UCLP

P (1 P) n P (1 P) n

LCLP

5) Plot each point as obtained, plot control limits as calculated. The points falling outside control limits are identified, (If any). 6) If the points fall outside the control limits, there may be two reasons. a) Assignable causes of variation may be present. b) Quality level is different for assumed standard P.

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Q15.: -Short Note on P- Chart? Solution: P- Chart It is an attribute control chart i.e. for quality charact eristics that can be classified as either conforming or non -conforming to the specifications. For e.g. dimensions checked by GO & NO - GO gauges. Step to draw P Chart: 7) Record the data for each subgroup on no. of articles inspected and no. of defectives 8) Compute P (fraction defective) for each subgroup

Total No. Of defectives in a period Total No. of articles inspected in a per iod

UCLP

P (1 P) n P (1 P) n

LCLP

11) Plot each point as obtained, plot control limits as calculated. The points falling outside control limits are identified, (If any). 12) If the points fall outside the control limits, there may be two reasons. c) Assignable causes of variation may be present. d) Quality level is different for assumed standard P.

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Q.16: - What is the purpose of P-Chart? Solution Purpose of P-Chart Because of lower inspection & maintenance costs of p -chart, they usually have a greater area of economical applications than control charts for variable. 1. To discover avg. proportion of defective articles submitted for inspection, over a period of time. 2. In a sampling inspection of large lots. 3. To bring attention to management, any changes in averag e quality level. 4. To discovers identity & correct causes of bad quality. 5. Provides management with useful record of quality history. 6. To suggest where it is necessary to use X & R chart to diagnose quality problems. Q.17: -Short Note on C chart Solution: C Chart (Control Chart for defects per unit ) : 1. It is also another type of control chart for attribute. 2. It this chart, sample size remains constant. It finds no of defects per unit of production. Example of this includes Cloth manu facturing & Tube manufacturing. 3. It applies to number ff defects in a subgroup of constant size. Central line = C

Lower control limit LCL C = C 3 C 4. Plot each point as obtained, plot control limits as calculated. 5. The points falling outside control limits are identified Applications of C chart. 1. Number of surface defect in aircraft wing. 2. Number of surface defect in galvanized sheet. 3. Number of small holes in glass bottles. 4. Number of defect such as blowholes, cracks in a casting. 5. Number of imperfections observed in a cloth of unit area .

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Q.18: -Differentiate between Variable & Attribute Chart OR Differentiate between X & R chart with C, P chart.

Variable Charts Examples: - X & R Data required is variable data (i.e. measured quality characteristic)

Attribute Charts Examples: - P, np, C, U charts. Data required is attribute data (i.e.

Field

of

Application:

Control

of

Field of application: - Control of proportion of defectives or defect in a sample of constant size or number of defects per unit.

Provides

maximum

utilization

of

Data required are often already available form inspection records. They do not provide detailed information for control of individual dimension.

information available from data. Provides detailed information on process average & variation for control of

individual dimension. They are not easily understood unless training is provided. They involve more time for measuring, calculation & plotting. Sample size is small. Sample size is generally larger. They are more simple as compared to X, R charts, so can be easily understan d They involve less cost & time.

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Q.19: - What is Process capability? Explain its role in achieving the Qua lity? OR How Process capability is useful in industry? Solution: PROCESS CAPABILITY It may be defined as the minimum spread of specific measurement variation, which will include 99.73% of the measurement from the given processes as shown by limits in the N-D curve. In other words, Process capability = 6, since 6 is taken as a measure of spread of process, which is also called natural tolerance. By this study, it becomes possible to know the % of products, which will be produced within 3 limits on either side of mean X .

ROLE OF PROCESS CAPABILITY IN ACHIEVING QUALITY 1. The capacity of the process and available equipment can be utilized effectively and efficiently. 2. The job with tight tolerance can be assigned to the capable machines. 3. The tools designer can find out the places where tooling improvement can be done to maintain the process capability. 4. The capability study helps in maintenance schedule. 5. The machine settler can judge the eff iciently of the machine. 6. The machine operators can take decision selecting the machines.

