Oscillatory Motion
Chap. 1
Octave: When the upper limit of a frequency range is twice its lower limit, the frequency span is said to be an octave. For example, each of the frequency bands in Figure 1.32 represents an octave band. PROBLEMS
11 A harmonic motion has an amplitude of 0.20 cm and a period of 0.15 s. Determine the maximum velocity and acceleration. 12 An accelerometer indicates that a structure is vibrating harmonically at 82 cps with a maximum acceleration of 50 g. Determine the amplitude of vibration. 13 A harmonic motion has a frequency of 10 cps and its maximum velocity is 4.57 m/s. Determine its amplitude, its period, and its maximum acceleration. 14 Find the sum of two harmonic motions of equal amplitude but of slightly different frequencies. Discuss the beating phenomena that result from this sum. Express the complex vector 4 + 3i in the exponential form Aei9. Add two complex vectors (2 + 3i) and (4  i) expressing the result as ALB. Show that the multiplication of a vector z = AeiOJt by i rotates it by 90°. Determine the sum of two vectors 5e;,,/6 and 4e;,,/3 and find the angle between the resultant and the first vector. 19 Determine the Fourier series for the rectangular wave shown in Fig. PI9. 15 16 17 18
Figure PI9.
110 If the origin of the square wave of Prob. 19 is shifted to the right by '!T/2, determine the Fourier series. 111 Determine the Fourier series for the triangular wave shown in Fig. PIH.
Figure PIH.
Chap. 1
Problems
15
112 Determine the Fourier series for the sawtooth curve shown in Fig. PI12. Express the result of Prob. 112 in the exponential form of Eq. (1.24).
Figure PIll.
1·13 Determine the rms value of a wave consisting of the positive portions of a sine wave. 1·14 Determine the mean square value of the sawtooth wave of Prob. 112. Do this two ways, from the squared curve and from the Fourier series. 1·15 Plot the frequency spectrum for the triangular wave of Prob. 1·11. 1·16 Determine the Fourier series of a series of rectangular pulses shown in Fig. PI16. Plot en and rf>., versus n when k = t.
,.10 I
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w1
1211'1
lk11'f
Figure PI16.
1·17 Write the equation for the displacement s of the piston in the crankpiston mechanism shown in Fig. Pl·l7, and determine the harmonic components and their relative magnitudes. If rll = t. what is the ratio of the second harmonic compared to the first?
Figure PI17.
1.18 Determine the mean square of the rectangular pulse shown in Fig. Pl18 for k = 0.10. If the amplitude is A, what would an rms voltmeter read?
Figure PIIS.
Tn rtJ m
,
16
Oscillatory
Motion
Chap. 1
119 Determine the mean square value of the triangular wave of Fig. PIIl. 120 An rms voltmeter specifies an accuracy of ±0.5 Db. If a vibration of 2.5 mm rms is measured, determine the millimeter accuracy as read by the voltmeter. 121 Amplification factors on a voltmeter used to measure the vibration output from an accelerometer are given as 10, 50, and 100. What are the decibel steps? 122 The calibration curve of a piezoelectric accelerometer is shown in Fig. PI22 where the ordinate is in decibels. If the peak is 32 Db, what is the ratio of the resonance response to that at some low frequency, say 1000 cps? 30 20 I I
,..
~ E ~
10 0 10 20 100 1000
fFigure Pl·22.
E c ..c
a.

V
/ ./
I
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10000
100000
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1·23 Using coordinate paper similar to that of Appendix A, outline the bounds for the following vibration specifications. Max. acceleration ~ 2 g, max. displacement ~ 0.08 in, min. and max. frequencies: I Hz and 200 Hz.
0. A 4. Determine the subsequent motion. and given an upward velocity of 8 cmys. P27 If the measured period of oscillation was 1.7 cpm. If a second spring k2 is added in series with the first spring.453kg mass attached to a light spring elongates it 7. When a 0.38 Free Vibration Chap.53kg mass attached to the lower end of a spring whose upper end is fixed vibrates with a natural period of 0. A flywheel weighing 70 lb was allowed to swing as a pendulum about a knifeedge at the inner side of the rim as shown in Fig.26kg mass is attached to the midpoint of the same spring with the upper and lower ends fixed. the natural frequency is lowered to 76. the natural frequency is lowered to !k Determine k2 in terms of kl.22 s. Determine the natural frequency of the system.87 mm. Determine the unknown mass m and the spring constant k Nym. Determine the natural period when a 2. 27 Figure P27. If the mass is deflected 2 cm down. measured from its equilibrium position. A second mass m2 drops through a height h and sticks to ml without rebound. An unknown mass m kg attached to the end of an unknown spring k has a natural frequency of 94 cpm. 2 PROBLEMS 21 22 A 0. 23 24 25 Figure PlS. has a natural frequency of fl. . as shown in Fig. determine the moment of inertia of the flywheel about its geometric axis.45 s. P25. 26 The ratio kim of a springmass system is given as 4. determine its amplitude and maximum acceleration. A mass ml hangs from a spring k (N/m) and is in static equilibrium. A springmass system kl' m.453kg mass is added to m.
determine its radius of gyration.254 m from the point of support. P28. 2. 2 Problems 39 2·8 A connecting rod weighting 21.ll A cylinder of mass m and mass moment of inertia Jo is free to roll without slipping but is restrained by the spring k as shown in Fig. Determine the frequency of oscillation due to a small unbalance weight w lb at a distance a in. P2·1O. <j" !D N r E o Figure P28. from the axle.10 A wheel and axle assembly of moment inertia J is inclined from the vertical by an angle a as shown in Fig. which is located 0. 2. Determine its moment of inertia about its center of gravity. 2·9 A flywheel of mass M is suspended in the horizontal plane by three wires of 1. P211. If the period of oscillation about a vertical axis through the center of the wheel is 2.Chap.17 s. . Figure P210. Determine the natural frequency of oscillation.829 m length equally spaced around a circle of 0.35 N oscillates 53 times in 1 min when suspended as shown in Fig.254 m radius.
. A platinum wire attached to the bob completes the electric timing circuit through a drop of mercury as it swings through the lowest point.01 s? (Assume that the velocity during contact is constant and that the amplitude of oscillation is small. shown in Fig.) Figure P21:z. P214. 214 A spherical buoy 3 ft in diameter is weighted to float half out of water as shown in Fig. is used to measure the specific gravity of liquids.20. 212 A chronograph is to be operated by a 2s pendulum of length L shown in Fig.3175 em of the swing. and the diameter of the cylindrical section protruding above the surface is 0.40 Free Vibration Chap.0064 m. below its geometric center. The center of gravity of the buoy is 8 in.0372 kg. Determine the period of vibration when the float is allowed to bob up and down in a fluid of specific gravity 1. 213 A hydrometer float. (a) What should be the length L of the pendulum? (b) If the platinum wire is in contact with the mercury for 0. The mass of the float is 0. Figure P213. what must be the amplitude (J to limit the duration of contact to 0. 2 Figure P211. P212. P213.
Show that the period of the rolling motion is given by T= 27TV ~ where J is the mass moment of inertia of the ship about its roll axis and W is the weight of the ship. P216. 2 Problems 41 and the period of oscillation in rolling motion is 1. Figure P215.3 s. the position of the roll axis is unknown and J is obtained from the period of oscillation determined from a model test. 216 A thin rectangular plate is bent into a semicircular cylinder as shown in Fig. Set up the differential equation of motion for small . Determine its period of oscillation if it is allowed to rock on a horizontal surface. Figure P216. Figure P214. P215. and its distance h measured from G is the metacentric height as shown in Fig. The metacenter M represents the point of intersection of the line of action of the buoyant force and the center line of the ship. The position of M depends on the shape of the hull and is independent of the angular inclination fJ of the ship for small values of fJ.Chap. 215 The oscillatory characteristics of ships in rolling motion depends on the position of the metacenter M with respect to the center of gravity G. In general. 217 A uniform bar of length L and weight W is suspended symmetrically by two strings as shown in Fig. P217. Determine the moment of inertia of the buoy about its rotational axis.
P220. Figure P2t7.0 in. at distances a and b from the mass center. P221 is r=2Wff. Prove that the bar will oscillate about the vertical line through the mass center. 2 angular oscillations of the bar about the vertical axis 00. show that the natural period of oscillation of the fluid in a Vtube manometer shown in Fig. 218 A uniform bar of length L is suspended in the horizontal position by two vertical strings of equal length attached to the ends. 221 Using the energy method. and determine the frequency of oscillation. in diameter is used as a torsion spring for the wheels of a light automobile as shown in Fig.)!::_ I. and the period of oscillation about a vertical line through the center of gravity of the bar is t2.42 Free Vibration Chap. long and 1! in. show that the radius of gyration of the bar about the center of gravity is given by the expression k~(!1. If the period of oscillation in the plane of the bar and strings is t1. . Determine the natural frequency of the system if the weight of the wheel and tire assembly is 38 lb and its radius of gyration about its axle is 9. and determine its period. 2 219 A uniform bar of radius of gyration k about its center of gravity is suspended horizontally by two vertical strings of length h. 220 A steel shaft 50 in. Discuss the difference in the natural frequency with the wheel locked and unlocked to the arm. where I = length of the fluid column. Figure P220.
and write the equation for its fundamental frequency. 222 Figure P222 shows a simplified model of a singlestory building. P224 and its natural frequency. 2 Problems 43 Figure P221. . Refer to the table of stiffness at the end of the chapter. P226 to be added to the actuator mass ml' Figure P226. 222 assuming the deflection to be Y = jYmax( 1 x cos 7) 224 Determine the effective mass at point n for the system shown in Fig. 226 Determine the effective mass of the rocket engine shown in Fig.  Figure P224. Determine its natural period T. The columns are assumed to be rigidly imbedded at the ends. 225 A uniform cantilever beam of total mass ml has a concentrated mass M at its free end. Figure P222. Determine the effective mass of the beam to be added to M assuming the deflection to be that of a massless beam with a concentrated force at the end. 223 Determine the effective mass of the columns of Prob.Chap.
P229. Figure P230. Figure P228.ff and effective stiffness keff. Determine the stiffness at mo and write the expression for the natural frequency.~K1~K'I~K' ~ J Figure P227. 2 227 Determine the effective rotational stiffness of the shaft in Fig. P227 and calculate its natural period. 228 For purposes of analysis. it is desired to reduce the system of Fig. Determine meU and keff in terms of the given quantities. 229 Determine the effective mass moment of inertia for shaft 1 in the system shown in Fig. 230 Determine the kinetic energy of the system shown in Fig.44 Free Vibration Chap. P230 in terms of X. P228 to a simple linear springmass system of effective mass m. Figure P229. . .
If a !lb weight produced a constant velocity of 1. thereby indicating the frequency.5 Ny'cm is viscously damped such that the ratio of any two consecutive amplitudes is l. (c) the damping factor. it will vibrate.0 Ny'cm.534 kg. and (d) the damping coefficient.0 Nycm. x = vo' Determine the equation of motion when (a) = 2. (c) the logarithmic decrement. Determine (a) the natural frequency of the damped system.635 cm wide. and a dashpot with a damping coefficient of 0. (c) r = 1. and c = 0. 0. (b) the logarithmic decrement. a spring of stiffness 35.0 Ny'cm. and (d) the ratio of any two consecutive amplitudes.5 kg.890 cm long for a natural frequency of 20 cps? 232 A mass of 0.907 kg is attached to the end of a spring with a stiffness of 7. When the frequency of vibration corresponds to the natural frequency of one of the reeds. P239 and determine the natural frequency of damped oscillation and the critical damping coefficient. and (b) the natural frequency of damped oscillation. ~36 A vibrating system consists of a mass of 4.0.98. Determine (a) the damping factor.1016 em thick. Find (a) the damping factor.1243 N/cm/s. and (c) the ratio of any two consecutive amplitudes. ~39 Write the differential equation of motion for the system shown in Fig.0. How large a weight must be placed on the end of a reed made of spring steel 0.267 kg and a spring of stiffness 17. Determine the critical damping coefficient. Figure P238.j/s. . and 8. r r r ~37 A vibrating system has the following constants: m = 17. Plot nondimensional curves for the three cases with wnt as abscissa and xWn/vO as ordinate. ~3S A vibrating system consisting of a mass of 2. the velocity of the plunger was measured when a given force was applied to it. Determine the expression for (a) the critical damping coefficient. 232. determine the damping factor when used with the system of Prob.OO and 0.measuring instrument consisting of small cantilever beams with weights attached at the ends.20 in.50.70 N/cm/s. ~33 To calibrate a dashpot. (b) = 0.Chap. ~34 A vibrating system is started under the following initial conditions: x = 0. ~38 Set up the differential equation of motion for the system shown in Fig. P238. 2 Problems 4S ~31 Tachometers are a reedtype of frequency. k = 70. (b) the natural frequency of damped oscillation. (b) the logarithmic decrement.
Free Vibration Chap. Figure P241.2Av. with the system oscillating in air). and (c) the time required for the barrel to return to a position 2 in. determine (a) the initial recoil velocity of the barrel. determine (a) the equation for small (J (the moment of inertia of the bar about 0 is m/2/3).000 lb/ft. If the amplitude diminished by 5% each cycle. 2A is the total surface area A Figure P24!. and (c) the expression for critical damping. P242. . (b) the equation for the undamped natural frequency. 240 A springmass system with viscous damping is displaced from the equilibrium position and released.46 /. 2 Figure P239. If the barrel recoils 4 ft on firing. Use virtual work. and v is its velocity. P241. from its initial position. what fraction of the critical damping does the system have? 241 A rigid uuiform bar of mass m and length / is pinned at 0 and supported by a spring and viscous damper as shown in Fig. If 'Tl is the natural period of undamped oscillation (that is. = p. Measuring (J from the static equilibrium position. (b) the critical damping coefficient of a dashpot which is engaged at the end of the recoil stroke. 243 A gun barrel weighing 1200 lb has a recoil spring of stiffness 20. and 'T2 the damped period with the plate immersed in the fluid. show that where the damping force on the plate is Fd of the plate. 242 A thin plate of area A and weight W is attached to the end of a spring and is allowed to oscillate in a viscous fluid as shown in Fig.
