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# 14

Oscillatory Motion

Chap. 1

Octave: When the upper limit of a frequency range is twice its lower limit, the frequency span is said to be an octave. For example, each of the frequency bands in Figure 1.3-2 represents an octave band. PROBLEMS
1-1 A harmonic motion has an amplitude of 0.20 cm and a period of 0.15 s. Determine the maximum velocity and acceleration. 1-2 An accelerometer indicates that a structure is vibrating harmonically at 82 cps with a maximum acceleration of 50 g. Determine the amplitude of vibration. 1-3 A harmonic motion has a frequency of 10 cps and its maximum velocity is 4.57 m/s. Determine its amplitude, its period, and its maximum acceleration. 1-4 Find the sum of two harmonic motions of equal amplitude but of slightly different frequencies. Discuss the beating phenomena that result from this sum. Express the complex vector 4 + 3i in the exponential form Aei9. Add two complex vectors (2 + 3i) and (4 - i) expressing the result as ALB. Show that the multiplication of a vector z = AeiOJt by i rotates it by 90°. Determine the sum of two vectors 5e;,,/6 and 4e;,,/3 and find the angle between the resultant and the first vector. 1-9 Determine the Fourier series for the rectangular wave shown in Fig. PI-9. 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8

Figure PI-9.

1-10 If the origin of the square wave of Prob. 1-9 is shifted to the right by '!T/2, determine the Fourier series. 1-11 Determine the Fourier series for the triangular wave shown in Fig. PI-H.

Figure PI-H.

Chap. 1

Problems

15

1-12 Determine the Fourier series for the sawtooth curve shown in Fig. PI-12. Express the result of Prob. 1-12 in the exponential form of Eq. (1.2-4).

Figure PI-ll.

1·13 Determine the rms value of a wave consisting of the positive portions of a sine wave. 1·14 Determine the mean square value of the sawtooth wave of Prob. 1-12. Do this two ways, from the squared curve and from the Fourier series. 1·15 Plot the frequency spectrum for the triangular wave of Prob. 1·11. 1·16 Determine the Fourier series of a series of rectangular pulses shown in Fig. PI-16. Plot en and rf>., versus n when k = t.
,.10 I--

;--

;--

w1

1---211'-1

-lk11'f-

Figure PI-16.

1·17 Write the equation for the displacement s of the piston in the crank-piston mechanism shown in Fig. Pl·l7, and determine the harmonic components and their relative magnitudes. If rll = t. what is the ratio of the second harmonic compared to the first?

Figure PI-17.

1.18 Determine the mean square of the rectangular pulse shown in Fig. Pl-18 for k = 0.10. If the amplitude is A, what would an rms voltmeter read?

Figure PI-IS.

Tn rtJ m
,

16

Oscillatory

Motion

Chap. 1

1-19 Determine the mean square value of the triangular wave of Fig. PI-Il. 1-20 An rms voltmeter specifies an accuracy of ±0.5 Db. If a vibration of 2.5 mm rms is measured, determine the millimeter accuracy as read by the voltmeter. 1-21 Amplification factors on a voltmeter used to measure the vibration output from an accelerometer are given as 10, 50, and 100. What are the decibel steps? 1-22 The calibration curve of a piezoelectric accelerometer is shown in Fig. PI-22 where the ordinate is in decibels. If the peak is 32 Db, what is the ratio of the resonance response to that at some low frequency, say 1000 cps? 30 20 I I

,..

~ E ~

10 0 -10 -20 100 1000
fFigure Pl·22.

E c ..c

a.

-

V

/ ./

I

\

\ \

\

10000

100000

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1·23 Using coordinate paper similar to that of Appendix A, outline the bounds for the following vibration specifications. Max. acceleration ~ 2 g, max. displacement ~ 0.08 in, min. and max. frequencies: I Hz and 200 Hz.

0. A 4. Determine the subsequent motion. and given an upward velocity of 8 cmys. P2-7 If the measured period of oscillation was 1.7 cpm. If a second spring k2 is added in series with the first spring.453-kg mass attached to a light spring elongates it 7. When a 0.38 Free Vibration Chap.53-kg mass attached to the lower end of a spring whose upper end is fixed vibrates with a natural period of 0. A flywheel weighing 70 lb was allowed to swing as a pendulum about a knife-edge at the inner side of the rim as shown in Fig.26-kg mass is attached to the midpoint of the same spring with the upper and lower ends fixed. the natural frequency is lowered to 76. the natural frequency is lowered to !k Determine k2 in terms of kl.22 s. Determine the natural frequency of the system.87 mm. Determine the unknown mass m and the spring constant k Nym. Determine the natural period when a 2. 2-7 Figure P2-7. If the mass is deflected 2 cm down. measured from its equilibrium position. A second mass m2 drops through a height h and sticks to ml without rebound. An unknown mass m kg attached to the end of an unknown spring k has a natural frequency of 94 cpm. 2 PROBLEMS 2-1 2-2 A 0. 2-3 2-4 2-5 Figure Pl-S. has a natural frequency of fl. . as shown in Fig. determine the moment of inertia of the flywheel about its geometric axis.45 s. P2-5. 2-6 The ratio kim of a spring-mass system is given as 4. determine its amplitude and maximum acceleration. A mass ml hangs from a spring k (N/m) and is in static equilibrium. A spring-mass system kl' m.453-kg mass is added to m.

determine its radius of gyration.254 m from the point of support. P2-8. 2. 2 Problems 39 2·8 A connecting rod weighting 21.ll A cylinder of mass m and mass moment of inertia Jo is free to roll without slipping but is restrained by the spring k as shown in Fig. Determine the frequency of oscillation due to a small unbalance weight w lb at a distance a in. P2·1O. <j" !D N r E o Figure P2-8. from the axle.10 A wheel and axle assembly of moment inertia J is inclined from the vertical by an angle a as shown in Fig. which is located 0. 2. Determine its moment of inertia about its center of gravity. 2·9 A flywheel of mass M is suspended in the horizontal plane by three wires of 1. P2-11. If the period of oscillation about a vertical axis through the center of the wheel is 2.Chap.17 s. . Figure P2--10. Determine the natural frequency of oscillation.829 m length equally spaced around a circle of 0.35 N oscillates 53 times in 1 min when suspended as shown in Fig.254 m radius.

. A platinum wire attached to the bob completes the electric timing circuit through a drop of mercury as it swings through the lowest point.01 s? (Assume that the velocity during contact is constant and that the amplitude of oscillation is small. shown in Fig.) Figure P2-1:z. P2-14. 2-14 A spherical buoy 3 ft in diameter is weighted to float half out of water as shown in Fig. is used to measure the specific gravity of liquids.20. 2-12 A chronograph is to be operated by a 2-s pendulum of length L shown in Fig.3175 em of the swing. and the diameter of the cylindrical section protruding above the surface is 0.40 Free Vibration Chap.0064 m. below its geometric center. The center of gravity of the buoy is 8 in.0372 kg. Determine the period of vibration when the float is allowed to bob up and down in a fluid of specific gravity 1. 2-13 A hydrometer float. (a) What should be the length L of the pendulum? (b) If the platinum wire is in contact with the mercury for 0. The mass of the float is 0. Figure P2-13. what must be the amplitude (J to limit the duration of contact to 0. 2 Figure P2-11. P2-12. P2-13.

Show that the period of the rolling motion is given by T= 27TV ~ where J is the mass moment of inertia of the ship about its roll axis and W is the weight of the ship. P2-16. 2 Problems 41 and the period of oscillation in rolling motion is 1. Figure P2-15.3 s. the position of the roll axis is unknown and J is obtained from the period of oscillation determined from a model test. 2-16 A thin rectangular plate is bent into a semicircular cylinder as shown in Fig. Set up the differential equation of motion for small . Determine its period of oscillation if it is allowed to rock on a horizontal surface. Figure P2-16. Figure P2-14. P2-15. and its distance h measured from G is the metacentric height as shown in Fig. The metacenter M represents the point of intersection of the line of action of the buoyant force and the center line of the ship. The position of M depends on the shape of the hull and is independent of the angular inclination fJ of the ship for small values of fJ.Chap. 2-15 The oscillatory characteristics of ships in rolling motion depends on the position of the metacenter M with respect to the center of gravity G. In general. 2-17 A uniform bar of length L and weight W is suspended symmetrically by two strings as shown in Fig. P2-17. Determine the moment of inertia of the buoy about its rotational axis.

P2-20. Figure P2-t7.0 in. at distances a and b from the mass center. P2-21 is r=2Wff. Prove that the bar will oscillate about the vertical line through the mass center. 2 angular oscillations of the bar about the vertical axis 0-0. show that the natural period of oscillation of the fluid in a V-tube manometer shown in Fig. 2-18 A uniform bar of length L is suspended in the horizontal position by two vertical strings of equal length attached to the ends. 2-21 Using the energy method. and determine the frequency of oscillation. in diameter is used as a torsion spring for the wheels of a light automobile as shown in Fig.)!::_ I. and the period of oscillation about a vertical line through the center of gravity of the bar is t2.42 Free Vibration Chap. long and 1! in. show that the radius of gyration of the bar about the center of gravity is given by the expression k~(!1. If the period of oscillation in the plane of the bar and strings is t1. . Determine the natural frequency of the system if the weight of the wheel and tire assembly is 38 lb and its radius of gyration about its axle is 9. and determine its period. 2 2-19 A uniform bar of radius of gyration k about its center of gravity is suspended horizontally by two vertical strings of length h. 2-20 A steel shaft 50 in. Discuss the difference in the natural frequency with the wheel locked and unlocked to the arm. where I = length of the fluid column. Figure P2-20.

and write the equation for its fundamental frequency. 2-22 Figure P2-22 shows a simplified model of a single-story building. P2-24 and its natural frequency. 2 Problems 43 Figure P2-21. . Refer to the table of stiffness at the end of the chapter. P2-26 to be added to the actuator mass ml' Figure P2-26. 2-22 assuming the deflection to be Y = jYmax( 1 x cos 7) 2-24 Determine the effective mass at point n for the system shown in Fig. 2-26 Determine the effective mass of the rocket engine shown in Fig. ----- Figure P2-24. Determine its natural period T. The columns are assumed to be rigidly imbedded at the ends. 2-25 A uniform cantilever beam of total mass ml has a concentrated mass M at its free end. Figure P2-22. Determine the effective mass of the beam to be added to M assuming the deflection to be that of a massless beam with a concentrated force at the end. 2-23 Determine the effective mass of the columns of Prob.Chap.

P2-29. Figure P2-30. Figure P2-28.ff and effective stiffness keff. Determine the stiffness at mo and write the expression for the natural frequency.~K1~K'I~K' ~ J Figure P2-27. 2 2-27 Determine the effective rotational stiffness of the shaft in Fig. P2-27 and calculate its natural period. 2-28 For purposes of analysis. it is desired to reduce the system of Fig. Determine meU and keff in terms of the given quantities. 2-29 Determine the effective mass moment of inertia for shaft 1 in the system shown in Fig. 2-30 Determine the kinetic energy of the system shown in Fig.44 Free Vibration Chap. P2-30 in terms of X. P2-28 to a simple linear spring-mass system of effective mass m. Figure P2-29. . .

If a !-lb weight produced a constant velocity of 1. thereby indicating the frequency.5 Ny'cm is viscously damped such that the ratio of any two consecutive amplitudes is l. (c) the damping factor. it will vibrate.0 Ny'cm.534 kg. and (d) the damping coefficient.0 Nycm. x = vo' Determine the equation of motion when (a) = 2. (c) the logarithmic decrement. Determine (a) the natural frequency of the damped system.635 cm wide. and a dashpot with a damping coefficient of 0. (c) r = 1. and c = 0. 0. (b) the logarithmic decrement. a spring of stiffness 35.0 Ny'cm. and (d) the ratio of any two consecutive amplitudes.5 kg.890 cm long for a natural frequency of 20 cps? 2-32 A mass of 0.907 kg is attached to the end of a spring with a stiffness of 7. When the frequency of vibration corresponds to the natural frequency of one of the reeds. P2-39 and determine the natural frequency of damped oscillation and the critical damping coefficient. and (b) the natural frequency of damped oscillation. ~36 A vibrating system consists of a mass of 4.0.98. Determine (a) the damping factor.1016 em thick. Find (a) the damping factor.1243 N/cm/s. and (c) the ratio of any two consecutive amplitudes. ~39 Write the differential equation of motion for the system shown in Fig.0. How large a weight must be placed on the end of a reed made of spring steel 0.267 kg and a spring of stiffness 17. Determine the critical damping coefficient. Figure P2-38.j/s. . and 8. r r r ~37 A vibrating system has the following constants: m = 17. Plot nondimensional curves for the three cases with wnt as abscissa and xWn/vO as ordinate. ~3S A vibrating system consisting of a mass of 2. the velocity of the plunger was measured when a given force was applied to it. Determine the expression for (a) the critical damping coefficient. 2-32. determine the damping factor when used with the system of Prob.OO and 0.measuring instrument consisting of small cantilever beams with weights attached at the ends.20 in.50.70 N/cm/s. ~33 To calibrate a dashpot. (b) = 0.Chap. ~34 A vibrating system is started under the following initial conditions: x = 0. ~38 Set up the differential equation of motion for the system shown in Fig. P2-38. 2 Problems 4S ~31 Tachometers are a reed-type of frequency. k = 70. (b) the natural frequency of damped oscillation. (b) the logarithmic decrement.

Free Vibration Chap. Figure P2-41.2Av. with the system oscillating in air). and (c) the time required for the barrel to return to a position 2 in. determine (a) the initial recoil velocity of the barrel. determine (a) the equation for small (J (the moment of inertia of the bar about 0 is m/2/3).000 lb/ft. If the amplitude diminished by 5% each cycle. 2A is the total surface area A Figure P2-4!. and (c) the expression for critical damping. P2-42. . (b) the equation for the undamped natural frequency. 2-40 A spring-mass system with viscous damping is displaced from the equilibrium position and released.46 /. 2 Figure P2-39. If the barrel recoils 4 ft on firing. Use virtual work. and v is its velocity. P2-41. from its initial position. what fraction of the critical damping does the system have? 2-41 A rigid uuiform bar of mass m and length / is pinned at 0 and supported by a spring and viscous damper as shown in Fig. If 'Tl is the natural period of undamped oscillation (that is. = p. Measuring (J from the static equilibrium position. (b) the critical damping coefficient of a dashpot which is engaged at the end of the recoil stroke. 2-43 A gun barrel weighing 1200 lb has a recoil spring of stiffness 20. and 'T2 the damped period with the plate immersed in the fluid. show that where the damping force on the plate is Fd of the plate. 2-42 A thin plate of area A and weight W is attached to the end of a spring and is allowed to oscillate in a viscous fluid as shown in Fig.