USE OF PROCESS CAPABILITY STUDY 1. It determines the ability of the process meet standard and specifications. 2. It can be used to establish the new standard. 3. It measures the variability of the process. 4. It determines the causes of the inherent and actual variability. Applications of Process Capability study: 1. To find whether the process is capable of meeting the specified tolerance limits. 2. Discover why the process capabl e is failing to meet the specifications. 3. The knowledge of process capability studies lead to improve equipment maintenance, improved operator training & reduce costs.

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Q.20: - Explain the steps involved in process capability? Give its applications. Solution: Procedure for doing Process Capability study Step 1. Calculate X and R for each sample. Step 2. Calculate Grand average X & average range R , this measures centering of proce ss. Step 3. Calculate process capability = 6 = 6

R R 6x d2 d2

where d2 is a factor for particular sample size.

This measures the piece-to-piece variability of process. Step 4. Calculate specified tolerance.i.e. (Xmax Xmin). When a controlled process must meet two specification limits on individual values, upper & lower specification limits, the possible situations may be grouped into 3 general classes as described below. 1. When (X max Xmin) > 6 Where X max = Upper specification limit Xmin = Lower specification limit i.e. specified tolerance > natural tolerance Conclusions 1) With any position a,b or c practically all the products manufactured will meet the specifications 2) If (Xmax Xmin/6) ratio is considerably larg e, frequency of control chart may be reduced.

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2. When (X max Xmin) < 6 i.e. specified tolerance is < natural tolerance

Conclusion In this type of situation defectives will always be there. Remedy:a. Increase the tolerance. b. Reduce the dispersion. c. Suffer and sort out the defectives if it economical to make the fundamental changes in process. 3. When (X max Xmin) = 6 Conclusion Spread of process is approximately equal to difference between upper & lower specification limits.

Remedy:a. It is necessary to maintain the centering of process. b. Reduce dispersion if it is economical. c. Advisable to increase tolerance.

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Q.21: -What do you mean by Acceptance sampling? How does it help in Quality Control? Solution: ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING 1) Acceptance sampling is the process of evaluating a portion of the products in lot for the purpose of accepting or rejecting the lot on the basis of number of defective parts found in a random sample drawn from the lot. 2) If the number of defective items does not exceed the predefined level, the lot is accepted otherwise rejected. NEED OF ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING 1. To interprete the specification. 2. To measure the product. 3. To compare the specification and the product. 4. To provide the basis for constructi ng the sampling plans. TWO METHODS OF ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING /SAMPLING INSPECTION Inspection for acceptance purpose is carried out at many stages in manufacturing. There are generally two ways in which inspection is carried out. 1. 100% inspection. 2. Sampling inspection. A. 100% inspection 1) In 100% inspection, all the parts or products are subjected to inspection, where as in sampling inspection only a sample is drawn from the lot & inspected. B. Sampling inspection. 1) In sampling inspection, certain samples are selecte d from a lot and they are checked. 2) Decisions are made after inspecting the samples selected.

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Q.22: - Give the advantages and limitations of ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING? Solution: ADVANTAGES OF ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING 1. Cost and time required is less compared to 10 0% inspection. 2. Less manpower is required for the inspection 3. It takes less time and hence delivery time and hence delivery commitments can be easily met. 4. The error and fatigue observed in 100% inspection is not there. 5. The quality awareness is increases in the business organizations. DISADVANTAGES OF ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING 1. Proper selection of sampling plans, sampling size, proper acceptance and rejections number is important while doing. 2. There are risk of accepting bad lots and rejecting good lots. 3. The field of application is limited depending on the product. 4. The sampling provides less information than the 100% inspection.

