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Q.1 Explain the different types of communication with relevant examples?

for Smu Assignment Semester 1 CompleteScribd Upload a Document Search Documents Explore DocumentsBooks - FictionBooks - Non-fictionHealth & MedicineBrochures/CatalogsGovernment DocsHow-To Guides/ManualsMagazines/NewspapersRecipes/MenusSchool Work+ all categoriesFeaturedRecentPeopleAuthorsStudentsResearchersPublishersGovernment & NonprofitsBusinessesMusiciansArtists & DesignersTeachers+ all categoriesMost FollowedPopularSign Up|Log InYou're looking at our new document page format. Have any thoughts? Leave us your feedback. inShare0Embed DocCopy LinkReadcastCollections7CommentsGo BackDownload Assignment Set- 1 Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1MB0038 Management Process and Organization BehaviorQ.1 Write a note on the managerial roles and skills? ANS:According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows: 1. Informational roles2. Decisional roles3. Interpersonal roles1.Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminatinginformation as and when required. Following are the main sub-roles, whichmanagers often perform:a. Monitor collecting information from organizations, both from inside andoutside of the organizationb. Disseminator communicatinginformation to organizational membersc. Spokesperson representing the organization to outsiders2.Decisional roles:It involves decision making. Again, this role can be sub-divided in to the following:a. Entrepreneur initiating new ideas to improve organizational performanceb. Disturbance handlers takingcorrective actionto cope with adverse situationc. Resource allocators allocating human, physical, and monetary resourcesd. Negotiator negotiating withtrade unions, or any other stakeholders 3. Inter`personal roles: This role involves activities with people working in theorganization. This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles.Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three sub-headings:a. Figurehead Ceremonial and symbolic roleb. Leadership leading organization in terms of recruiting,motivating etc.c. Liaison liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities.Management Skills: Katz (1974) has identified threeessentialmanagement skills: technical, human, and conceptual.Technical skills:The ability isto applyspecialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technicalskills on the job. Vocational and on-the-job training programs can be usedtodevelopthis type of skill.Human Skill:This is the ability to work with, understand and motivate otherpeople (both individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards othersissues andconcerns. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not withinterpersonal skills, may face difficulty to manage their subordinates. To acquirethe Human Skill, it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others,ability to motivate others even in adverse situation, andcommunicateown feelingsto others in a positive and inspiring way.Conceptual Skill:This is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation andforward a feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options andchoosing the best available option. Q.2 Explain the social learning theory in details?ANS: One of the most influential learning theories, the Social Learning Theory(SLT), was formulated by Albert Bandura. It encompasses concepts of traditionallearning theory and the

operant conditioning of B.F. Skinner.However, the theory strongly implies that there are types of learning wherein directreinforcement is not the causal mechanism; rather, the so called social element canresult to the development of new learning among individuals. Social LearningTheory has been useful in explaining how people can learn new things and developnew behaviors by observing other people. It is to assume, therefore, that SocialLearning Theory is concerned on observational learning process among people.A. Basic Concepts1. Observational LearningThe Social Learning Theory says that people canlearn by watching other people perform the behavior. Observational learningexplains the nature of children to learn behaviors by watching the behaviorof the people around them, and eventually, imitating them. With the BoboDoll experiment(s),Bandura included an adult who is tasked to actaggressively toward a Bobo Doll while the children observe him. Later,Bandura let the children play inside a room with the Bobo Doll. He affirmedthat these children imitated the aggressive behavior toward the doll, whichthey had observed earlier.After his studies, Bandura was able to determine 3 basic models of observational learning, which include: Assignment Set- 2 Q.1 Explain the theories of emotion? ANS:Psychologists have proposed a number of theories about the origins andfunction of emotions. The theorists behind the dissenting views do agree on onething, however: emotion has a biological basis. This is evidenced by the fact thattheamygdala(part of the limbic system of the brain), which plays a large role inemotion, is activated before any direct involvement of thecerebral cortex(wherememory, awareness, and conscious "thinking" take place).In the history of emotion theory, four major explanations for the complex mentaland physical experiences that we call "feelings" have been put forward. They are:theJames-Lange theoryin the 1920's, theCannon-Bard theoryin the 1930's, theSchacter-Singer theoryin the 1960's, and most recently theLazarus theory,developed in the 1980's and 90's. The James-Lange TheoryThe James-Lange theory proposes that an event or stimulus causes a physiologicalarousal without any interpretation or conscious thought, and you experience theresulting emotion only after you