Determine the maximum displacement of the piston after engaging the spring-damper.24 mls and engages a spring and damper as shown in Fig. P2-49. 2-49 Determine the effective stiffness of the system shown in Fig. Determine l.75 Ns/cm k = 350 N/cm displacement when released. in terms of the displacement x. 2-47 Determine the effective stiffness of the springs shown in Fig. Figure P2-49. 2-48 Determine the flexibility of a simply supported uniform beam of length L at a point t L from the end. How many seconds does it take? v =~4 Figure Pl-44. m = 4. what will be the overshoot? 2-46 Determine the equation of motion for Probs. . 2-38 and 2-39 using virtual work. 2 Problems 47 2-44 A piston of mass 4. P2-50. If is made equal to HI. P2-44. The two shafts in series have torsional stiffnesses of kl and k2• Figure P2-SO.53 kg G§tI m/s c = I. 2-45 A shock absorber is to be designed so that its overshoot is 10% of the initial r r Figure P2-47. P2-47.53 kg is traveling in a tube with a velocity of 15. 2-50 Determine the effective stiffness of the torsional system shown in Fig.Chap.

k.48 Free Vibration Chap. F = Po l' f{t) Figure P2-53. using virtual work. Plot In X versus n where X is amplitude at cycle n for (a) viscous damping with = 0. 2-53 Determine the differential equation of motion for free vibration of the system shown in Fig. The binge is restrained from rotation by a torsional spring K and supports . P2-54 has two rigid uniform beams of length I and mass per uni t length m. P2-52. 2 2-51 A spring-mass system m. hinged at the middle and resting on rollers at the test stand. and (b) Coulomb damping with damping force Fd = 0. P2-53.05 k.05. is started with an initial displacement of unity and an initial velocity of zero. Figure P2-52. 2-54 The system shown in Fig. When will the two amplitudes be equal? r 2-52 Determine the differential equation of motion and establish the critical damping for the system shown in Fig.

as shown in Fig. 2 Problems 49 a mass M held up by another spring k to a position where the bars are horizontal. . Determine the equation of motion using virtual work. set up the equation of motion for its free vibration. Figure P2-5S. 2-55 Two uniform stiff bars are hinged at the middle and constrained by a spring. Using virtual work.Chap. Figure Pl-S4. P2-55.

P3-8 is a cylinder of mass m connected to a spring of stiffness k excited through viscous friction c to a piston with motion y = A sin wt. At 0.80 sec. 3-8 Shown in Fig.20 s. a stroboscope shows the eccentric masses to be at the top at the instant the structure is moving upward through its static equilibrium position. 3-9 A counterrotating eccentric mass exciter shown in Fig. the amplitude is measured to be 0. the period of vibration is found to be 1. 3-1 is excited by a harmonic force of frequency 4 cps. set up the equation of motion and solve for the steady-state amplitude and phase angle by using complex algebra.4 kg.82 Harmonically EXCited Vibration Chap. When the weight is displaced and released.46 cm. P3-7.1-17 for r = 0. 3 PROBLEMS 3-1 A machine part of mass 1.0. Determine the amplitude of the cylinder motion and its phase with respect to the piston. and the ratio of consecutive amplitudes is 4.27 cm with a period of 0. If the system of Prob. Determine the damping factor r of the system. At resonance the amplitude is measured to be 0.95 kg vibrates in a viscous medium.58 cm.46 N results in a resonant amplitude of 1. what win be the percentage increase in the amplitude of forced vibration when the dashpot is removed? A weight attached to a spring of stiffness 525 N1m has a viscous damping device. the peak amplitude occurs at a frequency ratio given by the expression 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-S 3-6 3-7 A spring-mass is excited by a force Fa sin wI. P3-9 is used to determine the vibrational characteristics of a structure of mass 181.80 resonant frequency. Determine the damping coefficient when a harmonic exciting force of 24. Determine the amplitude and phase when a force F = 2 cos 31 acts on the system. Figure P3-S. At a speed of 900 rpm. Show that for the dampled spring-mass system. 3.Q2 For the system shown in Fig. Plot the real and imaginary parts of Eq. and the . Figure P3-7.2 to 1.01 and 0.

54 cm. steel shaft 2 ft between bearings. 3. ~ Fe''''' and 3-11 A balanced wheel supported on springs.".. determine the buildup of vibration if the natural frequency of the system is 18 cps with damping of r = 0.6 mm. Figure P3-11.905 em. as shown in Fig.4064 m apart. 3-12 A solid disk of weight 10 lb is keyed to the center of a t -in. If a bolt weighing 15 g and located 5 cm from center suddenly comes loose and flies off. k "2 k 3-10 Solve Eq.2879 kg· cm. Determine the lowest critical speed. M "2 Figure P3-9. (C) the amplitude at 1200 rpm. determine (a) the natural frequency of the structure. (Assume shaft to be simply supported at the bearings. 3-12 to the SI system and recalculate the lowest critical speed.e. If the unbalance of each wheel of the exciter is 0. 3 Problems 83 corresponding amplitude is 21." = Kef. i. Compare this result with that of the same rotor mounted on a steel shaft of diameter 1.10. Determine the forces exerted on the bearings at a speed of 6000 rpm if the diameter of the steel shaft is 2.6 kg in mass is supported at the midspan of a shaft with bearings 0.2-1 for the complex amplitude. and (d) the angular position of the eccentrics at the instant the structure is moving upward through its equilibrium position. (b) the damping factor of the structure. let (mew2)sinwt x ~ Xe'("'-oI» = (Xe-iol»ei. P3-11.Chap.j . is rotating at 1200 rpm. as shown in Fig. 3-14 The rotor of a turbine 13. (Assume the shaft to be simply supported at the bearings.) 3-13 Convert all units in Prob. P3-14.0921 kg m. The rotor is known to have an unbalance of 0.

4 kmyh? (Neglect damping. 3 Figure P3-14. Find the critical speed when the trailer is traveling over a road with a profile approximated by a sine wave of amplitude 7. the node I I I ~x~ Figure P3-1S. 3-15 For turbines operating above the critical speed. In the turbine of Prob. Assume that the critical speed is reached with zero amplitude. as shown in Fig. Determine the equation for the amplitude of W as a function of the speed and determine the most unfavorable speed.) 3-18 The point of suspension of a simple pendulum is given a harmonic motion Xo = Kosin wI along a horizontal line. Write the differential equation of motion for small amplitude of oscillation. Determine the solution for x/xo and show that when w = fi Wn.54-cm shaft and the stops is 0. . What will be the amplitude of vibration at 64. using the coordinates shown.62 em and wave length of 14. and if the eccentricity is 0.84 Harmonically Excited Vibration Chap.0508 em. determine the time required for the shaft to hit the stops. 3-16 Figure P3-16 represents a simplified diagram of a spring-supported vehicle traveling over a rough road.0212 em. P3-18.16 cm under its weight. if the clearance between the 2.63 m. 3-17 The springs of an automobile trailer are compressed 10. 3-14. r:-t--Ef3k (x-yl /""'" Figure P3-16. stops are provided to limit the amplitude as it runs through the critical speed.

2303 kg . If there is an unbalance in the motor that results in a harmonic force of F = 100 sin 31. If the machine has a rotating unbalance of 0.03 cm/s2.508 cm. Give numerical values to substantiate your solution. (3. suggest a solution assuming that the same rubber pad is the only isolator available. An aircraft radio weighing 106. Derive Eqs. il c J: __j-~ .5-1). 3-25 A sensitive instrument with mass 113 kg is to be installed at a location where the acceleration is 15. Show that in general the distance h from the mass to the node is given by the relation h . each. what will be the dynamical amplitude? An electric motor of mass 68 kg is mounted on an isolator block of mass 1200 kg and the natural frequency of the total assembly is 160 cpm with a damping factor of ~ = 0.10 (see Fig. P3-24). determine the amplitude of vibration of the block and the force transmitted to the floor.5-8) and (3. verify that the transmissibility TR = Ix/yl is Figure P3-27..508 cm.frequencies from 1600 cpm to 2200 cpm. Figure P3-24. 3-25 can only tolerate an acceleration of 2. What statical deflection must the isolators have for 85% isolation? A refrigerator unit weighing 65 lb is to be supported by three springs of stiffness k lby'in.5-9) for the amplitude and phase by letting y = Y sin wI and x = X sin( wt . What acceleration is transmitted to the instrument? 3-26 If the instrument of Prob. 1( wn/ W ) 2 . what should be the value of the spring constant k if only 10% of the shaking force of the unit is to be transmitted to the supporting structure? An industrial machine of mass 453. m.75 N is to be isolated from engine vibrations ranging in. 3 Problems 85 3-19 3-20 3-21 3-22 3-23 3-24 is found at the midpoint of I.41. 3-22 is mounted on a large concrete block of mass 1136 kg and the stiffness of the springs or pads under the block is increased so that the statical deflection is still 0.) If the machine of Prob.~) in the differential equation (3. (Assume damping to be negligible.10.24 cm/s2 at a frequency of 20 Hz. where Wn = {ill. P3-27.4 kg is supported on springs with a statical deflection of 0.. If the unit operates at 580 rpm. It is proposed to mount the instrument on a rubber pad with the following properties: k = 2802 N/cm and ~= 0. 3-27 For the system shown in Fig. determine (a) the force transmitted to the floor at 1200 rpm and (b) the dynamical amplitude at this speed.Chap.

Figure P3-37.02.7-6). .50 to 10 with = 0. 3-30 Express the equation for the free vibration of a single-DOF system in terms of the loss factor 1) at resonance.75 cps and a damping factor r = 0.. What is the lowest frequency that can be measured with (a) 1% error.0. 3-35 in the permissible range.(w/w.0. 3-37 The shaft of a torsiograph. the energy loss per cycle is a function of both amplitude and frequency. Under what condition can this motion be maintained? 3-36 Plot the results of Prob. Determine the expression for the relative amplitude of the outer wheel with respect to (a) the shaft. (b) a fixed reference. Plot the transmissibility in decibels. Determine the equivalent viscous damping. 3-31 Show that 'T'. 20 10glTR I versus = 1. the energy dissipated per cycle divided by the peak potential energy is equal to 28 and also to l/Q.052 em. 3-28 Show that the energy dissipated per cycle for viscous friction can be expressed by w/wn between w/wn r '1TF(} »-d= =t: [1. 3-35 Using the result of Prob. what is the correct amplitude? .65.)]2 3-29 Show that for viscous damping. the loss factor 1) is independent of the amplitude and proportional to the frequency. 3-32 For small damping. 3-38 A commercial-type vibration pickup has a natural frequency of 4. (3.86 Harmonically Excited Vibration Chap. .] For viscous damping show that 3-33 In general. [See Eq.10. 3 the same as that for force./'T'd plotted against r is a quarter circle where Td = damped natural period and 'T'" = undamped natural period. P3-37..04. If the amplitude indicated by the pickup (relative amplitude between pickup mass and frame) is 0.. shown in Fig. determine the amplitude of motion of a spring mass system with Coulomb damping when excited by a harmonic force EOsinwt. 3-34 Coulomb damping between dry surfaces is a constant D always opposed to the motion. undergoes harmonic torsional If oscillation 90sin wt. State under what condition the logarithmic decrement {5 is independent of theamplitude. 3-34. (b) 2% error? 3-39 An undamped vibration pickup having a natural frequency of 1 cps is used to measure a harmouic vibration of 4 cps.) + [2Hw/w..)2r 2r( w/w...

----.(1 . with its capacitance equal to 450 pF.Chap.. obtain the relationship for the velocity versus frequency applicable to the velocity pickup. Amplitude range: Almost no lower limit to maximum stroke between stops of 0.r2) + i(2~r) H~x 1 where r equation = w/wn and ~ = cicero Show that the plot of + iy leads to the which cannot be a circle since the center and the radius depend on the frequency ratio. what will be the output voltage at (a) 10 Hz and (b) 2000 Hz? 3-42 Using the equations of harmonic motion. 3-45 Specific damping capacity Wd/ U is defined as the energy loss per cycle Wd divided by the peak potential energy U ~ !kX2. 3-48 For viscous damping.. If a reading of 0. 3 Problems 87 3-40 A manufacturer of vibration measuring instruments gives the following specifications for one of its vibration pickups: Frequency range: Velocity response flat from 10 cps to 1000 cps. Sensitivity: 0. If 1 g acceleration is maintained over this frequency range.. Assuming that 3 mV (rms) is the accuracy limit of the instrument.-----... (b) Could this instrument be used to measure the vibration of a machine with known frequency of 12 cps and double amplitude of 0.80 cm? Give reasons.. the complex frequency response can be written as H ( r) 'Y . It is used with a vacuum tube voltmeter with connecting cable 5 m long with a capacitance of 50 pF /m. show that the structural damping factor is equal to the loss factor at resonance. determine the rms amplitude. . What voltage would be generated at 200 Hz? 3-44 The sensitivity of a certain crystal accelerometer is given as 18 pC/g. (a) This instrument was used to measure the vibration of a machine with a known frequency of 30 cps. determine the upper frequency limit of the instrument for 19 excitation. Determine its voltage output per g.024 V is indicated.096 V/cm/s. 3-41 A vibration pickup has a sensitivity of 40 mV/cm/s between f ~ 10 Hz to 2000 Hz. Show that this quantity is equal to where ~ = c/cw 3-46 Logarithmic decrement 8 for small damping is equal to 8 . both volts and velocity in rms values. 3-43 A vibration pickup has a sensitivity of 20 mV/cm/s.: '1Tr Show that 8 is 2 related to the specific damping capacity by the equation 3-47 For a system with hysteresis damping.60 in.

AND WILSON. F A = exp ( - Plot this result as a function of r yl - ~ t t2 tan -1 ~ J) ) .t)} or = F(x.: Prentice-Hall." A Survey of Numerical Procedures. New Book Company. S. M. Inc. AND WILF. G. Rockville. 1952. 1980. 4 Problems 111 Although the Runge-Kutta method does not require the evaluation of derivatives beyond the first.. "Engineering York: [2) McGraw-Hill Analysis.J. we can let z the two first-order equations as = {. I and II.} = {/(x. 1976. L.J. S.Chap.y. its higher accuracy is achieved by four evaluations of the first derivatives to obtain agreement with the Taylor series solution through terms of order h4_ Moreover. Numerical Methods in Engineering. 1956. x and y.: Prentice-Hall. K-J. H. Yols.t It 2 4-2 Determine the peak displacement for the impulsively and show that it can be expressed in the form Xpeak{k.. N. the same method is applicable to a system of differential equations..t) t = F(x. M. RALSTON. 1968.. Inc..} and write {. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. y.i excited spring-mass system. New York: John Wiley & Sons. N. BATHE. Englewood Cliffs. Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics. Inc. E. L. [3] [4] [5] MEIROVITCH.t) For two variables. Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis. Englewood Cliffs. REFERENCES [1] CRANDALL.. r) Thus the above vector equation is identical in form to the equation in one variable and can be treated in the same manner. A. Mary- PROBLEMS 4-1 Show that the time tp corresponding to the peak response excited spring-mass system is given by the equation tan~wntp = for the impulsively /t . as in this problem. the versatility of the Runge-Kutta method is evident in the fact that by replacing the variable by a vector. AND BARON. H. the first-order equation of one variable is x=/(x. L. For example. land: Sijthoff & Noordhoff.yy. SALVADORI.

