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www.phoenixbooks.ru
,K 641/642(075.32)
EEK 36.99a723
KTK 288
T61
Penensen+i.
Fo6:apt T.B., onen+ xaqepi ixonoxnxn Cenepcxo iocyap-
c+nenno +exnooinnecxo axaexnn, x. i. n.
Bpum H.B., onen+ xaqepi cnc+exnoio xenexen+a n yx-
ia+epcxoio yne+a Cenepcxo iocyapc+nenno +exnooinnecxo
axaexnn, x. i. n.
Toponona H.,.
T61 Opiannsanna nponsnoc+na na npenpna+nax ome-
c+nennoio nn+anna . ynenoe nocone / H.]. Toponona.
Poc+on n/] . dennxc, 2010. 409, [1] c. . n. (Cpenee
npoqeccnonainoe opasonanne).
ISBN 978-5-222-16761-8
Vnenoe nocone no ncnnnnne Opiannsanna nponsno-
c+na na npenpna+nax omec+nennoio nn+anna coc+on+ ns nyx
nac+e. B +eope+nnecxo nac+n noxasani conpexennie nanpan-
enna pasnn+na omec+nennoio nn+anna, ani xapax+epnc+nxn
ocnonnix +nnon npenpna+n n noponoe onncanne opiannsannn
pao+i nx nexon n nopaseenn.
B o+einix ianax paccxo+peni nonpoci opiannsannn
cnaenna n cxacxoio xosac+na, onepa+nnnoio nannponanna
n nopxnponanna +pya pao+nnxon. B xonne xaoio pasea
npnneeni nonpoci a nnonpoca c neim caxoxon+poa n
saxpenenna ynenoio xa+epnaa.
Bo n+opym nac+i nocona nxmnen xa+epna a nponeenna
npax+nnecxnx sana+n no +exax xypca.
Hocone npenasnaneno a c+yen+on cpennx cnennainix
ynenix saneenn, c+yen+on nyson no cnennainoc+n Texno-
oina npnio+onenna nnmn, npenoana+ee n npax+nnecxnx
pao+nnxon omenn+a.
V]K 641/642(075.32)
BBK 36.99a723
ISBN 978-5-222-16761-8
Toponona H.], 2010
Oqopxenne. OOO dennxc, 2010
www.phoenixbooks.ru
3
Bneenne
B nac+oamee npexa no ncex cqepax nsneea+einoc+n xnpo-
noio coomec+na nponcxon+ nsxenenne nennoc+nix opnen+ann,
oyconennoe cxeno nnnnnsann na pyee XXXXI nn.,
n+o +peye+ nonoio noxoa x qopxnponannm yymeio npo-
qeccnonaa.
O+nnn+einie a nameio npexenn nsxenenna n xapax+epe
opasonanna nce oee anno opnen+npym+ eio na cnoonoe pas-
nn+ne neonexa, na +nopnecxym nnnnna+nny, nocnpnnxnnnoc+i
x nonoxy, na snanne cnoeio no+ennnaa, yxenne eio npnxena+i,
pasnnna+i caxoc+oa+einoc+i, xonxypen+ocnoconoc+i, xoni-
noc+i yymnx cnennanc+on.
Omec+nennoe nn+anne i+o xpynnaa, mnpoxo pasne+nen-
naa o+paci naponoio xosac+na, nasnanenne xo+opo yon-
e+nopa+i no+penoc+n naceenna. O+ +oio, xax ninonae+ca oc-
nonnaa qynxnna o+pacn, sannca+ soponie, pao+ocnoconoc+i,
nac+poenne, xanec+no nsnn me.
Hepexo Poccnn x pinonno ixonoxnxe onpeen nonie
yconna ea+einoc+n npenpna+n omec+nennoio nn+anna,
a ninonenna xo+opix neoxonxo snann+eino nonicn+i
yponeni pyxonoc+na npenpna+naxn, ocymec+nn+i pannonai-
nym opiannsannm nponsnoc+na n ocynnanna no+pen+ee,
yynmn+i xanec+no npoqeccnonaino noio+onxn, nonicn+i
yponeni snann cnennanc+on.
Banaa poi n peansannn i+o saann o+non+ca cnenna-
nc+y omec+nennoio nn+anna, xo+opi oen oaa+i ynn-
nepcainixn snannaxn n oac+n npana, opiannsannn nn+anna,
ixonoxnnecxnx o+nomenn na nny+pennex n nnemnex pinxe,
ynepenno opnen+npona+ica n nonpocax ynpanenna, xapxe+nnia,
ncnxooinn no+pen+ea. H+oi cnennanc+ i xoxne+en+en
n cnoe npoqeccnn, on oasan yxe+i paspema+i nsnennie n
npoqeccnonainie saann, a +axe oen sna+i ocnonnie
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4
+epxnni n onpeeenna n oac+n opiannsannn nponsnoc+na,
xaccnqnxannm npenpna+n omec+nennoio nn+anna, opiann-
sannm cnaenna n cxacxoio xosac+na, yxe+i paspaa+ina+i
c+pyx+ypy nponsnoc+na, onpeea+i noceona+einoc+i +ex-
nooinnecxoio nponecca nponsnoc+na xynnapno npoyxnnn,
yxe+i paspaa+ina+i nponsnoc+nennym npoipaxxy a saio-
+ononnix n oio+ononnix npenpna+n, paccnn+ina+i nixo
noyqapnxa+on, coc+ana+i nan-xenm, yxe+i ninona+i
pacne+i cipia, npnnnxa+i pemenna npn opiannsannn pao+i
nponsnoc+nennix nexon, yxe+i nonpa+i oopyonanne a
nponsnoc+na, onpeea+i nncennoc+i pao+nnxon c yne+ox
nponsnoc+nenno npoipaxxi n coc+ana+i xap+i +pya npo-
nsnoc+nennoio nexa.
Kypc Opiannsanna nponsnoc+na na npenpna+nax ome-
c+nennoio nn+anna paccxa+pnnae+ npenpna+ne xax conoxyn-
noc+i nxoamnx n neio c+pyx+ypnix nopaseenn. B nac+o-
amee npexa nicoxa xonxypennna na pinxe +onapon n ycyi,
n xosac+nennaa ea+einoc+i +peym+ ononenna n nnepenna
nonix +exnooin, iqqex+nnnix qopx xosac+nonanna, nonoio
oopyonanna. Bano +axe nannne nicoxoxnanqnnnponan-
nix xapon, xo+opie xoiy+ peansona+i ocnonnie qynxnnn
npenpna+na omec+nennoio nn+anna. moe npenpna+ne
omec+nennoio nn+anna i+o xonneep, coni xexannsx,
n xo+opox o+ nencnpannoc+n ae xaenixo e+an sanncn+
xonenni pesyi+a+.
Texnooi i+o pyxonon+ei, xo+opi ne +oixo yxee+
xon+ponpona+i oimo xexannsx cqepi nnmenix ycyi, no n
cnocoen naynn+i pao+nnxon ic+po n xanec+nenno ninona+i
cnon oasannoc+n, xon+ponpona+i caennoc+i pao+i, coxpan-
noc+i xanec+na npoyx+on. Ceiona opiannsanna soponoio nn-
+anna naceenna Poccnn anae+ca ono ns oc+pemnx npoex.
Cnennanc+i Poccnn, Bcexnpno opiannsannn spanooxpanenna,
Hpoonoic+nenno n Ceicxoxosac+nenno opiannsannn
OOH opamam+ nnnxanne na c+pyx+ypy no+peenna nnmenix
npoyx+on, xo+opaa ona coo+ne+c+nona+i qnsnooinnecxnx
no+penoc+ax ncex xa+eiopn naceenna. Hecaancnponannoc+i
nn+anna yxymae+ coc+oanne soponia neonexa. Banemaa
poi n pemennn i+o npoexi o+non+ca cnennanc+y ome-
c+nennoio nn+anna, xo+opi oen nae+i snannaxn a
onpeeenna pannona nn+anna no+pen+ee io+ono npoyx-
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5
nnn, sna+i ny+n yynmenna xanec+na ninycxaexo npoyxnnn,
ninona+i saxoni Pd O xanec+ne n esonacnoc+n nnmenix
npoyx+on n O npoonoic+nenno esonacnoc+n Poccncxo
deepannn.
