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Cng ty C phn u t cng ngh Gio dc IDJ

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T chin dch Vit Bc n chin dch Bin gii Thu- ng 1. Chin dch Vit Bc thu ng nm 1947 a. m mu v hnh ng ca Php Sau gn mt nm tin hnh chin tranh xm lc Vit Nam chin, thc dn Php tuy chim c nhiu thnh ph, th x quan trng v nhiu ng giao thng chin lc nhng vn khng th kt thc nhanh chin tranh, thm vo chng gp nhiu kh khn: Ti chin trng ng Dng: Qun Php gp mu thun khng sao gii quyt c: cng m rng a bn chim ng, lc lng ch cng b dn mng, d b ta tiu dit. Chin tranh du kch ca ta pht trin ngay trong lng ch lm cho chng n khng ngon, ng khng yn. Mt s trn phc kch ca ta trn cc ng giao thng quan trng gy cho thc dn Php nhiu tn tht, khng th kt thc chin tranh nhanh chng c. Ti nc Php: Nn kinh t ti chnh Php b tn ph sau chin tranh th gii II ang phi nh vo vin tr ca M phc hi. Gnh nng chim ph phi chi cho cuc chin tranh Vit Nam cng lm cho nn kinh t ti chnh Php gp nhiu kh khn hn. Chnh tr x hi: Kh khn v kinh t lm cho i sng nhn dn Php khng c ci thin, phong tro phn i cuc chin tranh ca Php Vit Nam din ra gay gt. Tnh hnh chnh tr Php khng n nh, ni b chnh ph Php lc c. gii quyt nhng kh khn, thc dn Php mun tm kim mt chin thng ln v qun s mau chng kt thc chin tranh. V vy, thc dn Php quyt nh m cuc tn cng ln Vit Bc nhm mc ch: nh ph cn c a Vit Bc, tiu dit c quan u no khng chin v qun ch lc ca ta. Kha cht bin gii Vit - Trung, trit ng lin lc quc t ca ta. Ginh mt thng li qun s, tin ti thnh lp chnh ph b nhn, nhanh chng kt thc chin tranh. 1 thc hin m mu trn, ngy 7 - 10 - 1947, thc dn Php huy ng qun tin ln Vit Bc, bng lc lng lnh d, lnh thy, thy qun v b binh, ch tn cng cn c a ca chng ta theo ba hng:

Gio vin : Hong Th Hng


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Cng ty C phn u t cng ngh Gio dc IDJ

Binh on nhy d qun xung chim th x Bc Cn, Th trn Ch Mi, Ch n Cng ngy, binh on b binh do t Lng Sn theo ng s 4 nh ln Cao Bng, ri theo ng s 3 vng xung Bc Cn, bao vy Vit Bc pha ng v Bc. Binh on hn hp b binh v lnh thu nh b t H Ni ngc sng Hng v sng L ln Tuyn Quang, Chim Ha, nh vo i Th, bao vy Vit Bc t pha Ty, to thnh th 2 gng km kp cht Vit Bc. b. Qun ta chin u chng cuc tin cng ln Vit Bc ca ch i ph vi m mu ca ch v hnh ng ca ch, qun v dn ta tch cc t chc cuc chin u ti ch. Ngy 15/10/1947, Trung ng ng hp ra ch th Phi ph tan cuc tn cng ma ng ca gic Php nhm gi vng cn c a, bo v c quan u no khng chin, bo v tnh mng ti sn ca nhn dn; gi gn qun ch lc; tiu dit sinh lc ch, nh bi m mu nh nhanh, thng nhanh ca thc dn Php. Trn cc mt trn, qun dn ta anh dng chin u, tiu hao, tiu dit sinh lc ch, tng bc ph v cc gng km ca ch. mt trn ng s 3, qun dn ta nh a li, phc kch, tp kch trn 20 trn ln nh, tiu biu l cc trn tin cng ch Ch Mi, Ch n, Ch R ..., ct t ng tip t ca ch, buc chng phi rt qun khi Ch n, Ch R vo cui thng 11 - 1947. mt trn hng ng: Trn ng s 4 din ra nhiu trn phc kch, tiu biu l trn o Bng Lau, qun ta ph hy 27 xe c gii, dit hn mt i i ch, thu nhiu v kh, n dc, ct ng tip t, c lp ch. mt trn hng Ty, qun dn ta lin tc chn nh ch hng chc trn trn Sng L, ni bt l trn oan Hng, Khe Lau, nh chm nhiu tu chin, ca n, dit nhiu ch. Hai gng km ng v Ty ca ch b qun dn ta b gy. Sau hn 2 thng chin u, ngy 19/12/1947, thc dn Php buc phi rt khi Vit Bc. Phi hp vi cuc chin u Vit Bc, qun dn trn chin trng ton quc hot ng 2 mnh, kim ch khng cho ch tp trung binh lc vo chin trng chnh, gy cho Php nhiu thit hi v kh khn.

