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Table of contents
Acknoledgements Preface Project motivation Design specification 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11

Ch.1 System drawings
1.1.paddle powered water pump System component drawings 1.2.standard bicycle 1.3.belt drive for powr transmission 1.4.centrfiugal pump 1.5.water lifting scheme Detailed system drawings 1.6.bicyle wheel 1.7.power transmission scheme 1.8.centrifugal pump 1.9.suction and discharge tanks

Ch.2 Water Head
2.1.HEAD 2.2.System head 2.3.Selection of pump diametre 2.4.Flow rate 2.5.Reynold number 2.6.Entrance length 2.7.Frictional head 2.8.Selection Criteria For Diametre Of Pipe 2.9.Results 2.10.Discharge head 2.11.Friction head due to fittings 2.12.Selection of gate valves and elbow 12 12 12 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 17

2.13.Total suction head 18 19 19 20 21 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 26 26 27 28 29 29 31 31 32 35

3.1.PUMP SELECTION 3.2.Design parametres 3.3.Rated speed

4.1.Diametre selection 4.2.Material selection 4.3.Result

Ch 5. Belt Drive
5.1.Bicycle speed : 5.2.Selection of belt type 5.3.Material of belt 5.4.Belt thickness and widths 5.5.Velocity ratio of belt drive 5.6.Slip of the belt 5.7.Length of pulley 5.8.Power transmitted by belt 5.9.Ratio of Driving Tensions for Flat Belt Drivivive 5.11.Maximum tention 5.12.Result

Appendix References




First of all I thank to Allah almighty who make me able to complete this task and than to sir Dr.Javed Hyder who guided me during whole period of this research oriented project.I am also thankful to him to provide us an opportunity to apply our knowledge in engineering systems which is the ultimate responsibily of good practising engineer.


drawings of individual segments of the system.detailed drawing of all parts and free hand drawings.2nd chapter deals with the head loss calculations. 4 .PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Preface To facilitate the reader project has been divided into 5 chapters.length and material used.Chapter 4 deals with selection of shaft used to transmit power from smaller pulley to the centrifugal this chapter technical data used in calculations was taken form different books has been cited and presented at the end of this report. I am thankful to Dr. 5TH chapter helps in calculation and selectin of belt size.Javed hyder and with whom sincere guidlines i was able to complete this project. Chapter 3 is about which pump will be used for pumping water?.1st chapter consists of rough sketche of the whole system.

............19 5 ..This project was especially chosen to meet the water need of Pakistan people which are seriouly affected by power shortage. Current pumps do not meet economic and ergonomic requirements of farmers..The idea is especially useful in third world countries where electricity is costly or is scarce... There are some facts which could be actuating factors for using this system Irrigation critically lacking in third world countries......... Can humad power can be used as power plant? Human exert 60 watt energy during walking and this amount increases to above 200 watts during cycling.....PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Project Motivation Human power if used effectivelly can be used for pumping water without any greater stress on human body.........A system with input power less than 100 watts used to pump water at 20 Lit/min without electricity is not a bad idea...........Moreover carefully designed system may lead to play a vital role in economy of thirld world countries..... Bicycles are prevalent and relatively ergonomic mode of transportation................By using this system not only water can be lifted for household purposes but also for irrigation needs...........This project is a predecessor for drawing underground water without electricity.... Bicycle powered pump answers irrigation need. Variability ..........

To make a system which can even work with a centrifugal pump which is 33% efficient.e 75 watts. System should be capable of working at temperatre 200C. To make a system with power input wihtin a range a human can easily delivere i. System is designed to make use of bicyle which is of easily avaible in standard size of 22”.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Design Specification To design a System which is able to pump water from one reservoir to another reservoir located at 25 feet horizontal and 15 feet vertical distance. System is provided with valves to regulate and control the flow of water. System is designed to make it economical as compered to electrically driven water pumps. To make system working its intended function with speed 21km/h with wheel size 22”. 6 . System should also act as predecessor for a system capable of drawing underground water especially for use in irrigation. To provide a flow rate of 20 litres/minute.

Paddle powered water pump Fig.1.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP SYSTEM DRAWINGS 1 1.1 Complete sketch of the system 7 .

2 Bicyle used for power input 1 1.3 Power transmission through belt 8 .Belt Drive For Powr Transmission Fig 1.3.2.Standard Bicycle Fig1.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP System Component Drawings 1.