Determine the maximum displacement of the piston after engaging the springdamper.24 mls and engages a spring and damper as shown in Fig. P249. 249 Determine the effective stiffness of the system shown in Fig. Determine l.75 Ns/cm k = 350 N/cm displacement when released. in terms of the displacement x. 247 Determine the effective stiffness of the springs shown in Fig. Figure P249. 248 Determine the flexibility of a simply supported uniform beam of length L at a point t L from the end. How many seconds does it take? v =~4 Figure Pl44. m = 4. what will be the overshoot? 246 Determine the equation of motion for Probs. . 238 and 239 using virtual work. 2 Problems 47 244 A piston of mass 4. P250. If is made equal to HI. P244. The two shafts in series have torsional stiffnesses of kl and k2• Figure P2SO.53 kg G§tI m/s c = I. 245 A shock absorber is to be designed so that its overshoot is 10% of the initial r r Figure P247. P247.53 kg is traveling in a tube with a velocity of 15. 250 Determine the effective stiffness of the torsional system shown in Fig.Chap.
k.48 Free Vibration Chap. F = Po l' f{t) Figure P253. using virtual work. Plot In X versus n where X is amplitude at cycle n for (a) viscous damping with = 0. 253 Determine the differential equation of motion for free vibration of the system shown in Fig. The binge is restrained from rotation by a torsional spring K and supports . P254 has two rigid uniform beams of length I and mass per uni t length m. P252. 2 251 A springmass system m. hinged at the middle and resting on rollers at the test stand. and (b) Coulomb damping with damping force Fd = 0. P253.05 k.05. is started with an initial displacement of unity and an initial velocity of zero. Figure P252. 254 The system shown in Fig. When will the two amplitudes be equal? r 252 Determine the differential equation of motion and establish the critical damping for the system shown in Fig.
as shown in Fig. 2 Problems 49 a mass M held up by another spring k to a position where the bars are horizontal. . Determine the equation of motion using virtual work. set up the equation of motion for its free vibration. Figure P25S. 255 Two uniform stiff bars are hinged at the middle and constrained by a spring. Using virtual work.Chap. Figure PlS4. P255.
P38 is a cylinder of mass m connected to a spring of stiffness k excited through viscous friction c to a piston with motion y = A sin wt. At 0.80 sec. 38 Shown in Fig.20 s. a stroboscope shows the eccentric masses to be at the top at the instant the structure is moving upward through its static equilibrium position. 39 A counterrotating eccentric mass exciter shown in Fig. the amplitude is measured to be 0. the period of vibration is found to be 1. 31 is excited by a harmonic force of frequency 4 cps. set up the equation of motion and solve for the steadystate amplitude and phase angle by using complex algebra.4 kg.82 Harmonically EXCited Vibration Chap. When the weight is displaced and released.46 cm. P37.117 for r = 0. 3 PROBLEMS 31 A machine part of mass 1.0. Determine the amplitude of the cylinder motion and its phase with respect to the piston. and the ratio of consecutive amplitudes is 4.27 cm with a period of 0. If the system of Prob. Determine the damping factor r of the system. At resonance the amplitude is measured to be 0.95 kg vibrates in a viscous medium.58 cm.46 N results in a resonant amplitude of 1. what win be the percentage increase in the amplitude of forced vibration when the dashpot is removed? A weight attached to a spring of stiffness 525 N1m has a viscous damping device. the peak amplitude occurs at a frequency ratio given by the expression 32 33 34 3S 36 37 A springmass is excited by a force Fa sin wI. P39 is used to determine the vibrational characteristics of a structure of mass 181.80 resonant frequency. Determine the damping coefficient when a harmonic exciting force of 24. Determine the amplitude and phase when a force F = 2 cos 31 acts on the system. Figure P3S. At a speed of 900 rpm. Show that for the dampled springmass system. 3.Q2 For the system shown in Fig. Plot the real and imaginary parts of Eq. and the . Figure P37.2 to 1.01 and 0.
54 cm. steel shaft 2 ft between bearings. 3. ~ Fe''''' and 311 A balanced wheel supported on springs.".. determine the buildup of vibration if the natural frequency of the system is 18 cps with damping of r = 0.6 mm. Figure P311.905 em. as shown in Fig.4064 m apart. 312 A solid disk of weight 10 lb is keyed to the center of a t in. If a bolt weighing 15 g and located 5 cm from center suddenly comes loose and flies off. k "2 k 310 Solve Eq.2879 kg· cm. Determine the lowest critical speed. M "2 Figure P39. (C) the amplitude at 1200 rpm. determine (a) the natural frequency of the structure. (Assume shaft to be simply supported at the bearings. 312 to the SI system and recalculate the lowest critical speed.e. If the unbalance of each wheel of the exciter is 0. 3 Problems 83 corresponding amplitude is 21." = Kef. i. Compare this result with that of the same rotor mounted on a steel shaft of diameter 1.10. Determine the forces exerted on the bearings at a speed of 6000 rpm if the diameter of the steel shaft is 2.6 kg in mass is supported at the midspan of a shaft with bearings 0.21 for the complex amplitude. and (d) the angular position of the eccentrics at the instant the structure is moving upward through its equilibrium position. (b) the damping factor of the structure. let (mew2)sinwt x ~ Xe'("'oI» = (Xeiol»ei. P311.Chap.j . is rotating at 1200 rpm. as shown in Fig. 314 The rotor of a turbine 13. (Assume the shaft to be simply supported at the bearings.) 313 Convert all units in Prob. P314.0921 kg m. The rotor is known to have an unbalance of 0.
4 kmyh? (Neglect damping. 3 Figure P314. Find the critical speed when the trailer is traveling over a road with a profile approximated by a sine wave of amplitude 7. the node I I I ~x~ Figure P31S. 315 For turbines operating above the critical speed. In the turbine of Prob. Assume that the critical speed is reached with zero amplitude. as shown in Fig. Determine the equation for the amplitude of W as a function of the speed and determine the most unfavorable speed.) 318 The point of suspension of a simple pendulum is given a harmonic motion Xo = Kosin wI along a horizontal line. Write the differential equation of motion for small amplitude of oscillation. Determine the solution for x/xo and show that when w = fi Wn.54cm shaft and the stops is 0. . What will be the amplitude of vibration at 64. using the coordinates shown.62 em and wave length of 14. and if the eccentricity is 0.84 Harmonically Excited Vibration Chap.0508 em. determine the time required for the shaft to hit the stops. 316 Figure P316 represents a simplified diagram of a springsupported vehicle traveling over a rough road.0212 em. P318.16 cm under its weight. if the clearance between the 2.63 m. 317 The springs of an automobile trailer are compressed 10. 314. r:tEf3k (xyl /""'" Figure P316. stops are provided to limit the amplitude as it runs through the critical speed.
2303 kg . If there is an unbalance in the motor that results in a harmonic force of F = 100 sin 31. If the machine has a rotating unbalance of 0.03 cm/s2.508 cm. Give numerical values to substantiate your solution. (3. suggest a solution assuming that the same rubber pad is the only isolator available. An aircraft radio weighing 106. Derive Eqs. il c J: __j~ .51). 325 A sensitive instrument with mass 113 kg is to be installed at a location where the acceleration is 15. Show that in general the distance h from the mass to the node is given by the relation h . each. what will be the dynamical amplitude? An electric motor of mass 68 kg is mounted on an isolator block of mass 1200 kg and the natural frequency of the total assembly is 160 cpm with a damping factor of ~ = 0.10 (see Fig. P324). determine the amplitude of vibration of the block and the force transmitted to the floor.58) and (3. verify that the transmissibility TR = Ix/yl is Figure P327..508 cm.frequencies from 1600 cpm to 2200 cpm. Figure P324. 325 can only tolerate an acceleration of 2. What statical deflection must the isolators have for 85% isolation? A refrigerator unit weighing 65 lb is to be supported by three springs of stiffness k lby'in.59) for the amplitude and phase by letting y = Y sin wI and x = X sin( wt . What acceleration is transmitted to the instrument? 326 If the instrument of Prob. 1( wn/ W ) 2 . what should be the value of the spring constant k if only 10% of the shaking force of the unit is to be transmitted to the supporting structure? An industrial machine of mass 453. m.75 N is to be isolated from engine vibrations ranging in. 3 Problems 85 319 320 321 322 323 324 is found at the midpoint of I.41. 322 is mounted on a large concrete block of mass 1136 kg and the stiffness of the springs or pads under the block is increased so that the statical deflection is still 0.) If the machine of Prob.~) in the differential equation (3. (Assume damping to be negligible.10.24 cm/s2 at a frequency of 20 Hz. where Wn = {ill. P327.4 kg is supported on springs with a statical deflection of 0.. If the unit operates at 580 rpm. It is proposed to mount the instrument on a rubber pad with the following properties: k = 2802 N/cm and ~= 0. 327 For the system shown in Fig. determine (a) the force transmitted to the floor at 1200 rpm and (b) the dynamical amplitude at this speed.Chap.
Figure P337.02.76). .50 to 10 with = 0. 330 Express the equation for the free vibration of a singleDOF system in terms of the loss factor 1) at resonance.75 cps and a damping factor r = 0.. What is the lowest frequency that can be measured with (a) 1% error.0. 335 in the permissible range.(w/w.0. 337 The shaft of a torsiograph. the energy loss per cycle is a function of both amplitude and frequency. Under what condition can this motion be maintained? 336 Plot the results of Prob. Determine the expression for the relative amplitude of the outer wheel with respect to (a) the shaft. (b) a fixed reference. Plot the transmissibility in decibels. Determine the equivalent viscous damping. 331 Show that 'T'. 20 10glTR I versus = 1. the energy dissipated per cycle divided by the peak potential energy is equal to 28 and also to l/Q.052 em. 328 Show that the energy dissipated per cycle for viscous friction can be expressed by w/wn between w/wn r '1TF(} »d= =t: [1. 335 Using the result of Prob. what is the correct amplitude? .65.)]2 329 Show that for viscous damping. the loss factor 1) is independent of the amplitude and proportional to the frequency. 332 For small damping. 338 A commercialtype vibration pickup has a natural frequency of 4. (3.86 Harmonically Excited Vibration Chap. .] For viscous damping show that 333 In general. [See Eq.10. 3 the same as that for force./'T'd plotted against r is a quarter circle where Td = damped natural period and 'T'" = undamped natural period. P337..04. If the amplitude indicated by the pickup (relative amplitude between pickup mass and frame) is 0.. shown in Fig. determine the amplitude of motion of a spring mass system with Coulomb damping when excited by a harmonic force EOsinwt. 334 Coulomb damping between dry surfaces is a constant D always opposed to the motion. undergoes harmonic torsional If oscillation 90sin wt. State under what condition the logarithmic decrement {5 is independent of theamplitude. 334. (b) 2% error? 339 An undamped vibration pickup having a natural frequency of 1 cps is used to measure a harmouic vibration of 4 cps.) + [2Hw/w..)2r 2r( w/w...
.(1 . with its capacitance equal to 450 pF.Chap.. obtain the relationship for the velocity versus frequency applicable to the velocity pickup. Amplitude range: Almost no lower limit to maximum stroke between stops of 0.r2) + i(2~r) H~x 1 where r equation = w/wn and ~ = cicero Show that the plot of + iy leads to the which cannot be a circle since the center and the radius depend on the frequency ratio. what will be the output voltage at (a) 10 Hz and (b) 2000 Hz? 342 Using the equations of harmonic motion. 345 Specific damping capacity Wd/ U is defined as the energy loss per cycle Wd divided by the peak potential energy U ~ !kX2. 348 For viscous damping.. If a reading of 0. 3 Problems 87 340 A manufacturer of vibration measuring instruments gives the following specifications for one of its vibration pickups: Frequency range: Velocity response flat from 10 cps to 1000 cps. Sensitivity: 0. If 1 g acceleration is maintained over this frequency range.. Assuming that 3 mV (rms) is the accuracy limit of the instrument.... (b) Could this instrument be used to measure the vibration of a machine with known frequency of 12 cps and double amplitude of 0.80 cm? Give reasons.. the complex frequency response can be written as H ( r) 'Y . It is used with a vacuum tube voltmeter with connecting cable 5 m long with a capacitance of 50 pF /m. show that the structural damping factor is equal to the loss factor at resonance. determine the rms amplitude. . What voltage would be generated at 200 Hz? 344 The sensitivity of a certain crystal accelerometer is given as 18 pC/g. (a) This instrument was used to measure the vibration of a machine with a known frequency of 30 cps. determine the upper frequency limit of the instrument for 19 excitation. Determine its voltage output per g.024 V is indicated.096 V/cm/s. 341 A vibration pickup has a sensitivity of 40 mV/cm/s between f ~ 10 Hz to 2000 Hz. Show that this quantity is equal to where ~ = c/cw 346 Logarithmic decrement 8 for small damping is equal to 8 . both volts and velocity in rms values. 343 A vibration pickup has a sensitivity of 20 mV/cm/s.: '1Tr Show that 8 is 2 related to the specific damping capacity by the equation 347 For a system with hysteresis damping.60 in.
AND WILSON. F A = exp (  Plot this result as a function of r yl  ~ t t2 tan 1 ~ J) ) .t)} or = F(x.: PrenticeHall." A Survey of Numerical Procedures. New Book Company. S. M. Inc. AND WILF. G. Rockville. 1952. 1980. 4 Problems 111 Although the RungeKutta method does not require the evaluation of derivatives beyond the first.. "Engineering York: [2) McGrawHill Analysis.J. we can let z the two firstorder equations as = {. I and II.} = {/(x. 1976. L.J. S.Chap.y. its higher accuracy is achieved by four evaluations of the first derivatives to obtain agreement with the Taylor series solution through terms of order h4_ Moreover. Numerical Methods in Engineering. 1956. x and y.: PrenticeHall. KJ. H. Yols.t It 2 42 Determine the peak displacement for the impulsively and show that it can be expressed in the form Xpeak{k.. N. the same method is applicable to a system of differential equations..t) t = F(x. M. RALSTON. 1968.. Inc..} and write {. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. y.i excited springmass system. New York: John Wiley & Sons. N. BATHE. Englewood Cliffs. Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics. Inc. E. L. [3] [4] [5] MEIROVITCH.t) For two variables. Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis. Englewood Cliffs. REFERENCES [1] CRANDALL.. r) Thus the above vector equation is identical in form to the equation in one variable and can be treated in the same manner. A. Mary PROBLEMS 41 Show that the time tp corresponding to the peak response excited springmass system is given by the equation tan~wntp = for the impulsively /t . as in this problem. the versatility of the RungeKutta method is evident in the fact that by replacing the variable by a vector. AND BARON. H. the firstorder equation of one variable is x=/(x. L. For example. land: Sijthoff & Noordhoff.yy. SALVADORI.
