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2009

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53(075.8)
22.373
13
28

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28

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/ .. .
/ : , 2009. 557, [1] . : . (
)
ISBN 9785222157008


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ISBN 9785222157008

53(075.8)
22.373

.., 2009
, , 2009

www.phoenixbooks.ru

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1. 5



x = x0 + vxt; S = vt.
x (); x0
(); vx 
(/); t (); S (); v 
(/).

v = v1 + v0.
v
( ) (/); v1 

( ) (/); v0 
(
) (/).


= 0 + v0x t +
a=

axt2
;
2

v
v v0
=
;
t
t

S = v0t +

at2
;
2

S = vt;

v = v0 + at;

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2. . . 27

2
.
.


F = FN.
F ();
(); FN
, ().

F = kx.
F (); k 
(/); x ().

F = ma.
F , (); m
(); , 
(/2).


Fdt = dp.
Fdt ,
( ); dp ( /).

m1m2

.
r2
F (); G = 6,67 1011 2/2
; m1 m2 
F=G

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28
(); r
().


= mg.
(); m (); g 
( 
) (/2).
,

= m(g a).
(); m (); g 
(/2).
, (

= m( g + a).
, .

P
.
mg
n (); ();
m ; g
(/2).
n=



M
.
R2
g
(/2). ,
.

g=G

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2. . . 29



M
.
( R + H )2
(). 
, 
.

g=G

T12

r13

.
r23
1 2
; r1 r2 .

T22

= FS cos ;

= F cos dS .
0

(); F (); S 
();
.

kx2
.
2
(); k (/); x 
().


A
; N = A; N = Fv cos .
t
N (); (); t 
(); A ();
F (); v (/); 
.

N=

www.phoenixbooks.ru

30

mv2
.
2
k (), m
(), v (/).
k =

,

= mgh.
(); m
(); g (/2),
h ().

m1m2
.
r
(); G
2/2); m1 m2 
(); r ().
= G


= + k.
();
(); k 
().

= Ek2 Ek1.
(); Ek = Ek2 Ek1
, ().

= Ep = (Ep2 Ep1).
(); Ep = Ep2 Ep1
, ().

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3. 99

3


p
p=

.
S
(); F (),
S (2).

p = gh.
(/3); h
(); g
(/2).

v1S1 = v2S2.
v1 v2
(/), S1 S2 (2).

v12
v22
= p2 + gh2 +
.
2
2
(); 
(/3); g 
(/2); h1 h2
(); v1 v2 (/).

p1 + gh1 +


F = 6rv.

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100
F ();
(/( ); r , 
(); v (/).

vd
.

Re ();
(/3); v (/);
d (); 
(/( ).
Re =

Dv
.

Re 

(); D , 
(); v
(/); (/3); 
(/( ).
Re =


r 4tp
.
8l
V (3); r
(); t ();
p (); l 
(); (/( ).

V=


53.
, .
20 c. , 
. 1 = 1 103 /3,
2 = 0,9 103 /3.

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3. 101

. m1 ,
m 2 .

p1

p2 :
1 = 1 103 3

(1)
= p1 + p2.

p
1
2 = 0,9 103 3
h1

p1 = 1gh1,
(2)
?
p2 h2

p2 = 2gh2.
(3)
h1 h2,
h:
h = h1 + h2.
(4)
,
.
,
, 
. 
, h1 h2.
h1 h2,
(1).
: m1 = 1V1, m2 = 2V2, m1 = m2,
, 1V1 = 2V2.
V1 = h1S V2 = h2S, V1 , V2
S
,

1h1S = 2h2S, 1h1 = 2h2.


(5)
(4) (5) 
h1 h2. (5)

h2 = h 2 1 .
(6)
2
(6) (4):
:
m1 = m2
h = 20 c

h = h1 + h1

1
,
2


h = h1 1 + 1 = h1 1 2 ,
2
2

h1 = h

2
.
1 + 2

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(7)

1. 119

m
.

m ();
().
M=

M
.