interpret the physical response. Example:You're late leaving work, and as you head across the parking lot to your car, youhear footsteps behind you in the dark. Your heart pounds and your hands start toshake. You interpret these physical responses as fear. The Cannon-Bard TheoryThe Cannon-Bard theory, on the other hand, suggests that the given stimulusevokes both a physiological and an emotional response simultaneously, and thatneither one causes the other. Example:You're home alone and hear creaking in the hallway outside your room. You beginto tremble and sweat, and you feel afraid.The Schacter-Singer TheoryThe Schachter-Singer theory takes a more cognitive approach to the issue. Schacterand Singer believe that an event causes physiological arousal, but that you mustthen identify a reason for the arousal before you label the emotion. Example:You're taking the last bus of the night, and you're the only passenger. A single mangets on and sits in the row behind you. When your stop comes around, he also getsoff the bus. He's walking behind you. You feel tingles down your spine with a rushof adrenaline. You know that there have been several muggings in your city overthe past few weeks, so you feel afraid. The Lazarus TheoryThe Lazarus theory builds on the Schacter-Singer theory, taking it to another level.It proposes that when an event occurs, a cognitive appraisal is made (eitherconsciously or subconsciously), and based on the result of that appraisal, anemotion and physiological response follow. Example:You're buying a few last-minute items at the gas station, when two young men inhooded sweatshirts enter the store in a hurry, with their hands in their jacket

pockets. You think perhaps they're here to rob the place, so you get scared, and your feel like you might throw up. While each of these theories is based in research, there is no absolute proof as yethow emotions arise in our bodies and minds, or what determines our ownindividual experiences of them. What we do know is that feelings are a powerfulforce to be reckoned with, and should never be belittled.Q.2 Discuss the techniques of decision making in groups?ANS : Planning for Decision MakingWhile decision making without planning is fairly common, it is often not pretty.The terms used to describe it--crisis management, putting out fires, seat-of-the-pants governing--all reveal the inelegance and awkwardness of this way of life.Planning allows decisions to be made in a much more comfortable and intelligentway. Planning even makes decisions easier by providing guidelines and goals for the decision. We might even say that planning is a type of decision simplificationtechnique (see the discussion of these techniques below).Decision makers will find four major benefits to planning:1. Planning allows the establishment of independent goals.The vision whichwill shape the decisions is set apart from surrounding events. Decisions are notmade only as reactions to external stimuli. "Management by firefighting" isreplaced by a conscious and directed series of choices. Managers now steer theorganization, individuals now steer their lives, rather than being steered by externalforces. Sometimes the difference between planning and not planning is describedas "proactive" (taking control of the situation) versus "reactive" (responding tostimuli).2. Planning provides a standard of measurement.A plan provides something tomeasure against, so that you can discover whether or not you are achieving orheading toward your goals. As the proverb says, If you don't know where you'regoing, it doesn't matter which way you go. 3. Planning converts values to action.When you are faced with a decision, youcan consult your plan and determine which decision will help advance your planbest. Decisions made under the guidance of planning can work together in acoherent way to advance company or individual goals.Planning is useful in emergency situations, too. When a crisis arises, a littlethought about the overall plan will help determine which decision to make that willnot only help resolve the crisis but will also help advance the overall plan. Withouta plan, crises are dealt with haphazardly and decisions are made which mayultimately be in conflict with each other. 4. Planning allows limited resources to be committed in an orderly way. Budgets, time, effort, manpower--all are limited. Their best use can be made whena plan governs their use. A simple example would be planning to buy a house or a car. Rather than havingto decide between buying the item right now with all cash or never having it, youcan plan to buy it over several years by making payments. Or, you might combinethis plan with the plan to buy a smaller house and add rooms later as they could beafforded. By planning you can thus accomplish things that might otherwise look impossible. Decision LevelsWe all recognize that some decisions are more important than others, whether intheir immediate impact or long term significance. As a means of understanding thesignificance of a decision so that we can know how much time and resources tospend on it, three levels of decision have been identified:1. Strategic.Strategic decisions are the highest level. Here a decision concernsgeneral direction, long term goals, philosophies and values. These decisions are theleast structured and most imaginative; they are the most risky and of the mostuncertain outcome, partly because they reach so far into the future and partlybecause they are of such importance.For example: Decisions about what to do with your life, what to learn, or what methods to use to gain knowledge (travel, work, school) would be strategic.Whether to produce a low priced product and gain market share or produce a high priced product for a niche market would be a strategic decision.

