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Social Studies Revision Resource – Governance in Singapore Factors: Guiding Principles of Governance (Which is most important?

) • Leadership is Key • Anticipate Change and Stay Relevant • Reward for Work and Work for Reward • A Stake for Everyone, Opportunities for All Leadership is Key

Having honest and capable leaders will ensure that someone is making the right decisions for the country. Good leaders will do what is right and not just what is popular with the people thus ensuring peace and stability in the country. With peace and stability, Singapore can work towards maintaining a competitive edge over other countries. For example, the arts scene in Singapore made progress more vibrant arts scene. Thus, leadership is all important if Singapore is to continue to prosper and face up to the challenges that might come its way. Good leaders will inspire the people and thus be able to carry the people with them when decisions (even tough and less popular ones) are made for the good of the country. The Government has to be forward-looking in order to cope with future challenges. For example, the Government decided to build new integrated resorts so that Singapore's tourist industry would not be at a disadvantage compared to other countries. At the same time, the Government, in order to cope with the challenge of ensuring self-sufficiency in Singapore’s water supply when Singapore’s water agreements with Malaysia end, has started to produce alternative water supplies like NEWater and desalinated water. Singaporeans are encouraged to anticipate change and stay relevant by upgrading their knowledge and skills so as to contribute effectively to the nation’s economy. ‘Reward for Work and Work for Reward’ is an important principle of governance because when people are rewarded based on their abilities and hard work, they are encouraged to do well. When Singaporeans are motivated and rewarded for their hard work and contributions, they would be more willing to work hard to ensure that Singapore’s competitiveness is maintained and surpasses that of other countries. Thus, for example, hardworking students who excel in their studies and co-curricular activities receive rewards in the form of Edusave Scholarships and Merit Bursaries. All Singaporeans also received a share of the surplus from Singapore’s growth through the Progress Package. Thus, this principle encourages people to continue to work hard to help Singapore develop and stay ahead of the competition.

Anticipate Change and Stay Relevant

Reward for Work and Work for Reward

© TWSS Humanities Department Upper Secondary Social Studies Resource Secondary 3E/NA, 4E/NA, 5NA

As a result. With a sense of belonging. Singaporeans will be more inclined to work hard for the benefit of Singapore. a stronger bond is built between the people and the country. Motorists had to buy a special license which enabled them to drive into restricted zones in the CBD. Thus. Singapore will retain competitiveness. the government consulted the public on the issue of having casinos as part of the IRs. 4E/NA. traffic flower was smoother as less vehicles entered the CBD. For example. Social Studies Revision Resource – Governance in Singapore Factors: Understanding Governance (Traffic Flow) • Area Licensing Scheme • Electronic Road Pricing • Park-and-Ride Scheme • Vehicle Quota System Area Licensing Scheme A way to control traffic flow was the Area Licensing Scheme. This was a forerunner of ERP. Opportunities for All’ is an important principle of governance because it allows Singaporeans to develop a sense of belonging towards Singapore when they participate in the decision-making process of the country. The extra cost of the license meant that many drivers were discouraged from driving into the city area thus resulting in fewer vehicles entering the CBD. Reward for Work and Work for Reward Important because the government also needs its citizens’ contribution to help Singapore retain its competitive edge over other countries.A Stake for Everyone. A Stake for Everyone. 5NA . they develop a sense of belonging towards the country ad would be more motivated to work for the benefit of the country and help it retain its competitiveness over other countries. Analysis of Importance of Principles of Good Governance Leadership is Key Anticipate Change and Stay Relevant Important because leaders need to be forward-looking in order to anticipate the challenges that Singapore might face in the future and stay relevant so that Singapore can retain its competitive edge over other countries. This will help to keep the people actively involved with the government and supportive of the decisions made by the government. • The most important principle because all the other principles of good governance are dependent on ‘Leadership is Key’ because if you do not have the right leaders. Opportunities for All • ‘A Stake for Everyone. With a motivated work force that will work for Singapore and a government which recognizes the hard work of the people and rewards them. with the right values then none of the other outcomes of good governance like meritocracy or being forward-looking would happen. © TWSS Humanities Department Upper Secondary Social Studies Resource Secondary 3E/NA. by allowing the people more opportunities to participate in important decision-making. Opportunities for All Important because when Singaporeans have a say in decisionmaking.