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Q.23: - Give the advantages and limitations of sampling inspection over 100% inspections. Solution: ADVANTAGES AND LIMI TATIONS OF SAMPLING INSPECTION OVER 100% INSPECTIONS. Advantages of Acceptance sampling : The advantages of sampling inspection over 100% inspections: 1) Cost & time read is quite less than 100% inspection. 2) Problems of inspection fatigue are eliminated. 3) Less damage to products because only few items are subjected to handling during inspection 4) The inspector error introduced by 100% error is minimized. 5) The lot is disposed off in shorter period, so that scheduling & dispatch dates are improved. 6) It exerts more effective pressure on quality improvement.

Limitations of Acceptance sampling: 1) Since only a part is inspected, the sample may not represent the exact picture of the entire lot; hence there is likelihood of risk of making wrong decisions about the lot. 2) The producer will pass on the cost of rejected loss on the consumer. 3) This method may not be suitable for tasking decision on acceptance or rejection of very costly items. 4) It is necessary to use random sampling, select proper sample size & acceptance criteria for accurate results. Q.24: -State the factors on which success of sampling inspection depend? Solution: - Factors on which success of sampling inspection depends are : a) Random sampling. b) Proper sample size & lot size. c) Acceptance criteria. d) Quality characteristic to be measured.

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Q.25: - What is O.C. Curve? Sketch neatly actual O.C. curve? State its parameter? Solution: O.C. Curve (Operating Characteristic Curve) 1. The operating characteristic curve for an attribute -sampling plan is a graph of fraction defectives in a lot against the probability of acceptance. OR The operating characteristic curve for an attribute -sampling plan is a graph of probability of acceptance versus percentage defectives.

2. The percentage defectives are taken on X axis and the probability of acceptances is taken on Y axis on the graph. 3. It provides both the produces and consumer a graph showing risks each of them takes in term of good product being rejected and bad product is accepted. 4. The shape of O.C. curve depends upon following parameters. N = Lot size from which samples are drawn n = Sample size c = Acceptance number 5. An O.C. curve can be divided into three regions. a. Acceptance quality region. b. Indifference quality region c. Objectionable quality region.

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Parameter of an OC curve 1. Producers risks 2. Consumers risks 3. Acceptable quality level. 4. Lot tolerance percentage defective. 5. Average outgoing quality. 6. Average outgoing quality level Q.26: - State the characteristic of an O. C. Curve. Solution: Characteristic of O.C.curve : 1) The O.C. curve of an acceptance -sampling plan shows the ability of plan to distinguish between good lots & bad lots. 2) Sampling acceptance plans with same % samples gives very different quality protection 3) For different values of n, N & c, the O.C. curve w ill differ. 4) But for fixed value of c & n 1 the O.C. curve for different values of N are not appreciable different i.e. it is the absolute size of sample i.e. important than its relative size compared to size of lot. 5) With fixed value N and c < n 1 than if n value is larger, better will be discrimination between good lots & bad lots. 6) With fixed value of C and n < N, than if n is larger, the slope of O.C. curve will be steeper. Q.27: - List the significance of an O. C. Curve. Solution: Significance of an O. C. Curve 1. It compares the performance over a range of possible quality level of submitted product. 2. It provides the means of evaluating the means of evaluating the sampling. 3. It depicts the varying conditions of incoming material. 4. It explains the risk inherent in sampling plan at each level of product quality.

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Q.28:- Explain the following terms. A. Producers risk B. Consumers risk C. Acceptance Quality Level (AQL) D. Lot tolerance percent defective (LTPD) E. Average outgoing quality (AOQ) F. Average outgoing quality level ( AOQL) Solution: -

A. Producers risk: 1) The producers risk is the probability of rejecting a good for which otherwise would have been selected (accepted). 2) If the quality is good still from the sampling plan some lots are rejected, the n it becomes the risk of producer and producer has to suffer. 3) Producer should not be affected by rejecting a good lot. 4) So producers should be protected against the rejection of relatively better products. 5) The producers can decrease risk by producing product at better quality le vel than specified AQL depending upon other economical conditions.