2. Tactical.Tactical decisions support strategic decisions. They tend to be mediumrange, medium significance, with moderate consequences.For example: If your strategic decision were to become a forest ranger, a tacticaldecision would include where to go to school and what books to read. Or if your company decided to produce a low priced product, a tactical decision might be tobuild a new factory to produce them at a low manufacturing cost. 3. Operational.These are every day decisions, used to support tactical decisions.They are often made with little thought and are structured. Their impact isimmediate, short term, short range, and usually low cost. The consequences of abad operational decision will be minimal, although aseriesof bad or sloppyoperational decisions can cause harm. Operational decisions can bepreprogrammed, pre-made, or set out clearly in policy manuals.For example: If your tactical decision is to read some books on forestry, your operational decision would involve where to shop for the books. You might have a personal policy of shopping for books at a certain store or two. Thus, theoperational decision is highly structured: "Whenever books are needed, look at Joe's Books." An important comment should be made here. Issues should be examined anddecisions should be made at all of these levels. If you discover that nearly all of your thinking and decision making is taking place at the operational level, then youare probably not doing enough strategic thinking and planning. As a result you willlead a reactive life, responding only to the forces around you and never gettingcontrol of your life, your direction or your goals.Some Techniques for Decision Making This is a list of easy, practical techniques that can be applied to simple or complexdecisions. They share the assumption that circumspect analysis is the key tomaking good decisions. Many decisions are made with too little information andtoo little thought, in a non-deliberate way. Think about it for a moment: how manypeople do you know who commonly spend even five minutes structuring andanalyzing a decision?Note how these techniques provide a visible, structured, orderly set of factorsinvolved in a decision, so that the decision maker can consider them in a thoughtfuland coherent way. The first three techniques are especially for whether-typedecisions, those involving yes/no, either/or, or two-possibility decisions.1. T-Chart.A T-Chart is an orderly, graphic representation of alternative featuresor points involved in a decision. In one form, it can be a list of positive andnegative attributes surrounding a particular choice. Drawing up such a chartinsures that both the positive and negative aspects of each direction or decision willbe taken into account.For example, what are the pros and cons of deciding to buy a sport utility vehicle?PRO CON better visibility higher insurancesafer structure poorer gas mileagecan take off road more expensive maintenance As simple as this technique seems to be, and as often as others will tell you, "Well,of course, everyone does that all the time," this is a very powerful but muchneglected technique. Most people believe they list the pluses and minuses of adecision before making it, but in actual practice, many people make a decision orform an opinionbeforethey consider the evidence in an orderly way. Only afterthey make a decision do they hunt around for reasons to support it.Considering the evidence on both (or all) sides before you commit yourself emotionally and psychologically to a position will have a major impact on thequality of your decision making.3. Buriden's Ass.This method of decision making is used when two or moreequally attractive alternatives are faced. (From an old fable of an ass placedbetween two equally nice bales of hay. The ass

couldn't decide which bale to turnto because they were both so attractive, and so it starved to death from indecision.)The method is simply to list all the negative points or drawbacks about eachdecision. That is, when two or more alternatives seem very desirable, we becomeblinded to any drawbacks. The Buriden's Ass method simply focuses on thedrawbacks.4. Measured Criteria.With this technique, you list the criteria you want yourdecision to meet and assign points to each criterion based on its relative importancein the decision. Then, each alternative is given a certain number of pointsaccording to how fully it meets the criterion. For points you can use a scale of 1 to10, 1 to 100, or any other range that makes sense to you.In the example below, traveling by train is rated at 25 out of 30 points for the"comfort" criterion, while the plane is ranked a little less comfortable, at 21 out of 30. Once all the alternatives have been assigned their due points for each criterion,all the points for each alternative are added up and the alternative with the highesttotal points is the one chosen. In the example below, that would be the plane.5. Decision Matrix or Weighted Decision Table.This is a slightly moresophisticated version of the measured criteria technique. Here a table is set up witheach criterion given a weight depending on its importance in the decision and witheach alternative given a ranking for that criterion.Q.3 Elaborate the different stages in process of conflict?ANS: The conflict process can be seen as comprising five stages:(1)Potential opposition or incompatibility- The first step in the conflict process isthe presence on conditions that create opportunities for conflict to rise. These causeor create opportunities for conflict to rise.(2)Cognition and personalization-conflict must be perceived by the parties to itwhether or not conflict exists is a perception issue.