Cocvoanne n pa:nnvne npepnpnavn omecvnennoro nnvanna
n Poccnn na conpevennov :vane
Omec+nennoe nn+anne nipae+ nce nospac+ammym poi n
nsnn conpexennoio omec+na. 3+o oecnennnae+ca npee
nceio nsxenennex +exnooin nepepao+xn npoyx+on nn+anna,
pasnn+nex xoxxynnxann, cpec+n oc+anxn npoyxnnn n cipia,
nn+encnqnxanne xnoinx nponsnoc+nennix nponeccon. Ho
xeynaponix oxyxen+ax +epxnn omec+nennoe nn+anne
xapax+epnsye+ca xax xe+oi npnio+onenna oimoio xonnec-
+na nnmn, ninonaexie es npenapn+eino oionopennoc+n c
no+pen+eex, nn xax mie nni nn+anna, opiannsonannoio
nne oxa. Bo ncex xnpe npenpna+na omec+nennoio nn+anna
npnnaea+ no iocyapc+nennoxy, no nac+noxy cex+opy.
Iocyapc+nenni cex+op omec+nennoio nn+anna nxmnae+ n
cea ynpeenna nn+anna a e+e, omxoinnxon, mxoinn-
xon, noennocyamnx, nn, naxoamnxca n saxmnennn, me
nonoio nospac+a n nn, naxoamnxca na enennn n oinnne,
a +axe c+oonie a me, sana+ix na cye n iocyap-
c+nennox cex+ope. H nac+ni cex+op nxmnae+ n cea xnoine
ns nepenncennix nime npenpna+n, a +axe pec+opani n
pyine nni +opionix +onex, npnnocamnx oxo. 3+o+ cex+op
nxmnae+ +axe npenpna+na, xo+opie nponsnoa+ io+onym
x yno+peennm nnmy, npoanaexym nepes mo ns nimene-
penncennix xanaon.
Bnny ic+poio pasnn+na n nocenne ioi ce+n omec+nen-
noio nn+anna nexo+opie nnqopxannonnie oac+n n annox
cex+ope ycyi ne noynnn onoio nnnxanna n annie o co-
c+oannn i+o ipynni oex+on oc+a+onno pasnoponi, nnoia
npo+nnopennni. Bxec+e c +ex omec+nennoe nn+anne anae+ca
onnx ns nanemnx qax+opon, oecnennnammnx nn+eipainym
onenxy connaino-ixonoxnnecxoio yponna omec+na, n nonnxa-
nne eio coc+oanna neoxonxo a qopxnponanna nepcnex+nnnix
nanon xax a npec+ann+ee o+pacn, +ax n a opiannsann,
ocymec+nammnx nasop sa oex+axn i+o o+pacn.
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6
Omec+nennoe nn+anne xax noo+paci +opionn saponoci
n 1917 i., xoia i npnna+ expe+ o pacmnpennn npan iopocxoio
caxoynpanenna n npoonoic+nennox ee, coiacno xo+opo-
xy exy npeoc+anaoci npano opiannsonina+i omec+nennie
c+oonie. B nponecce pasnn+na nponcxonn ncenosxonie
npeopasonanna, peopiannsannn, ynennnnanci oexi nipa-
a+inaexo npoyxnnn, npeoc+anenna ycyi, xenanci noxa-
sa+en n noxoi, xapax+epnsymmne n onpeeammne coc+oanne
n yponeni pasnn+na omec+nennoio nn+anna n c+pane, noananci
naynnie +pyi, cosananci n pacnycxanci naynno-ncceona-
+eicxne nnc+n+y+i n ynenie saneenna n +. .
C nanaox ixonoxnnecxnx peqopx n CCCP omec+nennoe nn-
+anne anaoci ono ns nomaox, na xo+opox o+paa+inanci
xax nonie ixonoxnnecxne xexannsxi, +ax n qopxnponanci no-
nie o+nomenna nac+nix npenpnnnxa+ee n iocyapc+nennix
c+pyx+yp. Koonepa+nnnie xaqe n xonne 80-x ioon in xaaxaxn
pasnn+na nac+noio npenpnnnxa+eic+na, o+xpi+o xnoio nonix
npenpna+n, ocoenno yxpennoci n yconepmenc+nonaoci pa-
onee, mxoinoe n c+yennecxoe nn+anne. Bnepeni n noynnn
mnpoxoe oopenne npoipeccnnnie qopxi ocynnanna (xoxn-
excnie oei, oc+anxa nnmn x paonnx xec+ax, aonexen+naa
cnc+exa pacne+a, xexannsnponannie nnnn pasann). Hecxo+pa
na onpeeennym xoppex+nponxy nnon n nasnann npenpna+n
coxpannaci npoqeccnonainaa nanpanennoc+i npenpna+n
omec+nennoio nn+anna, pacmnpnnmnci n snann+eino nac+n
sa cne+ cnc+exi ic+poio ocynnanna naceenna no ncex ee
pasnoopasnn. Ha conpexennox i+ane c+anonenna pinonno
ixonoxnxn n Poccnn, n yconnax c+pyx+ypno nepec+poxn
ixonoxnxn c+pani n neox nanemee snanenne npnope+ae+
cosanne n iqqex+nnnoe ncnoisonanne nnnonannonno nanpan-
enno cnc+exi pennnnnpnnia +exnooinnecxnx nponeccon
na npenpna+nax pasnnnix opiannsannonno-npanonix qopx n
qopx coc+nennoc+n.
B nac+oamee npexa omec+nennoe nn+anne n name c+pane
conoci n xpynnym opiannsannonno-xosac+nennym cnc+exy.
]ainemee eio pasnn+ne anae+ca nano connaino saane,
c pemennex xo+opo cnasano yone+nopenne nsnennix no-
+penoc+e me.
B nanaini nepno pinonnix npeopasonann nponsomn
xpnsncnie nsxenenna na pinxe ycyi omec+nennoio nn+anna.
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7
nncennoc+i npenpna+n i+oio cex+opa coxpa+noci oee nex
na 1/3, yeini nec +onapooopo+a omec+nennoio nn+anna n
posnnnnox oopo+e coxpa+nca npax+nnecxn n+poe, yxymnoci
qnnanconoe nooenne npenpna+n, oimnnc+no ns nnx oxasa-
nci yi+onnixn. Ocoenno oimne no+epn nonec connaini
cex+op omec+nennoio nn+anna. Cqepa omec+nennoio nn+anna
nxmnae+ n cea nce opiannsannonnie qopxi nn+anna, saana-
xn xo+opix anam+ca nocc+anonenne n noepanne soponia
me na onox yponne. Pasnn+ne o+pacn onpeeae+ca no-
xasa+eaxn ixonoxnnecxo iqqex+nnnoc+n, xo+opie paseam+
na naponoxosac+nennie n nny+pno+pacenie.
Haponoxosac+nennie noxasa+en iqqex+nnnoc+n o+pacn
cnasani c poim omec+nennoio nn+anna n pemennn npoex
nocnponsnoc+na paone cni, yynmennn i+a naceenna.
K nanoee snannxix o+noca+ca oa omec+nennoio nn+anna
n omex oexe posnnnnoio +onapooopo+a, xonnec+no npe-
npna+n omec+nennoio nn+anna, +onapooopo+, nnco me,
noisymmnxca ycyiaxn o+pacn, n cpeneioonaa nncennoc+i
pao+nnxon, ninycx npoyxnnn coc+nennoio nponsnoc+na.
Bny+pno+pacenie noxasa+en iqqex+nnnoc+n o+pacn o-
mec+nennoio nn+anna xapax+epnsym+ pesyi+a+ xosac+nonanna.
K nnx o+noca+ca. +onapooopo+, ninycx npoyxnnn coc+nenno-
io nponsnoc+na, npnii, pen+aeinoc+i, nsepxn.
Ho xnennm npex+opa Hnc+n+y+a ixonoxnxn n noc+oxone-
enna npoqeccopa CaxIV Box 3n Koy, neim omec+nennoio
nn+anna anae+ca nanoee nonoe yone+nopenne no+pe-
noc+e naceenna n nn+annn nne oxamnnx yconn ny+ex
conepmenc+nonanna npenpna+n na naynno-+exnnnecxo ocnone
nponsnoc+na n opiannsannn no+peenna xynnapno npoyx-
nnn n neax oc+nenna xanec+nenno nonoio yponna naponoio
aiococ+oanna.