3
V ( );
(/); (/3).
V =

m
M
, mM =
, mM =
.
n
N
NA
m ();
(/); NA = 6,02 1023 1 
, m (); N
(); (/3); n
(3).

mM =

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2. 149


((

a
p + 2 (V b) = RT.
V

m
m2 a
m
b =
RT.
p + 2 2 V
M
M
M V

(); b
; V (3/);
(/); V (3);
R /( );
().

=

v
z

, =

1
2
2d
n

();
v (/); z

(1); d 
(); n (3).

www.phoenixbooks.ru

150

100%,

= p 100%.
p
(%); 
(/3);

(/3); p 
(); p 
().
=

1.

3

t,

p ,

, /

t ,

p ,

, /

0,40

3,2

10

1,23

9,4

0,61

4,8

11

1,33

10,0

0,65

5,2

12

1,40

10,7

0,71

5,6

13

1,49

11,4

0,76

6,0

14

1,60

12,1

0,81

6,4

15

1,71

12,8

0,88

6,8

16

1,81

13,6

0,93

7,3

17

1,93

14,5

1,0

7,8

18

2,07

15,4

1,06

8,3

19

2,20

16,3

1,14

8,8

20

2,33

17,3

www.phoenixbooks.ru

2. 151

2.


,


,
0

10

,%

100 81 63 45 28 11

100 84 68 51 35 20

100 85 70 56 42 28 14

100 86 73 60 47 35 23 10

100 87 75 63 51 40 28 18

10

100 88 76 65 54 44 34 24 14

12

100 89 78 68 57 48 38 29 20 11

14

100 89 79 70 60 51 42 34 25 17

16

100 90 81 71 62 54 45 37 30 22 15

18

100 91 82 73 65 56 49 41 34 27 20

20

100 91 83 74 66 59 51 44 37 30 24

22

100 92 83 76 68 61 54 47 40 34 28

24

100 92 84 77 69 62 56 49 43 37 31

26

100 92 85 78 71 64 58 51 46 40 34

28

100 93 85 78 72 65 59 53 48 42 37

30

100 93 86 79 73 67 61 55 50 44 39


dv
S.
dx
F
(); ( 1 1);
dv
(1); S (2).
dx

F =

www.phoenixbooks.ru

152

dv
Sdt.
dx
dp ( /); dt
(). 
.

dp =

1
v .
3
( 1 1);

();
(/3); v 
(/).
=


d
Sdt.
dx
dm (); D 

dm = D

(1);
S

(/ 4);

(2);

dt ().


D=

v .

D (1);

(); v
(/).

dT
Sdt.
dx
dQ
(); K
dT
( /(3 );
(/); S
dx
(2); dt ().
dQ = K

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2. 153


1
K=
v cV.
3
( /(3 );

();
(/ 3); v
(/); V
(/( ).

F
E
, =
.
l
S
(/);
F.. (); l
, ();
E 
(); S (2).

=

1
1
+
p =
.
R
R
1
2

(); 
(/); R1 R2 
().

2
cos .
gr
h
(); 
(/);
(/3); g (/2); r
(); 

().
h=

l l0
l
=
.
l0
l0

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154
(
); l = l l0 (); l0 
(); l ().

=

.
S
(); F
(); S (2).

1 F
l
= const,
=
.

E
S
l0
,
(); (); 
(); l = l l0 
(); l 0
(); S (2).
E=


n=

n ();
(); 
().

l = l0(1 + t); l = l0(1 + T).
l t C (); l0
0 C = 273 (); = 0, 0 = 273 
(); 
(1).

V = V0(1 + t) V = V0(1 + T).
V t C, (3);
V0 0 C, 273 (3); = 0
(); 
(1).

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558

...................................................................... 3
1. ............................................................ 5
1. ............................................. 5
2. . . .... 27
3. ........................ 99

2. .... 119
1. ............................ 119
2. .................. 149
3. ..................................... 191

3. ......................................... 218
1. ..................................... 218
2. ................................. 284
3. ................................. 325

4. ....................................... 351
1. ........... 351
2. ..... 390

5. ............................................................. 419
1. .......................... 419
2. ........................................... 456
3. .................................... 471
4. .................................. 494

6. .
.............................. 510
1. ......................... 510
2. ................ 528

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2. 559


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