. designated by g(I). 1 ( .112 TransientVibration Chap. 'ITt) .) o 4-5 max ~ 1 + exp( - R) I-t A rectangular pulse of height Fo and duration 10 is applied to an undamped spring-mass system. determine its response for 1 > 10 by the superposition of the undamped solutions.:-sm~ . )] t. ./T) smT .n . . In Sec. ( ~) I + ( sin2'IT-.21.-sin r 1'IT-- I. + -smw"t w" + -. 4-11 A sinusoidal pulse is considered to be the superposition of two sine waves as shown in Fig. 4. P4-5. (a). Figure P4-5. show that the peak response is equal to ( X.51). Show that the convolution integral can also be written in terms of g(t) as x(t) ~ f(O)g(l} + {i<ng(t -~) d~ where g(t) is the response to a unit step function.1 mw" 1tf ( nSlnW" ( t .-:.' where l' ~ 2'IT/w. 4-10 An undamped spring-mass system is given a base excitation of y(t) ~ 20(1 . 2 'ITt 2t. as shown in Fig. For the system of Prob. x ( t ) ~ xocosw"t 4-7 4-8 Vo . P4-11. Evaluate the second term due to initial conditions by the inverse transforms.I. is related to the impulsive response h(t) by the equation h(t) ~ g(I). 4-3. If the natural frequency of the system is w" ~ lOs ~ I. determine the maximum relative displacement.4 4-3 4-4 Show that the time Ip corresponding to the peak response of the damped spring-mass system excited by a step force Po is w"tp = 'IT/~.3 the subsidiary equation for the viscously damped spring-mass system was given by Eq. l' 2t. Considering the pulse to be the sum of two step pulses. show that the solution must be in the form . 0 d~ Show that the response to a unit step function. Show that its solution is 4-9 ( xEko ) ~ (T/2t. 4-6 If an arbitrary force f (t) is applied to an undamped oscillator which has initial conditions other than zero.

. P4-12 show that the response is x ~ 2Fo(.. .-I 2 1 2 sin-(I'IT - I)1 • sm2'IT- 1" I]} \$. / I .!.-1'-sin2'IT.l' [ 2sin. Determine the time elapsed from first contact of the spring until it breaks contact again. as shown in Fig . P4-13. 4 Problems F 113 rFigure P4-11..) k 11 2'1111 l' ' 0< I < X= 2 k Fo {I _ . Figure P4-13..40 lb jin. I / I Figure P4-12..!. 4-14 A 38. 4-13 A spring-mass system slides down a smooth 30° inclined plane.k 2 'IT 11 r 1) I .2 'IT ( x.. /I ---1\ \ tIl \ '-'" I I I I \ \ \ <:» I I I 4-12 For the triangular pulse shown in Fig.. + _1'_ 2 11 'IT 11 [2 sin 2 'IT l' (I - ... If the system is lifted so that the bottom of the springs are just free and .6-lb weight is supported on several springs whose combined stiffness is 6. ]} 7" 2Fo { -.Chap.!I 1) 2 7' - sin 2'IT.!..!.

and the time for maximum compression.sinw t Vo wnfl mvo n n where the base velocity of Prob. For a base excitation. ~ < 0. show that the solution is wnz ~ -. 0. which exerts a constant friction force f.".) o max = {28in . determine the maximum displacement of m.0.50 ~ > 0. P4-18 is given by in ( where .-ftl ) (1 .20. P4-15 has a Coulomb damper. 4-24 is assumed. multiply by tl/mvo ftt mvo + (w t nI )2{ Zmax) vOtl which again can be plotted as a function of wtt with parameter ftl/mvo. Plot IWnzmax/vol and IZmax/votd as function of w"tl for ftl/mvo equal to 0.114 Transient Vibration Chap.0. and 1. m k~ ~ Ilf Figure P4-15. 4 released. 2.50 . 4-16 the maximum force transmitted to m is Fmax = f Fmaxtt mvo = + Ibmaxl to obtain To plot this quantity in nondimensional form. 4-18 Show that the response spectrum for the rectangular pulse of time duration to shown Fig. 4-17 In Prob. 4-15 A spring-mass system of Fig.cos'" f) . By dividing by "'nfl' the quantity zmax/vOtl can be plotted as a function of wntl with ftt/mvo as parameter.1 ( 1 .

1 lb has a natural period of 0. show that when tJT = occurs at t = t1. 4-21 For a triangular pulse of duration t1. P4-19 is the response spectrum for the sine pulse. P4-21.0 1. 4 Problems 2. which has a triangular shape with time duration of 0. which can be established from the equation t.to+l Fob 1...5 s. 4-20 An undamped spring-mass system with w = 16. . Show that for small values of t1iT the peak response occurs in the region t > t1.__ ~_t=.0 -- 0. 4 5 I 6 4-19 Shown in Fig... the peak response found by differentiating the equation for the displacement for t> t1.0 I o I I r r-. The response spectrum for the triangular pulse is shown in Fig./ /. -. 2. s.0 lb .18. '- Fob_ f--f1--J I 2 Figure P4-19.40 s..Chap. Determine tpit1 when t1iT = 1.<.r--. Determine the maximum displacement of the mass.0 115 o / / V . It is subjected to an impulse of 2.5 Figure P4.

Discuss the nature of the response spectrum for this case. Show that for t < to kx(t) and for t> to Po __ l_(w Wnto n 1.cos wntio'fa)Sin wn~ d~] will not change for t> II' since this region f(t) = O. 4-22 If the natural period T of the oscillator is large compared to that of the pulse duration tl. m. the integrals written as x = ~n [sin wntfotf( ncos A sin ~ wn~ d~ . 4 2.to) F(/) Fo ---- Figure P4-23. For the undamped oscillator.0~--~r---~----~----~----~-----' o~----~-----*----~~---~~--~~--~6 2 3 4 5 '1/T Figure P4-21.sinw t) n kx~t) 1'0 = __!__t sinwn(t [ Wn 0 .wnfo If( ncos wn~ d~ = Wn {If( nsin wn~ d~ the response for t > tl is a simple harmonic motion with amplitude A. k. the maximum peak response will occur in the region t > tl. Thus by making the substitution t A cos ~ .sinwnt] + cos wn(t .116 Transient Vibration Chap.to) . is given a force excitation F(t) as shown in Fig. P4-23. 4-23 An undamped spring-mass system. .

m. 0.':S~t.--.r-. 0 i= 60 (1-51) 0.-t- x y Velocity excitation = 60e -0. ..4 '~Io-~+~-++___'r---+--I'-t-I 0.-. Show that if the peak occurs at 1 < 11' the response spectrum is given by the equation wnzm~ ~ __ 1 ~r==1====~ Wn11 Vo wn11 b + (WnI1)2 Plot this result.. 4-28 Figure P4-28 shows the response spectra for the undamped spring-mass system under two different base velocity excitations... Figure P4-24.61---+---t-+-++-?~' 0.1 0. ~ ~'x 0. --·-r-·-+-+-r~-'~"+-~-~ -. -----~~I.. is given a velocity pulse as shown in Fig... --.-c--' f-.-.. Solve the problem for the base 10~~--~~rT--~--r-rT~~r-~~~ 6~~--r-~+--+--'_~~~r-~4-~ 4~-+--4-4-~~--~--L-~~~L--L~~ 2t---+--~·.2 r--' --..::. 4-20 using numerical integration.. 4-10 using numerical integration.02 _-"--. ----.._ --. 4 Problems 117 4-24 The base of an undamped spring-mass system.Chap. ~ _. P4-24. _ 1..01-" .10' 1.. 4-25 In Prob..'-1--' .0 2 .. -.06 .4 4 6 10 20 40 60 100 Figure P4-28..04~-+---+ 0. 0.--- 0.~~ ~.---.10r---. k..2 0. 4-24 if 1 > t1> show that the solution is Wn Wn 1 wn Vo z ~ _ sin w" t + _!_t [cos (t . 4-27 Determine the time response for Prob. .---'-.. .t1) - cos Wn t] 4-26 Determine the time response for Prob. "~ --1--1--..

9.5-2 by using the Runge-Kutta method. 4-39 Repeat Prob. 4-29 show that with small damping the amplitude will build up to a value (1 .0. Determine the equation if the force is suddenly removed.1. 4-33 Draw a general flow diagram for the damped system with zero initial conditions excited by a force with zero initial value. determine the equation for its motion.5-1. Xi-I) and show that the error is ap- 4-40 Verify the correctness of the superimposed exact solution in Example 4. and 1.118 Transient Vibration Chap. 4-34 Draw a flow diagram for the damped system excited by base motion y(t) with initial conditions x(O) = Xl and x(O) = VI' 4-35 Write a Fortran program for Prob. P4-36 by superimposing the solution to the step function and matching the displacement and velocity at each transition time.5-1. 4-31 Assume that a lightly damped system is driven by a force Fosinwnt where Wn is the natural frequency of the system. 4-30 In Prob. where the base motion is a half sine wave.xr-d with h ~ 0. 4-38 Consider a curve x = t3 and determine Xi at I ~ 0. . 1.101 spectra. Show that the amplitude decays to a value e-l times the initial value in the time t = 1I/nB. 4-38 with Xj = 1/h(xj proximately 0( h). 1. 4-36 Determine the response of an undamped spring-mass system to the alternating square wave of force shown in Fig.8.20 and h = 0. (B = logarithmic decrement). supply the first higher-order term left out in the recurrence formula for Xj and verify that its error is O(h2). Plot the result and show that the peaks of the response will increase as straight lines from the origin. 4-34. 4-32 Set up a computer program for Example 4. 0. 4-37 For the central difference method.0 by using Xi = 1/2h(xi+l .10. Calculate X1.e-1) times the steady-state value in the time t ~ II/lB. and show that the error is approximately O(h2). 4 velocity excitation of y(t) ~ 60e-0. 4-41 Calculate the problem in Example 4. Figure P4-36. and verify a few of the points on the 4-29 A spring-mass system with viscous damping is initially at rest with zero diiPlacementIf the system is activated by a harmonic force of frequency W ~ Wn = kim.2.

Figure P4-42. P4-42. Use the method of Laplace transformation. 4 Problems 119 4-42 A large box of weight W resting on a barge is to be hoisted by a crane. as shown in Fig.Chap. . Assuming the stiffness of the crane boom to be kc> determine the equation of motion if the extended point of the boom is given a displacement x = Vt.

The curve for optimum damping then must pass through P with a zero slope. ~ = /2/(2 + p. PROBLEMS 5-1 Write the equations of motion for the system shown in Fig.. Eq. 5 Fig.144 Introduction to Multi .Degree of FreedomSystems Chap. the expression for ~o is found.) into the derivative of Eq. It is evident that these conclusions apply also to the linear spring-mass system of Fig. 5.7-6) and that the peak amplitude for optimum damping is found at a frequency equal to w" These conclusions can be arrived at by observing that the curves of Fig. 5.) Figure 5. P5-2 when n = 1. by equating the equation for IK8o/MI for ~ = 0 and ~ = 00.7-3 all pass through a common point P. The result can be presented as a plot of the peak values as a function of ~ for any given p.7-5.7-7 is found. Figure 1'5-1. 5. which is a special case of the damped vibration absorber with the damper spring equal to zero. ~o = /2(1 + ~(2 + p. as shown in Fig.7-5) equated to zero. (5.7-4. P5-1 and determine its natural frequenciesand mode shapes. 5-2 Determine the normal modes and frequencies of the system shown in Fig.. 5.) (5. Thus.7-5. .7-3. regardless of the numerical values of ~. Untuned viscous damper. Figure 1'5-2. so that if we substitute (w/w.)2 = 2/(2 + p. 5.

G = 11. Discuss the normal modes spring-mass system equivalent to it.Chap. P5-4.000 lb is connected by couplings of stiffness equal to 16. and draw the normal mode curve. Show that of a single DOF by using the coordinate f/J = Determine the natural frequency of the torsional system shown in Fig.-sec2 1" ~" 4 31b. P5-7. the system becomes a degenerate natural frequency. 5-9 Assuming small amplitudes. Determine the natural frequency of the system. P5-S. Figure P5-S. set up the differential equations of motion for the double pendulum using the coordinates shown in Fig. 5-6 If KI = 0 in the torsional system two-DOf system with only one of this system as well as a linear the system can be treated as one (81 5-7 - 82).5 X 106 psi.S Problems 145 5-3 5-4 For the system of Prob. P5-5 for KI = K2 and JI = 2J2· Figure PS-5. as shown in Fig. 5-2. 5Ib-in. 5-5 Determine the normal modes of the torsional system shown in Fig.000 Ib/in. Show that the natural . of Prob. P5-9. Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system shown in Fig. 5-5. 5-8 An electric train made up of two cars each of weight 50. determine the natural frequencies as a function of n. Figure PS-4.i n:-sec2 Figure PS-7..

show that normal mode frequencies are w = /m{ and W2 ~ /m{. Establish the configuration for these normal modes. write the equations of motion expressed in matrix form. as shown in Fig. a hub of radius r and moment of inertia J]. 5--10 Set up the equations of motion of the double pendulum in terms of angles 81 and 82 measured from the vertical. four leaf springs of stiffness k2' and an Figure P5-14. determine the normal mode frequen- 5--14 A torsional system shown in Fig. P5-11. JT J3T 5--13 In Problem 5-11 if m1 = 2m. and cies and mode shapes. Assuming that T remains unchanged when the masses are displaced normal to the string. 5 frequencies of the system are given by the equation Determine the ratio of amplitudes of vibration. m2 = m. P5-14 is composed of a shaft of stiffness K1. 5--12 In Problem 5-11 if the two masses are made equal. 5--11 Two masses m1 and m1 are attached to a light string with tension T. .146 Introduction to Multi -Degree of Freedom Systems Chap. xl/X2 and locate the nodes for the two modes Figure P5-9. Figure P5-11.

5-1 is given a sharp blow. in. Determine the natural frequencies for the normal modes of vibration.722coswlt = 0.0.S Problems 147 outer wheel of radius R and moment of inertia Set up the differential equations for torsional oscillation.86lb. Examine carefully the phase of the motion as the amplitude approaches zero. imparting to it an initial velocity x2(0) = V. in. If 1= 19.6l8k/m Wl = /0. 5-17 The double pendulum of Prob.0 lb . assuming one end of the shaft to be fixed. Show that the frequency equation reduces to '2' where WJ1 and W22 are uncoupled frequencies given by the expressions 5-15 Two equal pendulums free to rotate about the x-x axis are coupled together by a rubber hose of torsional stiffness k Ib . 5-18 The lower mass of Prob.382k/m . show that the equations of motion are Xl(t) xdt) = 0.278co8 w2t W2 = /2.3 in. P5-l5.yrad. Determine the equations of motion. and describe how these motions may be started. mg = 3. Determine the equation of motion. 5-9 is started with the following initial conditions: xl(O) = x2(0) = X.447 cos Wlt . 5-4 when the initial conditions are xl(O) ~ A. Xl(0) = X2(0) = Xz(O) = O. x2(0) = + 0.447 cos W2t = 0.. as shown in Fig.yrad. and k = 2. Xl(0) = X2 (0) = 0. 5-1 is started with initial conditions xl(O) 1. 5-16 Determine the equations of motion for the system of Prob. determine the beat period for a motion started with 81 ~ 0 and 82 = 80. x1(0) = x2(0) = O.Chap. 5-19 If the system of Prob. Figure PS-IS.0.