4 Centrifugal pump 1.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP 1.Centrfiugal pump Fig 1.5 Suction and discharge tank 1 9 .Water lifting scheme Fig 1.5.4.

Power transmission scheme Fig 1.7.7 Belt drive detailed drawing 10 .PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP DETAILED SYSTEM DRAWINGS 1.6.Bicyle Wheel Fig 1.6 Bicyle wheel detailed parametres 1.

9 Water flow path 11 .8.Centrifugal pump Fig 1.8 Centrifugal pump labeling 1 1.9.Suction and discharge tanks Fig 1.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP 1.

Capacity is measured in gallons per minute. In addition to the static head we must calculate that is a head caused by resistance in the piping.e.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP WATER HEAD 2 suction head. so if we multiply these two together we get foot. To calculate head accurately we must calculate the total head on both the suction and discharge sides of the pump. and fluid concentration.3. Once we know these heads.000 foot pounds per minute equals one horsepower. System head = total discharge head . and each gallon of liquid has weight. and a head caused by any pressure that might be acting on the liquid in the tanks including atmospheric pressure. called " surface pressure head". so we can easily calculate the pounds per minute being pumped. Head or height is measured in feet.pounds per minute which converts directly to work at the rate of 33.temperature. 12 .HEAD Pressure is not as convenient a term because the amount of pressure that the pump will deliver depends upon the weight (specific gravity) of the liquid being pumped and the specific gravity changes with changes with temperature. and fluid concentration. Here is how it looks in a formula: 2. head" is a very convenient term in the pumping business.System head The head provided by the pump is the difference between the discharge and suction head i.1. type of fluid. 2. type of fluid.2.Selection of pump diametre Before we go for total head calculation we must select pipe dia and pipe length so that entrance effects and head losses are optimized. fittings and valves called friction head. we will then subtract the suction head from the discharge head and the amount remaining will be the amount of head that the pump must be able to generate at the rated flow.

hence Flow rate = Q = 20 Lit/min Q = flow rate of the system=VA Where V=Velocity A=Cross section of pipe Also A= d2/4 (2.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Fig 2.2) 13 .1) d = Diametre of the pipe to be selected Hence V=Q/ d2/4 (2.4.1 Total head calculation parametres 2.Flow rate In the section of project specification it was specified that system must provide a flow rate of 20 Lit/mim.

7.Entrance length For turbulent flow Entrance length = Le= hf = 8fLQ2/π2gd5 Where f= frictional parametre g= Acceleration of gravity 14 (2.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP 2.4Red1\6 Le = Entrance length (2.Reynold number To calculate Reynold number we use Re = ρVd/μ Where Re=Reynold number ρ=density of fluid μ =absolute viscosity of fluid (2.3) 2.5) Putting this expression for V in Eq (2.6) .Frictional head Head loss in the system due to pipe friction is given by hf = fLV2/2gd where hf = Head loss due to friction Since V=Q/ d2/4 (2.4) 2.

Discharge head Now we calculate total discharge head The total discharge head is made from three separate heads: 15 .Selection Criteria For Diametre Of Pipe Now we compare different diametres and pipe lengths from entrance point to pump with following parametres L= 15 ft For desnity of the water at T = 200C ρ= 998 kg/m3 g =9. 2.003*10-3 Diametre (inches) Fraction of Velocity Entrance lenth Re (m/sec) (Le=d*4.74/Re0.Results Hence a dia of 3/4 “ is suitable so that entrance effects are less than 10 % and friction head is also not too much.25 \ [log 10(5.027 .67 % Friction parametre (Appendix A1) Frictional head hf(ft) =8fLQ2/π2gd5 9.07 (Appendix A1) 1/2” .63 1 6.45 9.65 1.71% .81m/sec2 Q = 20*10-3m3/min μ = 1.34 2.4Red1\6) entrance (Re (feet) region =4DQ/dπμ) (Le/L) 33192 2.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP For smooth pipes (Can also be calculated from moody chart given in appendix A2) f = 0.3 .0228 3/4'” 22106 1.8.85 12.9)]2 (2.025 1.34 1” 16580 .9.17 1.7) 2.10.