Hecxo+pa na conoe ixonoxnnecxoe nooenne xnoinx
npenpna+n omec+nennoio nn+anna n nac+oamee npexa na-
nnnae+ npoana+ica +enennna x ycnennm nx nnnonannonno
ax+nnnoc+n, ocoenno n oac+n npoyx+onix nnnonann n
+exnooinnecxnx nponeccon-nnnonann. 3+o +peye+ coo+ne+-
c+nymmnx nnnec+nnnonnix, xaponix n xa+epnaino-+exnnnec-
xnx pecypcon, ycnenna pon nayxn, noio+onxn n nonimenna
xnanqnxannn xeneepon n oac+n opiannsannn nponsnoc+na
n ynpanenna nnnonannonnixn nponeccaxn. B nac+oamee npexa
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8
ynennnoci nponsnoc+no ic+posaxopoennix m, noi+oxy
nnoa+ca iex+poqnsnnecxne xe+oi opao+xn nnmenix npo-
yx+on, cosam+ca n nponsnoa+ca annapa+i nepnonnecxoio n
nenpepinnoio ec+nna c nnqpaxpacnix n CBH naipenox, cosa-
m+ca an+oxa+nsnponannie xoennie o+eenna, nxmnammne pa
cnennansnponannix xamnn n +pancnop+npymmnx cpec+n.
Ocnono nnnonannonnoio xexannsxa n pinonno ixonoxn-
xe anae+ca xonxypennna caxoc+oa+einix opiannsannonnix
c+pyx+yp (npenpna+n, naynno-ncceona+eicxnx opiannsa-
nn n pyinx nnc+n+y+on), sann+epeconannix n ninnannn,
nocnponsnoc+ne n xaxcnxnsannn cqepi nnanna n yconnax
xenammeca xonmnx+ypi pinxa. ]nnymnx xo+nnox ocno-
enna nonmec+na nic+ynae+ noynenne nsi+onno npnin n
xonxypen+nix npenxymec+n.
Ocnonaxn nnnonannonno npoipaxxi omec+nennoio nn+a-
nna n pinonno ixonoxnxe anam+ca.
npexennaa xononona na ncnoisonanne nonmec+na,
oecnennnammaa npncnoenne nac+n ononn+eino npnin
o+ ocnoenna n pacnpoc+panenna nonmec+na eio cosa+eaxn n
npenpnnnxa+eaxn, nnepnnmnxn eio nponsnoc+no,
cymec+nonanne nesanncnxix n oinno xonxypnpymmnx
nc+onnnxon npeoenna nonix +exnooin,
pinonni o+op nanoee iqqex+nnnix +exnooin n
naynno-+exnnnecxnx ne ns npeaiaexix x npax+nnecxoxy
ocnoennm.
Pinonnie o+nomenna n cnc+exe omec+nennoio nn+anna,
xax n n pyinx o+pacax naponoio xosac+na, nx+ym+ neo-
xonxoc+i xopennix nsxenenn n ynpanennn, opiannsannn
nponsnoc+na n ocynnanna, a +axe n +exnnxe n +exnooin-
necxnx nponeccax. ]ainemee nicoxoiqqex+nnnoe pasnn+ne
npenpna+n omec+nennoio nn+anna nosxono +oixo npn
ncnoisonannn nonemnx +exnooinnecxnx nponeccon, inxoc+n
nponsnoc+na, oecnennnammeio ic+pym nepec+poxy na ninycx
nono npoyxnnn n nnepenne nonix +exnooin npn cnnennn
+pyonix n xa+epnainix sa+pa+, c yne+ox xonmnx+ypi noxy-
na+eicxnx npenon+enn. Hoi+oxy no+penoc+i xpn+nnecxoio
nepeocxicenna snann n npax+nnecxoio oni+a, ononenna
npec+anenn o pasnnnammexca n nsxenammexca npexe+e
ncceonanna noc+oanno nospac+ae+.
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B nac+oamee npexa c+pyx+ypa npenpna+n omec+nennoio
nn+anna npec+anena ceymmnxn ceixen+axn.
iac+ponoxnnecxne pec+opani,
xopnopa+nnnoe nn+anne,
ic+poe ocynnanne,
connainoe nn+anne.
Vcnemnaa pao+a npenpna+n onpeeae+ca xanec+nox
npeoc+anaexix ycyi. Hoi+oxy ocnonnaa saana xaoio
npenpna+na nonimenne xanec+na nponsnonxo npoyxnnn
n ycyi, xo+opie oni.
ne+xo o+nena+i onpeeennix no+penoc+ax,
yone+nopa+i +peonannax no+pen+ea,
coo+ne+c+nona+i npnxenaexix c+anap+ax n +exnnnecxnx
yconnax,
o+nena+i ec+nymmexy saxonoa+eic+ny n pyinx +pe-
onannax omec+na,
npeoc+ana+ica no+pen+em no xonxypen+ocnoconix
nenax,
oecnennna+i npenpna+nm noynenne npnin.
3qqex+nnnoc+i omec+nennoio nn+anna ocnoninae+ca na
omnx a nceio naponoio xosac+na npnnnnnax nn+encnqn-
xannn nponsnoc+na oc+nennn nicoxnx pesyi+a+on npn
nanxenimnx sa+pa+ax xa+epnainix n +pyonix pecypcon.
Ocnonnixn nanpanennaxn n oac+n conepmenc+nonanna
nponeccon opiannsannn nponsnoc+na n omec+nennox nn+annn
anam+ca.
xexannsanna nponeccon, npnxenenne conpexennoio oo-
pyonanna,
nnepenne naynno opiannsannn +pya,
nnepenne npoipaxx no opao+xe pasnnnix nnon nn-
qopxannn,
xexannsanna +pyoexxnx pao+, ninonaexix xyxonni-
xn pao+nnxaxn, yopmnxaxn nponsnoc+nennix n +opionix
noxemenn.
B omec+nennoe nn+anne neoxonxo ne +oixo nnepa+i
oc+nenna naynno-+exnnnecxoio npoipecca, no n conepmen-
c+nona+i qopxi paseenna +pya (xonnen+panna nponsnoc+na,
xoonepnponanne, cnennansanna).
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10
I
1.

1.1. :
, ,
, , ,

B cnc+exe omec+nennoio nn+anna coiacno IOCT P50647-95,
IOCT 30389-95 npnxenam+ca ceymmne +epxnni n onpee-
enna.
Hpepnpnavne omecvnennoro nnvanna npenpna+ne,
npenasnanennoe a nponsnoc+na xynnapno npoyxnnn,
xynnix xonn+epcxnx n yonnix nsen, nx peansannn nn
opiannsannn no+peenna xynnapno npoyxnnn.
Tnn npepnpnavna nn npenpna+na c xapax+epnixn
ocoennoc+axn ocynnanna, accop+nxen+a peansyexo
xynnapno npoyxnnn n noxenxa+ypi npeoc+anaexix no+-
pen+eax ycyi.
Knacc npepnpnavna omec+nennoio nn+anna conoxyn-
noc+i o+nnn+einix npnsnaxon npenpna+na onpeeennoio
+nna, xapax+epnsymmnx xanec+no npeoc+anaexix ycyi, ypo-
neni n yconna ocynnanna.
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11
cnyra omecvnennoro nnvanna pesyi+a+ ea+einoc+n
npenpna+n n ipaan-npenpnnnxa+ee no yone+nopennm
no+penoc+e naceenna n nn+annn n nponeennn ocyia.
Kauecvno ycnyr omecvnennoro nnvanna conoxynnoc+i
xapax+epnc+nx ycyin, onpeeammnx ee cnoconoc+i yone+-
nopa+i yc+anonennie n npenoaiaexie no+penoc+n no+pe-
n+ea.
Ee:onacnocvn ycnyrn xoxnexc cnoc+n ycyin (nponecca),
npn xo+opix ona no nnannex nny+pennnx n nnemnnx onacnix
(npenix) qax+opon oxasinae+ nosec+nne na no+pen+ea, ne
nonepiaa eio nsni, soponie n nxymec+no pncxy.