4 ft 5. P5-21. 5-21 Set up the matrix equation of motion for the system shown in Fig. 5-21. w~ 11 ~ 12 ~ 3500lb 4. P5-20. 5-25 An airfoil section to be tested in a wind tunnel is supported by a linear spring k and a torsional spring K. and determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes.6 ft k1 = 2000 Ib 1ft k2 = 2400 lbyft r = 4 ft = radius of gyration about cg Determine the normal modes of vibration and locate the node for each mode. If the center of gravity of the section is a distance e ahead of the point of support. as shown in Fig. 5-9 and 5-10 in matrix form and indicate the type of coupling present in each coordinate system. 5-24 The following information is given for a certain automobile shown in Fig.148 Introduction to Multi . if the coordinates x at m and 8 are used. P5-25. 5 5-20 Choose coordinates x for the displacement of c and 8 clockwise for the rotation of the uniform bar shown in Fig. 5-11 In Prob. . using coordinates Xl and X2 at m and 2 m. Figure P5-20. p5-24. what form of coupling will they result in? 5-23 Compare Probs.Degree of Freedom Systems Chap. determine the differential equations of motion of the system. Figure P5-11. Determine the equation for the normal mode frequencies and describe the mode shapes. Figure P5-14.

P5-27. *1 =2 ' *1 t- 0J o 1~ M 1* Xl )(1) (X 2 - . determine the equations of motion for a rotational speed w.861b kl ~ 20Ib/in. 5 problems 149 Figure P5-2S. gm2 ~ 1. 5-17 A rotor is mounted in bearings that are free to move in a single plane. I I Figure P5-27. P5-26 when gm1 = 3.931b k2 = 10Ib/in. Figure P5-26. When forced by Fi = Fosin wt. The rotor is symmetrical about 0 with total mass M and moment of inertia Jo about an axis perpendicular to the shaft. 5-26 Determine the natural frequencies and normal modes of the system shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. If a small unbalance mr acts at an axial distance b from its center 0.Chap. determine the equations for the amplitudes and plot them against W/Wll.

5-30 In Prob. 5-31 Repeat Prob. 5 Figure PS-lB. and K. P5-33. determine the equation of motion of each mass by the normal mode summation method. If the ground is now given a harmonic motion ~ = YGsin wt. 5-28. Determine the response of the building and plot it against w / WI' 5-33 To simulate the effect of an earthquake on a rigid building. Kh for the translational stiffness. 5-28 that an earthquake causes the ground to oscillate in the horizontal direction according to the equation Xg = Xgsin tat. determine the ratio of the maximum shear in the first and second stories. for the rotational stiffness.150 Introduction to Multi ~ Degreeof Freedom Systems Chap. 5-29 if the load is applied to m2. displacing it by unity. Figure PS-33. 5-34 Solve the equations of Prob. 5-29 In Prob. set up the equations of motion in terms of the coordinates shown in Fig. 5-32 Assume in Prob. the base is assumed to be connected to the ground through two springs. 5-33 by letting . 5-29. if a force is applied to m1 to deflect it by unity and the system is released from this position.

5-33 and 5-34 are shown in Fig.37. determine the proper value of the absorber spring k 2' What will be the amplitude of W1? Figure PS. Determine the speeds at which pitching motion and up-and-down motion are most apt to arise for the automobile of Prob.2/0£)0 = displacement of top). Verify the mode shapes for several values of the frequency ratio. >36 The expansion joints of a concrete highway are 45 ft apart. If W1 is excited by a 2 lb-in.Chap. 5 Problems 151 The first natural frequency and mode shape are which indicate a motion that is predominantly translational. >37 For the system shown in Fig. Establish the second natural frequency and its mode (Y1 = Yo . 5 4 2 -1 -2 -3 -4 v ~ I Figure PS-35. These joints cause a series of impulses at equal intervals to affect cars traveling at a constant speed. >35 The response and mode configuration for Probs. 5-24. P5-35. P5-37. W1 = 200 lb and the absorber weight W2 = 50 lb. unbalance rotating at 1800 rpm. .

5 >38 In Prob. Set up the differential equations of motion for the system. P5-39. what must be the diameter d2 of the pins? >42 A jig used to size coal contains a screen that reciprocates with a frequency of 600 cpm.d2• Prove that the U-shaped weight does indeed move in a circular path of r = d1 . >39 A flywheel of moment of inertia I has a torsional absorber of moment of inertia Id free to rotate on the shaft and connected to the flywheel by four springs of stiffness k lb/in.. the counterweight has a motion of curvilinear translation with each point moving in a circular path of radius r = dl . Figure PS-40.d2. p5-40 is used as a centrifugal pendulum to eliminate torsional oscillations. and discuss the response of the system to an oscillatory torque. as shown in Fig. and dl = t in.152 Introduction to Multi . The U-shaped weight fits loosely and rolls on two pins of diameter d2 within 1wo larger holes of equal diameters di. With respect to the crank. if a dashpot c is introduced between WI and W2. >40 The bifilar-type pendulum shown in Fig. If the distance R to the center of gravity of the pendulum mass is made equal to 4. determine the amplitude equations by the complex algebra method.. If an .Degree 01 Freedom SyS1ems Chap. >41 A bifilar-type centrifugal pendulum is proposed to eliminate a torsional disturbance of frequency equal to four times the rotational speed. 5-37. Figure PS-39. The jig weighs 500 lb and has a fundamental frequency of 400 cpm.0 in.

. 5-48 Derive the equations of motion for the two masses in Fig. Develop the flow diagram and the Fortran program for the case where the ground is given a displacement y ~ 10" sin wt for 4 s. and the space between the disk and case is filled with a silicone oil of coefficient of viscosity /L.. The damping action results from any relative motion between the two.7-1) and (5. 5-28 assume the following data: kl = 4 X 103 lbyin. P5-44. For a trial test a 2.Chap. 5-4 when the mass 3m is excited by a rectangular pulse of magnitude 100 lb and duration 6wvm/k sec. 5-45 is equal to f ~ 0. 5 Problems 153 absorber weighing 125 lb is to be installed to eliminate the vibration of the jig frame. S-SO In Prob. Derive an equation for the damping torque exerted by the disk on the case due to a relative velocity of w. If the absorber system is to be designed so that the natural frequencies lie outside the region 160 to 320 cpm.0-1b absorber tuned to 232 cpm resulted in two natural frequencies of 198 and 272 cpm. k2 = 6 X 103 lb/in. m1 = m2 = 100. (5. >46 If the damping for the viscous damper of Prob. 5-49 Draw the flow diagram and develop the Fortran program for the computation of the response of the system shown in Prob. determine the peak amplitude as compared to the optimum. determine the absorber spring stiffness. what must be the weight and spring stiffness? S-44 A type of damper frequently used on automobile crankshafts is shown in Fig. Figure PS-44. 5-47 Establish the relationships given by Eqs. determine the optimum damping fo and the frequency at which the damper is most effective.7-5 and follow the parallel development of the untuned torsional vibration damper problem. J represents a solid disk free to spin on the shaft. .10.7-8). 5. To eliminate this difficulty it was proposed to clamp a spring-mass system to the pipe to act as an absorber. What will be the resulting two natural frequencies of the system? 5-43 In a certain refrigeration plant a section of pipe carrying the refrigerant vibrated violently at a compressor speed of 232 rpm. 5-4S For the Houdaille viscous damper with mass ratio /L ~ 0.25.

>SS Using the method of Laplace transforms. Figure P5-54.14(1. Fsinwf ~ . >S2 The two uniform rigid bars shown in Fig. P5-52 are of equal length but of different masses. and show by examination of the subsidiary equations of Laplace transforms that the solution is the sum of normal modes.COSW2t) >56 Consider the free vibration of any two degrees of freedom system with arbitrary initial conditions. 5. >53 Show that the normal modes of the system of Prob. solve analytically the problem solved by the digital computer in Sec. >54 For the system shown in Fig.01(1 . .154 IntroduC1ion to Multi- Degree of Freedom Systems Chap. P5-57. Its characteristic equation yields one zero root and two elastic vibration frequencies.08(1.cos WIt) + 6.cos W2t) Ycm = 16.}--xl 1----x2 Figure P5-57. Determine the equations of motion and the natural frequencies and mode shapes using matrix methods. Figure P5-52. Discuss the physical significance of the fact that three coordinates are required but only two natural frequencies are obtained.4 and show that the solution is xcm ~ 13. Xl (0). X2 (0) and x2(0). 5 >S1 Figure P5-51 shows a degenerate 3 DFS. >S7 Determine by the method of Laplace transformation the solution to the forced vibration problem shown in Fig.cos WIt) . P5-54 choose coordinates Xl and X2 at the ends of the bar and determine the type of coupling this introduces. Figure P5-51.90(1 . Initial conditions are Xl (0).1. 5-51 are orthogonal.

L mqll = 6. P6-2. 6 The displacement Xi of any floor must be found from the equation X to be Xi = 4>l(Xi)ql(t) + 4>2(Xi)q2(t) + 4>3(Xi)Q3(t) Thus the time solution for any floor is composed of the normal modes used. which can be rewritten as ql ... () t £. Figure P6-1. Determine the flexibility influence coefficients for these positions.6912m The equation for the first mode then becomes iit + 0..5k.299aSlill Thus given the values for k /m and + 0. Figure P6-2. PROBLEMS 6-1 Determine the flexibility matrix for the spring-mass system shown in Fig. P6-1.02235 ~ql = -1.25/ and 0. 6-3 A simply supported uniform beam of length I is loaded with weights at positions 0.180 Properties 01Vibrating Systems = Pq Chap. From the numerical information supplied on the normal modes. as shown in Fig. /.. we now detennine the numerical values for the first equation. 6-2 Three equal springs of stiffness k lb/in are joined at one end. + 2'" )tW1ql + 2 w1ql = -~u Lm4>l . .6/. Prove that the influence coefficients of the junction in a direction making an angle 8 with any spring is independent of (J and equal to l/1.m4>l We have.2672iio(t) Sl> the above equation can be solved for any iio(t). for the first mode. the other ends being arranged symmetrically at 120° from each other.

6-6 Determine the stiffness matrix for the system shown in Fig. Figure P6-6.2-2 and invert it to arrive at the stiffness matrix given in the text. 6 Problems 181 ~ Determine the flexibility matrix for the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 6-7 Determine the flexibility matrix for the uniform beam of Fig.Chap. P6-5. 6-S Determine the influence coefficients for the triple pendulum shown in Fig. 6-8 Determine the flexibility matrix for the four-story building of Fig. P6-4 and calculate the stiffness matrix from its inverse. te I te (1) I te (2) I ke I (3) (4) Figure P6-4. Figure P6-S. 6. P6-7 by using the area-moment method. . Figure P6-7. P6-6 and establish the flexibility matrix by its inverse.

P6-12. Determine the stiffness matrix for the force system shown. demonstrate that the reciprocity theorem holds for moment loads as well as forces. 6-12 Determine the stiffness against the force F for the frame of Fig. Figure P6-13. P6-13. 6-13 Using the cantilever beam of Fig. 6 6-9 Consider a system with PI springs in series as presented in Fig. . P6-9 and show that the stiffness matrix is a band matrix along the diagonal. 6-10 Compare the stiffness of the framed building with rigid floor beam versus that with flexible floor beam. P6-1O(b). which is pinned at the top and bottom. ?:1~w?:?'%~~~~/ Figure P6-11. P6-11 is fixed in the ground. If the floor mass is pinned at the comers as shown in Fig. Figure P6-9.182 Properties of Vibrating Systems Chap. Figure P6-12. 6-11 The rectangular frame of Fig. Assume all Iength and EI to be equal. what is the ratio of the two natural frequencies? ----j (a) (b) Figure P6-10.

m Figure P6-17.3-1 by the area-moment method and superposition. • I 6-18 Determine the flexibility matrix for the spring-mass system of three DOF shown in Fig. 6-17 Determine the modal matrix P and the weighted modal matrix P for the system shown in Fig. 6-15 Using the adjoint matrix. 6 Problems 183 6-14 Verify each of the results given in Table 6. Figure P6-1S. Figure P6-18. write the equations of motion in matrix form and determine the normal modes from the adjoint matrix. P6-18 and write its equation of motion in matrix form. 6-16 For the system shown in Fig. P6-15. Figure P6-16. x. Show that P or P will diagonalize the stiffness matrix. P6-17.Chap. P6-16. determine the normal modes of the spring-mass system shown in Fig.f .

184

Properties of Vibrating Systems

Chap. 6

6-19 Determine the modal matrix P and the weighted modal matrix P for the system shown in Fig. P6·19 and diagonalize the stiffness matrix, thereby decoupling the equations.

~

h1

h-2

Figure P6-19.

6-20 Determine P for the double pendulum with coordinates 81 and 82, Show that P decouples the equations of motion. 6-21 If in Prob. 6·11 masses and mass moment of inertia ml, J. and m2, J2 are attached to the comers so that they rotate as well as translate, determine the equations of motion and find the natural frequencies and mode shapes. 6-22 Repeat the procedure of Prob. 6·21 with the frame of Fig. P6·12. 6-23 If the lower end of the frame of Prob. 6·12 is rigidly fixed to the ground, the rotation of the comers will differ. Determine its stiffness matrix and determine its matrix equation of motion for mi, 1; at the comers. 6-24 Determine the damping matrix for the system presented in Fig. P6·24 and show that it is not proportional.

Figure P6-24.

6-25 Using the modal matrix P, reduce the system of Prob. 6·24 to one which is coupled only by damping and solve by the Laplace transform method. 6-26 Consider the viscoelastically damped system of Fig. P6·26. The system differs from the viscously damped system by the addition of the spring kl' which introduces one more coordinate Xl to the system. The equations of motion for the system in inertial coordinates X and Xl are

m.x=

-kx-C(X-Xl)

+F k.xl

0= c(X -

xd -

Write the equation of motion in matrix form.

1
Figure P6-26.

Chap. 6

Problems

185

6-27 Show, by comparing the viscoelastic system of Fig. P6-26 to the viscously damped system, that the equivalent viscous damping and the equivalent stiffness are
Ceq =

-1-+-(-~-~-)""!""2

C

k+(k.+k)(iff
1+ 6-28 Verify the relationship of Eq. (6.5-7) X;'K~ by applying it to Prob. 6-16. 6-29 Starting with the matrix equation
=0

(~:r

K4>.
premultiply first by KM-I that Repeat to show that

=

w;M4>.

and, using the orthogonality relation

4>: M4>.

=

0, show

4>;[KM-1JhK4>.

=0

for h = 1, 2, ... , n. where n = number of degrees of freedom of the system. 6-30 In a manner similar to Prob. 6-29, show that h third modes of Example 6.9-1.
6-32 If the acceleration ii(t) of the ground in Example 6.9-1 is a single sine pulse of
=

1,2, ...

6-31 Evaluate the numerical coefficients for the equations of motion for the second and

amplitude ao and duration tl as shown in Fig. P6-32, determine the maximum q for each mode and the value of Xmax as given in Sec. 6.9.

aor-T\_
Figure P6-31.