. designated by g(I). 1 ( .112 TransientVibration Chap. 'ITt) .) o 45 max ~ 1 + exp(  R) It A rectangular pulse of height Fo and duration 10 is applied to an undamped springmass system. determine its response for 1 > 10 by the superposition of the undamped solutions.:sm~ . )] t. ./T) smT .n . . In Sec. ( ~) I + ( sin2'IT.21.sin r 1'IT I. + smw"t w" + . 411 A sinusoidal pulse is considered to be the superposition of two sine waves as shown in Fig. 4. P45. (a). Figure P45. show that the peak response is equal to ( X.51). Show that the convolution integral can also be written in terms of g(t) as x(t) ~ f(O)g(l} + {i<ng(t ~) d~ where g(t) is the response to a unit step function.1 mw" 1tf ( nSlnW" ( t .:.' where l' ~ 2'IT/w. 410 An undamped springmass system is given a base excitation of y(t) ~ 20(1 . 2 'ITt 2t. as shown in Fig. For the system of Prob. x ( t ) ~ xocosw"t 47 48 Vo . P411. Evaluate the second term due to initial conditions by the inverse transforms.I. is related to the impulsive response h(t) by the equation h(t) ~ g(I). 43. If the natural frequency of the system is w" ~ lOs ~ I. determine the maximum relative displacement.4 43 44 Show that the time Ip corresponding to the peak response of the damped springmass system excited by a step force Po is w"tp = 'IT/~.3 the subsidiary equation for the viscously damped springmass system was given by Eq. l' 2t. Considering the pulse to be the sum of two step pulses. show that the solution must be in the form . 0 d~ Show that the response to a unit step function. Show that its solution is 49 ( xEko ) ~ (T/2t. 46 If an arbitrary force f (t) is applied to an undamped oscillator which has initial conditions other than zero.
. P412 show that the response is x ~ 2Fo(.. .I 2 1 2 sin(I'IT  I)1 • sm2'IT 1" I]} $. / I .!.1'sin2'IT.l' [ 2sin. Determine the time elapsed from first contact of the spring until it breaks contact again. as shown in Fig . P413. 4 Problems F 113 rFigure P411..) k 11 2'1111 l' ' 0< I < X= 2 k Fo {I _ . Figure P413..40 lb jin. I / I Figure P412..!. 414 A 38. 413 A springmass system slides down a smooth 30° inclined plane.k 2 'IT 11 r 1) I .2 'IT ( x.. /I 1\ \ tIl \ ''" I I I I \ \ \ <:» I I I 412 For the triangular pulse shown in Fig.. + _1'_ 2 11 'IT 11 [2 sin 2 'IT l' (I  ... If the system is lifted so that the bottom of the springs are just free and .6lb weight is supported on several springs whose combined stiffness is 6. ]} 7" 2Fo { .Chap.!I 1) 2 7'  sin 2'IT.!..!.
and the time for maximum compression.sinw t Vo wnfl mvo n n where the base velocity of Prob. For a base excitation. ~ < 0. show that the solution is wnz ~ . 0. which exerts a constant friction force f.".) o max = {28in . determine the maximum displacement of m.0.50 ~ > 0. P418 is given by in ( where .ftl ) (1 .20. P415 has a Coulomb damper. 424 is assumed. multiply by tl/mvo ftt mvo + (w t nI )2{ Zmax) vOtl which again can be plotted as a function of wtt with parameter ftl/mvo. Plot IWnzmax/vol and IZmax/votd as function of w"tl for ftl/mvo equal to 0.114 Transient Vibration Chap.0. and 1. m k~ ~ Ilf Figure P415. 4 released. 2.50 . 416 the maximum force transmitted to m is Fmax = f Fmaxtt mvo = + Ibmaxl to obtain To plot this quantity in nondimensional form. 418 Show that the response spectrum for the rectangular pulse of time duration to shown Fig. 417 In Prob. 415 A springmass system of Fig.cos'" f) . By dividing by "'nfl' the quantity zmax/vOtl can be plotted as a function of wntl with ftt/mvo as parameter.1 ( 1 .
1 lb has a natural period of 0. show that when tJT = occurs at t = t1. 421 For a triangular pulse of duration t1. P419 is the response spectrum for the sine pulse. P421.0 1. 4 Problems 2. which has a triangular shape with time duration of 0. which can be established from the equation t.to+l Fob 1...5 s. 420 An undamped springmass system with w = 16. . Show that for small values of t1iT the peak response occurs in the region t > t1.__ ~_t=.0  0. 4 5 I 6 419 Shown in Fig... the peak response found by differentiating the equation for the displacement for t> t1.0 I o I I r r. The response spectrum for the triangular pulse is shown in Fig./ /. . 2. s.0 lb .18. ' Fob_ ff1J I 2 Figure P419.40 s..Chap. Determine tpit1 when t1iT = 1.<.r. Determine the maximum displacement of the mass.0 115 o / / V . It is subjected to an impulse of 2.5 Figure P4.
Discuss the nature of the response spectrum for this case. Show that for t < to kx(t) and for t> to Po __ l_(w Wnto n 1.cos wntio'fa)Sin wn~ d~] will not change for t> II' since this region f(t) = O. 422 If the natural period T of the oscillator is large compared to that of the pulse duration tl. m. the integrals written as x = ~n [sin wntfotf( ncos A sin ~ wn~ d~ . 4 2.to) F(/) Fo  Figure P423. For the undamped oscillator.0~~r~~~~' o~~*~~~~~~~6 2 3 4 5 '1/T Figure P421.sinw t) n kx~t) 1'0 = __!__t sinwn(t [ Wn 0 .wnfo If( ncos wn~ d~ = Wn {If( nsin wn~ d~ the response for t > tl is a simple harmonic motion with amplitude A. k. the maximum peak response will occur in the region t > tl. Thus by making the substitution t A cos ~ .sinwnt] + cos wn(t .116 Transient Vibration Chap.to) . is given a force excitation F(t) as shown in Fig. P423. 423 An undamped springmass system. .
m. 0.':S~t..r. 0 i= 60 (151) 0.t x y Velocity excitation = 60e 0. ..4 '~Io~+~++___'r+I'tI 0.. Show that if the peak occurs at 1 < 11' the response spectrum is given by the equation wnzm~ ~ __ 1 ~r==1====~ Wn11 Vo wn11 b + (WnI1)2 Plot this result.. 428 Figure P428 shows the response spectra for the undamped springmass system under two different base velocity excitations... Figure P424.61+t+++?~' 0.1 0. ~ ~'x 0. ·r·++r~'~"+~~ . ~~I.. is given a velocity pulse as shown in Fig... .c' f... Solve the problem for the base 10~~~~rT~rrT~~r~~~ 6~~r~++'_~~~r~4~ 4~+44~~~L~~~LL~~ 2t+~·.2 r' ..::. 420 using numerical integration.. 410 using numerical integration.02 _". .._ . 4 Problems 117 424 The base of an undamped springmass system.Chap. ~ _. P424. _ 1..01" .10' 1.. 425 In Prob..'1' .0 2 .. .06 .4 4 6 10 20 40 60 100 Figure P428..04~++ 0. 0. 0.~~ ~..10r. k..2 0. 424 if 1 > t1> show that the solution is Wn Wn 1 wn Vo z ~ _ sin w" t + _!_t [cos (t . 427 Determine the time response for Prob. .'.. .t1)  cos Wn t] 426 Determine the time response for Prob. "~ 11..
9.52 by using the RungeKutta method. 439 Repeat Prob. 429 show that with small damping the amplitude will build up to a value (1 .0. Determine the equation if the force is suddenly removed.1. 433 Draw a general flow diagram for the damped system with zero initial conditions excited by a force with zero initial value. determine the equation for its motion.51. XiI) and show that the error is ap 440 Verify the correctness of the superimposed exact solution in Example 4. and 1.118 Transient Vibration Chap. 434 Draw a flow diagram for the damped system excited by base motion y(t) with initial conditions x(O) = Xl and x(O) = VI' 435 Write a Fortran program for Prob. P436 by superimposing the solution to the step function and matching the displacement and velocity at each transition time.51. 431 Assume that a lightly damped system is driven by a force Fosinwnt where Wn is the natural frequency of the system. 430 In Prob. where the base motion is a half sine wave.xrd with h ~ 0. 438 Consider a curve x = t3 and determine Xi at I ~ 0. . 1.101 spectra. Show that the amplitude decays to a value el times the initial value in the time t = 1I/nB. 438 with Xj = 1/h(xj proximately 0( h). 1. 436 Determine the response of an undamped springmass system to the alternating square wave of force shown in Fig.8.20 and h = 0. (B = logarithmic decrement). supply the first higherorder term left out in the recurrence formula for Xj and verify that its error is O(h2). Plot the result and show that the peaks of the response will increase as straight lines from the origin. 434. 432 Set up a computer program for Example 4. 0. 437 For the central difference method.0 by using Xi = 1/2h(xi+l .10. Calculate X1.e1) times the steadystate value in the time t ~ II/lB. and show that the error is approximately O(h2). 4 velocity excitation of y(t) ~ 60e0. 441 Calculate the problem in Example 4. Figure P436. and verify a few of the points on the 429 A springmass system with viscous damping is initially at rest with zero diiPlacementIf the system is activated by a harmonic force of frequency W ~ Wn = kim.2.
Figure P442. P442. Use the method of Laplace transformation. 4 Problems 119 442 A large box of weight W resting on a barge is to be hoisted by a crane. as shown in Fig.Chap. . Assuming the stiffness of the crane boom to be kc> determine the equation of motion if the extended point of the boom is given a displacement x = Vt.
The curve for optimum damping then must pass through P with a zero slope. ~ = /2/(2 + p. PROBLEMS 51 Write the equations of motion for the system shown in Fig.. Eq. 5 Fig.144 Introduction to Multi .Degree of FreedomSystems Chap. the expression for ~o is found.) into the derivative of Eq. It is evident that these conclusions apply also to the linear springmass system of Fig. 5.76) and that the peak amplitude for optimum damping is found at a frequency equal to w" These conclusions can be arrived at by observing that the curves of Fig. 5.) Figure 5. P52 when n = 1. by equating the equation for IK8o/MI for ~ = 0 and ~ = 00.73 all pass through a common point P. The result can be presented as a plot of the peak values as a function of ~ for any given p.75.77 is found. Figure 1'51. 5. which is a special case of the damped vibration absorber with the damper spring equal to zero. ~o = /2(1 + ~(2 + p. as shown in Fig.75) equated to zero. (5.74. P51 and determine its natural frequenciesand mode shapes. 52 Determine the normal modes and frequencies of the system shown in Fig.. 5.) (5. Thus.75. .73. regardless of the numerical values of ~. Untuned viscous damper. Figure 1'52. so that if we substitute (w/w.)2 = 2/(2 + p. 5.
G = 11. Discuss the normal modes springmass system equivalent to it.Chap. P54.000 lb is connected by couplings of stiffness equal to 16. and draw the normal mode curve. Show that of a single DOF by using the coordinate f/J = Determine the natural frequency of the torsional system shown in Fig.sec2 1" ~" 4 31b. P57. the system becomes a degenerate natural frequency. 59 Assuming small amplitudes. Determine the natural frequency of the system. P5S. Figure P5S. set up the differential equations of motion for the double pendulum using the coordinates shown in Fig. 56 If KI = 0 in the torsional system twoDOf system with only one of this system as well as a linear the system can be treated as one (81 57  82).5 X 106 psi.S Problems 145 53 54 For the system of Prob. P55 for KI = K2 and JI = 2J2· Figure PS5. as shown in Fig. 52. 5Ibin. 55 Determine the normal modes of the torsional system shown in Fig.000 Ib/in. Show that the natural . of Prob. P59. Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system shown in Fig. 55. 58 An electric train made up of two cars each of weight 50. determine the natural frequencies as a function of n. Figure PS4.i n:sec2 Figure PS7..
show that normal mode frequencies are w = /m{ and W2 ~ /m{. Establish the configuration for these normal modes. write the equations of motion expressed in matrix form. as shown in Fig. a hub of radius r and moment of inertia J]. 510 Set up the equations of motion of the double pendulum in terms of angles 81 and 82 measured from the vertical. four leaf springs of stiffness k2' and an Figure P514. determine the normal mode frequen 514 A torsional system shown in Fig. P511. JT J3T 513 In Problem 511 if m1 = 2m. and cies and mode shapes. Assuming that T remains unchanged when the masses are displaced normal to the string. 5 frequencies of the system are given by the equation Determine the ratio of amplitudes of vibration. m2 = m. P514 is composed of a shaft of stiffness K1. 512 In Problem 511 if the two masses are made equal. 511 Two masses m1 and m1 are attached to a light string with tension T. .146 Introduction to Multi Degree of Freedom Systems Chap. xl/X2 and locate the nodes for the two modes Figure P59. Figure P511.
51 is given a sharp blow. in. Determine the natural frequencies for the normal modes of vibration.722coswlt = 0.0.S Problems 147 outer wheel of radius R and moment of inertia Set up the differential equations for torsional oscillation.86lb. Examine carefully the phase of the motion as the amplitude approaches zero. imparting to it an initial velocity x2(0) = V. in. If 1= 19.6l8k/m Wl = /0. 517 The double pendulum of Prob.0 lb . assuming one end of the shaft to be fixed. Show that the frequency equation reduces to '2' where WJ1 and W22 are uncoupled frequencies given by the expressions 515 Two equal pendulums free to rotate about the xx axis are coupled together by a rubber hose of torsional stiffness k Ib . 518 The lower mass of Prob.382k/m . show that the equations of motion are Xl(t) xdt) = 0.278co8 w2t W2 = /2.3 in. P5l5.yrad. Determine the equations of motion. and describe how these motions may be started. mg = 3. Determine the equation of motion. 59 is started with the following initial conditions: xl(O) = x2(0) = X.447 cos Wlt . 54 when the initial conditions are xl(O) ~ A. Xl(0) = X2(0) = Xz(O) = O. x2(0) = + 0.447 cos W2t = 0.. as shown in Fig.yrad. and k = 2. Xl(0) = X2 (0) = 0. 51 is started with initial conditions xl(O) 1. 516 Determine the equations of motion for the system of Prob. determine the beat period for a motion started with 81 ~ 0 and 82 = 80. x1(0) = x2(0) = O.Chap. 519 If the system of Prob. Figure PSIS.0.
