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Chapter-5 Role Focused OD Interventions

Submitted To : Prof. Margie Parikh

Presented by: Bhavini Padhariya(11020) Pinkal shah(11076)

• An organization depends on how roles are preformed • Linkage between individual and organization • That determines both individual and organization effectiveness

• Types of role based interventions
o Role analysis o Role negotiation o renegotiation

Mutuality Vs Exclusiveness

Creativity Vs Conformity


Confrontation Vs Avoidness

Exploration Vs Expectatation

focus on key performance area(KPA) • Competency analysis.Role analysis • Role analysis helps to understand o Functions of role o Critical attributes of role o Expectation and performance of role • Task analysis.focus on competency and their indicators o Rearrange schedule o Responds to situations o Adapt to working style o Help others .

collaboration • Set clear objectives • Objectives feedback • Facilitate Training and developments needs • planning . team sprit.Advantages • Bring role clarity • Greater understanding of expectations • Build trust.

Role Analysis Technique(RAT) • Suggested by Dayal (1969) • Overall picture of the role • Contribution of role • Inter linkage to related roles .

Steps in role analysis technique(RAT) Analysis of role Discussion by group Development Preparation of role profile .

major contribution 3) Expectation of role 4) Expectation of other role 5) Consolidation of expectations 6) Consolidation of behavioral norms 7) Preparation of critical attributes .Role analysis process 1) Preparation : o Identify role o Identify other roles o Bringing together role member 2) Mission statements of focal role.

goals.Comprehensive role analysis • Contextual analysis(mission. skill) • Performance analysis • Function analysis • Discrepancy analysis . tasks) • Activity analysis • Competency analysis( knowledge.

Role Efficacy Lab • “Role efficacy means potential effectiveness of an individual occupying a particular role in an organization” • Effectiveness of a person will depend on o his/her own potential effectiveness o Potential effectiveness of the role o The organization climate .

Dimensions of role efficacy lab Self role integration • integration • distance proactively • Proactive behavior • Reactive behavior creativity • opportunity • routine Confrontation •Solving problems •Avoiding problem influence • more • less Personal growth • Providing opportunity • Don’t provide Inter role linkage • Linking • Joint effort Helping relationships •help •Don’t help .

Managing role stress • Types of stress o Productive or functional stress (eustress) o Dysfunctional stress (distress) • Concepts of role stress o Role space related stress o Role set related stress .

role space related stress and conflicts • Role space consists of the all the functions. process and people associated with the role • Also various roles the individual perform at a given point of time • Three variable o Self o The role under question o Other role which he/she occupy o Self role distance o Intra role conflict o Role stagnation o Inter role distance • Types: .

Role set conflicts • Role set consists is all the members who have expectation from the role holder and his/her obligation to them • Conflict arise as a result of non compatibility among the expectation by the others or himself/herself • Types: o Role ambiguity o Role expectation conflict o Role overload o Role erosion o Resource inadequacy o Personal inadequacy .

Role negotiation for role set based interventions • Purpose o To help individuals or groups to develop ways of increasing collaboration and support to attain common goals. or for a supervisor’s team. • Participants o Negotiation can be used for same department or for the functional teams. .

The Process of Role Negotiation Unfreezing Negotiation Closing Follow-up .

Unfreezing Microlab • Relate to the self. and appreciation of each others’ contribution to the organizational goals. trust . • Both verbal and non-verbal items can be included. • For intra-team working “Desert survival” and “Broken Squares” and for inter-team dynamics “Maximizing Your Resources” is a good exercise. other persons. congruence and empathy do you find in the image? Image sharing Empathy building • Write down five main strengths of the other group  shared with each other. and mutual Introduction support. organization. . • Basic concept of role negotiation and the conditions necessary for success. Image building • Prepare images of themselves • Image of the other roles/group and • Guess what image the other has made of them (fantasy image) • How much reciprocity and “packing order ” do you see in the image? • How much catharsis . • To Build mutual empathy. • Harrision calls “contracting” • Emphasis on staying away for personal aspects and on the need for openness .