B. Consumers risk 1) Consumers risk is defined as the probability of accepting the defective lots which otherwise would have been rejected. 2) If the quality of the product is bad and still som e lots are accepted then it becomes the risk of consumers. 3) If the quality is bad still from the sampling plan, some lots are accepted, the consumers has to suffer. 4) Saying that Pa 0.1 = 2.5 means that the consumer dose not want a worse quality containing more than 2.5% defectives & he would at the most accept 10% of lots containing 2.5% defectives.

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C. Acceptable Quality level (AQL): 1) It represents the max proportion of defectives, which the consumer finds definitely acceptable. 2) AQL can also be defined as maximum percent defectives that for the purpose of sampling inspection can be considered satisfactory as a process average. 3) As an AQL, is an acceptable quality level, the probability of acceptance for an AQL should be high. 4) In fact the producers safe poin t is termed as AQL D. Lot Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD): Lot tolerance percent defective. 1) It can be called as RQL i.e. Rejectionable Quality Level. 2) It is a definition of unsatisfactory quality. 3) It represents the proportion of defectives which consumer finds definitely unacceptable. 4) As RQL is unacceptable quality level, the probability of acceptance is very low. 5) In fact, the probability of accepting a lot at LTPD represents consumers risk. E. IQL: - (Indifference quality level) 1) This is a quality level somewhat between AQL & LTPD 2) It is defined as quality level having probability of acceptance of 0.5 for a given sampling plan.

F. Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ): 1) An average outgoing quality of a product is important to the customer. 2) The AOQ is the expected average quality going to a customer for the specified incoming quality level . 3) It represents the average % defective in the outgoing products after inspection, including all accepted & all rejected lots, which have been100% inspected & defectives replaced by non-defectives. 4) So for a given fraction defectives, the lot accepted as a result of first sampling inspection will have a fraction defectives p the rejected lots are subjected to 100% inspection & rectification (defective particles are either rep laced or corrected), therefore AQL will be less than p.

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G. Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL) : 1) Average outgoing quality level is the maximum average percent defective in the outgoing product. 2) For any sample size & acceptance number, there is a max. valu e of AOQ beyond which the average fraction defectives passed forward will not rise, no matter how bad the quality of lots when they arrive at inspection. 3) Because, when incoming quality is good, AOQ must be good. 4) However, when incoming quality is bad, the s ampling plan will causes all the lots to be rejected, 100% inspected & rectified. Therefore the outgoing quality will be good. 5) Therefore at either extreme incoming quality very good or very bad, the outgoing quality will tend to be very good. 6) Between these two lots, there will be a point at which the percent of defectives will reach its maximum. This point is known as average outgoing level (AOQL)

Q.29:-Explain Acceptance / Rejection scheme & Acceptance /Rectification scheme? Solution: Acceptance / Rejection scheme: 1) The lots are subjected to sampling inspection. 2) If the lot contains more than c defectives it is rejected otherwise it is accepted. 3) The AOQ will be equal to or more than the given fraction defectives. 4) O.C. curve is used to discriminate between good & bad lots.

Acceptance /Rectification scheme :1) The lots are subjected to sampling inspection & of it contains defectives less than c than it is accepted. 2) It the lot contain more than c defectives, it is subjected to 100% inspection & defectives articles are either replaced or corrected before it is passed forward if for a given fraction defectives, the lot accepted as a result of first sampling plan will have fraction defected p, the rejected lots are subjected to 100% inspection & defective articles are replaced or corrected, If AQC will be less than p.

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Q.30: -What do you mean by Random Sampling? Solution: Random Sampling: 1) Selecting a sample in such a way that each item in a lot has an equal chance of being selected is called as Random Sampling. 2) Since a judgment about the lot is to be made on the basis of only a sample it is very important that the sample truly represents the universe (lot) from which it is drawn. 3) Therefore samples must be selected from all sides & different depth s of container containing the lot of parts. 4) Also the sample size should be large enough.