Park-and-Ride Scheme Not successful as many parking sites were not used. motorists had to pay a fee during peak hours to enter roads that are prone to congestion. Analysis of Measures to Control Traffic Flow (Limit of Success) Area Licensing Scheme Effective in managing traffic flow in the CBD area. 4E/NA. Park-and-Ride Scheme The Park and Ride scheme was intended to help control traffic flow into the CBD. flow is only controlled on certain roads which have ERP gantries. the ALS was inconvenient and labour intensive. leading to better traffic flow. However. Under the COE system.Electronic Road Pricing Electronic Road Pricing was introduced when technology was more efficient. The idea was that motorists would park at specific car parks outside the city and then use public transport. Social Studies Revision Resource – Governance in Singapore Family Planning Measures 1966 to 1981 • A series of three 5-year plans were implemented from 1966 to 1981 to control population growth. Many people supported the ALS as there was smoother traffic flow in the city. Motorists also chose to travel earlier or later to avoid the ALS operation time. Similar to the Area Licensing Scheme. This would mean fewer vehicles entering the city area. traffic flow was smoother during peak hours as motorists used other roads or avoided the ERP gantries during the peak hours. 5NA . Vehicle Quota System Most successful as the VQS actually reduced the number of cars that could be on the roads. As some motorists were unwilling to pay the fee to enter these roads. Vehicle Quota Scheme The Vehicle Quota Scheme helped to control the traffic flow by determining the number of new motor vehicles allowed for registration by implementing the Certificate of Entitlement (COE) system. This means that fewer cards will be allowed on the road and traffic flow will be controlled. Electronic Road Pricing Effective in managing traffic flow as motorists were discouraged by having to pay a fee to use certain roads. a specific number of new cars are issued based on the quota set by the LTA. © TWSS Humanities Department Upper Secondary Social Studies Resource Secondary 3E/NA. This limits the number of cars which can be purchased. • The first plan emphasised the need for smaller families and aimed to encourage couples to change their mindset and accept that having smaller families was more beneficial than giving birth to so many children. However.

it’s small population size makes Singapore a small consumer market. more jobs were created in the industries and a larger workforce was needed to sustain Singapore’s development. the aim of the second plan was to get them to accept the idea of having two children. making it unattractive to foreign investors and Multinational Corporations (MNCs). Why was there a Need to Promote Population Growth from the 1980s? Factors: Why was there a Need to Promote Population Growth from the 1980s? • Declining Birth Rate from the 1980s • Unattractive to Multinational Companies • Ageing Population • Defence Declining Birth Rate from the 1980s • By 1980. • At the same time. • The third plan aimed to maintain the replacement rate level at 2. the government also encouraged contraceptive use and legalised abortion. Singapore would not be able to sustain its economic development. the fertility rate hit 1. As a result.82 children per woman due to the success of the government’s family planning measures. over the years. regardless of gender. Attitudes also changed over the time and couples also preferred to pursue their careers instead. 4E/NA. With Singapore’s declining birth rate. Unattractive to Multinational Companies • With a small population. Once couples’ mindsets were tuned to having smaller families. making it vulnerable to external challenges. At the same time. No income tax relief was to be given for the fourth and subsequent children while delivery charges in hospitals were increased with each additional child. It was therefore important for the government to promote population growth from the 1980s onwards. © TWSS Humanities Department Upper Secondary Social Studies Resource Secondary 3E/NA. It was therefore important for the government to promote population growth from the 1980s onwards. 5NA . Punitive measures were also rolled out to discourage couples from having more than two children. Furthermore. No priority was to be given to large families in the allocation of government flats. marrying later and choosing to either give birth to one child or not have any children. Singapore’s development and defence needs would not be met. Singapore would not be able to produce enough talented people to sustain its economic development. women became more educated and pursued their careers. Manpower was also needed for national defence. At the same time.• The second plan encouraged married couples to stop at two children. No paid maternity leave was given for the third and subsequent children. less children were born and Singapore’s birth rate declined. As it would be difficult and expensive to recruit local Singaporeans as compared to larger and cheaper labour markets in other countries.1 children so as to keep population figures in check.