Exchange of expectations Clarification on expectations • Clarifications are asked for and made . . increase.Negotiation • The consultant elaborates the idea of negotiation . • Against each expectation they write their own expectation. • The fact that others would not help if this did not have sufficient pay-off for them Introduction • Mutuality is emphasized. or do better. Preparation for expectations • • • • Lists are prepared in verb form to indicate action and behavior Continue to do Stop or reduce Start . • The groups exchange expectations. • No discussion is allowed at this stage. Preparation for negotiation • The groups go through the list of expectations and mark those that are beyond them.

Negotiation continue…. Review in home groups • Continue until all items are settled. Role negotiation continued Developing contract • Form of integrated statements... • The terms “we shall do. . • In a fish bowl design . • An agreed list of items to be negotiated with other roles is also developed.if you. Role negotiation • Critically reviewed and items requiring further details or negotiation are identified.” are replaced by “we agree to the following arrangements.” signed by participants.

mutuality and further support from them. • Sharing with seniors o Useful for building a climate of openness . Follow-up • Review Process .Closing • Implementation details o The mechanisms and other details relating to the review meetings.

” • There is an emphasis on empathy and unconditional support in it. maturity. improved functioning and improved coping with life of the other. • Helping can be responsive or proactive .Role Contribution • According to Carl Rogers . a helping relationship is one “in which at least one of the parties has the intent of promoting growth. development.

Phases of Role contribution Unfreezing Contribution Closing Follow-up .

extension. affiliation and dependency.Unfreezing • MAO-B and MAO-C. Instruments Introduction • The consultant may expound the need for mutuality for role effectiveness and the role of taking initiative in helping other role occupants to become effective. • MAO-B helps respondents to examine role behavior in terms of the functional and dysfunctional aspects of the six motives achievement. Discussion of instruments • Feedback on the instruments. influence. Exercise on helping • “Broken Squares” Emfeed • • • • Group of three members His/her self concept (Strengths and weaknesses) His/her three main concerns His/her image of the organization and self image . control.

Unfreezing continue… Image sharing • Preparation of one’s own image. own image as perceived by others and sharing the images and discussing- To build positive images of each other Exercise on collaboration • Maximize gains. can be used to examine the process of inter-team competition and collaboration working in teams. . the other’s image .

Introduction Super ordination • Realization that goals cannot be achieved by any one party alone without the cooperation of the others. Clearing up & clarification . the collaborative process and the effectiveness based on empathy and trust. • Why i/we want to / may not contribute to your role effectiveness? • My/our contribution to your role Preparation • What can you do to help me contribute? of offers • The lists are exchanged and the groups mark items that need clarification.Contribution • Dynamics of a helping relationship.? Exchange of offers • Representatives of the group sit in a fish bowl design and clarify the statements made.

• Reviewed by each group for a consensus and commitment by all members of the groups.Contribution continue… Reciprocal contribution • The groups meet in their home bases and against each offer made. . write an offer in exchange • Emphasis is to match each offer by a complementary one. Agreement on offers Developing pledge • A small team is formed to prepare a common integrated pledge. • Everyone signs the pledge. Review in groups • The whole community meets to reach an agreement on the offers made and accepted. Discussion of offers • Discussed and modifications may be tentatively suggested.

• Implementation details o A detailed. specific..mutuality and further support from them. time-bound plan is prepared for implementing the pledge. • Sharing with seniors o Useful for building a climate of openness . Follow-up • Review Process .Closing • Force field analysis o Identify positive and negative forces for successful implementation of the pledge and presented.

untrustworthy Negotiated agreement based on enforceable guarantee Focus is on the rights. self seeking behavior Negotiated agreement based on empathy On Contributions and help offered to each other Target of change Working relationships.Distinction between role negotiation and role contribution Dimensions Basic assumptions about people Management of conflicts and difference Diagnosis Role negotiation Try to maximize their own interest . duties. Working pressure and Authority of role occupants rewards for acting on agreements Not based on potent reward and sanctions. Role contribution One basic human need is to be relevant and do well to others . privilege of role occupants. power . can be exploitative. unwillingness to aaply Insufficient working through of differences Vulnerability .

Team Roles for team effectiveness (Belbin) Actionoriented roles Shaper Peopleoriented roles Coordinator Cerebral roles Plant Monitor evaluator Implementer Completer Team worker Resource investigator Specialist .