L_L'-2
f _

, 7'1

f.. ---11

--I

6-33 The normal modes of the double pendulum of Prob. 5-9 are given as
WI =

0.764/f

'
=

W2 =

1.850/f

4>1

=

{(J.} (J2

(I)

{0.707} 1.00'

4>2 -

_ {(JI} (J2

(2) =

{ -0.707} 1.00

186

Properties of Vibrating Systems

Chap. 6

If the lower mass is given an impulse £08(1), determine the response in terms of

the normal modes. 6-34 The normal modes of the three mass torsional system of Fig. P6-6 are given for II = 12 = 13 and K, = K 2 = KJ•

.pI

=

0.328} { 0.591 , 0.737

A,

=

ll1i T

=

0.198,

.p2

=

{

0.737} 0.328 -0.591

A2 = 1.555,

.p3

=

{

-

0.591} 0.737 , 0.328

A3

=

3.247

Determine the equations of motion if a torque M(t) is applied to the free end. If M(t) = Mou(t) where u(t) is a unit step function, determine the time solution and the maximum response of the end mass from the shock spectrum. 6-35 Using two normal modes, set up the equations of motion for the five-story building whose foundation stiffness in translation and rotation are k, and K, = 00 (see Fig. P6-35).

u
Figure P6-35.

6-36 The lateral and torsional oscillations of the system shown in Fig. P6-36 will have

equal natural frequencies for a specific value of a/ L. Determine this value and assuming that there is an eccentricity e of mass equal to me, determine the equations of motion.

~--a-

I-L1--'"

Figure P6-36.

737} { 0. 0. 6-38 is given an initial displacement of X{ -~:i~} 0. 6-39 The system of Prob.p. 6-40 In general.591 . y. and the loads P and M. P6-18 in terms of stiffness.l3%. 6 Problems 187 6-37 Assume that a three-story building with rigid floor girders has Rayleigh damping. Transform it to the standard eigen-problem form where A is symmetric. the free vibration of an undamped system can be represented by the modal sum If the system is started from zero displacement and an arbitrary distribution of velocity X(O). which has translational and rotational flexibility. I 6-42 Set up the matrix equation of motion for the 3-DOF system of Fig. determine the new flexibility equation {Y} 8 = [~ll ~12]{P} a21 a22 M if y Figure P6-41. 0.591} 0. Show that the left side of the shaft flexibility equation (a) or (b) of Example 6.1-3 should now be replaced by {8 ~ p} From the relationship between Tj.Chap. determine the coefficients Ai and Bi.05% and 0.328} { -0.737 0. 8.328. 6-38 The normal modes of a three-DOF system with ml = m2 = m3 and kl = are given as Xl = k2 = k3 0. .205 and released.591 Verify the orthogonal properties of these modes. If the modal dampings for the first and second modes are 0.328 X2 = { -0. respectively. determine the modal damping for the third mode.737 XJ = 0. 6-41 Figure P6-41 shows a shaft supported by a bearing. Determine how much of each mode will be present in the free vibration.

State the number of degrees of freedom for the system. F2. P7-1 and write the geometric constraint equations. 1 '-I L 'Pi(X) n Solution: The virtual displacement 8y is 8qi and the virtual work due to this displacement is 8W= itl 3 Fj' Ct1'P'(Xj) 8qi) 1-1 t 8q. ( i: Fj'Pi(XJ) j~I = i-I i: Q.a) + M21[ 1 It should be noted that the dimension of QI and Q2 is that of a force. 7. three forces FI. 7 Problems 207 The virtual work done due to 8 q2 is Q2 8q2 = -F2(l- 8q2 a)-l- + M2-1- 8q2 . and X3 of a y(x. and F) act at discrete points structure whose displacement is expressed by the equation Xl. .4-5 In Fig.8q. t) Determine the generalized force Qi' = L 'Pi(X) i~1 n qi(t) Figure 742. Qi = or j-I L Fj'Pi(X j) PROBLEMS 7·1 List the displacement coordinates Ui for the plane frame of Fig. The generalized force is then equal to 8W /8q.'. x2.Chap.4-2. Q2 = [- F2 (l . Example 7.

J. Figure P7-4. P7-6 are displaced by a horizontal force F. Figure P7-5. determine the equilibrium position of a carpenter's square hooked over a peg as shown in Fig. " 21 21 I :-. 7-5 Determine the equilibrium position of two point masses m1 and m2 connected by a massless rod and placed in a smooth hemispherical bowl of radius R as shown in Fig. Determine its equilibrium position by using virtual work. All surfaces are friction free. Using the method of virtual work. 7-2 7·3 Choose the generalized coordinates qj for the previous problem and express the Uj coordinates in terms of qj. P7-4 when a force P is applied as shown. P7-3.: Figure P7. 7 . Figure P7. 7-6 The four masses on the string in Fig. . P7-5.208 Lagrange's Equation Chap. 7-4 Determine the equilibrium position of the two uuiform bars shown in Fig.1.

Figure P7-7. 7-9 A rigid uniform rod of length I is supported by a spring and a smooth floor as shown in Fig. P7-7. Figure P7·S. Determine its equation of oscillation. The unstretched length of the spring is h/4. 7-11 The carpenter's square of Prob. There is coulomb friction with coefficient M between the massless slider and the rod. 7-5. 7·10 Determine the equation of motion for small oscillation about the equilibrium position in Prob. 7·12 Determine the equation of motion and the natural frequency of oscillation about its equilibrium position for the system in Prob.Chap. 7-9.9. . 7-8 Determine the equilibrium position of m1 and mz attached of strings of equal length. Figure P7. 7 Problems 209 Figure P7-6. m -F 7-7 A mass m is supported by two springs of unstretched length '0 attached to a pin and slider as shown in Fig. P7-8. as shown in Fig. 7-3 is displaced slightly from its equilibrium position and released. Determine its equilibrium position by virtual work. Determine its equilibrium position by virtual work. P7-9.

7-16 The following constants are given for the beam of Fig. 7-14 For the system of Fig. m1 is given a small displacement and released. 7-17 Using Lagrange's method. and determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes. 7 7-13 In Prob. Spring force = 0 when (J = O. determine the equilibrium position and its equation of vibration about it. Determine the equation of oscillation for the system.. P7-14. Figure P7-14. P7-16: kK EI t3 ' I' _E_ _ ml4 N ' !!.. P7-15. ~ .210 Lagrange's Equation Chap..!5. 7-1S Write Lagrange's equations of motion for the system shown in Fig. Figure P7-tS. ml =N = 5N = 5 EI _. Figure P7-16. determine the equation of motion by Lagrange's method.. P7-17._ ml3 Using the modes ~l = x/I and ~2 = sin( 'lTx/I). Figure P7-17. determine the equations for the small oscillation of the bars shown in Fig. .. 7-8.

7-21 The frame of Prob. 7-20 Determine the stiffness matrix for the frame shown in Fig. Determine the stiffness matrix and the matrix equation of motion. P7-21. t Figure P7-lO. Figure P7-t8.1-1 are loaded by springs and masses as shown in Fig.Chap. P7-18. -c . (Let 12 ~ 11·) Figure P7-t9. Figure P7-2l. Determine the equations of motion and the normal modes of the system. 7 Problems 211 7-18 The rigid bar linkages of Example 7. Write Lagrange's equations of motion.1-2 as shown in Fig. 7-19 Equal masses are placed at the nodes of the frame of Example 7. P7-19. 7·20 is loaded by springs and masses as shown in Fig. P7-20.

draw in the components of . P7-24. and R2 for the beam shown in Fig. Compare with Lagrange's derivation.r as shown. the actual algebra can become long and tedious. . P7·22. Complete the equations of motion for the system in Fig. 7-24 For the extension of the double pendulum to the dynamic problem. . determine M. Instead. set up the equations of motion. 7-23 With loads m. the virtual work equation can be easily determined visually. Let Ell ~ 2E12• ft I M ~P Figure P7·22. 7 7·22 Using area moment and superposition.212 Lagrange's Equation Chap. P7·23.i> -tiJ Figure P7·24. J placed as shown in Fig. Figure P7·D. By taking each 88 separately.

Determine the equation for the natural frequencies. P8-3.372 kg/m when stretched to a tension of 444 N. sin tat . The cord is stretched to a tension T and its mass per unit length is p. 8-3 Figure P8-3. Derive the equation for the natural frequencies of a uniform cord of length I fixed at the two ends. the above boundary MNC equations lead to + aMND = 0 0 VNC VND VNC + aVND = MNC a=---=--MND which is satisfied by the determinant I MNC MND VNcl VND =0 The iteration can be started with three different frequencies. A parabola is passed through these three points and the zero of the curve is chosen for a new estimate of the frequency. the new estimate may be made by a straight line between two values of the boundary determinant. A cord of length I and mass per unit length p is under tension T with the left end fixed and the right end attached to a spring-mass system as shown in Fig. 8 These must now add to satisfy the actual boundary end. When the frequency is close to the correct value. which for a cantilever free end are conditions at the terminal If the frequency chosen is correct. which results in three values of the determinant. 8-4 A harmonic vibration has an amplitude that varies as a cosine function along the x-direction such that y = a cos kx .228 Normal Mode Vibration of Continuous Systems Chap. PROBLEMS 8-1 8-2 Find the wave velocity along a rope whose mass is 0.

. The modulus of elasticity and mass per unit volume of steel are 200 X 109 N/~ and 7810 kg/m3.l p (a2y 2 at ~ woY 2) m Figure 1'8-8. the resultant vibration will represent a traveling wave with a propagation velocity equal to c ~ w/k. Find the velocity of longitudinal waves along a thin steel bar.Chap. 8-7 1 + T In Prob. as shown in Fig. P8-8. A particular satellite consists of two equal masses m each. connected by a cable of length 2/ and mass density p. Shown in Fig. 8-6.S Problems 229 8-5 8-6 Show that if another harmonic vibration of same frequency and equal amplitude displaced in space phase and time phase by a quarter wave length is added to the first vibration. The assembly rotates in space with angular speed woo Show that if the variation in the cable tension is neglected. P8-6 is a flexible cable supported at the upper end and free to oscillate under the influence of gravity. the differential equation of lateral motion of the cable is a2y ax2 = mwl. Show that the equation of lateral motion is Figure 1'8-6. assume a solution in the form y = Y(x) cos wt and show that Y(x) can be reduced to a Bessel's differential equation d y(z) dz2 2 z1 dY(x) dz or Y(x) + Y() z = 0 with solution Y(z) = Jo(z) = Jo( 2wff) 8-8 by a change in variable Z2 = 4w2x/g.

3 Figure P8-12. ..31Ib/in. where c = E/p is the velocity of longitudinal waves in the bar.2.)V3r/(3 + r) 8-12 The frequency of magnetostriction oscillators is determined by the length of the nickel alloy rod which generates an alternating voltage in the surrounding coils equal to the frequency of longitudinal vibration of the rod.1.. 8-10 can be expressed in the form where k = AE I' M = end mass Reducing the above system to a spring k and an end mass equal to M + t Mrod. 8-10 A uniform rod of length I and cross-sectional area A is fixed at the upper end and is loaded with a weight W on the other end. Show that the ratio of the approximate to the exact frequency as found above is (I/P.. and n = 0.230 Normal Mode Vibration of Continuous Syatems Chap. Show that the natural frequencies are determined from the equation wlV E tan wlV E 8-11 Show that the fundamental (P (P Aplg =--w- frequency for the system of Prob. as shown in Fig. Letting u = . 8 and that its fundamental frequency of oscillation is w 8-9 2 = (!!_)2( mWo/) _ woo 2 21 p A uniform bar of length I is fixed at one end and free at the other end.2 and p = 0. determine an appropriate equation for the fundamental frequency. Determine the proper length of the rod clamped at the middle for a frequency of 20 kcps if the modulus of elasticity and density are given as E = 30 X 106 Ib/in. P8-12. Show that the J'eqUencies of normal longitudinal vibrations are f = (n + t) c/21. 8-13 The equation for the longitudinal oscillations of a slender rod with viscous damping is a2u a2u au Po m at2 =AE ax2 -aTt + TP(x)f(t) where the loading per unit length is assumed to be separable.

.224/ from the ends. assuming the beam to be slender. supported at two points 0.""".(t) ml 1 1. determine the modulus of elasticity. with a disk of inertia Jo attached to each end. determine b. 8-17 A uniform bar has these specifications: length I.b.S Problems and p(x) u~ 231 Lic/l.(x) show that .y'rad. ~r-------". Substitute this value of b to find w1• 8-20 A concrete test beam 2 X 2 X 12 in. State the boundary conditions and determine the frequency equation. Check the fundamental frequency by reducing the uniform shaft to a torsional spring with end masses. was found to resonate at 1690 cps. 8-23 A uniform beam of length / and weight Wh is clamped at one end and carries a concentrated weight Wo at the other end. while the end / is fixed as shown in Fig./~ 'I~~~-------------~ ~x- Figure P8-17. P8-17. 8-14 Show that c ~ JG/p is the velocity of propagation of torsional strain along the rod.T)e~r"jTsinwll~TdT bjc/lj[1(t Wj 0 bj ~ 7 fo'p(x)c/lj(x) dx Derive the equation for the stress at any point x. clamped at one end and pinned at the other end. assuming the curve to be y ~ sin('/1'x/l) . 8-16 Determine the natural frequencies of a torsional system consisting of a uniform shaft of mass moment of inertia J. I-----I~I 8-18 Determine the expression for the natural frequencies of a free.free bar in lateral vibration. Verify the correctness of this equation by considering special cases for K = 0 and K ~ 00. mass density per unit volume p. The end x ~ 0 is fastened to a torsional spring of stiffness K lb· in. Determine the transcendental equation from which natural frequencies can be established. If the density of concrete is 153 Ib/ft3. 8-2l Determine the natural frequencies of a uniform beam of length / clamped at both ends.(X)q..Chap. and torsional stiffness IpG where Ip is the polar moment of inertia of the cross section and G the shear modulus. 8-22 Determine the natural frequencies of a uniform beam of length /. By equating the momentum to zero. 8-19 Determine the node position for the fundamental mode of the free-free beam by Rayleigh's method. RL f2 j ~ Ljbjc/l. What is the numerical value of c for steel? 8-15 Determine the expression for the natural frequencies of torsional oscillations of a uniform rod of length 1 clamped at the middle and free at the two ends.

sinh 131.2S.sin PI which for Yo --t 0. show that boundary conditions require the deflection equation for each span to be IPl = c( sin px - s~~ ~~l sinh px) IP2 = A{ coe Bx + coshpx . Show that the boundary conditions result in the equation Yo = sinh PI cos 131. 8-31 When shear and rotary inertia are included. P8-25.. show that the differential equation of the beam may be expressed by the first order matrix equation 0/ d dx y M V 0 1 -w2J 0 0 0 w2m 1 E1 0 0 0 0 -1 kAG 0/ Y M V 0 1 0 .232 Normal Mode Vibration of Continuous Systems Chap. reduces to tanh PI = tan PI 8-25 A simply supported beam has an overhang of length 12. as shown in Fig. If the end of the overhang is free.(~~~~~: =::: )(SinPX + SinhPx)} where x is measured from the left and right ends. 8 8-24 The pinned end of a pinned-free beam is given a harmonic motion of amplitude Yo perpendicular to the beam.cosh PI sin PI y. Figure PlJ.