A 5-day work week for the Civil Service was also implemented to allow for better work-life balance. • Other Pro-Family Measures • To address the concerns of the high cost of raising children and the lack of suitable childcare arrangements. Three or More If You Can Afford It • The government began to reverse the earlier policy against larger families and parents were encouraged to have three children or more if they could afford it. there would be fewer young men to recruit for National Service. the government introduced equalised medical benefits where mothers could also claim medical benefits for their children. Defence • With a declining birth rate. Many newly married couples continued to have only one or two children and a sizeable number of Singaporeans either married late and had no children or chose to remain single. 4E/NA. Factors: How did the Government Promote Population Growth after the 1980s? • The Graduate Mothers Scheme • • • Three or More If You Can Afford It Other Pro-Family Measures Attracting Foreign Talent The Graduate Mothers Scheme • The Graduate Mothers Scheme was introduced in 1984 to encourage marriage and having children among graduates as it was felt that the education level of the parents would have a direct impact on the performance of their children in schools. The scheme was withdrawn after a year. It was therefore important for the government to promote population growth from the 1980s onwards. the scheme was unpopular as less educated people felt that they were discriminated against and would be left out under the policy. the government introduced measures such as allowing the use of Medisave to pay for the delivery charges of the first three children. However. which means that Singapore would face an ageing population in the future. putting a strain on the country’s economic resources and reducing Singapore’s competitiveness. The number of older people would be proportionately larger. there would be fewer young people in the population. The smaller younger population would be burdened financially and more resources would be needed to take care of the increasing number of senior citizens. © TWSS Humanities Department Upper Secondary Social Studies Resource Secondary 3E/NA. these methods are not very successful as the number of children born per woman continued to decrease. 5NA .Ageing Population • Furthermore. This would weaken Singapore’s defence force and make Singapore vulnerable to external threats and reduce its defence capabilities. • However. • To help relieve the financial burden of having children. It was therefore important for the government to promote population growth from the 1980s onwards. with fewer babies being born.

Attracting Foreign Talent More successful as foreigners and their families add on to the population numbers of Singapore. Foreign talent would not only boost the quality of manpower in Singapore. Many newly married couples continued to have only one or two children and a sizeable number of Singaporeans either married late and had no children or chose to remain single. Furthermore. the government began to attract foreign talent. This benefits Singapore as Singapore society becomes more cosmopolitan and Singapore’s culture is further enriched. Attracting Foreign Talent • In order to enhance its competitiveness while awaiting for pro-family measures to show positive results.An income tax relief of $3. but it would also create more jobs and increase productivity. • In 1989. 5NA . Three or More If You Can Afford It Not very successful as the number of children born per woman continued to decrease. The government also hoped that these foreigners would develop an attachment to Singapore and take up permanent residence or citizenship. Other Pro-Family Measures Not very successful as the number of children born per woman continued to decrease. Maternity leave was also extended from eight weeks to twelve weeks.000 (Grandparent Caregiver Relief) was given if a grandparent is helping the couple take care of their child. Easier entry into Singapore. the immigration policy was relaxed to attract foreign talent with skills that Singapore needed. Analysis of Measures to Promote Population Growth after the 1980s The Graduate Mothers Scheme Was not successful as less educated people felt discriminated against and felt that they would be left out under the policy. the policy was scrapped after one year. subsidised housing and an attractive education package for children were offered to foreign talent willing to work in Singapore. 4E/NA. • Preparing for an Ageing Population © TWSS Humanities Department Upper Secondary Social Studies Resource Secondary 3E/NA. Many newly married couples continued to have only one or two children and a sizeable number of Singaporeans either married late and had no children or chose to remain single.