0xonornunocvn npopyxnnn (ycyi) xoxnexc cnoc+n
npoyxnnn, ycyi, npn xo+opix oxasinae+ca nosec+nne na
oxpyammym cpey, ne nonepiaa ee pncxy.
1.2.
,
-
Ocooe xec+o na no+pen+eicxox pinxe sannxae+ ome-
c+nennoe nn+anne.
Eio cnennqnxa coc+on+ n +ox, n+o cyex+i i+o cqepi
ocymec+nam+ ne +oixo peansannm no+pen+eicxo npo-
yxnnn, no n ee nponsnoc+no, a +axe opiannsannm nn+anna n
connainix xeponpna+n.
]ea+einoc+i npenpna+n omec+nennoio nn+anna +ecno
cnasana n c nnmeno npoximennoc+im, n c ceicxnx xosa-
c+nox, n c +opione, onaxo npec+anae+ ocoym cqepy co-
noxynnoc+i xosac+nymmnx cyex+on, oennennix no xapax-
+epy nipaa+inaexo n peansyexo npoyxnnn, onoponoc+n
ncnoisyexoio cipia, omnoc+n nponsnoc+nennix nponeccon
xa+epnaino-+exnnnecxo asi n qopx ocynnanna no+pe-
n+ee.
Cyex+i omec+nennoio nn+anna oennam+ no npexenn
n npoc+panc+ne +pn qynxnnn nponecca nponsnoc+na omec+nen-
noio npoyx+a. nponsnoc+no nnmn, ee peansannm nn oxen
n opiannsannm no+peenna.
dopxa coc+nennoc+n ne o+paae+ opiannsannonno-npano-
noio c+a+yca npenpna+na omec+nennoio nn+anna. B paxxax
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12
xnoioopasna +nnon coc+nennoc+n xoiy+ i+i cosani npe-
npna+na pasnix opiannsannonno-npanonix qopx.
Opiannsannonno-npanono c+a+yc onpeeae+ cnennqnxy ixo-
noxnnecxnx o+nomenn xax nny+pn npenpna+na, +ax n +ex, n xo-
+opie ono nc+ynae+ c pyinxn cyex+axn pinxa (pnc. 1.1).
B omec+nennox nn+annn npenpnnnxa+eicxaa ea+ei-
noc+i xoe+ ocymec+na+ica es npnxenenna naexnoio +py-
a, n +oia ona peinc+pnpye+ca xax nnnnnyainaa +pyonaa
ea+einoc+i. Hpenpnnnxa+eicxaa ea+einoc+i, ocymec+-
naexaa c npnnenennex naexnoio +pya, peinc+pnpye+ca xax
npenpna+ne. Hpn i+ox npenpna+ne caxoc+oa+eino ocymec+-
nae+ cnom ea+einoc+i, a +axe pacnopaae+ca npoyxnne n
noynenno npniim noce yna+i naoion. B coo+ne+c+nnn
c saxonoa+eic+nox xoiy+ cosana+ica npenpna+na nac+no,
iocyapc+nenno, xynnnnnaino coc+nennoc+n.
Mynuuuna:tnme npe0npunmun opiannsym+ca opianaxn xec+-
noio caxoynpanenna, nxymec+no +axnx npenpna+n opasye+ca
sa cne+ cpec+n coo+ne+c+nymmeio xec+noio me+a n naxon+ca
n coc+nennoc+n paona, iopoa.
Hacmnme npe0npunmun, cymec+nymmne no xax nonoc+im
nesanncnxie xosac+nymmne cyex+i, no n nne oen-
nenn n nx coc+annix nac+e, xoiy+ nxe+i pasnnnie qopxi
opiannsannn. nonoe, cxemannoe +onapnmec+no, omec+no c
oipannnenno o+ne+c+nennoc+im, a +axe conxec+nie c nno-
c+pannix xann+aox (CH). 3apyenie qnpxi nxainam+
cpec+na n poccncxne npenpna+na, xax npanno, cnennansn-
pymmneca na sapyeno xyxne. Hac+noe npenpna+ne xoe+
i+i n nnnnnyainix.
Hn0ueu0ya:tnoe (ce+enoe) uacmnoe npe0npunmue npnnae-
n+ ipaannny na npane coc+nennoc+n nn nenax eio cexin
na npane ome oeno coc+nennoc+n.
Honnoe vonapnmecvno i+o oennenne nyx nn oee
nn a ocymec+nenna npenpnnnxa+eicxo ea+einoc+n c
neim nsnenenna npnin, ynac+nnxn nnno ynac+nym+ n e-
ax +onapnmec+na, n xai nece+ nonym o+ne+c+nennoc+i no
oasa+eic+nax +onapnmec+na ne +oixo noennix xann+aox,
no n ncex cnonx nxymec+nox. Vi+xn n npnin nonoio +ona-
pnmec+na pacnpeeam+ca xey ynac+nnxaxn nponopnnonaino
oe xaoio ns nnx n omex nxymec+ne +onapnmec+na. Honoe
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O
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H n n n n y a i n i e
n p e n p n a + n a
V n n + a p n i e
n p e n p n a + n a
H p o n s n o c + n e n -
n i e x o o n e p a + n n i
X o s a c + n e n n i e
o e n n e n n a
H o + p e n + e i -
c x n e x o o n e p a -
+ n n i
O m e c + n e n n i e
o p i a n n s a n n n
P e n i n o s n i e
o p i a n n s a n n n
B a i o + n o p n + e i -
n i e q o n i
H e x o x x e p n e c x n e
n a p + n e p c + n a
I o c y a p c + -
n e n n i e
M y n n n n n a i n i e
X o s a c + n e n n i e
+ o n a p n m e c + n a
X o s a c + n e n n i e
o m e c + n a
P
n
c
.

1
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1
.

K

a
c
c
n
q
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64
2.
-

2.1.
,
-

Ocnono pn+xnnno pao+i moio npenpna+na anae+ca


ecnepeonoe n peiyapnoe cnaenne nx cipiex, npoonoi-
c+nennixn +onapaxn, noyqapnxa+axn n pyinxn npexe+axn
xa+epnaino-+exnnnecxoio ocnamenna.
Opiannsonannoe cnaenne npenpna+na npoyx+axn n
npexe+axn xa+epnaino-+exnnnecxoio ocnamenna oecnennnae+
ecnepeonym pao+y nponsnoc+na, nosnoae+ oee nono
yone+nopn+i no+pen+eicxn cnpoc, cnococ+nye+ ycxopennm
oopannnaexoc+n oopo+nix cpec+n, cnnennm nsepex n
nonimennm pen+aeinoc+n pao+i npenpna+na.
3axynxa npoyxnnn n pinonnix yconnax asnpye+ca na
npnnnnnax conpexennoio xapxe+nnia. Pao+nnxn xoxxepnecxnx
cy c noxomim c+pa+ein (non+nx) xapxe+nnia noynam+
nnqopxannm o +ox, ie saxynxa npoyxnnn xoe+ npnnec+n
nanoimym npnii. Hnqopxanna xapxe+nnionix cy
nosnoae+ xoxxepnecxnx cyax npenpna+n omec+nennoio
nn+anna saaionpexenno noio+onn+ica x cxene noc+anmnxon,
xo+opie ne ninonan yconna oionopa, napyman cpoxn
no c+anxn, noc+anan npoyxnnm nnsxoio xanec+na, ne coo+ne+-
c+nymmym +peonannax IOCT.
Pannonainie xosac+nennie cnasn cnococ+nym+ nano-
xepnoxy pasnn+nm ixonoxnxn, caancnponannoc+n cnpoca n
npeoenna, cnoenpexenno noc+anxe npoyxnnn n +onapon
npenpna+nax-no+pen+eax, xo+opie sannxam+ca nponsno-
c+nox npoyxnnn, peansanne n opiannsym+ ee no+peenne.
Pinonnie yconna xosac+nonanna pacmnpnn caxoc+oa+ei-
noc+i n pannonpanne nap+nepon no oionopy, yc+pannn peia-
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65
xen+annm pacnpeeenna pecypcon, nonicnn poi oionopa.