81*.172 /2*9.Friction head due to fittings There are two valves and two elbows we must select proper valves and elbow suitable for the system with application and economy point of view.L3=1.L2 = 4.526 m hfdp =7. thus: hpd = 0 hfd =fludi friction head (pipe) + fluid friction head (fitting) =hfdp + hfdf We calculate fluid friction head due to pipe in three segments hfdp =hfdp1-2+hfdp2-3+hfdp3-4 =fL1V2/2gd +f L2V2/2gd + fL3V2/2gd Here only variable is legnth and L1 = 1. vertical distance to cover hpd = discharge surface pressure head hfd = discharge friction head Now hsd = 4.025*1.58 m .632*.11. 16 .01908 =0.697m hfdf = fluid friction head (fitting) (2.526 m .PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP hd = hsd + hpd + hfd where hd = total discharge head hsd = discharge static head i.632fV2/2gd =7.58 m The discharge tank is open to atmospheric pressure.e.8) 2.

697 m + 0.Selection of gate valves and elbow Gate valve is selected as it has low resistive coefficient. From Appendix A3 for gate vavle kv = 0.Total suction head The total suction head also consists of three separate heads hs = hss + hps .2+0.13.58 m (2.4)V2/2g =.0837m hd =4.2 for 3/4” pipe and ke = 0.0837 m = 5.58 m + 0 + 0.025 L=4.9) 17 .One important feature of this valve is that it is not good for flow regulation but in our application flow regulation is not so much necessary as our core purpose is to transfer water from one location to an other location.2+0.4 for 900 long radisus elbow Here hfdf = (0.4+0.36 m 2.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP 2.hfs hs = total suction head hss = suction static head hps = suction surface pressure head hfs = suction friction head In this case as pump and reservoir levels are same so hss=0 also reservoir is exposed to atmosphere so hps = 0 hfs = suction friction head = -fLV2/2gd here f = .12.

84 m It is the head pump must provide to the fluid.019 = .48 Htotal=hd ..58*1.hs =5.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP V=1.0254 hp = 19 watts 18 .025*4.36 – (-.we can also calculate power required to pump this fluid WHP = QHtotal/3960 (hp) =.172/2*9.48) =5.81*.17 m/sec Hfs= -.

PUMP SELECTION A centrifugal pump will be used in this project due to following reasons. Centrifugal pump challange Though Centrifugal pump can not provide high head but in our case required head is very low so compromise can be made. Variability Centrifugal pumps can pump a wide variety of substances at variable rates of speed and volume. Construction Centrifugal pump is simple in construction and can be made from variety of materials Steady delivery Centrifugal pump provides steady delivery of fluid.1.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP PUMP SIZING 3 3.Centrifugal pumps can be almost any size 19 . Scale Centrifugal pump is smaller than other pumps of equal capacity.

2 Inlet and outlet velocity triangles 20 .Design parametres We calculated that 19 watts power is required to provide required head so we describe different parametres and there design value to achieve this much power we proceed as follows.1 A centrifugal pump from inside 1 3.2. Let fluid enters the blade with velocity V1 as shown in figure Fig 3.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Fig 3.

153 = 7.83 m/sec form figure we can calculate Vn2 = normal compnent of velocity at axit to the blade = Q\2r2b2π Selecting b2 = 0.1) 21 .PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Other important parametres are N = shaft speed in rpm α = inlet velocity angle with blade vi = inlet velocity of the fluid v2 = velocity gained by the fluid at the exit wi = velocity component tangent to the blade u1 = inlet velocity circumferential compnent β1 = inlet blade angle β2 = outlet blade angle b1 = width of blade at entacne to the blade b2 = width of blade at exit of the blade P = power delivered to the fluid T = torque exerted R1 = inlet radius R2= outlet radius 3.Rated speed Due to limitation of power delivering capancity of human and diametre of easily available bicyle it will be shown the 490 RPM are available to the driving shaft.17 /51 = 0.17 m/s so we can calculate inlet radius r1 using relation u1=r1ω r1=v1/ω =1.90” Similalry u 2 = r 2ω if we choose r2=6” u2= 51.3.027 m\s (3.2) (3.3 * 0.5” Vn2 = .We have calculated in previous chapter that inlet speed is 1.022 m = 0.