(9.. Since Eq.172. Using these numerical results. we find the two natural system from the characteristic equation of Eq. (9. "'2= 3. Show also that w. = 1 . Show that the mode-participation factor then becomes K.I) is the eigenvalue of the normal mode equation. For a couple of moment Mo acting at x = a.0.5-12) enables the solution of the eigenvectors only in terms of an arbitrary reference. show that the loading p(x) is the limiting case of two delta functions shown in Fig.5-9). If a concentrated force acts at x = a.5-2.l cos 9-3 Wit 9-4 Determine the mode participation factor for a uniformly distributed force.198~ Figure 9.Chap. (9.0.5-3). and the mode shapes are obtained from Eqs. (X t) = 9-5 where = (PJ)4(EI/MP) and (P. = IPi(a) and the deflection is expressible as y. 9 Problems 251 First mode Figure 9. q6 can be solved with qi = 1.(a)'Pi(x) (PJt D(t) I . and (9.5-1). PROBLEMS 9-1 9-2 Show that the dynamic load factor for a suddenly applied constant force reaches a maximum value of 2. show that the dynamic load factor is given approximately by the equation D.a).5-12) "'1 = frequencies of the 1.5-4). (9. (9. If a suddenly applied constant force is applied to a system for which the damping factor of the ith mode is t = c/cc.e-fW. the loading per unit length corresponding to it can be represented by a delta function 18(x . Po/3" EI '7 'P.5-2 shows the mode shapes corresponding to the above frequencies.-g. P9-5 as e -+ O. Second mode First and second mode shapes. The coordinates p are then found from Eq.

' (Pil)3 D. Show that the deflection is given by y(x.(t) J ~f(t) Figure 1'9-7. .( x) dx I = (PJ) !p. 9-6. (x) (pJ)4 D._a x-a 9-6 A concentrated force Pof(t) is applied to the center of a simply supported uniform beam.' Pol3 ~ K. 9-8 A simply supported uniform beam has suddenly applied to it the load distribution shown in Fig.!p. ~------z------~ 9-7 Figure 1'9-6. ( X t) = MoP ~ !p. ' (x}_. Determine the Figure 1'9-8.252 Mode-Summation Procedures for Continuous Systems Chap..(a)!pt(x) EI L. P9-8.t) = mL. Show that the deflection at any point is given by the equation y. P9-6. A couple of moment Mo is applied at the center of the beam of Prob. 9 the mode-participation factor for this case is K. as shown in Fig. where the time variation is a step function. P9-7. as shown in Fig. = I d!p.

I ~r V /.f D3(t) + .'. that the mode-participation factor is independent of the mode number)...f Dl(t) + cos~7 (3. t) = AE 2Pol{COS17 (. P9-12a. Show that all modes are equally excited (i. Indicate what modes are absent and write down the first two existing modes. Assume the deflection to be y ( x.. determine which modes will be absent in the solution. 9-9 is concentrated at x = 1/3.. ~. 0 5 1000 .(f' 00" e- l>~~ o I 5 2 0.o.0 ~1 i\ scole) ==&t. } 1). 9-11 In Prob. 9 Problems 253 response y(x....C\$ 50 20 O. free at x ~ 0 and fixed at x .i.0 0.. I.10 If the force of Prob. as shown in Fig.1 02 0._- z. First two natural frequencies of the system. 9-10. 500 200 I 00 ~.Chap...0 2 5 10 20 50 100 _{W11)2 R. is struck longi tudinally by a time-varying force concentrated at the end x ~ O. 2__. 1)..1'\C1. t) in terms of the normal modes of the beam.5 1.~ I I o.5.I.e. . ~. determine the participation factor of the modes present and obtain a complete solution for an arbitrary time variation of the applied force.0 I 0. the complete solution being u(x.0 5 ~ .0 2 0.. - lO. t) and choose !Pl = sin '7 and = !Pl ( X ) ql ( !P2 - r) + !P2 ( X ) q2 ( t) LO. 9-12 Consider a uniform beam of mass M and length I supported on equal springs of total stiffness k .Wz2 Figure 1'9-12.9 A slender rod of length I. 2-.-.

Z + . q1 4. 7)q 8 and use Rayleigh's method to obtain q2 .=b=.. 9-14 If a uniformly distributed load of arbitrary time variation is applied to a uniform cantilever beam. is excited by a concentrated force Po/(t) at midspan. . t) = (b + sin q. Figure P9-13. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.. Z .'II { (R-l):f R = J (R-l) 2 32 +-R 2 'II } (W11)2 W22 A plot of the natural frequencies of the system is shown in Fig.q2 + wllq1 = 0 = 2.254 Mode·Summation Procedures for Continuous Systems Chap. P9-15.. show that . 9-15 A spring of stiffness k is attached to a uniform beam.q1 + qz + w22q2 where 0 WI. = = '114 ( E1/ M[3) = = natural frequency of beam on rigid supports W~2 k/ M natural frequency of rigid beam on springs Solve these equations and show that Let y(x. determine the participation factor for the first three modes. 9 Using Lagrange's equation. 9·13 A uniform beam. . P9·12b.. clamped at both ends. P9·13. Show that the one-mode approximation results in the frequency equation Figure P9-15. Determine the deflection under the load and the resulting bending moment at the clamped ends.

Figure P9-19. Using two modes in Eq. write the equations of motion and establish the natural frequency of the symmetric mode. ~=======Z. Figure 1'9-21.=M========~ . P9-21. 9-18 Show that for the problem of a spring attached to any point x ~ a of a beam. 9-21. (9.3-8). determine the new frequency. this equation being 9-19 The beam shown in Fig. P9-19 are restrained by springs of stiffness K. determine the fundamental frequency. Using the translation of Mo as one of the generalized coordinates. 9-23 If wing tip tanks of mass Ml are added to the system of Prob. 9-22 For the system of Prob.yrad at the left end. 9-24 Using the method of constrained modes. using the mode acceleration method. 9-17 Repeat Prob. 9 Problems 255 where 9-16 Write the equations for the two-mode approximation of Prob. 9-21 An airplane is idealized to a simplified model of a uniform beam of length I and mass per unit length m with a lumped mass Mo at its center. As K approaches infinity. 9-15.Chap. as shown in Fig. determine the antisymmetric mode by using the rotation of the fuselage as one of the generalized coordinates. the result should approach that of the clamped ended beam. 9-16. both the constrained-mode and the mode-acceleration methods result in the same equation when only one mode is used. show that the effect of adding a mass mi with moment of inertia JI to a point Xl on the structure changes the first natural frequency WI to . determine the fundamental frequency of the system as a function of K/MwI where WI is the fundamental frequency of the simply supported beam. 9-21. Use first cantilever mode for the wing.~ 7A- K 9-20 If both ends of the beam of Fig. P9-19 has a spring of rotational stiffness K lb in.

9-26 A rod of circular cross-section is bent at right angles in a horizontal plane as shown in Fig. P9-26. Assume its bending only in the vertical plane. . 9-25 Formulate the vibration problem of the bent shown in Fig. Assume the comers to remain at 90°. set up the equations for the vibration perpendicular to the plane of the rod. Figure 1'9-16. Note that member 1 is in flexure and torsion.256 Mode-Summation Procedures for Continuous Systems Chap. P9-25 by the component mode synthesis. Figure 1'9-25. Using component mode synthesis. 9 and the generalized mass and damping to M' ~ M 1 I {I + mllPi(xl) Ml where a one-mode approximation is used for the inertia forces.

7. PlO. (b) N-stepped uniform elements. Compare results with those when the station is chosen at mid-length. as shown in Fig. determine the finite element stiffness and mass matrices for the torsional problem. f 12 --1. 10 Problems 287 PROBLEMS 10-1 Determine the two natural frequencies in axial vibration for the uniform rod. using three axial elements of length 1/3 each.11--' - 1.7 shows a conical tube of constant thickness fixed at the large end and free at the other end. 10-4 Assuming linear variation for the twist of a uniform shaft. " . 10-9 Determine the equation for the tube of Fig. P10-7 in torsional vibration using (a) two elements. 2 Figure Plo. PlO-lO has pinned joints. determine the equation for its longitudinal vibration.2. fixed at one end and free at the other end. 10-8 Treat the tube of Fig. 10-2 Figure P10.7 as a two element problem of equal length in longitudinal vibration.2 ----1 Set up the equation for the free-free vibration of a uniform rod of length I. Using one element. Determine the two natural frequencies in longitudinal vibration. P10.lO. 10-10 The simple frame of Fig. 10-7 Fig. = 2m2. using two elements with the intermediate station at 1/3 from the fixed end. PlO-2. The problem is identical to that of the axial vibration. 10-5 Using two equal elements. Determine its stiffness matrix. 10-6 Using two uniform sections in torsional vibration. 10-3 Figure P10. where EAj = 2EAl and m. What conclusion do you come to regarding choice of station location? A tapered rod is modelled as two uniform sections. describe its finite element relationship to the 2 DOF lumped mass torsional system.Chap. determine the first two natural frequencies of a fixed-free shaft in torsional oscillation.

Figure PIOoIS. P 4 10-12 For the pinned truss of Fig.288 Introduction to the Finite Element Method Chap. determine the element stiffness matrices in global coordinates and indicate how they are assembled for the entire structure. fixed at both ends. Figure P10012. 10-13 Using two elements determine the deflection and slope at mid-span of a uniform beam. PIO-H. Determine the stiffness matrix for each orientation and indicate how each element matrix is assembled in the global system. when loaded as shown in Fig. 10 10-11 For the pinned square truss of Fig. there are just three orientations of the elements. . PIO-12. 10-15 Determine the free vibration equation for the beam of Fig. 10-14 Determine the consistent mass for the beam of Problem 10-13 and calculate its natural frequencies. PIO-IS. Figure PIOo13. PlO-l3.

Figure PIO-17. Determine its stiffness matrix. PIO-17 is free to rotate and translate at the upper right end. L r Figure PIO-16. Consider the comers to be rigid. PIO-16. The upper right end is restricted from rotating but is free to slide in and out.Chap. 10-18 Determine the deflection and slope at the load for the following frames. to Problems 289 10-16 Determine the stiffness matrix for the frame of Fig. . ~--=-----i r t (b) (c) (O) a a r (d) b I (e) (f) Figure PIO-IS. 10-17 The frame of Fig.

il2 ~ (a) i (b) 112=1. the .{.m. 10-20 Using two elements. PlO-21 in terms of the six coordinates shown.A] X = 0. T~ Li3 Itl2 (a) 1 trz ~":]P Iil2 Figure PIO-20.290 Introduction to the Finite Element Method Chap. PIO-20(b) determine the deflection and slope at mid-span. In Fig. solve the 4 x 4 beam problem in Example 10. show that the symmetric mode for the free vibration reduces to a 3 x 3 equation. For those interested in using the standard form of the eigen-problem IIA . ~~1 --i!2 (b) 10-21 Set up the two element equations for the system of Fig. PI0-21. determine the equivalent junction loads for the distributed forces. t . 10-23 Using the digital computer. Figure PIO-19. 10 10-19 Determine the free vibration equation for the following. 10-22 For the system of Fig. EI. Determine the mass and stiffness matrices for this problem. I k il2 ~---+!~-i/2 Figure PIO-21.5-1. For those using Fortran. the subroutine NROOT is available.

e. Finite Element Analysis Fundamentals. where A is the diagonal matrix of the eigenvalues of M and </> is the orthonormal matrix of the eigenvectors of M. John Wiley & Sons. R. D. 1986. Englewood Prentice-Hall. J. W. R. C. Y. REFERENCES 111 121 131 141 COOK..Chap. N. H. i. A.: PrenticeHall.: K. AND NETHEROOT. GRIFFITH. Cliffs. GALLAGHER. The matrix M must here be positive definite.J. with M a full matrix. a separate determination of Q = W must first be made from the relationship Q = </>A~<ll.. 10 References 291 method presented in Example 6.. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Finite Element Structural Analysis. 1975. R.. . However. Inc. </>T</> = I. EVANS..4-1 can be used. New York: Halsted Press Book. Englewood Cliffs. Concepts and Applications of Finite Element Analysis. 1974. T. The Finite Element Method. D. 1975. H. ROCKEY. YANG. D. N.

Pll-2. (11..oo.} and the corresponding values of n..314 Approximate Numerical Methods Chap..5M. estimate the fundamental frequency of the lumped mass system shown in Fig./ by equating the two energies.= 2 M2 I MEl I' / M. 11-5 Another form of Rayleigh's quotient for the fundamental frequency can be obtained by starting from the equation of motion based on the flexibility . P11-1 and determine the equation for (. M.kg = constant Figure Pll-2.. i ~{ 1. Pick off the maximum and minimum values of (. Figure Pll-l. 11 Its solution is found to be Al = 0.2094 PROBLEMS 11-1 Write the kinetic and potential energy expressions for the system of Fig. Letting X2/XI = n. 11-2 Using Rayleigh's method. and show that they represent the two natural modes of the system. 11-4 Verify the results of Example 11. 11-3 Estimate the fundamental frequency of the lumped mass cantilever beam shown in Fig. plot ('i versus n..1-3). Figure Pll-3. Pl1-3.1-4 by using Eq. ~I~ I t j"..

find its natural frequency "'1' m. Using the deflection y(x) = Yma. Hint: Draw shear and moment diagrams based on inertia loads. = X'MX and the Rayleigh quotient becomes t-. is supported on equal springs with total vertical stiffness of k lby'in. 11 Problems 315 influence coefficient Pre multiplying by X'M we obtain. Using the curve y(x) = 3~A.M Figure PH-tO.Chap. determine the fundamental frequency of the beam shown in Fig. . 11-10 A uniform beam of mass M and stiffness K = err». 11-4. Using Rayleigh's method with the deflection Ymax = 'lTx/l) + b.1-4 by using the above equation and compare results with Prob.1 El Figure PI 1-9. 11-8 Repeat Prob. PH-lO. 11-3 by using the method of integration.y) 11-9 A uniform cantilever beam of mass m per unit length has its free end pinned to two springs of stiffness k and mass mo each as shown in Fig. Pl1-9.yf 11-7 solve Prob. shown in Fig. show that the sine l.. 11-7 but use the curve y(x) = Ymax 4t(I-.sin('lTx/I). Using Rayleigh's method. PH-7 (a) if El2 = Ell and (b) if El2 = 4El1• Figure pH-7.z X' MaMX t-i 11-6 = X'MX 'X""M""-a"""'M"7X"" Solve for "'1 in Example 11.