Gio vin : Hong Th Hng


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Cng ty C phn u t cng ngh Gio dc IDJ

Tri qua 75 ngy m chin u, qun dn ta loi khi vng chin u 6000 ch, bn ri 16 my bay, bn chm 11 tu chin, ca n, ph hu nhiu phng tin chin tranh. Cn c a Vit Bc c gi vng, c quan u no khng chin c an ton, b ch lc ca ta ngy cng trng thnh. Chin dch Vit Bc l chin dch phn cng ln u tin ca lc lng v trang cch mng. Chin thng chin dch Vit Bc lm nc lng qun dn ta trong c nc, lm cho uy tn ca chnh ph khng chin cng c nng cao. N th hin s trng thnh ca qun i ta, khng nh rng ng li khng chin ca ta l ng, cng nh kh nng ca qun dn ta c th y li nhng cuc tin cng qun s ln ca ch. Chin thng Vit Bc ging mt n quyt nh vo chin lc "nh nhanh, thng nhanh" ca gic, buc chng phi chuyn sang nh lu di vi ta, a cuc khng chin ca ta chuyn sang giai on mi t th gi gn lc lng sang th tin cng. 2. T sau chin dch Vit Bc thu ng nm 1947 n ht chin dch Bin gii thu ng nm 1950 a. Sau chin dch Vit Bc n trc chin dch Bin gii. Sau tht bi Vit Bc, ch phi xoay sang nh lu di vi ta. Khc vi k hoch "nh nhanh, thng nhanh" gi y chng ly cng c "bnh nh" cc vng chim ng l ch yu. Chng phn tn qun ra chim ng, gi t, thnh thong li tin cng vo hu phng ca ta. Thc hin phng chm chin lc "nh lu di", tng bc ph v m mu mi ca ch, ng v Chnh ph ch trng tng cng sc mnh v hiu lc ca chnh quyn dn ch nhn dn t Trung ng n c s, tng cng lc lng v trang nhn dn, y mnh cuc khng chin ton dn, ton din. Trong giai on ny ta cng ginh c nhiu thnh tch trn cc mt: Trn mt trn chnh tr, phong tro thi ua yu nc c pht ng trong ton quc 3 li cun mi lc lng x hi tham gia, thc hin nhim v khng chin kin quc. u nm 1949, Chnh ph quyt nh t chc bu c Hi ng nhn dn v U ban khng chin hnh chnh cc cp. Theo , chnh quyn dn ch nhn dn c kin ton t Trung ng n a

Gio vin : Hong Th Hng


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Cng ty C phn u t cng ngh Gio dc IDJ phng, khng ch gp phn to ln vo vic t chc, lnh o khng chin thng li, m cn lm ph sn h thng chnh quyn b nhn, tay sai ca thc dn Php. n thng 6-1949, Mt trn Vit Minh v Hi Lin Vit quyt nh tin ti thng nht hai t chc thnh Mt trn Lin Vit cng c, m rng hn na khi on kt ton dn, on kt giai cp, ph m mu "dng ngi Vit tr ngi Vit" ca thc dn Php. Trn mt trn qun s, ng v Chnh ph ch trng ng vin nhn dn thc hin v trang ton dn, pht trin chin tranh du kch. Chnh v vy, t u 1948 n 1949, b i ch lc phn tn, i su vo vng sau lng ch, gy c s khng chin, y mnh chin tranh du kch, bin hu phng ca ch thnh tin phng ca ta. Cc hot ng dit c, tr gian vn ng ngy binh, chng cn, bo v lng mc cng pht trin mnh m. ng thi, ta tch cc xy dng lc lng v mi mt, c bit l lc lng v trang ba th qun. B i a phng tr thnh ch da cho dn qun du kch, b i ch lc trng thnh v pht trin nhanh chng. Trn mt trn kinh t: Bi dng nng dn - i qun ch lc ca cuc khng chin, l mt vn chin lc, c ng v Chnh ph ta rt ch trng. Nm 1949, Chnh ph ra sc lnh gim t 25%, gim tc, hon n, xo n, chia li rung t cng, tm cp rung t vng ch, rung t ly t tay quc, bn phn ng cho nng dn. Nhng chnh sch ny lm cho nng dn phn khi hng hi sn xut, tch cc tham gia khng chin. Cng nghip a phng v cng nghip quc phng c ch trng, p ng nhu cu thit yu ca i sng nhn dn v tng cng sc chin u cho lc lng v trang, ta sn xut c sng ci 60mm v 120mm, sng SKZ... Th cng nghip pht trin nn ta t tc c mt phn thuc men, vi mc v dng c sn xut cho nhn dn v b i. Cng vi cc chnh sch v chnh tr, kinh t, ng v Chnh ph cng y mnh pht trin vn ho, gio dc v t c nhiu thnh tch. Phong tro "Bnh dn hc v" tip tc pht trin. Tnh n 1949 c khong 10 triu 4 ngi thot nn m ch.