(3)Intentions-Intentions are decisions to act in a given way intentions intervene between peoples perception and emotions and their overt behavior. Theseintentions are Competing, Collaborating, Avoiding, Accommodating orCompromising.(4)Behavior-This is a stage where conflict becomes visible. The behavior stageincludes the statements, actions and reactions made by the conflicting parties.(5)Outcome-The action reaction interplay between the conflicting parties result inconsequences. These outcomes may be functional in that the conflict results in animprovement in the grou ps performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders groupperformance. Q.4 Write a note on GAS ( General Adaptation Syndrome)? ANS: GAS or General Adaptation Syndrome is a very common medical problemthat can have very serious repercussions if left unattended. It was psychologistHans Selye who discovered that prolonged and excessive stress can lead toinfection, illness, disease and death. He then named this condition GeneralAdaptation Syndrome (GAS).In general, there are three stages of GAS. They are Alarm, Resistance andExhaustion. Let's talk a bit about each stage.Stage One: AlarmAlarm is essentially the initiation of the "fight of flight" response which preparesthe body for life-threatening situations. Normal body activities such as thedigestive and immune functions are blunted or nearly shut down in order to supplyresources to more immediate muscular and emotional needs.Stage Two: ResistanceNow, if we're under a constant state of alarm, we are in essence living in constantstate of stress. At this point we start becoming used to these stress levels.The funny thing about this stage is that initially our body and immune system arebecomingmoreresistance to stress and disease.However, this stage requires abnormally high levels of emotional and physicalresources. If things do not change for the better then the next stage of the GASprocess is inevitable. Stage Three: ExhaustionEventually reality kicks in and our bodies are unable to maintain high levels of stress resistance. Parts of the body literally start to break down and we becomevery unwell.To conclude this first section, please understand that Hans Selye and others expertsare convinced that out-of-control

stress negatively influences a person's entireorganism. Furthermore, these authorities believe that if left untreated, run awaystress can result in disease and eventual death.The point here is that as a hypnotist, your contribution as a stress managementconsultant is far more important than most people realize. Unmanaged stress is not just an 'inconvenience'. It is a health threaten By the way, remember to take someof your own medicine once in a while and listen to stress reduction hypnosis CDs.It is much easier to convince a client of the benefits of successful stressmanagement when you are 100% congruent because of satisfying experience.By the way, remember to take some of your own medicine once in a while andlisten to stress reduction hypnosis CDs. It is much easier to convince a client of thebenefits of successful stress management when you are 100% congruent because of satisfying experience.Now, let's look at a case history that shows how to help a client suffering fromsevere GAS.When You're Client Has GAS --The Case of BobFirst of all, in order to help a client with G.A.S., they must learn how to F.A.R.T.and B.U.R.P. so they can ultimately P.O.O.P. Now, before a person can B.U.R.P. ( Begin Utilizing Response Procedures) orP.O.O.P. (Pursue Optimal Outcomes Persistently), they have to F.A.R.T. That is,they have to firstFormulate Appropriate Response Techniques.This can be reduced to a simple statement. When a person starts to suffer fromstress, they must S.T.O.P. and B.E.A.N.O.That is, they mustStart To Observe Purposefullyso that they can then Become Excited And Noticeably Optimistic.If they are unable to S.T.O.P and B.E.A.N.O.,then they will have to F.A.R.T., B.U.R.P. and most likely, P.O.O.P.Let's look at a case history involving my client Bob. Bob has suffered for quitesome time from severe stress effects.When he first came to our office, we realized that he was emotionally plugged up.In other words, his feelings were so bottled up that he absolutely could notP.O.O.P.The reason became apparent when it was discovered that he had never beforelearned how to properly F.A.R.T. and B.U.R.P. in response to stress.I knew this was not a case where the client could simply B.E.A.N.O. because thatwould not address the cause of his inability to P.O.O.P.What he needed was an E.N.E.M.A. ( Entirely New Explicit Meaning Association).As the reader may have guessed, this was a very sensitive situation because itinvolved reframing a learned response that was created in response to a family of origin dynamic. And, don't forget that the family members of your client are also benefiting fromyour valuable and skilled assistance because they have longer to enjoy a healthierand happier mom, dad or other important person.In closing I'd like to share a quote that can point a person toward a significantlymore relaxed state of mind and being:Q.5 Discuss the power and influence tactics?ANS:The general objective of this study was to examine the supervisors and subordinates use of power and their relationships to supervisors use of influence tactics. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine powercongruence and its impact on influence tactics in manufacturing companies inMalaysia. The present research differs from the previous studies by linking power congruence between supervisors and subordinates power either from self or as perceived by their subordinates or supervisors with threedimensions of influence tactics known as, hard, soft, and rational appealtactics. This study is perhaps the first that tested congruence hypothesis in leadership framework. The objective was to gain insight into ways by whichthe management of manufacturing companies might use their power toenhance the effective use of influence tactics on their subordinates. Tenbroadly hypothesized relationships were tested in a field study with a sampleof 385 pairs of supervisors and subordinates working in 82 manufacturingcompanies in Selangor/Kuala Lumpur, Penang, and Sarawak. Data weregathered from both supervisors and their subordinates by means of