4 ft 5. P521. 521 Set up the matrix equation of motion for the system shown in Fig. 521. w~ 11 ~ 12 ~ 3500lb 4. P520. 525 An airfoil section to be tested in a wind tunnel is supported by a linear spring k and a torsional spring K. and determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes.6 ft k1 = 2000 Ib 1ft k2 = 2400 lbyft r = 4 ft = radius of gyration about cg Determine the normal modes of vibration and locate the node for each mode. If the center of gravity of the section is a distance e ahead of the point of support. as shown in Fig. 59 and 510 in matrix form and indicate the type of coupling present in each coordinate system. 524 The following information is given for a certain automobile shown in Fig.148 Introduction to Multi . if the coordinates x at m and 8 are used. P525. 5 520 Choose coordinates x for the displacement of c and 8 clockwise for the rotation of the uniform bar shown in Fig. 511 In Prob. . using coordinates Xl and X2 at m and 2 m. Figure P520. p524. what form of coupling will they result in? 523 Compare Probs.Degree of Freedom Systems Chap. determine the differential equations of motion of the system. Figure P511. Determine the equation for the normal mode frequencies and describe the mode shapes. Figure P514.
P527. *1 =2 ' *1 t 0J o 1~ M 1* Xl )(1) (X 2  . determine the equations of motion for a rotational speed w.861b kl ~ 20Ib/in. 5 problems 149 Figure P52S. gm2 ~ 1. 517 A rotor is mounted in bearings that are free to move in a single plane. I I Figure P527. P526 when gm1 = 3.931b k2 = 10Ib/in. Figure P526. When forced by Fi = Fosin wt. The rotor is symmetrical about 0 with total mass M and moment of inertia Jo about an axis perpendicular to the shaft. 526 Determine the natural frequencies and normal modes of the system shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. If a small unbalance mr acts at an axial distance b from its center 0.Chap. determine the equations for the amplitudes and plot them against W/Wll.
530 In Prob. 531 Repeat Prob. 5 Figure PSlB. and K. P533. determine the equation of motion of each mass by the normal mode summation method. If the ground is now given a harmonic motion ~ = YGsin wt. 528. Determine the response of the building and plot it against w / WI' 533 To simulate the effect of an earthquake on a rigid building. Kh for the translational stiffness. 528 that an earthquake causes the ground to oscillate in the horizontal direction according to the equation Xg = Xgsin tat. determine the ratio of the maximum shear in the first and second stories. for the rotational stiffness.150 Introduction to Multi ~ Degreeof Freedom Systems Chap. 529 if the load is applied to m2. displacing it by unity. Figure PS33. 534 Solve the equations of Prob. 529 In Prob. set up the equations of motion in terms of the coordinates shown in Fig. 532 Assume in Prob. the base is assumed to be connected to the ground through two springs. 533 by letting . 529. if a force is applied to m1 to deflect it by unity and the system is released from this position.
533 and 534 are shown in Fig.37. determine the proper value of the absorber spring k 2' What will be the amplitude of W1? Figure PS. Determine the speeds at which pitching motion and upanddown motion are most apt to arise for the automobile of Prob.2/0£)0 = displacement of top). Verify the mode shapes for several values of the frequency ratio. >36 The expansion joints of a concrete highway are 45 ft apart. If W1 is excited by a 2 lbin.Chap. 5 Problems 151 The first natural frequency and mode shape are which indicate a motion that is predominantly translational. >37 For the system shown in Fig. Establish the second natural frequency and its mode (Y1 = Yo . 5 4 2 1 2 3 4 v ~ I Figure PS35. These joints cause a series of impulses at equal intervals to affect cars traveling at a constant speed. >35 The response and mode configuration for Probs. 524. P535. P537. W1 = 200 lb and the absorber weight W2 = 50 lb. unbalance rotating at 1800 rpm. .
5 >38 In Prob. Set up the differential equations of motion for the system. P539. what must be the diameter d2 of the pins? >42 A jig used to size coal contains a screen that reciprocates with a frequency of 600 cpm.d2• Prove that the Ushaped weight does indeed move in a circular path of r = d1 . >39 A flywheel of moment of inertia I has a torsional absorber of moment of inertia Id free to rotate on the shaft and connected to the flywheel by four springs of stiffness k lb/in.. the counterweight has a motion of curvilinear translation with each point moving in a circular path of radius r = dl . Figure PS40.d2. p540 is used as a centrifugal pendulum to eliminate torsional oscillations. and discuss the response of the system to an oscillatory torque. as shown in Fig. and dl = t in.152 Introduction to Multi . The Ushaped weight fits loosely and rolls on two pins of diameter d2 within 1wo larger holes of equal diameters di. With respect to the crank. if a dashpot c is introduced between WI and W2. >40 The bifilartype pendulum shown in Fig. If the distance R to the center of gravity of the pendulum mass is made equal to 4. determine the amplitude equations by the complex algebra method.. If an .Degree 01 Freedom SyS1ems Chap. >41 A bifilartype centrifugal pendulum is proposed to eliminate a torsional disturbance of frequency equal to four times the rotational speed. 537. Figure PS39. The jig weighs 500 lb and has a fundamental frequency of 400 cpm.0 in.
. 548 Derive the equations of motion for the two masses in Fig. Develop the flow diagram and the Fortran program for the case where the ground is given a displacement y ~ 10" sin wt for 4 s. and the space between the disk and case is filled with a silicone oil of coefficient of viscosity /L.. The damping action results from any relative motion between the two.71) and (5. 528 assume the following data: kl = 4 X 103 lbyin. P544. For a trial test a 2.Chap. 54 when the mass 3m is excited by a rectangular pulse of magnitude 100 lb and duration 6wvm/k sec. 545 is equal to f ~ 0. 5 Problems 153 absorber weighing 125 lb is to be installed to eliminate the vibration of the jig frame. SSO In Prob. Derive an equation for the damping torque exerted by the disk on the case due to a relative velocity of w. If the absorber system is to be designed so that the natural frequencies lie outside the region 160 to 320 cpm.01b absorber tuned to 232 cpm resulted in two natural frequencies of 198 and 272 cpm. k2 = 6 X 103 lb/in. m1 = m2 = 100. (5. >46 If the damping for the viscous damper of Prob. 549 Draw the flow diagram and develop the Fortran program for the computation of the response of the system shown in Prob. determine the peak amplitude as compared to the optimum. determine the absorber spring stiffness. what must be the weight and spring stiffness? S44 A type of damper frequently used on automobile crankshafts is shown in Fig. Figure PS44. 547 Establish the relationships given by Eqs. determine the optimum damping fo and the frequency at which the damper is most effective.75 and follow the parallel development of the untuned torsional vibration damper problem. J represents a solid disk free to spin on the shaft. .10.78). 5. To eliminate this difficulty it was proposed to clamp a springmass system to the pipe to act as an absorber. What will be the resulting two natural frequencies of the system? 543 In a certain refrigeration plant a section of pipe carrying the refrigerant vibrated violently at a compressor speed of 232 rpm. 54S For the Houdaille viscous damper with mass ratio /L ~ 0.25.
>SS Using the method of Laplace transforms. Figure P554.14(1. Fsinwf ~ . >S2 The two uniform rigid bars shown in Fig. P552 are of equal length but of different masses. and show by examination of the subsidiary equations of Laplace transforms that the solution is the sum of normal modes.COSW2t) >56 Consider the free vibration of any two degrees of freedom system with arbitrary initial conditions. 5. >53 Show that the normal modes of the system of Prob. solve analytically the problem solved by the digital computer in Sec. >54 For the system shown in Fig.01(1 . .154 IntroduC1ion to Multi Degree of Freedom Systems Chap. P557. Its characteristic equation yields one zero root and two elastic vibration frequencies.08(1.cos WIt) + 6.cos W2t) Ycm = 16.}xl 1x2 Figure P557. Determine the equations of motion and the natural frequencies and mode shapes using matrix methods. Figure P552. Discuss the physical significance of the fact that three coordinates are required but only two natural frequencies are obtained.4 and show that the solution is xcm ~ 13. Xl (0). X2 (0) and x2(0). 5 >S1 Figure P551 shows a degenerate 3 DFS. >S7 Determine by the method of Laplace transformation the solution to the forced vibration problem shown in Fig.cos WIt) . P554 choose coordinates Xl and X2 at the ends of the bar and determine the type of coupling this introduces. Figure P551.90(1 . Initial conditions are Xl (0).1. 551 are orthogonal.
L mqll = 6. P62. 6 The displacement Xi of any floor must be found from the equation X to be Xi = 4>l(Xi)ql(t) + 4>2(Xi)q2(t) + 4>3(Xi)Q3(t) Thus the time solution for any floor is composed of the normal modes used. which can be rewritten as ql ... () t £. Figure P61. Determine the flexibility influence coefficients for these positions.6912m The equation for the first mode then becomes iit + 0..5k.299aSlill Thus given the values for k /m and + 0. Figure P62. PROBLEMS 61 Determine the flexibility matrix for the springmass system shown in Fig. P61.02235 ~ql = 1.25/ and 0. 63 A simply supported uniform beam of length I is loaded with weights at positions 0.180 Properties 01Vibrating Systems = Pq Chap. From the numerical information supplied on the normal modes. as shown in Fig. /.. we now detennine the numerical values for the first equation. 62 Three equal springs of stiffness k lb/in are joined at one end. + 2'" )tW1ql + 2 w1ql = ~u Lm4>l . .6/. Prove that the influence coefficients of the junction in a direction making an angle 8 with any spring is independent of (J and equal to l/1.m4>l We have.2672iio(t) Sl> the above equation can be solved for any iio(t). for the first mode. the other ends being arranged symmetrically at 120° from each other.
66 Determine the stiffness matrix for the system shown in Fig. Figure P66.22 and invert it to arrive at the stiffness matrix given in the text. 6 Problems 181 ~ Determine the flexibility matrix for the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 67 Determine the flexibility matrix for the uniform beam of Fig.Chap. P65. 6S Determine the influence coefficients for the triple pendulum shown in Fig. 68 Determine the flexibility matrix for the fourstory building of Fig. P64 and calculate the stiffness matrix from its inverse. te I te (1) I te (2) I ke I (3) (4) Figure P64. Figure P6S. 6. P67 by using the areamoment method. . Figure P67. P66 and establish the flexibility matrix by its inverse.
P612. Determine the stiffness matrix for the force system shown. demonstrate that the reciprocity theorem holds for moment loads as well as forces. 612 Determine the stiffness against the force F for the frame of Fig. Figure P613. P613. 613 Using the cantilever beam of Fig. 6 69 Consider a system with PI springs in series as presented in Fig. . P69 and show that the stiffness matrix is a band matrix along the diagonal. 610 Compare the stiffness of the framed building with rigid floor beam versus that with flexible floor beam. P61O(b). which is pinned at the top and bottom. ?:1~w?:?'%~~~~/ Figure P611. P611 is fixed in the ground. If the floor mass is pinned at the comers as shown in Fig. Figure P69.182 Properties of Vibrating Systems Chap. Figure P612. 611 The rectangular frame of Fig. Assume all Iength and EI to be equal. what is the ratio of the two natural frequencies? j (a) (b) Figure P610.
m Figure P617.31 by the areamoment method and superposition. • I 618 Determine the flexibility matrix for the springmass system of three DOF shown in Fig. 617 Determine the modal matrix P and the weighted modal matrix P for the system shown in Fig. 615 Using the adjoint matrix. 6 Problems 183 614 Verify each of the results given in Table 6. Figure P61S. Figure P618. write the equations of motion in matrix form and determine the normal modes from the adjoint matrix. P618 and write its equation of motion in matrix form. 616 For the system shown in Fig. P615. Figure P616. x. Show that P or P will diagonalize the stiffness matrix. P617.Chap. P616. determine the normal modes of the springmass system shown in Fig.f .
184
Properties of Vibrating Systems
Chap. 6
619 Determine the modal matrix P and the weighted modal matrix P for the system shown in Fig. P6·19 and diagonalize the stiffness matrix, thereby decoupling the equations.
~
h1
h2
Figure P619.
620 Determine P for the double pendulum with coordinates 81 and 82, Show that P decouples the equations of motion. 621 If in Prob. 6·11 masses and mass moment of inertia ml, J. and m2, J2 are attached to the comers so that they rotate as well as translate, determine the equations of motion and find the natural frequencies and mode shapes. 622 Repeat the procedure of Prob. 6·21 with the frame of Fig. P6·12. 623 If the lower end of the frame of Prob. 6·12 is rigidly fixed to the ground, the rotation of the comers will differ. Determine its stiffness matrix and determine its matrix equation of motion for mi, 1; at the comers. 624 Determine the damping matrix for the system presented in Fig. P6·24 and show that it is not proportional.
Figure P624.
625 Using the modal matrix P, reduce the system of Prob. 6·24 to one which is coupled only by damping and solve by the Laplace transform method. 626 Consider the viscoelastically damped system of Fig. P6·26. The system differs from the viscously damped system by the addition of the spring kl' which introduces one more coordinate Xl to the system. The equations of motion for the system in inertial coordinates X and Xl are
m.x=
kxC(XXl)
+F k.xl
0= c(X 
xd 
Write the equation of motion in matrix form.
1
Figure P626.
Chap. 6
Problems
185
627 Show, by comparing the viscoelastic system of Fig. P626 to the viscously damped system, that the equivalent viscous damping and the equivalent stiffness are
Ceq =
1+(~~)""!""2
C
k+(k.+k)(iff
1+ 628 Verify the relationship of Eq. (6.57) X;'K~ by applying it to Prob. 616. 629 Starting with the matrix equation
=0
(~:r
K4>.
premultiply first by KMI that Repeat to show that
=
w;M4>.
and, using the orthogonality relation
4>: M4>.
=
0, show
4>;[KM1JhK4>.
=0
for h = 1, 2, ... , n. where n = number of degrees of freedom of the system. 630 In a manner similar to Prob. 629, show that h third modes of Example 6.91.
632 If the acceleration ii(t) of the ground in Example 6.91 is a single sine pulse of
=
1,2, ...
631 Evaluate the numerical coefficients for the equations of motion for the second and
amplitude ao and duration tl as shown in Fig. P632, determine the maximum q for each mode and the value of Xmax as given in Sec. 6.9.
aorT\_
Figure P631.