Gio vin : Hong Th Hng


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Cng ty C phn u t cng ngh Gio dc IDJ

Thng 7/ 1950, Chnh ph ra ch trng ci cch gio dc ph thng, nhm xo b nhng tn tch ca nn gio dc thc dn phong kin, hng gio dc phc v nhim v khng chin, kin quc v t nn mng cho nn gio dc dn tc dn ch Vit Nam. H thng cc trng i hc v trung hc chuyn nghip cng bt u c xy dng. Nh vy, trong nhng nm 1948 - 1949, thc hin k hoch nh lu di, ng, Chnh ph, ng u l Ch tch H Ch Minh lnh o nhn dn t c nhiu thnh tu trn cc lnh vc, to ra th v lc mi cho ta. b- Chin dch Bin gii thu ng nm 1950

* Hon cnh lch s mi


Bc vo nm 1950, cuc khng chin ca ta c thm nhiu thun li: Cch mng Trung Quc thnh cng, nc Cng ho nhn dn Trung Hoa ra i (1 - 10 - 1949) to iu kin thun li cho Cch mng nc ta c quan h trc tip vi cc nc X hi ch ngha. Tip , thng 1 - 1950 Trung Quc, Lin X v cc nc X hi ch ngha khc ln lt cng nhn, t quan h ngoi giao vi nc ta. iu lm cho uy tn v a v ca ta c nng cao trn trng quc t, cuc khng chin ca nhn dn ta c s ng tnh ng h ca nhn dn th gii. ng Dng, cuc khng chin ca nhn dn Lo v nhn dn Campuchia cng pht trin v ginh thm thng li. Phong tro u tranh ca nhn dn Php v nhn dn th gii phn i chin tranh ng Dng ln cao. Trong nc, cuc khng chin ca ta c nhng bc pht trin mi, lc lng v trang 3 th qun ca ta trng thnh, hu phng ca ta c cng c, pht trin ton din v chnh tr, kinh t, vn ha to ra th v lc mi cho ta.

* m mu qun s mi ca Php - M
Sau 5 nm sa ly cuc chin tranh Vit Nam, thc dn Php phi i u vi nhiu 5 kh khn (hao ht v qun s ; chi ph cho chin tranh ng Dng ngy cng ln ; b d lun phn i mnh m). V vy, Php buc phi da vo M, xin vin tr kinh t, qun s i ph vi tnh hnh.

Gio vin : Hong Th Hng


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Cng ty C phn u t cng ngh Gio dc IDJ

Li dng c hi ny, M tng bc can thip su vo vo cuc chin tranh ng Dng vi cc hnh ng cng nhn Chnh ph Bo i. Ngoi ra M cn tng cng vin tr kinh t, qun s cho Php, nhm tng bc ht cng Php, nm quyn iu khin trc tip chin tranh ng Dng. c s gip sc ca M, Php ra mt k hoch chin tranh mi (k hoch R-ve) nhm thc hin cc m mu mi: Tng cng h thng phng ng trn ng s 4 kha cht bin gii Vit - Trung, tch cuc khng chin ca ta vi cc nc X hi ch ngha. Thit lp "hnh lang ng - Ty" (Hi Phng - H Ni - Ho Bnh - Sn La) bao vy c lp, cn c a Vit Bc vi Lin khu III v IV. Chun b k hoch tin cng quy m ln ln Vit Bc ln th hai, mong ginh thng li, nhanh chng kt thc chin tranh. Vic Php thc hin k hoch Rve, lm cho vng t do ca ta b thu hp, cn c a Vit Bc b bao vy, cuc khng chin ca ta phi i mt vi nhng kh khn mi.