C+oponi noynnn nosxonoc+i caxoc+oa+eino onpeea+i
c+pyx+ypy xosac+nennix cnase, accop+nxen+, cpoxn noc+anxn,
nopaox oc+anxn, xanec+no.
Ceiona noxpyi xpynnix iopoon opiannsonani n pao+am+
cnennansnponannie xosac+na no nponsnoc+ny onome, qpyx-
+on, aio, +ennnno-napnnxonie xoxnna+i, qynxnnonnpye+
ce+i xaco-, xooxo- n pionepepaa+inammnx npenpna+n.
]oc+a+onno iqqex+nnno pao+am+ xoncepnnie sanoi, xo+opie
nxec+e c nxnop+nixn noc+anxaxn oecnennnam+ npenpna+na
omec+nennoio nn+anna mnpoxnx accop+nxen+ox nonix npoyx-
+on nn+anna, saxopoennixn xynnapnixn nsenaxn, caxo
pasno xoncepnno npoyxnne.
]a oecnenenna npenpna+na npoonoic+nennixn npo-
yx+axn neoxonxo pemn+i ceymmne saann.
n+o xynn+i,
cxoixo saxynn+i,
y xoio,
na xaxnx yconnax.
3axynxa +onapa i+o npnope+enne +onapon a aine-
meio neenoio ncnoisonanna. 3axynonnaa pao+a en+ca na
ceymmne i+ani.
nsynenne n npoinosnponanne noxyna+eicxoio cnpoca,
onpeeenne no+penoc+n n cipie n npoyx+ax,
nianenne n nsynenne nc+onnnxon saxynxn, niop no-
c+anmnxon.
K opiannsannn cnaenna npeanam+ca ceymmne oc-
nonnie +peonanna.
noc+anxa neoxonxoio accop+nxen+a +onapon n oc+a-
+onnox xonnec+ne n xanec+na, coo+ne+c+nymmeio +peonannax
IOCTa,
cnoenpexennoc+i n pn+xnnnoc+i sanosa +onapon npn co-
mennn ipaqnxa oc+anxn,
coxpamenne snennoc+n nponnenna +onapon c yne+ox
pannonainoio ncnoisonanna +pancnop+a,
xnnnxnsanna +pyonix n xa+epnainix sa+pa+ npn op-
iannsannn cnaenna.
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66
2.2. .


Conpexennaa inoxa cnoonix pinonnix o+nomenn xapax-
+epnsye+ca paox qax+opon.
xnoec+nennoc+i nc+onnnxon saxynxn,
cnooa niopa nap+nepa no saxynxe npoyxnnn,
cnooa nenoopasonanna,
pannonpanne nap+nepon,
xonxypennna noc+anmnxon n noxyna+ee,
nnnnna+nna, caxoc+oa+einoc+i n npenpnnxnnnoc+i npe-
npnnnxa+ea npn saxynxe npoyxnnn, cipia n +onapon.
Oneni nano niann+i, nsynn+i n nipa+i nanoee noxoa-
mne nc+onnnxn noc+ynenna npoyxnnn n +onapon. Hc+onnnxox
noc+ynenna npoonoic+nennix +onapon n cipia anam+ca
o+pacn nnmeno npoximennoc+n, ceicxoe xosac+no, ecnoe
xosac+no n pioonc+no, xacoxoonnaa npoximennoc+i.
K nocvanmnxav npopyxnnn o+noca+ca npenpna+na pasnn-
nix o+pace naponoio xosac+na, pasnnno nponsnoc+nenno-
ixonoxnnecxo ea+einoc+n, nipaa+inamme +onapi n ycy-
in. B cnasn c oimnx xnoioopasnex noc+anmnxon npoyxnnn
npnxenae+ca nx xaccnqnxanna no pasnnnix npnsnaxax.
Ho veppnvopnannnovy npn:naxy:
xec+nie (nny+pnoac+nie), xo+opie noc+anam+ +onapi
nenocpec+nenno npenpna+nax omec+nennoio nn+anna,
nneoac+nie,
pecnynxancxne,
nnepecnynxancxne.
Ho ogopve cocvnennocvn.
iocyapc+nennie,
xynnnnnainie,
nac+nie,
xoonepa+nnnie,
nnix qopx coc+nennoc+n.
Ho nepovcvnenno npnnapnenocvn.
nny+pncnc+exnie,
nnecnc+exnie.
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67
Ho gynxnnonannnmv npn:naxav:
noc+anmnxn-nsio+onn+en nponsnoc+nennie npe-
npna+na, qnpxi, nac+nie npenpna+na n +. ., ninycxammne
npoyxnnm a yone+nopenna cnpoca no+pen+ee,
noc+anmnxn-nocpennxn, saxynammne npoyxnnm y npo-
nsnon+ee n peansymmnx ee on+onix noxyna+eax (on+onie
npenpna+na). K nnx o+noca+ca on+onie asi no +opione
axaenixn +onapaxn, xacoxoonnixn npoyx+axn, pino
npoyxnne, xap+oqeex, onomaxn, qpyx+axn.
Hocpennnecxne npenpna+na neoxonxi n +ex cynaax,
xoia +peye+ca naxonenne npoyx+on n y npenpna+na ome-
c+nennoio nn+anna ec+i yconna a xpanenna. B i+nx cynaax
nocpennx oen nsa+i na cea qynxnnn, cnasannie c nponn-
ennex +onapa o+ nsio+onn+ea o no+pen+ea.
Boimym nac+i npoyx+on n noyqapnxa+on npenpna+na
omec+nennoio nn+anna npnope+am+ y npoximennix npe-
npna+n (xonn+epcxnx, xaxaponnix qapnx, xacoxoxnna+on,
piosanoon, nxepo-noonnix n nnnnix sanoon, xeoxox-
nna+on n +. .), nepes on+onie asi n cnennansnponannie
npenpna+na, n qepxepcxnx n nnix xosac+nax.
Hoc+anmnxaxn on+onixn npenpna+naxn xoiy+
i+i.
a) onmoeme npe0npunmun o6menauuona:tnoeo (qeepainoio)
n peeuona:tnoeo ypoene pasnnnoio +onapnoio accop+nxen+a.
Onn coc+anam+ ocnony on+ono c+pyx+ypi na no+pen+eicxox
pinxe c+pani, cnennansnpym+ca na on+ono +opiono ea+ei-
noc+n n ncnoisym+ nepexo x nnx npana coc+nennoc+n na +onap
(on+onie +opionni). On+onie +opionni i+o.
onvonme a:m, xo+opie saxynam+ +onapi y npenpna+n-
nsio+onn+ee a noceymme nx npoan npenpna+nax
posnnnno +opionn n omec+nennoio nn+anna,
nmxopnme a:m pasxemam+ca nenocpec+nenno npn xpyn-
nix npoximennix npenpna+nax. Iannaa nx qynxnna op-
iannsanna nponeccon +onaponnenna ns nynx+on nponsnoc+na
n nynx+i no+peenna, npoam+ +onapi xpynnixn nap+naxn
on+onix n posnnnnix npenpna+nax,
voprono-:axynounme a:m pacnoaiam+ca n paonax npe-
npna+n-nsio+onn+ee, sannxam+ca naxonennex +onapa a
npoan n xec+a no+peenna,
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68
vopronme a:m naxoa+ca n xec+ax no+peenna. Ocymec+-
nam+ saxynxy y nsio+onn+ee, nixonix n +opiono-saxynon-
nix as, pyinx nocpennxon, a no+ox npoam+ npenpna+nax
omec+nennoio nn+anna n posnnnnix.
) nocpe0nuueckue onmoeme cmpykmypm, ne ncnoisymmne n
cnoe ea+einoc+n nepexoa x nnx npana coc+nennoc+n na +onap
(npenpna+na-poxepi, nc+pnim+opi, aien+i, nepi).
B xanec+ne nocpennxon xey nsio+onn+eex n no+pen+e-
ex xoiy+ nic+yna+i poxepi n aien+i.