questionnaires. Methodologically, past research had been prone to commonmethod bias. However, this study has demonstrated to be relatively free fromthis bias by collecting data from two sources. By and large, the results from the analyses have indicated moderate support for the hypotheses. This studyis perhaps the first to generate a new set of power congruence items in whichsimultaneous measurement from two perspectives-supervisors andsubordinates-were taken to examine the aspect of mutuality. The first fourhypotheses which investigate the direct relationship between supervisors orsubordinates power and influence tactics revealed that supervisors wouldapply various influence tactics on their subordinates. Rational appeal tacticshas exhibited the highest mean as compared with soft and hard influencetactics in the direct relationship between power and influence tactics. For theindirect hypotheses, only one particular dimension of influence tactics wasfound significant for each power congruence hypotheses. The resultsconfirmed that when both supervisors and subordinates were perceived tohave position power, the use of hard influence tactics was most apparent.Conversely, when both of them were seen to have personal power,supervisors would resort to the use of soft influence tactics. Inevitably, thisstudy provides a conceptual foundation for the effective use of influencetactics. This study may be useful for those who are in positions of influence, tohelp the supervisors and subordinates understand more clearly the bases of their own actions, and the possible alternatives to their actions. Practically,this research points to the fact that Malaysian managers and executives needto betrained in the effective use of influence tactics.Q.6 Explain the characteristics of organization Development?ANS:Values of ODThis model places human centered values above everythingelse. They are the engine of its success. These values include mutual trust andconfidence, honesty and open communication, sensitivity and to the feeling and emotions of others, shared goals, and a commitment to addressing and resolvingconflict (Buchanan and Huczynski, 1997, p.489). There are organizations whovalue these human attributes above all other quick fix benefits. Stephen Robbins(1986, p.461) expresses these human values more concisely as follows:a) The individual should be treated with respect and dignity.b) The organization climate should be characterized by trust, openness andsupport.c) Hierarchical authority and control are not regarded as effective mechanisms.d) Problems and conflicts should be confronted, and not disguised or avoided.e) People affected by change should be involved in its implementation.These values make OD a unique model and it will be shown later why it is themost suitable approach in resolving human afflictions and problems such aspoverty alleviation.OD ApproachesThere are at least three planned change models that have been identified byCummings and Worley (1997) as shown in figure II below. The first and thesecond are principally different but the third one is an improved version of ActionResearch methodology which has taken centre stage in the 1990s to take care of the trend of emerging mega organizations, strategic alliances, mergers and public private partnerships. The improved version named the Contemporary ActionResearch model is of great interest to the workshop participants as it can be used topromote projects in both public and private organizations. Later in this paper it willbe shown how it can be used to promote Poverty Reduction Strategies and gendermainstreaming in local government. The distinction between Lewins model and Action Research model is in therepetitive nature of action research. Lewins model is a once only intervention.Buchanan and Huczynski, (1997) give seven steps that are followed in thisintervention.1. Scouting the initial stages of consultant and client exchanging ideas on theproblem and the appropriate approach.2. Entry contract

is entered into to formalize the relationship of consultant andclient.3. Diagnosis information gathering to define the problem and identify causes.4. Planning consultant and client members jointly establish the goals of anOD intervention and the proposed approach5. Action the intervention strategies are implemented.6. Stabilization and Evaluation the change is stabilized (freezing takes place)and the outcomes are assessed.7. Termination The consultant withdraws from the assignment.The action research model differs in several particular ways with the Lewinsmodel. In action research the outcomes are fed back so that further improvementsand changes can be made. This distinguishes this model as a cyclical and iterativeprocess. The research aspect connotes a search5for knowledge that may be used elsewhere.OD ToolkitsThe above outlined procedure is the process through which results area achievedbut action research methodology has what are described as toolkits. These are usedto address specific areas of problem. Once diagnosis is complete