L_L'2
f _
, 7'1
f.. 11
I
633 The normal modes of the double pendulum of Prob. 59 are given as
WI =
0.764/f
'
=
W2 =
1.850/f
4>1
=
{(J.} (J2
(I)
{0.707} 1.00'
4>2 
_ {(JI} (J2
(2) =
{ 0.707} 1.00
186
Properties of Vibrating Systems
Chap. 6
If the lower mass is given an impulse £08(1), determine the response in terms of
the normal modes. 634 The normal modes of the three mass torsional system of Fig. P66 are given for II = 12 = 13 and K, = K 2 = KJ•
.pI
=
0.328} { 0.591 , 0.737
A,
=
ll1i T
=
0.198,
.p2
=
{
0.737} 0.328 0.591
A2 = 1.555,
.p3
=
{

0.591} 0.737 , 0.328
A3
=
3.247
Determine the equations of motion if a torque M(t) is applied to the free end. If M(t) = Mou(t) where u(t) is a unit step function, determine the time solution and the maximum response of the end mass from the shock spectrum. 635 Using two normal modes, set up the equations of motion for the fivestory building whose foundation stiffness in translation and rotation are k, and K, = 00 (see Fig. P635).
u
Figure P635.
636 The lateral and torsional oscillations of the system shown in Fig. P636 will have
equal natural frequencies for a specific value of a/ L. Determine this value and assuming that there is an eccentricity e of mass equal to me, determine the equations of motion.
~a
IL1'"
Figure P636.
737} { 0. 0. 638 is given an initial displacement of X{ ~:i~} 0. 639 The system of Prob.p. 640 In general.591 . y. and the loads P and M. P618 in terms of stiffness.l3%. 6 Problems 187 637 Assume that a threestory building with rigid floor girders has Rayleigh damping. Transform it to the standard eigenproblem form where A is symmetric. the free vibration of an undamped system can be represented by the modal sum If the system is started from zero displacement and an arbitrary distribution of velocity X(O). which has translational and rotational flexibility. I 642 Set up the matrix equation of motion for the 3DOF system of Fig. determine the new flexibility equation {Y} 8 = [~ll ~12]{P} a21 a22 M if y Figure P641. 0.591} 0. Show that the left side of the shaft flexibility equation (a) or (b) of Example 6.13 should now be replaced by {8 ~ p} From the relationship between Tj.Chap. determine the coefficients Ai and Bi.05% and 0.328} { 0.737 0. 8.328. 638 The normal modes of a threeDOF system with ml = m2 = m3 and kl = are given as Xl = k2 = k3 0. .205 and released.591 Verify the orthogonal properties of these modes. If the modal dampings for the first and second modes are 0.328 X2 = { 0. respectively. determine the modal damping for the third mode.737 XJ = 0. 641 Figure P641 shows a shaft supported by a bearing. Determine how much of each mode will be present in the free vibration.
State the number of degrees of freedom for the system. F2. P71 and write the geometric constraint equations. 1 'I L 'Pi(X) n Solution: The virtual displacement 8y is 8qi and the virtual work due to this displacement is 8W= itl 3 Fj' Ct1'P'(Xj) 8qi) 11 t 8q. ( i: Fj'Pi(XJ) j~I = iI i: Q.a) + M21[ 1 It should be noted that the dimension of QI and Q2 is that of a force. 7. three forces FI. 7 Problems 207 The virtual work done due to 8 q2 is Q2 8q2 = F2(l 8q2 a)l + M21 8q2 . and X3 of a y(x. and F) act at discrete points structure whose displacement is expressed by the equation Xl. .45 In Fig.8q. t) Determine the generalized force Qi' = L 'Pi(X) i~1 n qi(t) Figure 742. Qi = or jI L Fj'Pi(X j) PROBLEMS 7·1 List the displacement coordinates Ui for the plane frame of Fig. The generalized force is then equal to 8W /8q.'. x2.Chap.42. Q2 = [ F2 (l . Example 7.
J. Figure P74. P76 are displaced by a horizontal force F. Figure P75. determine the equilibrium position of a carpenter's square hooked over a peg as shown in Fig. " 21 21 I :. 75 Determine the equilibrium position of two point masses m1 and m2 connected by a massless rod and placed in a smooth hemispherical bowl of radius R as shown in Fig. Determine its equilibrium position by using virtual work. All surfaces are friction free. Using the method of virtual work. 72 7·3 Choose the generalized coordinates qj for the previous problem and express the Uj coordinates in terms of qj. P74 when a force P is applied as shown. P73.: Figure P7. 7 . Figure P7. 76 The four masses on the string in Fig. . P75.208 Lagrange's Equation Chap. 74 Determine the equilibrium position of the two uuiform bars shown in Fig.1.
Figure P77. 79 A rigid uniform rod of length I is supported by a spring and a smooth floor as shown in Fig. P77. Figure P7·S. Determine its equation of oscillation. The unstretched length of the spring is h/4. 711 The carpenter's square of Prob. There is coulomb friction with coefficient M between the massless slider and the rod. 75. 7·10 Determine the equation of motion for small oscillation about the equilibrium position in Prob. 7·12 Determine the equation of motion and the natural frequency of oscillation about its equilibrium position for the system in Prob.Chap. 79.9. . 78 Determine the equilibrium position of m1 and mz attached of strings of equal length. Figure P7. 7 Problems 209 Figure P76. m F 77 A mass m is supported by two springs of unstretched length '0 attached to a pin and slider as shown in Fig. P78. as shown in Fig. 73 is displaced slightly from its equilibrium position and released. Determine its equilibrium position by virtual work. Determine its equilibrium position by virtual work. P79.
716 The following constants are given for the beam of Fig. 714 For the system of Fig. m1 is given a small displacement and released. 717 Using Lagrange's method. and determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes. 7 713 In Prob. Spring force = 0 when (J = O. determine the equilibrium position and its equation of vibration about it. Determine the equation of oscillation for the system.. P714. Figure P714. P716: kK EI t3 ' I' _E_ _ ml4 N ' !!.. P715. ~ .210 Lagrange's Equation Chap..!5. 71S Write Lagrange's equations of motion for the system shown in Fig. Figure P7tS. ml =N = 5N = 5 EI _. Figure P716. determine the equation of motion by Lagrange's method.. P717._ ml3 Using the modes ~l = x/I and ~2 = sin( 'lTx/I). Figure P717. determine the equations for the small oscillation of the bars shown in Fig. .. 78.
721 The frame of Prob. 720 Determine the stiffness matrix for the frame shown in Fig. Determine the stiffness matrix and the matrix equation of motion. P721. t Figure P7lO. Figure P7t8.11 are loaded by springs and masses as shown in Fig.Chap. P718. c . (Let 12 ~ 11·) Figure P7t9. Figure P72l. Determine the equations of motion and the normal modes of the system. 7 Problems 211 718 The rigid bar linkages of Example 7. Write Lagrange's equations of motion.12 as shown in Fig. 719 Equal masses are placed at the nodes of the frame of Example 7. P719. 7·20 is loaded by springs and masses as shown in Fig. P720.
draw in the components of . P724. and R2 for the beam shown in Fig. Compare with Lagrange's derivation.r as shown. the actual algebra can become long and tedious. . P7·22. Complete the equations of motion for the system in Fig. 724 For the extension of the double pendulum to the dynamic problem. . determine M. Instead. set up the equations of motion. 723 With loads m. the virtual work equation can be easily determined visually. Let Ell ~ 2E12• ft I M ~P Figure P7·22. 7 7·22 Using area moment and superposition.212 Lagrange's Equation Chap. P7·23.i> tiJ Figure P7·24. J placed as shown in Fig. Figure P7·D. By taking each 88 separately.
Determine the equation for the natural frequencies. P83.372 kg/m when stretched to a tension of 444 N. sin tat . The cord is stretched to a tension T and its mass per unit length is p. 83 Figure P83. Derive the equation for the natural frequencies of a uniform cord of length I fixed at the two ends. the above boundary MNC equations lead to + aMND = 0 0 VNC VND VNC + aVND = MNC a==MND which is satisfied by the determinant I MNC MND VNcl VND =0 The iteration can be started with three different frequencies. A parabola is passed through these three points and the zero of the curve is chosen for a new estimate of the frequency. the new estimate may be made by a straight line between two values of the boundary determinant. A cord of length I and mass per unit length p is under tension T with the left end fixed and the right end attached to a springmass system as shown in Fig. 8 These must now add to satisfy the actual boundary end. When the frequency is close to the correct value. which for a cantilever free end are conditions at the terminal If the frequency chosen is correct. which results in three values of the determinant. 84 A harmonic vibration has an amplitude that varies as a cosine function along the xdirection such that y = a cos kx .228 Normal Mode Vibration of Continuous Systems Chap. PROBLEMS 81 82 Find the wave velocity along a rope whose mass is 0.
. The modulus of elasticity and mass per unit volume of steel are 200 X 109 N/~ and 7810 kg/m3.l p (a2y 2 at ~ woY 2) m Figure 1'88. the resultant vibration will represent a traveling wave with a propagation velocity equal to c ~ w/k. Find the velocity of longitudinal waves along a thin steel bar.Chap. 87 1 + T In Prob. as shown in Fig. P88. A particular satellite consists of two equal masses m each. connected by a cable of length 2/ and mass density p. Shown in Fig. 86.S Problems 229 85 86 Show that if another harmonic vibration of same frequency and equal amplitude displaced in space phase and time phase by a quarter wave length is added to the first vibration. The assembly rotates in space with angular speed woo Show that if the variation in the cable tension is neglected. P86 is a flexible cable supported at the upper end and free to oscillate under the influence of gravity. the differential equation of lateral motion of the cable is a2y ax2 = mwl. Show that the equation of lateral motion is Figure 1'86. assume a solution in the form y = Y(x) cos wt and show that Y(x) can be reduced to a Bessel's differential equation d y(z) dz2 2 z1 dY(x) dz or Y(x) + Y() z = 0 with solution Y(z) = Jo(z) = Jo( 2wff) 88 by a change in variable Z2 = 4w2x/g.
3 Figure P812. ..31Ib/in. where c = E/p is the velocity of longitudinal waves in the bar.2.)V3r/(3 + r) 812 The frequency of magnetostriction oscillators is determined by the length of the nickel alloy rod which generates an alternating voltage in the surrounding coils equal to the frequency of longitudinal vibration of the rod.1.. 810 can be expressed in the form where k = AE I' M = end mass Reducing the above system to a spring k and an end mass equal to M + t Mrod. 810 A uniform rod of length I and crosssectional area A is fixed at the upper end and is loaded with a weight W on the other end. Show that the ratio of the approximate to the exact frequency as found above is (I/P.. and n = 0.230 Normal Mode Vibration of Continuous Syatems Chap. Show that the natural frequencies are determined from the equation wlV E tan wlV E 811 Show that the fundamental (P (P Aplg =w frequency for the system of Prob. as shown in Fig. Letting u = . 8 and that its fundamental frequency of oscillation is w 89 2 = (!!_)2( mWo/) _ woo 2 21 p A uniform bar of length I is fixed at one end and free at the other end.2 and p = 0. determine an appropriate equation for the fundamental frequency. Determine the proper length of the rod clamped at the middle for a frequency of 20 kcps if the modulus of elasticity and density are given as E = 30 X 106 Ib/in. P812. Show that the J'eqUencies of normal longitudinal vibrations are f = (n + t) c/21. 813 The equation for the longitudinal oscillations of a slender rod with viscous damping is a2u a2u au Po m at2 =AE ax2 aTt + TP(x)f(t) where the loading per unit length is assumed to be separable.
.224/ from the ends. assuming the beam to be slender. supported at two points 0.""".(t) ml 1 1. determine the modulus of elasticity. with a disk of inertia Jo attached to each end. determine b. 817 A uniform bar has these specifications: length I.b.S Problems and p(x) u~ 231 Lic/l.(x) show that .y'rad. ~r". Substitute this value of b to find w1• 820 A concrete test beam 2 X 2 X 12 in. State the boundary conditions and determine the frequency equation. Check the fundamental frequency by reducing the uniform shaft to a torsional spring with end masses. was found to resonate at 1690 cps. 823 A uniform beam of length / and weight Wh is clamped at one end and carries a concentrated weight Wo at the other end. while the end / is fixed as shown in Fig./~ 'I~~~~ ~x Figure P817. P817. 814 Show that c ~ JG/p is the velocity of propagation of torsional strain along the rod.T)e~r"jTsinwll~TdT bjc/lj[1(t Wj 0 bj ~ 7 fo'p(x)c/lj(x) dx Derive the equation for the stress at any point x. clamped at one end and pinned at the other end. assuming the curve to be y ~ sin('/1'x/l) . 816 Determine the natural frequencies of a torsional system consisting of a uniform shaft of mass moment of inertia J. II~I 818 Determine the expression for the natural frequencies of a free.free bar in lateral vibration. Verify the correctness of this equation by considering special cases for K = 0 and K ~ 00. mass density per unit volume p. The end x ~ 0 is fastened to a torsional spring of stiffness K lb· in. Determine the transcendental equation from which natural frequencies can be established. If the density of concrete is 153 Ib/ft3. 82l Determine the natural frequencies of a uniform beam of length / clamped at both ends.(X)q..Chap. and torsional stiffness IpG where Ip is the polar moment of inertia of the cross section and G the shear modulus. 822 Determine the natural frequencies of a uniform beam of length /. By equating the momentum to zero. 819 Determine the node position for the fundamental mode of the freefree beam by Rayleigh's method. RL f2 j ~ Ljbjc/l. What is the numerical value of c for steel? 815 Determine the expression for the natural frequencies of torsional oscillations of a uniform rod of length 1 clamped at the middle and free at the two ends.
sinh 131.2S.sin PI which for Yo t 0. show that boundary conditions require the deflection equation for each span to be IPl = c( sin px  s~~ ~~l sinh px) IP2 = A{ coe Bx + coshpx . Show that the boundary conditions result in the equation Yo = sinh PI cos 131. 831 When shear and rotary inertia are included. P825.. show that the differential equation of the beam may be expressed by the first order matrix equation 0/ d dx y M V 0 1 w2J 0 0 0 w2m 1 E1 0 0 0 0 1 kAG 0/ Y M V 0 1 0 .232 Normal Mode Vibration of Continuous Systems Chap. reduces to tanh PI = tan PI 825 A simply supported beam has an overhang of length 12. as shown in Fig. If the end of the overhang is free.(~~~~~: =::: )(SinPX + SinhPx)} where x is measured from the left and right ends. 8 824 The pinned end of a pinnedfree beam is given a harmonic motion of amplitude Yo perpendicular to the beam.cosh PI sin PI y. Figure PlJ.