Ocoennoc+i i+nx nocpennxon o+ on+onix as saxmnae+ca
n +ox, n+o onn ne epy+ na cea npano coc+nennoc+n na +onap,
a +oixo opiannsym+ +opioni nponecc. Iannaa qynxnna
poxepon n aien+on coec+nne xyne-npoae, a ocnonnaa
saana na+n noxyna+ea n npoanna, cnec+n nx n noxoni
oionopn+ica o yconnax xynn-npoan n noc+anxn. 3a cnon
ycyin onn noynam+ xoxnccnonnoe nosnaipaenne.
]nep i+o mpnnnecxoe nn qnsnnecxoe nno, ocymec+-
nammee npenoe nn +opionoe nocpennnec+no sa cno cne+ n o+
cnoeio nxenn. ]oxoi nepa opasym+ca sa cne+ pasnnni xey
noxynno n npoano neno +onapa, nam+ n nennix yxai,
n) opeanu:amopm onmoeoeo o6opoma (+onapnie on+onie
apxapxn, ayxnnoni, on+onie n xexoon+onie pinxn, xaiasn-
ni-cxai).
Ocnonno saane i+nx c+pyx+yp anae+ca cosanne yconn
a opiannsannn saxynonno n peansannonno ea+einoc+n
xnen+on. Onn ne anam+ca caxoc+oa+einixn cyex+axn
on+ono +opiono ea+einoc+n.
Onvonaa apvapxa caxoc+oa+einoe pinonnoe xepo-
npna+ne, oc+ynnoe a ncex +onaponponsnon+ee, noc+anmn-
xon n noxyna+ee n yc+anonennox xec+e n na yc+anonenni
cpox. 2pxapxn in npoipeccnnnixn anennaxn, nocxoixy
nospoan yx xonxypennnn xey nponsnon+eaxn onna-
xonix +onapon.
Ayxnnonm (o+ a+. auc/io npoaa c nynnnoio +op-
ia) cnoco npoan +onapon. 3+o nn pinonno +opionn, npn
xo+opox npoanen, eaa noynn+i xaxcnxainym npnii,
ncnoisye+ npaxym xonxypennnm necxoixnx noxyna+ee,
npncy+c+nymmnx npn npoae.
Onvonme pmnxn caxoc+oa+einie xosac+nennie c+pyx-
+ypi, ocymec+nammne opiannsannm xynn-npoan xexnx
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69
nap+n +onapon n onpeeennox xec+e n no onpeeennix npa-
nnax. Hei nx cosanna nonicn+i iqqex+nnnoc+i cnaenna
no+pen+ee npoonoic+nennixn +onapaxn.
B iopoax ec+i on+ono-posnnnnie opiannsannn, xo+opix
xono nopynn+i cnaenne npenpna+na omec+nennoio nn+a-
nna nooonomno npoyxnne. Onn ocymec+nam+ saxynxn,
xpanenne, nepepao+xy n on+onym npoay xap+oqea, onome,
qpyx+on. Hoc+anmnxaxn noyqapnxa+on n xynnapno npo-
yxnnn nac+o nic+ynam+ xpynnie npenpna+na omec+nennoio
nn+anna qapnxn-xyxnn, qapnxn noyqapnxa+on n p.
Boimoe snanenne nxee+ cnaenne npenpna+n omec+nen-
noio nn+anna n qopxe npaxix saxynox ceicxoxosac+nennix
npoyx+on y nponsnon+ee, xnnya asi.
Taxoe paseenne noc+anmnxon na nsio+onn+ee n no-
cpennxon sanncn+ o+ xanaa ci+a ny+i, no xo+opoxy +onapi
nny+ca o+ nponsnon+ea x no+pen+eax.
Hpn opiannsannn cnaenna nao ynn+ina+i n ceec+o-
nxoc+i ninycxaexix m, no ncex cynaax npnope+enne oee
opoioio cipia ono i+i onpanano ninycxox npoyxnnn
nicoxoio xanec+na n cnpocox.
Ceiona npenpna+na mnpoxo ncnoisym+ npoyxnnm
noconix xosac+n. Ec+i nosxonoc+i caxoc+oa+eino opia-
nnsona+i o+xopx cnnne, pasneenne xponxon, noonanamme
n+nni, pasneenne n nion pii n xec+nix nooexax. Onn
xoiy+ cosana+i xoonnie qepxi, oiopoi n +ennnno-nap-
nnxonie xosac+na, n+o nosnoae+ n +enenne non+n nceio ioa
nxe+i seeni yx, yxpon, penc, caa+, apoxa+nnecxym n exo-
pa+nnnym seeni, peneni, xpen, napnnxonie oiypni, noxnopi.
Hona+no, n+o n yconnax pinxa i+n nanpanenna xosac+nenno
ea+einoc+n oni i+i ixonoxnnecxn onpanani. Hexo-
+opie npenpna+na opiannsym+ nponsnoc+no xap+oqeino
xyxn, xnaca, na+oxn, nyxa+on sa cne+ ncnoisonanna nnmenix
o+xoon. B nepno cospenanna n copa noon, onome, ipnon,
aio npenpna+na cosam+ sanaci coenix, xapnnonannix,
cymenix, xnamenix n xoncepnnponannix npoyx+on, n+o nos-
noae+ n +enenne nceio ioa pasnoopasn+i xenm.
Hpn cnaennn nepes +opionie opiannsannn npenpna+na nn-
+anna cnoenpexenno saxmnam+ oionopi na noc+anxn npoyx+on.
Konnec+no neoxonxix npoonoic+nennix +onapon onpeeae+-
ca na ocnone annix o qax+nnecxox pacxoonannn sa npeiymn
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70
nepno c yne+ox nsxenenn, npeycxo+pennix +onapooopo+ox n
nponsnoc+nenno npoipaxxo n nannpyexox nepnoe.
Bo ncex cynaax npn onpeeennn accop+nxen+a +onapon
ynn+inam+ cesonnoc+i, ocoennoc+n cnpoca n ocynnanna
no+pen+ee.
Cnym cnaenna npepnpnavn
Ha npenpna+nax omec+nennoio nn+anna nesanncnxo o+
qopxi coc+nennoc+n cosam+ca cyi cnaenna, n sanncn+
i+o o+ oexa +onapooopo+a qnpxi, na neoimnx npenpn-
a+nax i+y pao+y ninonae+ nasnanenni pao+nnx (+onapone,
aien+), o+ne+c+nenni sa opiannsannm cnaenna.
B xpynnix qnpxax omec+nennoio nn+anna xoxxepnecxaa
cya xoe+ nxe+i ceymmne o+ei.
xapxe+nnia,
no nsynennm cnpoca nn xonmnx+ypi pinxa,
cnaenna.
O+e cnaenna, xax npanno, pao+ae+ caxoc+oa+eino,
ninonaa ceymmne qynxnnn.
nsynenne n npoinosnponanne noxyna+eicxoio cnpoca na
npoyxnnm,
nsynenne n nianenne no+penoc+e naceenna n +onapax
n ycyiax,
nianenne n nsynenne nc+onnnxon noc+ynenna n no-
c+anmnxon +onapon,
saxmnenne oionopon c noc+anmnxaxn,
yc+anonenne pannonainix npaxix oionopnix cnase
c noc+anmnxaxn +onapon,
peiynponanne xosac+nennix cnase no saxynxe,
opiannsanna pexaxi cnoe npoyxnnn n ocynnanne
xnen+on,
ceenne sa nononneennaxn n nponsnoc+ne +onapon,
pexaxe n ynpanennn, opiannsanna yne+a n xon+poa sa nino-
nennex oionopnix oasa+eic+n.
Xo:acvnennme cna:n i+o o+nomenna, cxainammneca
xey noc+anmnxaxn n noxyna+eaxn n nponecce noc+anox +o-
napon. Cma nxoa+ o+nomenna.
ixonoxnnecxne,
opiannsannonnie,
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71
xoxxepnecxne,
axnnnc+pa+nnno-npanonie,
qnnanconie n p.
Becnepeonaa pao+a sanncn+ +axe n o+ nannna +onap-
nix sanacon na npenpna+nn. B xaonix npenpna+n nceia
oen i+i onpeeenni sanac npoyx+on, oc+a+onni a
naeno pao+i.
Hopxa sanacon onpeeae+ca a xaoio npenpna+na c
yne+ox +onapooopo+a n nana no ninycxy m, no xaoxy
nny +onapon n cipia nopxi sanacon oni i+i oocnonani.