and the problem identified one or more of these kits or interventions are employed to solve theproblem. Some of these include; process consultation, change the structure, surveyfeedback, team building, inter-group development, role negotiation and sensitivitytraining. These are just a number but action research allows flexibility for theconsultant to formulate a package of his own interventions to suit the clients6needs. Such flexibility was illustrated through an OD consultancy in a localgovernment organization.Organizational Development InterventionsThe Existence of certain conditions in an organization which may be described asthe internal environment is sometimes assumed. Those who have been in anorganization for too long cease to be conscious of such an environment andprobably only newcomers notice such conditions. Different interventions are usedwhen a need arises to change those conditions. Some of those interventions whichare mentioned above deserve further explanation here.Cultural AnalysisThis is perhaps one of the most complex change action. Corporate culture is theresult of long term social learning and constitutes of basic assumptions, values,norms and artifacts that have worked well in an organization. These are passed onto succeeding generations of employees (Cummings and Worley, 1997). Some of these may have arisen from the principles of the founder and subsequentlyreinforced by succeeding top hierarchies of the organization. They may have anemphasis on product quality, customer care or employee relations. When problemsarise the first question which would arise is how do we do things here? The answer will inform the type of solution that emerges. Therefore the organizational cultureinfluences organizational strategy, performance and policies. To changeorganizational culture may be a traumatic experience and will require carefulanalysis and handling. Such is the trauma that was experienced by Americancompanies in the 1980s when they adopted the Japanese approach which wasinfluence by a strong organizational culture of employee participation, opencommunication, Security and equality.Process ConsultationPeople conceive consultation as that situation where an expert is invited to advisean organization that is experiencing a problem. Edger Schein, (1998) hasdistinguished three types of consultations as; the expertise model, the doctor patient model and the process consultation model. The first model assumes that theclient purchases from the consultant some expert information or service that he isunable to provide for himself. In the doctor patient model involves an activitysimilar to sickness diagnosis. The client who suspects or feels there is somethingwrong in the organization invites the doctor (consultant) to diagnose theorganization so that he can advise on what is not right. The symptoms of thesickness may be low sales, employee instability or falling product quality. Thedoctor (consultant) diagnoses, prescribes and administers the cure. In this twomodels the knowledge and expertise remains with

the expert and leaves the clientfully dependent on the expert for future problems. OD advocates processconsultation promoted by Schein who defines the process as:The creation of a relationship with the client that permits the client to perceive, understands, and act on the process events that occur in the clients internal and external environment in order to improve the situation asdefined by the client (Schein, 1998, p.20) .Schein argues that both the expert and the doctor models are remedial modelswhile as the process consultation model is both remedial and preventive. Thepurport of this model is to engage an external consultant on a flexible advisorycapacity to work with the clients members in diagnosing the problems, planningthe actions and finding the solutions together. This way the consultant helps theorganizations individuals to understand internal problems and build capacity toidentify appropriate problem solving action. The consultant need not be an expertin the problem at hand but his expertise is in facilitating a process that carrieseverybody in the search for solutions. This approach follows the rationale that theanswers are with the people. So the only help required is leadership in diagnosesand in the process through the various stages. The purpose also is to ensure thatonce the consultant leaves the people have the capacity to solve the next round of problems. In the first two models the consultant will have to be recalled each timea new problem arises or an old one recurs.Structure ChangeThis is an intervention that helps change the structure of an organization to makethe work more interesting, challenging or productive.It may involve such activitiesas job enrichment, job enlargement, formation of autonomous work teams orbusiness re engineering. Other actions may involvedecentralization/centralization in an organization, flattening or extending of anorganizations structure or even redesigning of focus from region to product or viceversa. Team BuildingTeam work is vital to the functioning of modern organizations. Members of teamsbring different strings to the group such as leader, investigator, motivator, finisher,clown, coordinator, thinker, negotiator or politician. These roles are used atdifferent stages of production when such role play becomes essential in the groupswork. Teams take over from hierarchical systems where individuals are assumed toknow everything depending on their level in the authority ladder. This systemdenies the organization the cumulative advantage of skills and strengths indifferent individuals.Role NegotiationA misunderstanding between two individuals in an