78 in. 11·14 A load of 100 lb at the wing tip of a fighter plane produced a corresponding deflection of 0. K".4{ 11·11 Assuming a static deflection curve determine the lowest natural frequency of a simply supported beam of constant EI and a mass distribution of m(x) = m07( 1 - 7) by the Rayleigh method. If the fundamental bending frequency of the same wing is . Pll·12.316 Approximate Numerical Methods Chap. 11·13 Using Dunkerley's equation. 11·12 Using Dunkerley's equation. Wj ~ 2W Figure PlI·13.! + 4b + b2 2 ". determine the fundamental frequency of the threemass cantilever beam shown in Fig. determine the fundamental frequency of the beam shown in Fig. show that the lowest frequency results when b= -i(i .z/ 2 ~- 2k M [ k4 + "2 . 11 frequency equation becomes '" By a ".(i _ ~~4)r+ . Figure PH·12.4 b 2 ] ab ~ 0. PH·l3.~~4)± J[.

i ~:fA_E: ~yyy~ I.=. 11·12. assume the deflection to be made up of the first two modes of the uniform beam and solve for the two natural frequencies and mode shapes by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes for the longitudinal vibration of a uniform rod with a spring of stiffness ko attached to the free end as shown in Fig.44 kg at the midspan. Use the first two normal modes of the fixed-free rod in longitudinal motion. determine the two natural frequencies and modes of a uniform beam pinned at the right end and attached to a spring of stiffness k at the left end. 11·18 but this time the spring is replaced by a mass mo. 11·20 For the simply supported variable mass beam of Prob. and resonance was found at 435 cps. Figure Pll·16. Pl1-23. 11-23 Determine the influence coefficients for the three-mass system of Fig. determine the three natural frequencies and modes for the cantilever beam of Prob.EI.52 kg.3-1. and calculate the principal modes by matrix iteration. PI1-18. Figure PH-IS. Using the three modes . 11 Problems 317 622 cpm. 11·19 Repeat Prob. 11·15 A given beam was vibrated by an eccentric mass shaker of mass 5. . Determine the natural frequency of the beam. . 11·16 Using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and assuming modes x/I and sin( 'ftx/I). :. determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes for bending vibration by using the Ritz deflection function y = ClX2 + C2X3. 11·22 Using matrix iteration. and rI>3 = sin(2'lTx/l) determine the characteristic equation by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method.pI = x/I. approximate the new bending frequency when a 320-lb fuel tank (including fuel) is attached to the wing tip. With an additional mass of 4.. 11·21 A uniform rod hangs freely from a hinge at the top. 11-18 Using the Rayleigh-Ritz method.p2 = sin('ftx/I). as shown in Fig. the resonant frequency was lowered to 398 cps. /l===l. Pll·19.1 =A::E=:::::lD mo Figure Pll·19.Chap.m 11·17 For the wedge-shaped plate of Example 11. 11·11.

determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes by matrix iteration. J J J K /.318 Approximate Numerical Methods Chap. 11-24 Using matrix iteration. Figure Pll-25. Pl1-24. fJll-25 four masses are strung along strings of equal lengths. determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional system of Fig. 11 Figure PH-D. . Figure Pll-24. Assuming the tension to be constant. 11-25 In Fig.

.10-9). The natural frequencies are always given by Eq.10-2.. PROBLEMS 12-1 Write a computer program for your programmable calculator for the torsional system given in Sec.. P12-2 when J = 1..0 kg or and K ~ 0..1)'1T + 1) Figure 12. however..FilI in the actual algebraic operations performed in the program steps... the quantity fJ must be established for each problem from its boundary conditions.Chap. . 12. '1T 2/k Vmsm2(2N+1) /k ..L..1. Natural frequencies of a repeated structure with N = 4. = 2V m sin 2(2N m sin 2(2N (2N 3'1T + 1) "'N = 2V /k . 12 Problems 343 W4 t-+-"''''''''.---=.. WI trli~~..._+--r--4I._ w3 '-.. determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional system of Fig. (12..10-2 shows a graphical representation of these natural frequencies when N = 4. Figure 12. Using Holzer's method... (3} 12-2 J Figure PI2-2..-\ which lead to "'1= "'2 .. 2J .20 X 106 Nmj/rad. The method of difference equation presented here is applicable to many other dynamical systems where repeating sections are present.

Determine the first two natural frequencies for symmetric and antisymmetric torsional oscillations of the wings. and plot the torsional mode corresponding to each. Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the spring-mass system of Fig. determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional system shown in Fig. Figure P12-7. kz = k.13 kg nr = J4 Kl K3 2. 12-5 12-6 Repeat Prob. = m. J1 = = = = J2 = J3 = 1. Show that they are similar. 12-4 Figure PI2-J. m3 = 3m. Figure P1M. P12-S. Determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the three-story building of Fig.344 Numerical Procedures for Lumped Mass Systems Chap.26 kg nr K2 0. and 12-7 Compare the equations of motion for the linear spring-mass system versus torsional system with same mass and stiffness distribution. m2 = 2m. 12 12-3 Using Holzer's method. P12-4 by using Holzer's method for all ms = m and all k. = k. P12-7 by the Holzer method when all masses are equal and all stiffnesses are equal.169 Nmyrad X 106 X 0. 12-8 A fighter-plane wing is reduced to a series of disks and shafts for Holzer's analysis as shown in Fig. 12-4 when ml k3 = 2k. P12-3 with the following values of J and K. . kl = k.226 Nmyrad 106 J.

Compare with previous results by using influence coefficients.-e PIl-IO. P12-9 where M/m = n and the beam of length I is uniform.000 K lb. 12 Problems n I 2 345 J lb. PI2-13 has been previously solved by the method of matrix iteration. 12-11 Determine the first two natural frequencies and mode shapes of the three-mass cantilever of Fig. PI2-10. 15 x IQI' 30 22 36 120 3 4 5 6 tX = =========~ _. determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the two-lumped-mass cantilever beam of Fig.. P12-ll ~ FigureP12-11. ~ 12-12 Using Myklestad's method.2 50 138 145 181 260 140. II 3 I I II I 2 II 1 I I I 1 I I I I : Figure P12-8. 12-10 Using Myklestad's method. in. Check: that the boundary condition of zero deflection at the left end is satisfied for these natural frequencies when Myklestad's method is used. . Figure Pll-9. determine the boundary equations for the simply supported beam of Fig.jrad._ - CD o 40" 70" 105" 145" 200" I I I I I II : . P12-12. sec. Fig. ~ 2 3 12-13 The beam of Fig. in. That is.Chap. 12-9 Determine the natural modes of the simplified model of an airplane shown in Fig. 1 Figure P12-12.

346 Numerical Procedures for Lumped Mass Systems Chap. Determine the torque-frequency curve for the system. 11. P12-16. Figure 12-13.15 Shown in Fig.14 Determine the flexure-torsion vibration for the system shown in Fig. P12-15 is a linear system with damping between mass 1 and 2. 12 check the deflection for change in sign when frequencies above and below the natural frequency are used. Figure PI2-15. and determine the amplitude and phase of each mass at a specified frequency. 500 kg 100kg 1r"""----iOt----T---O ~ ~ m f--. P12-14. 91 = 104 T Jz=1OO Figure PI2-16. . Carry out a computer analysis for numerical values assigned by the instructor. 11. 12-16 A torsional system with a torsional damper is shown in Fig.~ --I--! --1-11--' -~--j Figure 12-14.

2 lb in.yrad J3 = K4 = 4 X 106 lb in.yrad /2 = K2 K3 = = 1. PI2-20(a) to the equivalent torsional system shown in Fig. PI2-2O(b). P12-19 for the following values of J. 12-20 Reduce the torsional system of the automobile shown in Fig. J. J" = 6.Chap. S2 Transmission speed ratio (drive shaft to engine speed) = 1. K.0 to 3.yrad 1 X 106 lb in. 18lb in. Figure Pll-l7. S2 J of flywheel = 12.6 X 106 lb in. determine the equivalent single shaft system and establish the natural frequencies. oz=2" 1. (b) . 12-17 have the inertias J' = 2. and n /1 = 15lb in.y'rad Speed ratio of drive shaft to axle = 4 to 1. Figure Pll-l9.0 (0) Figure Pll-20. 12 Problems 347 12-17 Determine the equivalent torsional system for the geared system shown in Fig. What are the amplitude ratios of /2 to JI at the natural frequencies? S2 14 = 6 Ib in. 12-19 Determine the two lowest natural frequencies of the torsional system shown in Fig. S2 s2 S2 KI = 2 X 106 lb in.3 lb in. P12-17 and find its natural frequency. 10 lb in. The necessary information is given as follows: J of each rear wheel = 9. =30" 2 Jz = 24 J1 = 10Ib-in.-secZ 12-18 If the small and large gears of Prob. U=======I'-6" dio.

12-22 Determine the equations of motion for the torsional system shown in Fig.0 to 3. S2 and determine the natural frequencies of the system. establish the boundary conditions for the symmetric and antisymmetric bending modes for the system shown in Fig.348 Numerical Procedures for Lumped Mass Systems Chap. diameter. 25 in. Solve for the principal modes of oscillation. 12-20 = 0. J o 2 N Figure Pl2-26. Plot the boundary determinant against the frequency w to establish the natural frequencies. 12 Differential speed ratio (axle to drive shaft) = 1.5 Axle dimensions = Il in.h2K + (tmw2[2K) 2[ + lmw2[3K where K = II EI. 74 in. long (each) Drive shaft dimensions ~ 1! in. Figure Pl2-25. P12·25. P12-22. Determine the boundary equations and solve for the natural frequencies. long Stiffness of crankshaft between cylinders.5 X 106 lb in. Show that the boundary conditions of zero slope and deflection lead to the equation 2 1 + lm(.20 lb in. .y'rad 12-21 Assume that the J of each cylinder of Prob. diameter. 12-23 Apply the matrix method to a cantilever beam of length [ and mass m at the end.1 X 106 lb in. measured experimentally = 6. P12-26.yrad Stiffness of crankshaft between cylinder 4 and flywheel = 4. and arrange them into the matrix iteration form. 12-26 Set up the difference equations for the torsional system shown in Fig. 12-25 Using the matrix formulation. 5 4 50J Gear ratio =5 tot 3 2 4J J J J Figure P12·22. and draw the first two mode shapes. 12-24 Apply the matrix method to a cantilever beam with two equal masses spaced equally a distance l. and show that the natural frequency equation is directly obtained. Obtain the frequency equation from the above relationship and determine the two natural frequencies.

as shown in Fig. 0 12-29 An N-mass pendulum is shown in Fig. determine the natural frequencies of the N-story building 12-32 A ladder-type structure is fixed at both ends.. P12-29. and the natural frequencies. Q rQ . show that the boundary conditions lead to the equation ( -sin NfJ cosfJ + sin NfJ)( 1 + 4 ~ f" . 12-26 is connected to a heavy flywheel. as shown in Fig. cos N. Determine the boundary equations and the natural frequencies. i' Sin2~) J" Figure Pl2-30.2 Ism 2 2sm. boundary conditions.. as shown in Fig.. P12-27. P12-32. 0 1t-28 Write the difference equations for the spring-mass system shown in Fig.. as shown in Fig. P12-30. Determine equations. P12-31. Figure Pl2-27. fJ . 12-30 If the left end of the system of Prob. 12 Problems 349 12-27 Set up the difference equations for N equal masses on a string with tension T. the difference Figure Pl2-29. P12-28 and find the natural frequencies of the system. 12-31 If the top story of a building is restrained by a spring of stiffness KN. Figure Pl2-31.Chap. Determine the natural frequencies . Figure Pl2-28..

P12-33. 12-3 and write the Fortran program. 12 Figure P12-32. 12-35 The natural frequencies and normal modes presented for the 10-DaF system of Example 6. . 12-33 If the base of an N-srory building is allowed to rotate against a resisting spring Ke. determine the boundary equations and the natural frequencies. N Figure P12-33. Verify these numbers by the use of Eq. 12-34 Draw a flow diagram for Prob.10-9) for "'" and X" = B sin pn for the amplitude.9-1 were obtained from the eigenvalue-eigenvector computer program. (12. as shown in Fig.350 Numerical Procedures for Lumped Mass Systems Chap.

Figure Pl3-S.J. BLACKMAN. Discuss what we mean by the expected value. D.I. determine the mean and the mean square values.: The Technology S. P13-5. 2. What is the expected number of heads when 8 coins are thrown 100 times. RICE. and ergodic data. stationary. H Inc. pp.: The Technology Press S of M. 1964. A New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1966. Mass. H. PROBLEMS 13-1 13-2 13-3 Give examples of random data and indicate classifications for each example. 1963. B. 10. V." J. Cambridge. New York: John Wiley & Sons.T. Measurement and Analysis of Random Data. The Elements of Probability Theory. O. and BARTON. S. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. H. Discuss the differences between nonstationary.. June 1957. Mass. 248-51. The Measurement of Power Spectra. Inc. Quarterly. 1958. Inc. 1955.. ROBSON. Appl. Press of M. New York: John Wiley & Sons.. S. CLARKSON. New R. Cambridge.5.384 Random Vibrations Chap. and PIERSOL.. W. Random Vibration. 1948. Random Vibration. May 1959. THOMSON..T. G. 13 REFERENCES (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) 16] (7] (8) (9] (10) BENDAT." Aeronautical B. . . Inc.1. and TuKEY. The curve should approach 0. 1.. 1958.J. .... T.. Determine the probability of obtaining heads by dividing the cumulative heads by the number of throws and plot this number as a function of the number of throws. Vol. CRANDALL. 1000 times? What is the probability for tails? Throw a coin 50 times. New York: Dover Publications. . Inc.. CRAMER. Part 2. "The Effect of Jet Noise on Aircraft Structures. BENDAT. Principles and Applications of Random Noise Theory. Edinburgh University Press. Vol. Random Vibration. Mech. recording 1 for head and 0 for tail. CRANDALL. 1954. York: Dover Publications. . 13-4 13-5 For the series of triangular waves shown in Fig. .I. "The Response of Mechanical Systems to W M Random Excitation. L. S.

13-13 Determine 13-14 Determine 13-15 Determine the autocorrelation of a cosine wave x(t) =A cos t. Figure PlJ. Determine the mean and mean square values for the rectified sine wave. Plot these results. Show that for the Gaussian probability distribution p(x) the central moments are given by for n odd for n even 13-10 Derive the equations for the cumulative probability and the probability density functions of the sine wave. P13-11. Figure P13-16. of the rectangular wave shown in Fig. 13-11 What would the cumulative probability and the probability density curves look like for the rectangular wave shown in Fig. of the binary sequence shown in Fig. and plot it the autocorrelation the autocorrelation the autocorrelation Suggestion: Trace the above through T. P13-26. 13 Problems 385 13-6 A sine wave with a steady component has the equation x 13-7 13-8 13-9 = Ao + Al sin w! Determine the expected values E(x) and E(x2).·l1. of the rectangular pulse and plot it against T. P13-16. 13-16 Determine the autocorrelation of the triangular wave shown in Fig. wave on transparent graph paper and shift it Figure P13·1S. . 13-12 Determine against T.Chap. P13-15. Discuss why the probability distribution of the peak: values of a random function should follow the Rayleigh distribution or one similar in shape to it.

. 13 13-17 Figure P13-17 shows the acceleration spectral density plot of a random vibra- tion. Approximate the area by a rectangle and determine the rms value in m/s2....IS.20 o Figure PH-17..10 L-.0 -- - ----r--------------.. P13-19.388 Random Vibrations Chap. I I I 1 I I I I I 0..0------------------I-OLOO---2-0 . g2/Hz 2-------r------~ I I o i 10~O~----~1~070~0----~2~0~0~0---- 1 Figure PIJ.. P13-1S. 0. The slopes represent a 6-db/octave. estimate the rms value. Hz 13-18 Determine the ems value of the spectral density plot shown in Fig. Replot the result on a linear scale and 1. 0-0---H-Z Figure PIJ-19.J50'----10J. .25 I I ---1--------------1--I I I I 0. 13-19 The power spectral density plot of a random vibration is shown in Fig.