(9.. Since Eq.172. Using these numerical results. we find the two natural system from the characteristic equation of Eq. (9. "'2= 3. Show also that w. = 1 . Show that the modeparticipation factor then becomes K.I) is the eigenvalue of the normal mode equation. For a couple of moment Mo acting at x = a.0.512) enables the solution of the eigenvectors only in terms of an arbitrary reference. show that the loading p(x) is the limiting case of two delta functions shown in Fig.59). If a concentrated force acts at x = a.52.l cos 93 Wit 94 Determine the mode participation factor for a uniformly distributed force.198~ Figure 9.Chap. (9.0.53). and the mode shapes are obtained from Eqs. (X t) = 95 where = (PJ)4(EI/MP) and (P. = IPi(a) and the deflection is expressible as y. 9 Problems 251 First mode Figure 9. q6 can be solved with qi = 1.(a)'Pi(x) (PJt D(t) I . and (9.51). PROBLEMS 91 92 Show that the dynamic load factor for a suddenly applied constant force reaches a maximum value of 2. show that the dynamic load factor is given approximately by the equation D.a).512) "'1 = frequencies of the 1.54). (9. (9. If a suddenly applied constant force is applied to a system for which the damping factor of the ith mode is t = c/cc.efW. the loading per unit length corresponding to it can be represented by a delta function 18(x . Po/3" EI '7 'P.52 shows the mode shapes corresponding to the above frequencies.g. P95 as e + O. Second mode First and second mode shapes. The coordinates p are then found from Eq.
' (Pil)3 D. Show that the deflection is given by y(x.(t) J ~f(t) Figure 1'97. .( x) dx I = (PJ) !p. 96. (x) (pJ)4 D._a xa 96 A concentrated force Pof(t) is applied to the center of a simply supported uniform beam.' Pol3 ~ K. 98 A simply supported uniform beam has suddenly applied to it the load distribution shown in Fig.!p. ~z~ 97 Figure 1'96. ( X t) = MoP ~ !p. ' (x}_. Determine the Figure 1'98.252 ModeSummation Procedures for Continuous Systems Chap..(a)!pt(x) EI L. P98.t) = mL. Show that the deflection at any point is given by the equation y. P96. A couple of moment Mo is applied at the center of the beam of Prob. 9 the modeparticipation factor for this case is K. as shown in Fig. where the time variation is a step function. P97. as shown in Fig. = I d!p.
I ~r V /.f D3(t) + .'. that the modeparticipation factor is independent of the mode number)...f Dl(t) + cos~7 (3. t) = AE 2Pol{COS17 (. P912a. Show that all modes are equally excited (i. Indicate what modes are absent and write down the first two existing modes. Assume the deflection to be y ( x.. determine which modes will be absent in the solution. 99 is concentrated at x = 1/3.. ~. 0 5 1000 .(f' 00" e l>~~ o I 5 2 0.o.0 ~1 i\ scole) ==&t. } 1). 911 In Prob. 9 Problems 253 response y(x....C$ 50 20 O. free at x ~ 0 and fixed at x .i.0 0.. I.10 If the force of Prob. as shown in Fig.1 02 0._ z. First two natural frequencies of the system. 910. 500 200 I 00 ~.Chap...0 2 5 10 20 50 100 _{W11)2 R. is struck longi tudinally by a timevarying force concentrated at the end x ~ O. 2__. 1)..1'\C1. t) in terms of the normal modes of the beam.5 1.~ I I o.5.I.e. . ~. determine the participation factor of the modes present and obtain a complete solution for an arbitrary time variation of the applied force.0 I 0. the complete solution being u(x.0 5 ~ .0 2 0..  lO. t) and choose !Pl = sin '7 and = !Pl ( X ) ql ( !P2  r) + !P2 ( X ) q2 ( t) LO. 912 Consider a uniform beam of mass M and length I supported on equal springs of total stiffness k .Wz2 Figure 1'912.9 A slender rod of length I. 2..
Z + . q1 4. 7)q 8 and use Rayleigh's method to obtain q2 .=b=.. 914 If a uniformly distributed load of arbitrary time variation is applied to a uniform cantilever beam. is excited by a concentrated force Po/(t) at midspan. . t) = (b + sin q. Figure P913. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.. Z .'II { (Rl):f R = J (Rl) 2 32 +R 2 'II } (W11)2 W22 A plot of the natural frequencies of the system is shown in Fig.q2 + wllq1 = 0 = 2.254 Mode·Summation Procedures for Continuous Systems Chap. P915.. show that . 915 A spring of stiffness k is attached to a uniform beam.q1 + qz + w22q2 where 0 WI. = = '114 ( E1/ M[3) = = natural frequency of beam on rigid supports W~2 k/ M natural frequency of rigid beam on springs Solve these equations and show that Let y(x. determine the participation factor for the first three modes. 9 Using Lagrange's equation. 9·13 A uniform beam. . P9·12b.. clamped at both ends. P9·13. Show that the onemode approximation results in the frequency equation Figure P915. Determine the deflection under the load and the resulting bending moment at the clamped ends.
Figure P919. Using two modes in Eq. write the equations of motion and establish the natural frequency of the symmetric mode. ~=======Z. Figure 1'921.=M========~ . P921. 918 Show that for the problem of a spring attached to any point x ~ a of a beam. 921. (9.38). determine the new frequency. this equation being 919 The beam shown in Fig. P919 are restrained by springs of stiffness K. determine the fundamental frequency. Using the translation of Mo as one of the generalized coordinates. 923 If wing tip tanks of mass Ml are added to the system of Prob. 922 For the system of Prob.yrad at the left end. 924 Using the method of constrained modes. using the mode acceleration method. 917 Repeat Prob. 9 Problems 255 where 916 Write the equations for the twomode approximation of Prob. 921 An airplane is idealized to a simplified model of a uniform beam of length I and mass per unit length m with a lumped mass Mo at its center. As K approaches infinity. 915.Chap. as shown in Fig. determine the antisymmetric mode by using the rotation of the fuselage as one of the generalized coordinates. the result should approach that of the clamped ended beam. 916. both the constrainedmode and the modeacceleration methods result in the same equation when only one mode is used. show that the effect of adding a mass mi with moment of inertia JI to a point Xl on the structure changes the first natural frequency WI to . determine the fundamental frequency of the system as a function of K/MwI where WI is the fundamental frequency of the simply supported beam. 921. Use first cantilever mode for the wing.~ 7A K 920 If both ends of the beam of Fig. P919 has a spring of rotational stiffness K lb in.
926 A rod of circular crosssection is bent at right angles in a horizontal plane as shown in Fig. P926. Assume its bending only in the vertical plane. . 925 Formulate the vibration problem of the bent shown in Fig. Assume the comers to remain at 90°. set up the equations for the vibration perpendicular to the plane of the rod. Figure 1'916. Note that member 1 is in flexure and torsion.256 ModeSummation Procedures for Continuous Systems Chap. P925 by the component mode synthesis. Figure 1'925. Using component mode synthesis. 9 and the generalized mass and damping to M' ~ M 1 I {I + mllPi(xl) Ml where a onemode approximation is used for the inertia forces.
7. PlO. (b) Nstepped uniform elements. Compare results with those when the station is chosen at midlength. as shown in Fig. determine the finite element stiffness and mass matrices for the torsional problem. f 12 1. 10 Problems 287 PROBLEMS 101 Determine the two natural frequencies in axial vibration for the uniform rod. using three axial elements of length 1/3 each.11'  1.7 shows a conical tube of constant thickness fixed at the large end and free at the other end. 104 Assuming linear variation for the twist of a uniform shaft. " . 109 Determine the equation for the tube of Fig. P107 in torsional vibration using (a) two elements. 2 Figure Plo. PlOlO has pinned joints. determine the equation for its longitudinal vibration.2. fixed at one end and free at the other end. 108 Treat the tube of Fig. 102 Figure P10.7 as a two element problem of equal length in longitudinal vibration.2 1 Set up the equation for the freefree vibration of a uniform rod of length I. Using one element. Determine the two natural frequencies in longitudinal vibration. P10.lO. 1010 The simple frame of Fig. 107 Fig. = 2m2. using two elements with the intermediate station at 1/3 from the fixed end. PlO2. The problem is identical to that of the axial vibration. 105 Using two equal elements. Determine its stiffness matrix. 106 Using two uniform sections in torsional vibration. 103 Figure P10. where EAj = 2EAl and m. What conclusion do you come to regarding choice of station location? A tapered rod is modelled as two uniform sections. describe its finite element relationship to the 2 DOF lumped mass torsional system.Chap. determine the first two natural frequencies of a fixedfree shaft in torsional oscillation.
Figure PIOoIS. P 4 1012 For the pinned truss of Fig.288 Introduction to the Finite Element Method Chap. determine the element stiffness matrices in global coordinates and indicate how they are assembled for the entire structure. fixed at both ends. Figure P10012. 1013 Using two elements determine the deflection and slope at midspan of a uniform beam. PIOH. Determine the stiffness matrix for each orientation and indicate how each element matrix is assembled in the global system. when loaded as shown in Fig. 10 1011 For the pinned square truss of Fig. there are just three orientations of the elements. . PIO12. 1015 Determine the free vibration equation for the beam of Fig. 1014 Determine the consistent mass for the beam of Problem 1013 and calculate its natural frequencies. PIOIS. Figure PIOo13. PlOl3.
Figure PIO17. Determine its stiffness matrix. PIO17 is free to rotate and translate at the upper right end. L r Figure PIO16. Consider the comers to be rigid. PIO16. The upper right end is restricted from rotating but is free to slide in and out.Chap. 1018 Determine the deflection and slope at the load for the following frames. to Problems 289 1016 Determine the stiffness matrix for the frame of Fig. . ~=i r t (b) (c) (O) a a r (d) b I (e) (f) Figure PIOIS. 1017 The frame of Fig.
il2 ~ (a) i (b) 112=1. the .{.m. 1020 Using two elements. PlO21 in terms of the six coordinates shown.A] X = 0. T~ Li3 Itl2 (a) 1 trz ~":]P Iil2 Figure PIO20.290 Introduction to the Finite Element Method Chap. PIO20(b) determine the deflection and slope at midspan. In Fig. solve the 4 x 4 beam problem in Example 10. show that the symmetric mode for the free vibration reduces to a 3 x 3 equation. For those interested in using the standard form of the eigenproblem IIA . ~~1 i!2 (b) 1021 Set up the two element equations for the system of Fig. PI021. determine the equivalent junction loads for the distributed forces. t . 1023 Using the digital computer. Figure PIO19. 10 1019 Determine the free vibration equation for the following. 1022 For the system of Fig. EI. Determine the mass and stiffness matrices for this problem. I k il2 ~+!~i/2 Figure PIO21.51. For those using Fortran. the subroutine NROOT is available.
e. Finite Element Analysis Fundamentals. where A is the diagonal matrix of the eigenvalues of M and </> is the orthonormal matrix of the eigenvectors of M. John Wiley & Sons. R. D. 1986. Englewood PrenticeHall. J. W. R. C. Y. REFERENCES 111 121 131 141 COOK..Chap. N. H. i. A.: PrenticeHall.: K. AND NETHEROOT. GRIFFITH. Cliffs. GALLAGHER. The matrix M must here be positive definite.J. with M a full matrix. a separate determination of Q = W must first be made from the relationship Q = </>A~<ll.. 10 References 291 method presented in Example 6.. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Finite Element Structural Analysis. 1975. R.. . However. Inc. </>T</> = I. EVANS..41 can be used. New York: Halsted Press Book. Englewood Cliffs. Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis. 1974. T. The Finite Element Method. D. 1975. H. ROCKEY. YANG. D. N.
Pll2. (11..oo.} and the corresponding values of n..314 Approximate Numerical Methods Chap..5M. estimate the fundamental frequency of the lumped mass system shown in Fig./ by equating the two energies.= 2 M2 I MEl I' / M. 115 Another form of Rayleigh's quotient for the fundamental frequency can be obtained by starting from the equation of motion based on the flexibility . P111 and determine the equation for (. M.kg = constant Figure Pll2.. i ~{ 1. Pick off the maximum and minimum values of (. Figure Plll. 11 Its solution is found to be Al = 0.2094 PROBLEMS 111 Write the kinetic and potential energy expressions for the system of Fig. Letting X2/XI = n. 112 Using Rayleigh's method. and show that they represent the two natural modes of the system. 114 Verify the results of Example 11. 113 Estimate the fundamental frequency of the lumped mass cantilever beam shown in Fig. plot ('i versus n..13). Figure Pll3. Pl13.14 by using Eq. ~I~ I t j"..
find its natural frequency "'1' m. Using the deflection y(x) = Yma. Hint: Draw shear and moment diagrams based on inertia loads. = X'MX and the Rayleigh quotient becomes t. is supported on equal springs with total vertical stiffness of k lby'in. 11 Problems 315 influence coefficient Pre multiplying by X'M we obtain. Using the curve y(x) = 3~A.M Figure PHtO.Chap. determine the fundamental frequency of the beam shown in Fig. . 1110 A uniform beam of mass M and stiffness K = err». 114. Using Rayleigh's method with the deflection Ymax = 'lTx/l) + b.14 by using the above equation and compare results with Prob.1 El Figure PI 19. 118 Repeat Prob. PHlO. 113 by using the method of integration.y) 119 A uniform cantilever beam of mass m per unit length has its free end pinned to two springs of stiffness k and mass mo each as shown in Fig. Pl19.yf 117 solve Prob. shown in Fig. show that the sine l.. 117 but use the curve y(x) = Ymax 4t(I.sin('lTx/I). Using Rayleigh's method. PH7 (a) if El2 = Ell and (b) if El2 = 4El1• Figure pH7.z X' MaMX ti 116 = X'MX 'X""M""a"""'M"7X"" Solve for "'1 in Example 11.