33 = 61 watts (3.P = 20.75 =20.027cot 20 =7.33*10^-4 *7.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP we know that Vt2 = u2-Vn2cotβ2 taking β2 = 20 Vt2 = 7.83 *7.16 watts If we assume 33 % efficiency then brake power is given by B.83 -.3) 22 .16 /0.75 P=Power delivered to the fluid is thus = ρQu2vt2 =998*3.

32 Nm For shafts subjected to twist only we know that τ=Tc/J (4.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP SHAFT DESIGN 4 4. Fig 4.1 Shaft rotates a centrifugal pump B.Diametre selection Driving shaft of the pump must have enough strenth to transmit power withour failure.1) 23 .So we must calculate required dia of the shaft to avoid failure.9 =68 watts T = 68 / 51 =1.P = 61watts = Tω Hence considering that shaft transmits 90 % power torque Power = 61 /0.1.

S.K Gupta from page 510) 24 .33)/π(32*106) d= 5.3. (Taken from A textbook of machine design by R.Material selection Shaft of carbon steel of grade 40 C 8 Can be used which has yield strength of 320 Mpa If we apply factor of safety of 10 then τworking =320 / 10 = Tc/J In which c= radius of shaft J= Polar moment of inertia of shaft = πd4/32 Here d3=16T/πτ = 16(1.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Where τ =shear stress in the shaft 4.2.Result Shaft of carbon steel of grade 40 C 8 having diametre greater than 6 mm and yield strength 320 MPa must be used.Khurmi and J.95mm = 6 mm 4.

1) 25 . We can calculate RPM of larger dia given by VC=πdcN/60 Where Vc=velocity of cycle wheel NC=number of rpm of the larger wheel (5.So to make design suitable for average speed riders we take speed 21km/h.Bicycle speed : Typical speeds for bicycles are 15 to 30 km/h (10 to 20 mph). more or less.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Belt Drive 5 Fig 5. depending on the weight.Moreover The typical average continuous power that can be generated by pedaling is about one-sixth horsepower or 125 watts.Also easily avaiable bicycle has wheel dia 22” and we will use this dia in calculation. and endurance of the person pedaling.1 Belt drive transmitting power 1 5.1. strength."We take 75 watts for our calculation whill will fullfill the purpose.

(Taken from A textbook of machine design by R.5 metres long strips cut from either side of the back bone of the top grade steer hides.Selection of belt type Flat belt are used where distance between pulleys is not more than 8 m and also it has high efficiency even 99 % in some cases. The leather may be either oak-tanned or mineral salt-tanned e. Hair side gives a more intimate contact between belt and pulley and places the greatest tensile strength of the belt section on the outside.Belt thickness and widths Standard flat belt thickness is 5 mm for nominal belt width of 35 t0 63 mm. 5.2 metres to 1.1) Nc= 200 RPM 5.S.2.3. chrome-tanned.Velocity ratio of belt drive It is the ratio between the velocities of the driver and the follower or driven.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Putting values in (5.K Gupta from page 681) 5. where the tension is maximum as the belt passes over the pulley.Material of belt The most important material for flat belt is leather. 5. It may be 26 .5.4.g.One more reason why leather oak tanned belst is selected is that it has less variation in coefficient friction in dry and wet environment.Khurmi and J. The best leather belts are made from 1.

3) gives N2=494 RPM (5. Let s1 % = Slip between the driver and the belt. in one minute = π d1 N1 Similarly..PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP expressed. thus the belt should never be used where a definite velocity ratio is of importance (as in the case of hour. Then N2/N1=d2/d1(1-(s1+s2)/100) Let s1 = s2 = 2% So putting these values in (5.Slip of the belt In the previous articles we have discussed the motion of belts and pulleys assuming a firm frictional grip between the belts and the pulleys. But sometimes.3) 27 .2) π d1 N1 = π d2 N2 and velocity ratio = N2/N1=d2/d1 we can calculate N2 N2 = (d2/d1)N1 = (22”/8..p.p.6. N2 = Speed of the follower in r. This is called slipof the belt and is generally expressed as a percentage. and s2 % = Slip between the belt and follower. in one minute = π d2 N2 Since the length of belt that passes over the driver in one minute is equal to the length of belt that passes over the follower in one minute. length of the belt that passes over the follower.m. Length of the belt that passes over the driver. N1 = Speed of the driver in r.m. therefore (5. the frictional grip becomes insufficient. minute and second arms in a watch). As the slipping of thebelt is a common phenomenon.The result of the belt slipping is to reduce the velocity ratio of the system.This may cause some forward motion of the driver without carrying the belt with it. as discussed next: Let d1 = Diameter of the driver. d2 = Diameter of the follower. mathematically.5”)*200 =515 RPM 5.