Determine the standard deviation and the rms value if the mean value is 1.2/cps between 20 cps and 2000 cps. the spectral density is zero. = Re L n-O 00 Cneih'nt can be written as = Cn·. Figure P13-25. 13-21 A random signal is found to have a constant spectral density of S(/) = 0. 13 Problems 387 13-20 Determine the spectral density function for the waves in Fig. P13-25. Figure P13·24. . Outside this range. (b) (e) (d) Figure P13-lO.002 in. P13-24 and plot its spectral density. . P13-20. and that f(t) f( t) = L n-00 00 Cneinwot 13-24 Determine the Fourier series for the saw tooth wave shown in Fig. 13-22. Plot this result.732 in. 13-22 Derive the equation for the coefficients c" of the periodic function f(t} 13-23 Show that for Prob.Chap. C. and plot its spectral density. 13-25 Determine the complex form of the Fourier series for the wave shown in Fig.

(1) + Fcos("'nt .(3) Show that the mean square response is .= (1. 13-28 Show that for ~ « 1 13-29 The differential equation of a system with structural damping is given as mX + k(1 + iy)x = F(t) damping factor ~ = 0. Determine the respective frequencies of the half-power points in terms of "'n and Q. Determine the Fourier spectrum of the excitation and the mean square value of the response. P13-32.388 Random Vibrations Chap. 13-30 A single-DOF system with natural frequency excited by the force F(t) = "'n and Fcos(O.7-3 what is the probability of the instantaneous acceleration exceeding a value 53.20 Hz. P13-26. Points on either side of resonance where the response falls to a value 1/ fi are called half-power points. . I I---T =: 4 sec I Figure Pl3-32.74 y2 1k + 25.43 (F)2 k 13-31 In Example 13.10 is Determine the frequency response function. 13-27 The sharpness of the frequency response curve near resonance is often expressed in terms of Q = H. The mass of the press on its foundation is 40 kg and its natural frequency is 2.5wnt . 13 13-16 Determine the complex form of the Fourier series for the rectangular wave shown in Fig.110)2" (F)2 = 13.2g? Of the peak value exceeding this value? 13-32 A large hydraulic press stamping out metal parts is Operating under a series of forces approximated by Fig. and plot its spectral density. Figure Pl3-26.0 + 0.(2) + Fcos(2wnt .

mw2 + uac . (13. what must be the expression for Z2? 13-34 Referring to Sec.05.012 m. Determine the mean square response and the probability of the dish exceeding a vibration amplitude of 0. the last equation becomes r which is Eq. 13 Problems 389 13-33 For a single-DOF system. P13-35. Derive a similar equation for the mean square value of the relative motion z of a single-DOF system excited by the base motion. The spectral density of the jet force under test is shown in Fig. the substitution of Eq. Assume = 0.5. 25 Hz 13-36 A jet engine with a mass of 272 kg is tested on a stand. (13.5 we can write the equation for the absolute acceleration of the mass undergoing base excitation as .8-6) results in where SAf+) is the spectral density of the excitation force. P13-36. k + iwc . x = k . When the damping is small and the variation of SAf+) is gradual. 3.10. r s(w)= N 2 Hz o Figure Pl3-35. Y Determine the equation for the mean square acceleration x 2.132 m. in terms of the spectral density Sy (/ +) of the base acceleration.) If the spectral density of the base acceleration is constant over a given frequency range.. The dish-support system has a natural frequency of 4 Hz.Chap. Assume = 0. 3.8-11). (See Sec.8-10) into Eq. (13. which results in a natural frequency of 26 Hz. Determine the probability of the vibration amplitude in the axial direction of the jet thrust exceeding 0. Establish a numerical integration technique for the computer evaluation of x2• 13-35 A radar dish with a mass of 60 kg is subject to wind loads with the spectral density shown in Fig. r .

390 Random Vibrations Chap.037 m. f (tl t T Figure P13-40. 13 411106i----r O~_~ t 10 __~----~~-15 100 Hz Figure P13-36.2<1>(". Determine 11.) -e 13-40 Find the frequency spectrum of the rectangular pulse shown in Fig. determine the probability that the maximum peak response will exceed 0. show that =F(iw)H(iw) X2 = 1oooSF(w)IH(iw)12 T-oo dt» where SF(W) - lim 21TF(iw)F*(iw) 'IT 13-39 Starting with the relationship H( iw) show that =1 H( iw) le'<I>(wl H( iw) H*(iw) _ . 13-38 Starting with the relationship X(/) X(iw) and = 10 00 /(1 - Oh(O d~ and using the Ff technique. P13-40.03 is excited by white noise excitation F(t) having a constant power spectral density of 5 x 106 N2/Hz. Assuming Rayleigh distribution for peaks. 13-37 An SDF system with viscous damping t = 0. Hint: Examine foo - 1/(/) 1dt 00 . The system has a natural frequency of Wn = 30 radys and a mass of 1500 kg. 13-41 Show that the unit step function has no Fourier transform.

--~ . n n'ITIS(wn)sm C •2 n'IT. 13-43 is - (12.r cos[(wl/c)(x/IwAE sin( wi/c) 1)] and (1(x.t) = -sin[(wl/c)(x/I-l)] sin( wI/c) FOei"'r A where (1 is the stress. FT{ x( 1)* y( I)] = XU) YU) 13-48 Using the derivative theorem. the Laplace transform of the response is Ii( x.. with the other end free.:._-'--:--'-. show that u ( x I ) = ---''----____.: 2'IT" y L. 13-43 is harmonic and equal to F(/) Foei". .-"'--::-.. wI! = n'IT{ -7). 13 Problems 391 13-41 Starting with the equations SFX(W) and SXF( w) show that = ~ T-ro lim 21TF"'(iw)X(iW) 'IT ~ T-ro lim 21TF*(FH) 'IT ~ SFH r-:« 27fT lim _1_ X'" F = lim _1_ (F* H"') F = SFH"' T-ro 2'ITT and 13-43 The differential equation for the longitudinal motion of a uniform slender rod is a2u -~c2 al 2 a2u ax2 x Show that for an arbitrary axial force at the end x = 0. X where structural damping is assumed.. The normal modes of the problem are <p" (x) = v'2 cos n7f( -y - 1). cFOei". show that the mean square stress in Prob. 13-47 Prove that the Fr of a convolution is the product of the separate Fr.10) and show that it is equal to e-i2'1'fro XU) where XU) = FT[x(/»). 13-45 With S( w) as the spectral density of the excitation stress at x = 0. show that the Fr of the derivative of a rectangular pulse is a sine wave.Chap.. c = J A. S =I ) ~ -cF( s) e-s(I/<) sAE(1 _ e-2s(l/<l) {e(s/c)(x-I) + «: (s/c)(x-I) = } 13-44 If the force in Prob.r. 13-46 Determine the Fr of x(t ..

.: D. their superposition (Xl + xz) is not a solution .. 14 Problems 413 C. G. Van Nostrand Co. Mech. . cal Elasticity. h 144 Determine the differential equation of motion for the spring-mass system with the discontinuous stiffness resulting from the free gaps of Fig. [71 PROBLEMS I.. pp. "Steady Oscillations of Systems with Nonlinear and UnsymmetriM. [9] MINORSKY. Nonlinear Oscillations. D. of Commerce. Books I and II. 1962. A weight attached to the bottom allows it to float in the equilibrium position xo' Establish the differential equation of motion for vertical oscillation. 2 Using the nonlinear equation x + x3 =0 show that if Xl and X2 are solutions satisfying the differential equation. Inc.C.. . Figure PI4-3..J. as shown in Fig. Osaka. 1959. as shown in Fig.. HAYASm." Jour.. [IlJ STOKER.. PI4-3. Japan: Nippon Printing & Publishing Co.. N. 1953.1. . PI4-2. Forced Oscillations in Nonlinear Systems. [10) RAUSCHER. A mass is attached to the midpoint of a string of length 2/. J. Ltd. 1950. m Figure P14-2 . I. Inc..Chap. 3 A buoy is composed of two cones of diameter 2r and height h. (Dec. [8J MALKIN. Some Problems in the Theory of Nonlinear Oscillations. New York: Interscience Publishers. Determine the differential equation of motion for large deflection.. Assume string tension to be T.. Nonlinear Vibrations..J.: Dept. A169-77. . N. Washington. 1938). Appl.. PI4-4.. Princeton.

414

Nonlinear Vibrations

Chap. 14

Figure Pl4-4 .

.....5

The cord of a simple pendulum is wrapped around a fixed cylinder of radius R such that its length is I when in the vertical position as shown in Fig. Pl ....S. Determine the differential equation of motion.

Figure Pl4-S .

.....6

.....,

Plot the phase plane trajectory for the undamped spring-mass system including the potential energy curve U(x). Discuss the initial conditions associated with the plot . From the plot of U(x) vs, x of Prob. 14-6, determine the period from the equation
1" =

4

t: /2[ E -dxU ( x)]
0

1....8

I4-9

(Remember that E in the text was for a unit mass.) For the undamped spring-mass system with initial conditions x(O) = A and X(O) = 0 determine the equation for the state speed V and state under what condition the system is in eqnilibrium . The solution to a certain linear differential equation is given as

x = cos er + sin 2.,,1 Determine y = x and plot a phase plane diagram . ...... 0 Determine the phase plane equation for the damped spring-mass system

x + 2twnx + w~x = 0
and plot one of the trajectories with v
= r/»,

and x as coordinates.

Chap. 14

Problems

415

1....11 If the potential energy of a simple pendulum is given with the positive sign U(9)
=

+1cos9

determine which of the singular points are stable or unstable and explain their physical implications. Compare the phase plane with Fig. 14.4-2. 1.... 12 Given the potential U(x) = 8 - 2 cos 'JTx/4, plot the phase plane trajectories for E = 6,7,8,10,12, and discuss the curves. 14-13 Determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the equations x
= =

5x - y 2x + 2y

y

14-14 Determine the modal transformation of the equations of Prob. 14-13, which will decouple them to the form
{=

AI~

i) = A27J 1 15 Plot the ~,7J phase plane trajectories of Prob. 14-14 for At/A2 = 0.5 and 2.0. 1 16 For At/A2 = 2.0 in Prob. 14-15, plot the trajectory y versus x. 1 17 If Al and A2 of Prob. 14-14 are complex conjugates -a ± ifl, show that the equation in the u, v plane becomes

dv du

=

flu + av au - flv
=

14-18 Using the transformation u = p cos 9 and v equation for Prob. 14-17 becomes d:
=

p sin 9 show that the phase plane

i

d9

with the trajectories identified as logarithmic spirals
p = e(aIP)9 1....19 Near a singular point in the xy plane, the trajectories appear as shown in Fig.

Pl4-19. Determine the form of the phase plane equation and the corresponding trajectories in the ~7J-plane.

r

x

Figure P14-19.

416

Nonlinear

Vibrations

Chap. 14

14-20 The phase plane trajectories in the vicinity of a singularity of an over-damped system (t > 1) are shown in Fig. PI4-20. Identify the phase plane equation and plot the corresponding trajectories in the h- plane.
y

Figure Pl4-20.

14-21 Show that the solution of the equation dy -x - Y dx ~ x + 3y is x2 + 2xy + 3y2 = C, which is a family of ellipses with axes rotated from the x, y coordinates. Determine the rotation of the semimajor axis and plot one of the ellipses. 14-22 Show that the isoclines of the linear differential equation of second order are straight lines. 14-23 Draw the isoclines for the equation !=xy(y-2) 14-24 Consider the nonlinear equation

Replacing

x

by y(dy/dx),

where y y2

=
2

X, gives the integral
=

+ w;x + htX4

2E

With y = 0 when x

= A,

show that the period is available from
T=

41A y'2[ E -dxU(x)] o
1-'1(1 - x2)

14-25 What do the isoclines of Prob. 14-24 look like? 14-26 Plot of the isoclines of the van der Pol's equation

x-

+X

~

0

for I-' = 2.0 and dy/dx = 0, -1 and +1. 14-27 The equation for the free oscillation of a damped system with hardening spring is given as
niX

+ ci + lex + I-'x3

=0

Express this equation in the phase plane form.

II = 0. 14-36. 14 Problems 417 1.9 3.0.7-7) are given as t x + 0.60 lb lin._ m =5 Plot the phase trajectory for the initial conditions x(O) = 4. 14-27 (. (14. Using the phase plane. Apply the perturbation method to the simple pendulum with sin 9 replaced by 9 . From the perturbation method. 14-38 The supporting end of a simple pendulum is given a motion.36 where sgn(x) signifies either a positive or negative sign equal to that of the sign of x. 14. A system with Coulomb damping has the following numerical values: k = 3...20.. X(O) = O.34 1 35 .. m = 0. x + C sgn( x) = 0 1. Pl4-38... Express this equation in a form suitable for the phase plane. X(O) = O.15x + lOx + x3 = 5 cos( tat + 4» Plot A versus w from Eq..10 lb 82 in. (14.. E...4-2. With the aid of Fig..0.7-11) by first assuming a value of A and solving for w2• 14-37 Determine the phase angle 4> versus w for Prob. plot the trajectory for x(O) = 20". I .. 14-30 Determine the period of the pendulum of Prob.2 = "m - k = 25 ' -= m c 2tw" = 2.32 1... 14-31 The equation of motion for a spring-mass system with constant Coulomb damping can be written as x + w. -1.s.O. Consider the motion of a simple pendulum with viscous damping and determine the singular points. and the knowledge that the trajectories must spiral into the origin.Chap. 1. what is the equation for the period of the simple pendulum as a function of the amplitude? For a given system the numerical values of Eq.33 1.. -/-cos2wt ) sm9 Yo cos 2wf 2 = 0 1~ Figure P14-38.28 The following numerical values are given for the equation in Prob. 14-29 and compare with that of the linear system./ - w Yo . as shown in Fig. sketch some approximate trajectories... 14-29 Plot the phase plane trajectory for the simple pendulum with the initial conditions 9(0) = 60° anc 9(0) . Show that the equation of motion is Jo' f1 + (... Use only the first two terms of the series for x and w...

x(O) ~ A.14 1. Figure Pl4-40. determine the frequencies of the excitation for which the simple pendulum of Prob. 14-40 by using (a) the . calculate the angle 8 for the simple pendulum of Prob. 14-38 with a stiff arm I will be stable in the inverted position.. 14-29. 14-40 Determine the perturbation solution for the system shown in Fig.418 NonlinearVibrations Chap.309 + sin 8 = 0 Solve by the Runge-Kutta method for the initial conditions 8(0) central difference method and (b) the Runge-Kutta method. the equation of motion is given as 14-41 Using the Runge-Kutta If + 0.. 14-41. Use initial conditions x(O) ~ 0. 14-43 Obtain a numerical solution for the system of Prob. Pl4-4O leading to a Mathieu equation. routine and gil = LO. = 60°. 14-41 With damping added to Prob. 39 For a given value of gil. 9(0) = O.