78 in. 11·14 A load of 100 lb at the wing tip of a fighter plane produced a corresponding deflection of 0. K".4{ 11·11 Assuming a static deflection curve determine the lowest natural frequency of a simply supported beam of constant EI and a mass distribution of m(x) = m07( 1  7) by the Rayleigh method. If the fundamental bending frequency of the same wing is . Pll·12.316 Approximate Numerical Methods Chap. 11·13 Using Dunkerley's equation. 11·12 Using Dunkerley's equation. Wj ~ 2W Figure PlI·13.! + 4b + b2 2 ". determine the fundamental frequency of the threemass cantilever beam shown in Fig. determine the fundamental frequency of the beam shown in Fig. show that the lowest frequency results when b= i(i .z/ 2 ~ 2k M [ k4 + "2 . 11 frequency equation becomes '" By a ".(i _ ~~4)r+ . Figure PH·12.4 b 2 ] ab ~ 0. PH·l3.~~4)± J[.
i ~:fA_E: ~yyy~ I.=. 11·12. assume the deflection to be made up of the first two modes of the uniform beam and solve for the two natural frequencies and mode shapes by the RayleighRitz method. determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes for the longitudinal vibration of a uniform rod with a spring of stiffness ko attached to the free end as shown in Fig.44 kg at the midspan. Use the first two normal modes of the fixedfree rod in longitudinal motion. determine the two natural frequencies and modes of a uniform beam pinned at the right end and attached to a spring of stiffness k at the left end. 11·18 but this time the spring is replaced by a mass mo. 11·20 For the simply supported variable mass beam of Prob. and resonance was found at 435 cps. Figure Pll·16. Pl123. 1123 Determine the influence coefficients for the threemass system of Fig. determine the three natural frequencies and modes for the cantilever beam of Prob.EI.52 kg.31. and calculate the principal modes by matrix iteration. PI118. Figure PHIS. Using the three modes . 11 Problems 317 622 cpm. 11·19 Repeat Prob. 11·15 A given beam was vibrated by an eccentric mass shaker of mass 5. . Determine the natural frequency of the beam. . 11·16 Using the RayleighRitz method and assuming modes x/I and sin( 'ftx/I). :. determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes for bending vibration by using the Ritz deflection function y = ClX2 + C2X3. 11·22 Using matrix iteration. and rI>3 = sin(2'lTx/l) determine the characteristic equation by using the RayleighRitz method.pI = x/I. approximate the new bending frequency when a 320lb fuel tank (including fuel) is attached to the wing tip. With an additional mass of 4.. 11·21 A uniform rod hangs freely from a hinge at the top. 1118 Using the RayleighRitz method.p2 = sin('ftx/I). as shown in Fig. the resonant frequency was lowered to 398 cps. /l===l. Pll·19.1 =A::E=:::::lD mo Figure Pll·19.Chap.m 11·17 For the wedgeshaped plate of Example 11. 11·11.
determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes by matrix iteration. J J J K /.318 Approximate Numerical Methods Chap. 1124 Using matrix iteration. Figure Pll25. Pl124. fJll25 four masses are strung along strings of equal lengths. determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional system of Fig. 11 Figure PHD. . Figure Pll24. Assuming the tension to be constant. 1125 In Fig.
.109). The natural frequencies are always given by Eq.102.. PROBLEMS 121 Write a computer program for your programmable calculator for the torsional system given in Sec.. P122 when J = 1..0 kg or and K ~ 0..1)'1T + 1) Figure 12. however..FilI in the actual algebraic operations performed in the program steps... the quantity fJ must be established for each problem from its boundary conditions.Chap. . 12. '1T 2/k Vmsm2(2N+1) /k ..L..1. Natural frequencies of a repeated structure with N = 4. = 2V m sin 2(2N m sin 2(2N (2N 3'1T + 1) "'N = 2V /k . 12 Problems 343 W4 t+"''''''''.=.. WI trli~~..._+r4I._ w3 '.. determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional system of Fig. (12..102 shows a graphical representation of these natural frequencies when N = 4. Figure 12. Using Holzer's method... (3} 122 J Figure PI22..\ which lead to "'1= "'2 .. 2J .20 X 106 Nmj/rad. The method of difference equation presented here is applicable to many other dynamical systems where repeating sections are present.
Determine the first two natural frequencies for symmetric and antisymmetric torsional oscillations of the wings. and plot the torsional mode corresponding to each. Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the springmass system of Fig. determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional system shown in Fig. Figure P127. kz = k.13 kg nr = J4 Kl K3 2. 125 126 Repeat Prob. = m. J1 = = = = J2 = J3 = 1. Show that they are similar. 124 Figure PI2J. m3 = 3m. Figure P1M. P12S. Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the threestory building of Fig.344 Numerical Procedures for Lumped Mass Systems Chap.26 kg nr K2 0. and 127 Compare the equations of motion for the linear springmass system versus torsional system with same mass and stiffness distribution. m2 = 2m. 12 123 Using Holzer's method. P124 by using Holzer's method for all ms = m and all k. = k. P127 by the Holzer method when all masses are equal and all stiffnesses are equal.169 Nmyrad X 106 X 0. 128 A fighterplane wing is reduced to a series of disks and shafts for Holzer's analysis as shown in Fig. 124 when ml k3 = 2k. P123 with the following values of J and K. . kl = k.226 Nmyrad 106 J.
Compare with previous results by using influence coefficients.e PIlIO. P129 where M/m = n and the beam of length I is uniform.000 K lb. 12 Problems n I 2 345 J lb. PI213 has been previously solved by the method of matrix iteration. 1211 Determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes of the threemass cantilever of Fig. PI210. 15 x IQI' 30 22 36 120 3 4 5 6 tX = =========~ _. determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the twolumpedmass cantilever beam of Fig.. P12ll ~ FigureP1211. ~ 1212 Using Myklestad's method.2 50 138 145 181 260 140. II 3 I I II I 2 II 1 I I I 1 I I I I : Figure P128. 1210 Using Myklestad's method. in. Check: that the boundary condition of zero deflection at the left end is satisfied for these natural frequencies when Myklestad's method is used. . Figure Pll9. determine the boundary equations for the simply supported beam of Fig.jrad._  CD o 40" 70" 105" 145" 200" I I I I I II : . P1212. sec. Fig. ~ 2 3 1213 The beam of Fig. in. That is.Chap. 129 Determine the natural modes of the simplified model of an airplane shown in Fig. 1 Figure P1212.
346 Numerical Procedures for Lumped Mass Systems Chap. Determine the torquefrequency curve for the system. 11. P1216. Figure 1213.15 Shown in Fig.14 Determine the flexuretorsion vibration for the system shown in Fig. P1215 is a linear system with damping between mass 1 and 2. 12 check the deflection for change in sign when frequencies above and below the natural frequency are used. Figure PI215. and determine the amplitude and phase of each mass at a specified frequency. 500 kg 100kg 1r"""iOtTO ~ ~ m f. P1214. 91 = 104 T Jz=1OO Figure PI216. . Carry out a computer analysis for numerical values assigned by the instructor. 11. 1216 A torsional system with a torsional damper is shown in Fig.~ I! 111' ~j Figure 1214.
2 lb in.yrad J3 = K4 = 4 X 106 lb in.yrad /2 = K2 K3 = = 1. PI220(a) to the equivalent torsional system shown in Fig. PI22O(b). P1219 for the following values of J. 1220 Reduce the torsional system of the automobile shown in Fig. J. J" = 6.Chap. S2 Transmission speed ratio (drive shaft to engine speed) = 1. K.0 to 3.yrad 1 X 106 lb in. 18lb in. Figure Plll7. S2 J of flywheel = 12.6 X 106 lb in. determine the equivalent single shaft system and establish the natural frequencies. oz=2" 1. (b) . 1217 have the inertias J' = 2. and n /1 = 15lb in.y'rad Speed ratio of drive shaft to axle = 4 to 1. Figure Plll9.0 (0) Figure Pll20. 12 Problems 347 1217 Determine the equivalent torsional system for the geared system shown in Fig. What are the amplitude ratios of /2 to JI at the natural frequencies? S2 14 = 6 Ib in. 1219 Determine the two lowest natural frequencies of the torsional system shown in Fig. S2 s2 S2 KI = 2 X 106 lb in.3 lb in. P1217 and find its natural frequency. 10 lb in. The necessary information is given as follows: J of each rear wheel = 9. =30" 2 Jz = 24 J1 = 10Ibin.secZ 1218 If the small and large gears of Prob. U=======I'6" dio.
1222 Determine the equations of motion for the torsional system shown in Fig.0 to 3. S2 and determine the natural frequencies of the system. establish the boundary conditions for the symmetric and antisymmetric bending modes for the system shown in Fig.348 Numerical Procedures for Lumped Mass Systems Chap. diameter. 25 in. Solve for the principal modes of oscillation. 1220 = 0. J o 2 N Figure Pl226. Plot the boundary determinant against the frequency w to establish the natural frequencies. 12 Differential speed ratio (axle to drive shaft) = 1.5 Axle dimensions = Il in.h2K + (tmw2[2K) 2[ + lmw2[3K where K = II EI. 74 in. long (each) Drive shaft dimensions ~ 1! in. Figure Pl225. P12·25. P1222. Determine the boundary equations and solve for the natural frequencies. long Stiffness of crankshaft between cylinders.5 X 106 lb in. Show that the boundary conditions of zero slope and deflection lead to the equation 2 1 + lm(.20 lb in. .y'rad 1221 Assume that the J of each cylinder of Prob. diameter. 1223 Apply the matrix method to a cantilever beam of length [ and mass m at the end.1 X 106 lb in. measured experimentally = 6. P1226.yrad Stiffness of crankshaft between cylinder 4 and flywheel = 4. and arrange them into the matrix iteration form. 1226 Set up the difference equations for the torsional system shown in Fig. 1225 Using the matrix formulation. 5 4 50J Gear ratio =5 tot 3 2 4J J J J Figure P12·22. and draw the first two mode shapes. 1224 Apply the matrix method to a cantilever beam with two equal masses spaced equally a distance l. and show that the natural frequency equation is directly obtained. Obtain the frequency equation from the above relationship and determine the two natural frequencies.
as shown in Fig. 0 1229 An Nmass pendulum is shown in Fig. determine the natural frequencies of the Nstory building 1232 A laddertype structure is fixed at both ends.. P1229. and the natural frequencies. Q rQ . show that the boundary conditions lead to the equation ( sin NfJ cosfJ + sin NfJ)( 1 + 4 ~ f" . 1226 is connected to a heavy flywheel. as shown in Fig. cos N. Determine the boundary equations and the natural frequencies. i' Sin2~) J" Figure Pl230.2 Ism 2 2sm. boundary conditions.. as shown in Fig.. P1227. P1232. 0 1t28 Write the difference equations for the springmass system shown in Fig.. as shown in Fig. P1230. Determine equations. P1231. Figure Pl227. fJ . 1230 If the left end of the system of Prob. 12 Problems 349 1227 Set up the difference equations for N equal masses on a string with tension T. the difference Figure Pl229. P1228 and find the natural frequencies of the system. 1231 If the top story of a building is restrained by a spring of stiffness KN. Figure Pl231.Chap. Determine the natural frequencies . Figure Pl228..
P1233. 123 and write the Fortran program. 12 Figure P1232. 1235 The natural frequencies and normal modes presented for the 10DaF system of Example 6. . 1233 If the base of an Nsrory building is allowed to rotate against a resisting spring Ke. determine the boundary equations and the natural frequencies. N Figure P1233. Verify these numbers by the use of Eq. 1234 Draw a flow diagram for Prob.109) for "'" and X" = B sin pn for the amplitude.91 were obtained from the eigenvalueeigenvector computer program. (12. as shown in Fig.350 Numerical Procedures for Lumped Mass Systems Chap.
Figure Pl3S.J. BLACKMAN. Discuss what we mean by the expected value. D.I. determine the mean and the mean square values.: The Technology S. P135. 2. What is the expected number of heads when 8 coins are thrown 100 times. RICE. and ergodic data. stationary. H Inc. pp.: The Technology Press S of M. 1964. A New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1966. Mass. H. PROBLEMS 131 132 133 Give examples of random data and indicate classifications for each example. 1963. B. 10. V." J. Cambridge. New York: John Wiley & Sons.T. Measurement and Analysis of Random Data. The Elements of Probability Theory. O. and BARTON. S. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. H. Discuss the differences between nonstationary.. June 1957. Mass. 24851. The Measurement of Power Spectra. Inc. Quarterly. 1958. Inc. 1955.. ROBSON. Appl. Press of M. New York: John Wiley & Sons.. S. CLARKSON. New R. Cambridge.5.384 Random Vibrations Chap. and PIERSOL.. W. Random Vibration. 1948. Random Vibration. May 1959. THOMSON..T. G. 13 REFERENCES (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) 16] (7] (8) (9] (10) BENDAT." Aeronautical B. . . Inc.1. and TuKEY. The curve should approach 0. 1.. 1958.J. .... T.. Determine the probability of obtaining heads by dividing the cumulative heads by the number of throws and plot this number as a function of the number of throws. Vol. CRANDALL. 1000 times? What is the probability for tails? Throw a coin 50 times. New York: Dover Publications. . Inc.. CRAMER. Part 2. "The Effect of Jet Noise on Aircraft Structures. BENDAT. Principles and Applications of Random Noise Theory. Edinburgh University Press. Vol. Random Vibration. Mech. recording 1 for head and 0 for tail. CRANDALL. 1954. York: Dover Publications. . 134 135 For the series of triangular waves shown in Fig. .I. "The Response of Mechanical Systems to W M Random Excitation. L. S.
1313 Determine 1314 Determine 1315 Determine the autocorrelation of a cosine wave x(t) =A cos t. Figure PlJ. Determine the mean and mean square values for the rectified sine wave. Plot these results. Show that for the Gaussian probability distribution p(x) the central moments are given by for n odd for n even 1310 Derive the equations for the cumulative probability and the probability density functions of the sine wave. P1311. Figure P1316. of the rectangular wave shown in Fig. 1311 What would the cumulative probability and the probability density curves look like for the rectangular wave shown in Fig. of the binary sequence shown in Fig. and plot it the autocorrelation the autocorrelation the autocorrelation Suggestion: Trace the above through T. P1326. 13 Problems 385 136 A sine wave with a steady component has the equation x 137 138 139 = Ao + Al sin w! Determine the expected values E(x) and E(x2).·l1. of the rectangular pulse and plot it against T. P1316. 1316 Determine the autocorrelation of the triangular wave shown in Fig. wave on transparent graph paper and shift it Figure P13·1S. . 1312 Determine against T.Chap. P1315. Discuss why the probability distribution of the peak: values of a random function should follow the Rayleigh distribution or one similar in shape to it.
. 13 1317 Figure P1317 shows the acceleration spectral density plot of a random vibra tion. Approximate the area by a rectangle and determine the rms value in m/s2....IS.20 o Figure PH17..10 L.0   r.. P1319.388 Random Vibrations Chap. I I I 1 I I I I I 0..0IOLOO20 . g2/Hz 2r~ I I o i 10~O~~1~070~0~2~0~0~0 1 Figure PIJ.. P131S. 0. The slopes represent a 6db/octave. estimate the rms value. Hz 1318 Determine the ems value of the spectral density plot shown in Fig. Replot the result on a linear scale and 1. 00HZ Figure PIJ19.J50'10J. .25 I I 11I I I I 0. 1319 The power spectral density plot of a random vibration is shown in Fig.