More resources like day care centres. community hospitals and even housing facilities like studio apartments and lifts on every level have to be built to cater to the needs of the elderly. The economy will also be affected in terms of active economic contribution as the retirees are no longer contributing to income tax and CPF. with less young people. There will be a resulting strain on the young to maintain the ageing population. This will result in a less competitive workforce which may not be attractive to investors keen to invest in Singapore. Singapore’s workforce will thus become increasingly older and in time to come many will retire. there will be smaller security forces and Singapore’s defence force will be weakened.Factors: Impact of an Ageing Population • • Economic Impact Social Impact Economic Impact • With an ageing population. 4E/NA. This means that the country will have to allocate more budget to social services to maintain the ageing population who will need more healthcare facilities. opportunities are given to senior citizens to add value to public and private organisations and help © TWSS Humanities Department Upper Secondary Social Studies Resource Secondary 3E/NA. This will certainly increase the burden of the government who will need to reserve a large proportion of the country’s budget to maintain the ageing population. making it vulnerable. 5NA . there will be fewer young people in the population to maintain the workforce. • Furthermore. Factors: Meeting the Challenges of an Ageing Population • • Senior Citizens as Assets to Society ‘Many Helping Hands’ Approach o o o o Individual Responsibility Family Support Community Help Government Support Senior Citizens as Assets to Society • To ensure that senior citizens remain contributing members to society. Social Impact • The number of older people will be proportionately larger. old folks home.

By attending talks and reading relevant materials on financial planning. He should also go for regular medical checkups to ensure that illnesses. • The government has introduced measures like ‘Senior Citizens’ Week’ where the elderly are encouraged to stay active in the family and community. The family is also the main source of emotional. • ‘Many Helping Hands’ Approach – Government Support • The government certainly plays an important role in preparing for an ageing population because it is the only authority that can pass laws to ensure the ageing population is self-sufficient and cared for by the family. 4E/NA. It also promotes a positive attitude towards ageing and the aged as it reminds everyone of their roles in creating an environment that is socially conducive. mentally and socially active. • To encourage the young to take care of the aged taxpayers can claim an income tax deduction for taking care of elderly parents and grandparents. knowledge. The individual is encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle by maintaining a balanced diet and exercising regularly. • The government provides subsidies to voluntary welfare organisations that run community-based services for senior citizens. if any. ‘Many Helping Hands’ Approach – Family Support • Family support also plays a part because strong and stable families bring about social stability and harmony. The government also ensures the individuals have some money for their old age © TWSS Humanities Department Upper Secondary Social Studies Resource Secondary 3E/NA. Community members are roped in to look after the needs of senior citizens. ‘Many Helping Hands’ Approach – Individual Responsibility • The individual also plays an essential role in ensuring that he ages gracefully through early lifelong planning.boost family life by contributing their valuable skills. First-time buyers of governments can get a housing grant if they buy a flat in the area where their parents live. Grandparents’ Day is also celebrated to bring families together to show their appreciation for the elderly. individuals can learn about financial planning to ensure they can be selfsufficient and independent in their old age. talent and work experience. Some community organisations also offer free health checks and organise recreational activities for senior citizens to help them remain physically. ‘Many Helping Hands’ Approach – Community Support • The community is also important in enhancing the well-being of senior citizens by giving them social and emotional support and providing healthcare and social services. • All Singaporeans are also encouraged to plan early and be financially prepared for life in their old age. social and financial support for the elderly individual. 5NA . can be diagnosed early for treatment.

families and the community meet the challenges of an ageing population. 4E/NA. Individual Responsibility Important because when the individuals respond to the government’s campaign of living a healthy lifestyle. © TWSS Humanities Department Upper Secondary Social Studies Resource Secondary 3E/NA. Analysis of Measure to Meet the Challenges of an Ageing Population Senior Citizens as Assets to Society Important because it creates a positive image of senior citizens so as to encourage Singaporeans to adopt a more positive attitude towards ageing and the elderly. Family Support Important because the family can provide individuals with emotional. The government also contributes the necessary financial support needed to help individuals. 5NA .by making each contribute to compulsory savings in their CPF accounts when they start working. they can help to save the government a lot of money which would otherwise have to be spent on social services to take care of the ageing population. Community Support Important because the community supplements the family support by offering individuals who have no families emotional and social support. social and financial support. Government Support Most important because the government engineers the necessary programmes necessary for all the measures to meet the challenges of an ageing population. This will reduce the burden of the government in its budget to care for the aged so that more can be spent on other areas like defence and education.