Ceye+ ynn+ina+i yaennoc+i npenpna+na o+ as cnaenna,
yconna oc+anxn n xpanenna npoyx+on. Hanpnxep, nex ai-
me pacnooeni noc+anmnxn n xenee yoni yconna sanosa,
+ex oimne sanaci ono nxe+i npenpna+ne. H naoopo+,
ecn noc+anmnxn pacnooeni nsxo, naaena peiyapnaa
oc+anxa, npenpna+nax niionee ne cosana+i oimnx sana-
con. Heisa sanaca+i na n+eini nepno cxoponop+amneca
npoyx+i, a no o+einix +onapax opiannsye+ca eenenni
sanos (xe, xncoxoonnaa npoyxnna n +. .). Heisa sai-
na+i, n sanaci nxainam+ca oopo+nie cpec+na, cosanne
cnepxnopxa+nnnix sanacon npnnon+ x saxeennm +onapooo-
po+a, n+o o+paae+ca na pen+aeinoc+n pao+i npenpna+na.
Kpoxe +oio, npn sa+onapnnannn saipoxoam+ca cxacxne
noxemenna, yconae+ca yne+ n napymae+ca nopxainaa pao+a
xaonmnxon.
B nane cnaenna npenpna+n omec+nennoio nn+anna
onpeeam+ neoxonxoe noc+ynenne xaoio nna +onapon (H)
c yne+ox nannpyexoio pacxoa (P), a +axe nannna sanacon na
nanao (O
1
) n xonen (O
2
) nannpyexoio nepnoa. 3+n noxasa+en
oni i+i cnasani xey coo ceymmnx.
O
1
H = P O
2
,
o+xya
H = P O
2
O
1
.
B yconnax pinonno ixonoxnxn pesyi+a+i ea+einoc+n
npenpna+n n o+nomennn cnaenna no xnoiox sannca+ o+
naeame oqopxenno cnc+exi oionopnix o+nomenn.
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72
Heynopaonennoc+i n oionopax na noc+anxy npoyxnnn
c+anonn+ca cepiesnix npena+c+nnex n cosannn nonix npons-
noc+n n +exnooin, nnepcnqnxannn nponsnoc+na, nnepennn
pesyi+a+on naynnix ncceonann n paspao+ox.
Cvpyxvypa n copepanne poronopa
]a ycnemnoio neenna e neoc+a+onno i+i npenpnnx-
nnnix, nnnnna+nnnix, pncxonix, npee nceio neoxonxo
sna+i npanna n nopxi, xo+opie peiynpym+ noneenne me
n yconnax pinonno ixonoxnxn. A nannnae+ca nce c oionopa.
nxenno n nex samnmennoc+i nsneca o+ neopoconec+nix
nap+nepon, nopxainie nsanxoo+nomenna c noc+anmnxaxn,
naoionixn n nnixn xon+ponpymmnxn opianaxn. Peansanna
xoxxepnecxnx nanon moio npenpnnnxa+ea nenosxona es
conepmenna ceox n saxmnennix oionopon.
]oionop onpeeae+ npana n oasannoc+n c+opon n ocymec+-
nennn xosac+nenno ea+einoc+n n anae+ca cpec+nox,
nanpanennix na yc+anonenne, nsxenenne nn npexpamenne
npanoo+nomenn.
Bcaxaa cexa, n xo+opo nxee+ca oee ono c+oponi,
nxenye+ca oionopox.
]oionop ninonae+ ceymmne qynxnnn.
mpnnnecxn saxpenae+ o+nomenna xey c+oponaxn
oionopa, npnanaa nx xapax+ep oasa+eic+n, ninonenne xo-
+opix oionopeno n saxone,
onpeeae+ nopaox n cnocoi nx ncnonenna,
npeycxa+pnnae+ cnocoi samn+i oasa+eic+n o+ nx
nencnonenna c+oponaxn oionopa.
Hpanonixn nc+onnnxaxn, peiaxen+npymmnxn oionopnie
o+nomenna, anam+ca Ipaancxn xoexc Pd, Ocnoni ipaan-
cxoio saxonoa+eic+na Pd, saxoni n nosaxonnie ax+i, neox-
c+nennie yxasi.
C+oponaxn oionopa xoiy+ nic+yna+i xax qnsnnecxne n
mpnnnecxne nna, +ax n iocyapc+nennie opasonanna n nne
opianon nac+n n ynpanenna, no n mox cynae onn oni
i+i nesanncnxixn, ne naxon+ica no nac+nox nonnnennn
ono c+oponi pyio.
]oionop cnn+ae+ca saxmnennix, xoia xey c+oponaxn
oc+niny+o coiamenne no ncex cymec+nennix eio yconnax.
www.phoenixbooks.ru
407

HACTL I
1. KACCHdHKAHH2 HPE]HPH2THH
OBBECTBEHHOIO HHTAHH2 ........................... 10
1.1. Ocnonnie nona+na n onpeeenna. npenpna+ne
omec+nennoio nn+anna, +nn, xacc npenpna+na,
xanec+no, esonacnoc+i, ixooinnnoc+i ycyi
omec+nennoio nn+anna .......................................10
1.2. Xosac+nymmne cyex+i n cqepe omec+nennoio
nn+anna, nx ocnonnie opiannsannonno-npanonie
qopxi .............................................................11
1.3. Ocoennoc+n nponsnoc+nenno n +opiono
ea+einoc+n npenpna+n omec+nennoio nn+anna .....16
1.4. Kaccnqnxanna npenpna+n no pasnnnix
npnsnaxax. Ocnonnie +nni n xacci npenpna+n
no IOCT P 50762-95 Omec+nennoe nn+anne.
Kaccnqnxanna npenpna+n. Tpeonanna x
npenpna+nax omec+nennoio nn+anna pasnnnix
+nnon n xaccon .................................................18
1.5. 3aio+ononnie npenpna+na omec+nennoio nn+anna.