21+3.216)2/4(1.216)+2x+(0.95 m Putting values for length in 1 L= π/2(0.7.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP 5.95) =1.01517 = 5.Length of pulley Fig 5.5*22”=1.56-0.12 m (5.56+0.2 Parametres for ength of belt 1 Lenth of open drive belt is given by L = π/2(d1+d2)+2x+(d1-d2)2/4x Where x=distance between drive and driven pulley For best performance x= 3.5 to 10 times the dia of larger pulley So we takw x = 3.4) 28 .9+.

the torque exerted on the driven pulley is (T1 – T2) r2.5.4 Let T1 = Tension in the belt on the tight side.e.e.5.8. r1 = Radius of the driving pulley r2 = Radii of the driven pulley and ν = Velocity of the belt in m/s.e. As already discussed. T1 – T2) Work done per second = (T1 – T2)v N-m/s and power transmitted = (T1 – T2)v Watts A little consideration will show that torque exerted on the driving pulley is (T1 – T2) r1.5) (5.9.Power transmitted by belt Fig 5. Let T1 = Tension in the tight side and T2 = TenSion in the slack side of the belt respectively in newtons.Ratio of Driving Tensions for Flat Belt Drivivive Consider a driven pulley rotating in the clockwise direction as shown in Fig. the driving pulley pulls the belt from one side and delivers it to the other side. 5.6) 5.3 shows the driving pulley (or driver) A and the driven pulley (or follower) B. The effective turning (driving) force at the circumference of the driven pulley or follower is the difference between the two tensions (i.3. and 29 . T2 = Tension in the belt on the slack side.3 Driving and driven pulleys 1 Fig. tight side) will be greater than the latter side (i. slack side) as shown in Fig. (5. It is thus obvious that the tension on the former side (i.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP 5. Similarly.

540 θ = (180 .3 log (T2/T1)=μθ From Figure 5.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP θ= Angle of contact in radians (i.7) Here 30 .thickness t = 5mm Cross section area = A = wt = 175 mm2 (5. at the centre).e.2α)(π/180) radian Now for oak tanned leather belt μ = 0. angle subtended by the arc AB.38 Which gives α =1.V1 V=5.17T1-T1).17 Also P=(T2-T1).25 Here putting these values in (5. along which the belt touches the pulley.4 Sin α =r1-r2/x =(11”-4.25”)/6. Fig 5.7=22 N width of belt=w = 35mm.4 Free body diagram for tension in belt It can be shown that 2.96N=10N T2=21.log(μθ/2.3)=2.83 power transmitted to the 2nd Pulley must be 68 watts so 68 = (2.7) T2/T1= Anti.5.83 T1=9.

13 MPA 5.Result If we use belt of efficiency of 90 % then belt with allowable maximum stress .12. 31 .11.13 Mpa will serve the purpose with 75 watts input power.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP 5.Maximum tention Maximum tention is in tight side of belt and is given by Tmax = σmax *A σmax= maximum stress in the tight side σmax=Tmax/A =.

PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Table A1 (Fluid mechanics by frank white 4th edition Page 771) 32 .

PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP Appendix A2 Moody chart (Fluid mechanics by frank white 4th edition Page 771) 33 .


Centrifugal pump sizing. 6.Eng. Eng.%20Select ion%20And%20Design%20Practices. 7. Http://www.PADDLE POWERED WATER PUMP References : 1. 3.Shigley ml 9.selection and design parametres by M.htm 10. 2.Eng.M. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ mcgraw-Hill ( 8.P.hand book of Mechanical Engineering calculations.Gupta.Standard book of machine design 3rd edition by Joseph.Fluid mechanics by Frank white 5th edition.File:///D:/studies/3rd%20smester/MSD/PROJECT%20MSD/Calculating%20the%20system%20head.Pump system analysis and sizing by JACQEUS CHAURETTE P.Text book of machine design br RS.E. 35 .Fundamentals of fluid mechanics by Munsun 5th edition.pumpfundamentals.Arshadul huda.digitalengineeringlibrary.Kurmi and JK.