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Q.30: -State & explain the different sampling plans with respect to their acceptance criteria. Solution: Sampling plans may be grouped into thr ee categories. A. Single sampling plan: 1) When a decision rejection or acceptance of lot is made on the basis of only one sample, the acceptance plan is known as single sampling plan. 2) In this sampling plan, the decision to accept or reject of a lot is based on the inspection of single sample. 3) It the number of defective found is less than equal to the acceptance number, then the lot is accepted. 4) It the number of defective found is greater than equal to the accept ance number, then the lot or batch is rejected. 5) In this, there are three parameters. N = Lot sizes, n = sample size & C = acceptance number = Maximum number of allowable defectives.

If number of defectives

Exceed C

37

B. Double sampling plan: 1) When the decision is made on acceptance or rejection of the lots on the basis on two samples combined it is called as double sampling plan. 2) A lot may be accepted at once if the first sample is good enough and rejected at once if sample is bad enough. 3) If the first sample is neither good enough nor bad enough, the decision is based on the evidence of first & second sample combined. 4) Parameters: Let n1 = number of pieces in the first sample C1 = acceptance number for the first sample= max. number of defecti ves that will permit the acceptance of lot on the basis of first sample. n2 = number of pieces in the second sample. n1+n2 = number of pieces in the two samples combined. C2 = Acceptance number for the two samples combined = max number of defectives that will permit the acceptance of the lot on the basis of first & second sample combined.

If number of defectives

Exceed C 2

If number of defectives in the first & second sample combined i.e. (n1+n2)

38 Vaibhav Vithoba Naik

Exceed C 2

1) The multiple sampling is used when three or more samples of stated size are permitted. 2) The multiple sampling procedures can be represented on a table such as the following.

Sample Size n1 n2 n3 n4 n5

Combined samples Size n1 n1+n2 n1+n2+n3 n1+n2+n3+n4 n1+n2+n3+n4+n5 Acceptance c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 Rejection r1 r2 r3 r4 C5+1

3) A first sample of n 1 is drawn, the lot is accepted if there are defectives less than c 1 & rejected if there are defectives more than r 1 4) Otherwise if c 1 < def < r1, a second sample of n 2 is drawn, the lot is accepted if there are defectives less than c 2 in combined sample of n 1+n2 whereas lot is rejected if there are defectives more than r 2. 5) The procedure is continued in accordance with the above table. 6) If by the end of fourth sample, the lot is neither accepted nor rejected, a sample n 5 is drawn. 7) The lot is accepted if the number of defectives in the combined sample of n 1, n2, n3, n4, n5 less than c 5 & rejected if more than c 5+1.

39

Number

1.

Generally largest

Lowest

2.

Acceptability to producer

Less acceptable if Most acceptable (Gives II nd chance) indecision is continued for a larger period In between single & multiple Largest

3.

Lowest

4.

Largest

In between

Lowest

40

Q.32. What is the Product Re liability ? Solution: PRODUCT RELIABILITY 1) The reliability of a system or device is the probability that it will give satisfactory performance for a specified period of time under specified operating condition. 2) It is expressed as a mathematics probability . Parameter involved in the product reliability 1) The equipment and the performance required of it. 2) The conditions under which it is to operate. 3) The time interval/duration of operations. Cause or Failure / Unreliability 1) Design weakness 2) Manufacturing defects. 3) Misuse failure. 4) Environment stresses coming from temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, chemical content, radiation etc. 5) Operating stress coming due to voltage, current and frequency.

Q.33. Explain the term MTBF? Solution: Mean time between failure (MTBF) 1) MTBF is defined as the total measured operating time of a population of equipment divided by total number of failures, coupled with an assumption of an exponential distribution of intervals between the failure. 2) It is reciprocal of failure rate .

41

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