onpeeenne, xaccnqnxanna, nni, ocoennoc+n
ea+einoc+n .....................................................45
1.6. Hpenpna+na ic+poio ocynnanna (HBO).
nasnanenne, nni, ocoennoc+n ea+einoc+n ..........48
1.7. Hpenpna+na, npeoc+anammne ycyin
no peansannn npoyxnnn omec+nennoio nn+anna ....53
1.8. Pannonainoe pasxemenne ce+n omec+nennoio
nn+anna. dax+opi, nnammne na pasxemenne
npenpna+n .....................................................57
2. OPIAHH3AHH2 HPO]OBOBCTBEHHOIO
H MATEPHABHO-TEXHHHECKOIO
CHAB2EHH2 ................................................... 64
2.1. Pannonainaa opiannsanna cnaenna npenpna+n
omec+nennoio nn+anna cipiex, npoyx+axn n
xa+epnaino-+exnnnecxnxn cpec+naxn ..................64
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408
2.2. Hc+onnnxn cnaenna n noc+anmnxn.
Opiannsanna xosac+nennix cnase
c noc+anmnxaxn .................................................66
2.3. Texnooinnecxn nponecc +onaponnenna,
nonimenne eio iqqex+nnnoc+n .............................80
2.4. Hpnexxa npoonoic+nennix +onapon
n nponsnoc+nenno-+exnnnecxo npoyxnnn .............84
2.5. Opiannsanna xa+epnaino-+exnnnecxoio
cnaenna ........................................................92
3. OPIAHH3AHH2 CKA]CKOIO H TAPHOIO
XO32HCTBA .................................................... 95
3.1. Cxacxoe xosac+no. Texnooinnecxn nponecc
na cxae ..........................................................95
3.2. Opiannsanna +apnoio xosac+na ........................... 103
4. CTPVKTVPA HPOH3BO]CTBA ......................... 109
4.1. Xapax+epnc+nxa c+pyx+ypi nponsnoc+na .............. 109
5. OHEPATHBHOE HAHHPOBAHHE PABOTB
HPOH3BO]CTBA. HOPMATHBHA2
H TEXHOOIHHECKA2 ]OKVMEHTAHH2 ....... 119
5.1. Cymnoc+i onepa+nnnoio nannponanna.
Onepa+nnnoe nannponanne pao+i nponsnoc+na
saio+ononnix npenpna+n ................................ 119
5.2. Onepa+nnnoe nannponanne na oio+ononnix
npenpna+nax n c nonix nnxox nponsnoc+na .... 126
5.3. Bni xenm, nx xapax+epnc+nxa ........................... 131
5.4. Pacne+ cipia n npoyx+on a npnio+onenna
m n coo+ne+c+nnn c nponsnoc+nenno
npoipaxxo .................................................... 138
5.5. C+anap+nsanna npoyxnnn omec+nennoio
nn+anna .......................................................... 141
6. OPIAHH3AHH2 PABOTB OCHOBHBX
HPOH3BO]CTBEHHBX HEXOB ........................ 151
6.1. Opiannsanna pao+i saio+ononnix nexon .............. 151
6.1.1. Opeanu:auun npou:eo0cmea no:ya6pukamoe
e oeomno+ uexe :aeomoeounoeo
npe0npunmun .......................................... 153
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409
6.1.2. Opeanu:auun uenmpa:u:oeannoeo
npou:eo0cmea no:ya6pukamoe u: +nca ........ 161
6.1.3. Opeanu:auun uenmpa:u:oeannoeo
npou:eo0cmea no:ya6pukamoe u: nmuum
u cy6npo0ykmoe ....................................... 171
6.1.4. Opeanu:auun uenmpa:u:oeannoeo
npou:eo0cmea no:ya6pukamoe u: pm6m....... 176
6.1.5. Oco6ennocmu opeanu:auuu npou:eo0cmea
no:ya6pukamoe u ky:unapno npo0ykuuu
na npe0npunmunx o6mecmeennoeo numanun
c no:nm+ npou:eo0cmeennm+ uuk:o+ .......... 182
6.2. Opiannsanna pao+i oio+ononnix nexon ............. 189
6.2.1. Opeanu:auun pa6omm uexa 0opa6omku
no:ya6pukamoe na 0oeomoeounmx
npe0npunmunx ......................................... 189
6.2.2. Opeanu:auun pa6omm uexa o6pa6omku
:e:enu ................................................... 190
6.2.3. Opeanu:auun pa6omm eopnueeo uexa
u eeo om0e:enu ...................................... 191
6.2.4. Opeanu:auun npou:eo0cmea xo:o0noeo
uexa ...................................................... 205
6.3. Cnennansnponannie nexn. nasnanenne,
nponsnoc+nennaa npoipaxxa ............................. 213
6.3.1. Fy:unapnme uexu: opeanu:auun
mexno:oeuueckoeo npouecca u pa6ouux
+ecm ..................................................... 213
6.3.2. Fon0umepckue uexu: oco6ennocmu
opeanu:auuu pa6omm ................................ 215
7. OPIAHH3AHH2 PABOTB
HPOH3BO]CTBEHHBX BCHOMOIATEBHBX
HOMEBEHHH ................................................ 225
8. OPIAHH3AHH2 TPV]A HEPCOHAA
HA HPOH3BO]CTBE ....................................... 230
8.1. Hepcona npenpna+na, eio xapax+epnc+nxa ........... 230
8.2. Opiannsanna +pya nepconaa. Ocnonnie
nanpanenna opiannsannn +pya na nponsnoc+ne .... 233
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410
8.3. Ocnonnie xe+oi pannonaino opiannsannn
+pya ............................................................. 246
8.4. Kaccnqnxanna sa+pa+ paoneio npexenn .............. 249
8.5. Me+oi ncceonanna +pyonix nponeccon
n sa+pa+ paoneio npexenn ................................. 251
9. PEAH3AHH2 IOTOBOH HPO]VKHHH
OBBECTBEHHOIO HHTAHH2 ......................... 264
9.1. Peansanna npoyxnnn omec+nennoio nn+anna
n ee qopxi ..................................................... 264
9.2. Opiannsanna xon+poa xanec+na npoyxnnn ........... 270
HACTL II
1. KACCHdHKAHH2 HPE]HPH2THH
OBBECTBEHHOIO HHTAHH2 ......................... 281
1.1. Hpax+nnecxoe n cexnnapcxoe sana+na ................... 281
1.2. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Pao+a c nopxa+nnnixn
oxyxen+axn .................................................. 286
1.3. Vpox-npesen+anna npenpna+n pasnnnoio +nna .... 292
2. OPIAHH3AHH2 HPO]OBOBCTBEHHOIO
H MATEPHABHO-TEXHHHECKOIO
CHAB2EHH2 ................................................. 297
Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Coc+anenne oionopon
noc+anxn, oxyxen+ainoe oqopxenne npnexxn
+onapon n pemenne nponsnoc+nennix cn+yann .... 297
3. OPIAHH3AHH2 CKA]CKOIO H TAPHOIO
XO32HCTBA .................................................. 304
Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Pacne+ nomae
a xpanenna npoyx+on na cxae n pemenne
cn+yann, cnasannix c +exnooinnecxnx
nponeccox cxaa ............................................ 304
4. CTPVKTVPA HPOH3BO]CTBA ......................... 311
Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Paspao+xa c+pyx+ypi
nponsnoc+na npenpna+na ................................ 311
5. OHEPATHBHOE HAHHPOBAHHE PABOTB
HPOH3BO]CTBA ............................................ 316
www.phoenixbooks.ru
5.1. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Coc+anenne
nponsnoc+nenno npoipaxxi saio+ononnoio
npenpna+na .................................................. 316
5.2. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Coc+anenne nana-xenm
oio+ononnoio npenpna+na .............................. 321
5.3. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Coc+anenne nana-xenm
cxoxnex+onannix pannonon nn+anna ................. 326
5.4. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Pacne+ cipia no xacce
py++o n ne++o no nany-xenm ........................... 334
5.5. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Coc+anenne
nponsnoc+nenno npoipaxxi xonn+epcxoio
n xynnapnoio nexon ........................................ 338
6. OPIAHH3AHH2 PABOTB OCHOBHBX
HPOH3BO]CTBEHHBX HEXOB ........................ 343
6.1. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Opiannsanna
+exnooinnecxnx nponeccon n saio+ononnix nexax
npenpna+na .................................................. 343
6.2. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Anans opiannsannn
pao+i nponsnoc+na n +pya n nexax .................. 351
(`pok na npou:eo0cmee) ..................................... 351
6.3. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Pemenne cn+yannonnix
saan no opiannsannn pao+i nponsnoc+nennix
nexon ............................................................ 354
6.4. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Hoop oopyonanna
n nnnen+apa a pasnnnix nexon ...................... 365
7. OPIAHH3AHH2 TPV]A HEPCOHAA
HA HPOH3BO]CTBE ....................................... 373
7.1. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Onpeeenne nncennoc+n
pao+nnxon nponsnoc+na .................................. 373
7.2. Hpax+nnecxoe sana+ne Coc+anenne ipaqnxon
nixoa na pao+y a pao+nnxon saio+ononnix
n oio+ononnix npenpna+n ............................ 380
HPHO2EHH2 ........................................................ 386
OTBETB HA 3A]AHH2 HO TEMAM ........................... 399
n+epa+ypa .............................................................. 404
www.phoenixbooks.ru
Cepun Cpe0nee npoeccuona:tnoe o6pa:oeanue
Toponona Hnna ,vnvpnenna
OPIAHH3AHHR HPOH3BO,CTBA
HA HPE,HPHRTHRX OEHECTBEHHOIO HHTAHHR
`ue6noe noco6ue
O+ne+c+nenni peax+op H. Xu:nkoe
Texnnnecxn peax+op H. Baepnnueea
Xyonnx A. Bapmanoe
Koppex+opi O. Mu:oeanoea, M. Henexuna, B. Reo6amnn
Honncano n ne na+i 24.06.2010.
dopxa+ 84108/32. Byx. +nn N 2.
Iapnn+ypa CG Times. Hena+i oqce+naa. Vc. n. . 21,84.
Tnpa 2500 ixs. 3ax. N
OOO dennxc
344082, i. Poc+on-na-]ony, nep. Xa+ypnncxn, 80
O+nena+ano c io+onix nanosn+nnon n 3AO Knnia
344019, i. Poc+on-na-]ony, y. Cone+cxaa, 57
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