* Ch trng ca ta
Trn c s nhng thng li ta thu c trong hai nm 1948 - 1949, tn dng nhng thun li, khc phc kh khn, ph m mu mi ca ch, tranh th thi c ginh thng li ln v qun s nhm a cuc khng chin ln giai on mi, Trung ng ng quyt nh ch ng m chin dch Bin gii vi cc mc ch: Tiu dit mt b phn quan trng sinh lc ch; Khai thng bin gii, m ng lin lc vi Trung Quc v th gii dn ch; M rng v cng c cn c a Vit Bc, ng thi to nhng thun li mi thc y cuc khng chin tin ln. Do tm quan trng ca chin dch, Trung ng ng quyt nh thnh lp B Tng ch huy chin dch, ph chun k hoch tc chin, Ch tch H Ch Minh ra mt trn cng B ch huy chin dch ch o v ng vin qun dn chin u, ng ch V Nguyn Gip lm Ch huy 6 trng kim B th ng u mt trn. Ch tch H Ch Minh k sc lnh tng ng vin nhn lc, vt lc, ti lc ca ton th nhn dn cho cuc khng chin. Vi khu hiu "Tt c cho chin dch ton thng, chng ta huy ng c 12 vn dn cng (ch yu l ng bo cc

Gio vin : Hong Th Hng


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Cng ty C phn u t cng ngh Gio dc IDJ dn tc Vit Bc) vn chuyn 4000 tn lng thc v kh n dc, cung cp cho nhu cu ca 3 vn chin s chin u. Phng chm chin lc m chng ta ra trong chin dch l "nh im, din vin". Ngy 16 thng 9 nm 1950, cc n v qun i ta n sng m u chin dch vi trn then cht m mn nh vo c im ng Kh. Ta chn ng Kh lm im m mn cho chin dch Bin gii v y l 1 v tr chin lc rt quan trng trn tuyn phng ng ng s 4, nhng ch b tr phng ng tng i yu, nn kh nng thng li cao hn. Nu chim c ng Kh, h thng phng ng trn con ng s 4 b chia ct lm hai, qun ch Cao Bng s b c lp, uy hip. ng thi, to iu kin ta tiu dit lc lng vin binh ca chng mun chim li ng Kh. Cuc chin ng Kh y din ra quyt lit, sau 54 gi chin u, ta ginh thng li. Ta tiu dit v loi khi vng chin u 1 tiu on ch, cht t tuyn phng ng ca ch trn con ng s 4, to thi c thun li cho chin dch. Mt ng Kh, Tht Kh b uy hip, Cao Bng c lp. Trc nguy c b tiu dit, qun Php buc phi rt khi Cao Bng theo ng s 4. ym tr cho cuc rt qun t Cao Bng v, Php huy ng 1 binh on t Tht Kh tin ln nhm chim li ng Kh v n cnh qun rt t Cao Bng v. ng thi, chng m cuc "hnh qun kp" - cho qun nh ln Thi Nguyn thu ht ch lc ca ta v to iu kin cho hai o qun Php gp nhau ng Kh. on c nh ca ch, qun ta ch ng mai phc, chn nh ch nhiu ni trn ng s 4 khin cho hai cnh qun ny khng gp c nhau. Tht Kh b uy hip, qun Php buc phi rt v Na Sm, ng ng, Lng Sn, trong khi cuc hnh qun ca ch ln Thi Nguyn cng b qun ta chn nh. Qun Php tr nn hoang mang, hong lon phi rt chy, ng s 4 c gii phng. 7 Phi hp vi mt trn Bin gii, cc mt trn khc qun dn tin cng mnh m, tiu dit nhiu sinh lc ch, gii phng nhiu vng t ai.

Gio vin : Hong Th Hng


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Cng ty C phn u t cng ngh Gio dc IDJ

Sau hn 1 thng chin u ngoan cng, dng cm, chin dch Bin gii thng li, k hoch R- ve b ph sn, ta t c c 3 mc tiu: Loi khi vng chin u hn 8000 tn ch; gii phng tuyn bin gii Vit Trung t Cao Bng n nh Lp di 750 km vi 35 vn dn, m rng con ng lin lc quc t; chc thng "hnh lang ng - Ty" ca Php, lm cho cn c Vit Bc c m rng v cng c. y l chin dch tin cng ln u tin ca ta trong khng chin chng thc dn Php ginh c thng li. Chin dch ny nh du s trng thnh ca qun i ta, t nh du kch sang nh tp trung quy m ln, s pht trin vt bc v ngh thut ch o chin tranh ca ng ta. Thng li ca chin dch Bin gii c ngha chin lc ln i vi cuc khng chin chng thc dn Php. Sau chin dch Bin gii qun ta lin tip ginh th ch ng trn chin trng chnh Bc B, y ch ngy cng ln su vo th b ng i ph.

Gio vin : Hong Th Hng


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