Determine the standard deviation and the rms value if the mean value is 1.2/cps between 20 cps and 2000 cps. the spectral density is zero. = Re L nO 00 Cneih'nt can be written as = Cn·. Figure P1325. 1321 A random signal is found to have a constant spectral density of S(/) = 0. 13 Problems 387 1320 Determine the spectral density function for the waves in Fig. P1325. Figure P13·24. . Outside this range. (b) (e) (d) Figure P13lO.002 in. P1324 and plot its spectral density. . P1320. and that f(t) f( t) = L n00 00 Cneinwot 1324 Determine the Fourier series for the saw tooth wave shown in Fig. 1322. Plot this result.732 in. 1322 Derive the equation for the coefficients c" of the periodic function f(t} 1323 Show that for Prob.Chap. C. and plot its spectral density. 1325 Determine the complex form of the Fourier series for the wave shown in Fig.
(1) + Fcos("'nt .(3) Show that the mean square response is .= (1. 1328 Show that for ~ « 1 1329 The differential equation of a system with structural damping is given as mX + k(1 + iy)x = F(t) damping factor ~ = 0. Determine the respective frequencies of the halfpower points in terms of "'n and Q. Determine the Fourier spectrum of the excitation and the mean square value of the response. P1332.388 Random Vibrations Chap. 1330 A singleDOF system with natural frequency excited by the force F(t) = "'n and Fcos(O.73 what is the probability of the instantaneous acceleration exceeding a value 53.20 Hz. P1326. Points on either side of resonance where the response falls to a value 1/ fi are called halfpower points. . I IT =: 4 sec I Figure Pl332.74 y2 1k + 25.43 (F)2 k 1331 In Example 13.10 is Determine the frequency response function. 1327 The sharpness of the frequency response curve near resonance is often expressed in terms of Q = H. The mass of the press on its foundation is 40 kg and its natural frequency is 2.5wnt . 13 1316 Determine the complex form of the Fourier series for the rectangular wave shown in Fig.110)2" (F)2 = 13.2g? Of the peak value exceeding this value? 1332 A large hydraulic press stamping out metal parts is Operating under a series of forces approximated by Fig. and plot its spectral density. Figure Pl326.0 + 0.(2) + Fcos(2wnt .
mw2 + uac . (13. what must be the expression for Z2? 1334 Referring to Sec.05.012 m. Determine the mean square response and the probability of the dish exceeding a vibration amplitude of 0. the last equation becomes r which is Eq. 13 Problems 389 1333 For a singleDOF system. P1335. Derive a similar equation for the mean square value of the relative motion z of a singleDOF system excited by the base motion. The spectral density of the jet force under test is shown in Fig. the substitution of Eq. Assume = 0.5. 25 Hz 1336 A jet engine with a mass of 272 kg is tested on a stand. (13.5 we can write the equation for the absolute acceleration of the mass undergoing base excitation as .86) results in where SAf+) is the spectral density of the excitation force. P1336. k + iwc . x = k . When the damping is small and the variation of SAf+) is gradual. 3.10. r s(w)= N 2 Hz o Figure Pl335. Y Determine the equation for the mean square acceleration x 2.132 m. in terms of the spectral density Sy (/ +) of the base acceleration.) If the spectral density of the base acceleration is constant over a given frequency range.. The dishsupport system has a natural frequency of 4 Hz.Chap. Assume = 0. 3.811). (See Sec.810) into Eq. (13. which results in a natural frequency of 26 Hz. Determine the probability of the vibration amplitude in the axial direction of the jet thrust exceeding 0. Establish a numerical integration technique for the computer evaluation of x2• 1335 A radar dish with a mass of 60 kg is subject to wind loads with the spectral density shown in Fig. r .
390 Random Vibrations Chap.037 m. f (tl t T Figure P1340. 13 411106ir O~_~ t 10 __~~~15 100 Hz Figure P1336.2<1>(". Determine 11.) e 1340 Find the frequency spectrum of the rectangular pulse shown in Fig. determine the probability that the maximum peak response will exceed 0. show that =F(iw)H(iw) X2 = 1oooSF(w)IH(iw)12 Too dt» where SF(W)  lim 21TF(iw)F*(iw) 'IT 1339 Starting with the relationship H( iw) show that =1 H( iw) le'<I>(wl H( iw) H*(iw) _ . 1338 Starting with the relationship X(/) X(iw) and = 10 00 /(1  Oh(O d~ and using the Ff technique. P1340.03 is excited by white noise excitation F(t) having a constant power spectral density of 5 x 106 N2/Hz. Assuming Rayleigh distribution for peaks. 1337 An SDF system with viscous damping t = 0. Hint: Examine foo  1/(/) 1dt 00 . The system has a natural frequency of Wn = 30 radys and a mass of 1500 kg. 1341 Show that the unit step function has no Fourier transform.
~ . n n'ITIS(wn)sm C •2 n'IT. 1343 is  (12.r cos[(wl/c)(x/IwAE sin( wi/c) 1)] and (1(x.t) = sin[(wl/c)(x/Il)] sin( wI/c) FOei"'r A where (1 is the stress. FT{ x( 1)* y( I)] = XU) YU) 1348 Using the derivative theorem. the Laplace transform of the response is Ii( x.. with the other end free.:._':'. show that u ( x I ) = ''____.: 2'IT" y L. 1343 is harmonic and equal to F(/) Foei". ."'::.. wI! = n'IT{ 7). 13 Problems 391 1341 Starting with the equations SFX(W) and SXF( w) show that = ~ Tro lim 21TF"'(iw)X(iW) 'IT ~ Tro lim 21TF*(FH) 'IT ~ SFH r:« 27fT lim _1_ X'" F = lim _1_ (F* H"') F = SFH"' Tro 2'ITT and 1343 The differential equation for the longitudinal motion of a uniform slender rod is a2u ~c2 al 2 a2u ax2 x Show that for an arbitrary axial force at the end x = 0. X where structural damping is assumed.. The normal modes of the problem are <p" (x) = v'2 cos n7f( y  1). cFOei". show that the mean square stress in Prob. 1347 Prove that the Fr of a convolution is the product of the separate Fr.10) and show that it is equal to ei2'1'fro XU) where XU) = FT[x(/»). 1345 With S( w) as the spectral density of the excitation stress at x = 0. show that the Fr of the derivative of a rectangular pulse is a sine wave.Chap.. c = J A. S =I ) ~ cF( s) es(I/<) sAE(1 _ e2s(l/<l) {e(s/c)(xI) + «: (s/c)(xI) = } 1344 If the force in Prob.r. 1346 Determine the Fr of x(t ..
.: D. their superposition (Xl + xz) is not a solution .. 14 Problems 413 C. G. Van Nostrand Co. Mech. . cal Elasticity. h 144 Determine the differential equation of motion for the springmass system with the discontinuous stiffness resulting from the free gaps of Fig. [71 PROBLEMS I.. pp. "Steady Oscillations of Systems with Nonlinear and UnsymmetriM. [9] MINORSKY. Nonlinear Oscillations. D. of Commerce. Books I and II. 1962. A weight attached to the bottom allows it to float in the equilibrium position xo' Establish the differential equation of motion for vertical oscillation. 2 Using the nonlinear equation x + x3 =0 show that if Xl and X2 are solutions satisfying the differential equation. Inc.C.. . Figure PI43..J. as shown in Fig. Osaka. 1959. as shown in Fig.. HAYASm." Jour.. [IlJ STOKER.. PI43. Japan: Nippon Printing & Publishing Co.. N. 1953.1. . PI42. Forced Oscillations in Nonlinear Systems. [10) RAUSCHER. A mass is attached to the midpoint of a string of length 2/. J. Ltd. 1950. m Figure P142 . I. Inc..Chap. 3 A buoy is composed of two cones of diameter 2r and height h. (Dec. [8J MALKIN. Some Problems in the Theory of Nonlinear Oscillations. New York: Interscience Publishers. Determine the differential equation of motion for large deflection.. Assume string tension to be T.. Nonlinear Vibrations..J.: Dept. A16977. . N. Washington. 1938). Appl.. PI44.. Princeton.
414
Nonlinear Vibrations
Chap. 14
Figure Pl44 .
.....5
The cord of a simple pendulum is wrapped around a fixed cylinder of radius R such that its length is I when in the vertical position as shown in Fig. Pl ....S. Determine the differential equation of motion.
Figure Pl4S .
.....6
.....,
Plot the phase plane trajectory for the undamped springmass system including the potential energy curve U(x). Discuss the initial conditions associated with the plot . From the plot of U(x) vs, x of Prob. 146, determine the period from the equation
1" =
4
t: /2[ E dxU ( x)]
0
1....8
I49
(Remember that E in the text was for a unit mass.) For the undamped springmass system with initial conditions x(O) = A and X(O) = 0 determine the equation for the state speed V and state under what condition the system is in eqnilibrium . The solution to a certain linear differential equation is given as
x = cos er + sin 2.,,1 Determine y = x and plot a phase plane diagram . ...... 0 Determine the phase plane equation for the damped springmass system
x + 2twnx + w~x = 0
and plot one of the trajectories with v
= r/»,
and x as coordinates.
Chap. 14
Problems
415
1....11 If the potential energy of a simple pendulum is given with the positive sign U(9)
=
+1cos9
determine which of the singular points are stable or unstable and explain their physical implications. Compare the phase plane with Fig. 14.42. 1.... 12 Given the potential U(x) = 8  2 cos 'JTx/4, plot the phase plane trajectories for E = 6,7,8,10,12, and discuss the curves. 1413 Determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the equations x
= =
5x  y 2x + 2y
y
1414 Determine the modal transformation of the equations of Prob. 1413, which will decouple them to the form
{=
AI~
i) = A27J 1 15 Plot the ~,7J phase plane trajectories of Prob. 1414 for At/A2 = 0.5 and 2.0. 1 16 For At/A2 = 2.0 in Prob. 1415, plot the trajectory y versus x. 1 17 If Al and A2 of Prob. 1414 are complex conjugates a ± ifl, show that the equation in the u, v plane becomes
dv du
=
flu + av au  flv
=
1418 Using the transformation u = p cos 9 and v equation for Prob. 1417 becomes d:
=
p sin 9 show that the phase plane
i
d9
with the trajectories identified as logarithmic spirals
p = e(aIP)9 1....19 Near a singular point in the xy plane, the trajectories appear as shown in Fig.
Pl419. Determine the form of the phase plane equation and the corresponding trajectories in the ~7Jplane.
r
x
Figure P1419.
416
Nonlinear
Vibrations
Chap. 14
1420 The phase plane trajectories in the vicinity of a singularity of an overdamped system (t > 1) are shown in Fig. PI420. Identify the phase plane equation and plot the corresponding trajectories in the h plane.
y
Figure Pl420.
1421 Show that the solution of the equation dy x  Y dx ~ x + 3y is x2 + 2xy + 3y2 = C, which is a family of ellipses with axes rotated from the x, y coordinates. Determine the rotation of the semimajor axis and plot one of the ellipses. 1422 Show that the isoclines of the linear differential equation of second order are straight lines. 1423 Draw the isoclines for the equation !=xy(y2) 1424 Consider the nonlinear equation
Replacing
x
by y(dy/dx),
where y y2
=
2
X, gives the integral
=
+ w;x + htX4
2E
With y = 0 when x
= A,
show that the period is available from
T=
41A y'2[ E dxU(x)] o
1'1(1  x2)
1425 What do the isoclines of Prob. 1424 look like? 1426 Plot of the isoclines of the van der Pol's equation
x
+X
~
0
for I' = 2.0 and dy/dx = 0, 1 and +1. 1427 The equation for the free oscillation of a damped system with hardening spring is given as
niX
+ ci + lex + I'x3
=0
Express this equation in the phase plane form.
II = 0. 1436. 14 Problems 417 1.9 3.0.77) are given as t x + 0.60 lb lin._ m =5 Plot the phase trajectory for the initial conditions x(O) = 4. 1427 (. (14. Using the phase plane. Apply the perturbation method to the simple pendulum with sin 9 replaced by 9 . From the perturbation method. 1438 The supporting end of a simple pendulum is given a motion.36 where sgn(x) signifies either a positive or negative sign equal to that of the sign of x. 14. A system with Coulomb damping has the following numerical values: k = 3...20.. X(O) = O.34 1 35 .. m = 0. x + C sgn( x) = 0 1. Pl438... Express this equation in a form suitable for the phase plane. X(O) = O.15x + lOx + x3 = 5 cos( tat + 4» Plot A versus w from Eq..10 lb 82 in. (14.. E...42. With the aid of Fig..0.711) by first assuming a value of A and solving for w2• 1437 Determine the phase angle 4> versus w for Prob. plot the trajectory for x(O) = 20". I .. 1430 Determine the period of the pendulum of Prob.2 = "m  k = 25 ' = m c 2tw" = 2.32 1... 1431 The equation of motion for a springmass system with constant Coulomb damping can be written as x + w. 1.s.O. Consider the motion of a simple pendulum with viscous damping and determine the singular points. and the knowledge that the trajectories must spiral into the origin.Chap. 1. what is the equation for the period of the simple pendulum as a function of the amplitude? For a given system the numerical values of Eq.33 1.. /cos2wt ) sm9 Yo cos 2wf 2 = 0 1~ Figure P1438.28 The following numerical values are given for the equation in Prob. 1429 and compare with that of the linear system./  w Yo . as shown in Fig. sketch some approximate trajectories... 1429 Plot the phase plane trajectory for the simple pendulum with the initial conditions 9(0) = 60° anc 9(0) . Show that the equation of motion is Jo' f1 + (... Use only the first two terms of the series for x and w...
x(O) ~ A.14 1. Figure Pl440. determine the frequencies of the excitation for which the simple pendulum of Prob. 1440 by using (a) the . calculate the angle 8 for the simple pendulum of Prob. 1438 with a stiff arm I will be stable in the inverted position.. 1429. 1440 Determine the perturbation solution for the system shown in Fig.418 NonlinearVibrations Chap.309 + sin 8 = 0 Solve by the RungeKutta method for the initial conditions 8(0) central difference method and (b) the RungeKutta method. the equation of motion is given as 1441 Using the RungeKutta If + 0.. 1441. Use initial conditions x(O) ~ 0. 1443 Obtain a numerical solution for the system of Prob. Pl44O leading to a Mathieu equation. routine and gil = LO. = 60°. 1441 With damping added to Prob. 39 For a given value of gil. 9(0) = O.