organization or group can affectits effectiveness. This is usually caused by lack of shared awareness,misunderstanding or lack of trust. This intervention helps to clarify individualperceptions and mutual expectations so that differences can be identified andreconciled or resolved. Assignment Set- 1Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester -1MB0039 Business CommunicationQ.1 Explain the different types of communication with relevant examples?ANS: Communication is a process that involves exchange of information,thoughts, ideas and emotions. Communication is a process that involves a senderwho encodes and sends the message, which is then carried via the communicationchannel to the receiver where the receiver decodes the message, processes theinformation and sends an appropriate reply via the same communication channel.Types of CommunicationCommunication can occur via various processes and methods and depending onthe channel used and the style of communication there can be various types of communication.Types of Communication Based on Communication ChannelsBased on the channels used for communicating, the

process of communication canbe broadly classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and visualsdiagrams or pictures used for communication.Verbal Communication Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. Theoral communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oralcommunication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation overthe phone or on the voice chat over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogsare influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarityof speaking. The other type of verbal communication is written communication.Written communication can be either via snail mail, or email. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar,clarity and precision of language.Nonverbal Communication Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person whois speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overallbody movements. The facial expressions also play a major role whilecommunication since the expressions on a persons face say a lot about his/her mood. On the other hand gestures like a handshake, a smile or a hug canindependently convey emotions. Non verbal communication can also be in theform of pictorial representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches andpaintings.Types of Communication Based on Style and Purpose Based on the style of communication, there can be two broad categories of communication, which are formal and informal communication that have their ownset of characteristic features. Formal Communication Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has tooccur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of businesscommunication or corporate communication. The style of communication in thisform is very formal and official. Official conferences, meetings and written memosand corporate letters are used for communication. Formal communication can alsooccur between two strangers when they meet for the first time. Hence formalcommunication is straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringentand rigid tone to it.Informal Communication Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communicationbetween people who share a casual rapport with each other. Informalcommunication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occursbetween friends and family. Informal communication does not have any rigid rulesand guidelines. Informal conversations need not necessarily have boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter since we all know that friendly chatswith our loved ones can simply go on and on.Q.2 What are the general principles of writing especially business writing?ANS: The process of good writing involves three basic steps - preparing, writing,and editing. Practicing the following 16 principles will help you be a moreeffective writer.1. Know your objective Think before you write. What's your goal? Make sure you fully understand theassignment. Are you writing a one-paragraph executive summary or a five-page of 133 Leave a Comment Comment must not be empty. You must be logged in to leave a comment.SubmitCharacters: 400 Muhsin Pv lotta reply03 / 28 / 2012 Chonlachai Khamsaeng mb00040

reply01 / 10 / 2012 Shantanu Pathak desktop reply12 / 29 / 2011 Kapil Thakur useless i dont like it reply12 / 10 / 2011 Narasimha Rao there is no provision for downloading useless reply12 / 05 / 2011 Srinath Gopala Krishna is reading Smu Assignment Semester 1 Complete. reply10 / 18 / 2011 Sanjay Pathare XXXXXXXXXTREMELY HELPFUL... reply08 / 07 / 2011 Comment must not be empty.You must be logged in to leave a comment.SubmitCharacters: ...Q.1 Explain the different types of communication with relevant examples? for Smu Assignment Semester 1 Completesmu assignment 2011Download or Print84,123 ReadsInfo and RatingCategory:Research > Business & Economics Rating:(1 Rating) Upload Date:06/06/2011 Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial Tags:This document has no tags. Flag document for inapproriate contentThis is a private document. Uploaded byVarun NarainFollowDownloadEmbed DocCopy LinkAdd To CollectionCommentsReadcastShareShare on Scribd: ReadcastSearchTIP Press Ctrl-F F to quickly search anywhere in the document.SearchSearch History: Searching...Result 00 of 0000 results for result for p. SectionsMaster of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1MB0038 Management Process and Organization BehaviorQ.1 Write a note on the managerial roles and skills?Q.2 Explain the social learning theory in details?A. Basic ConceptsB. Modeling ProcessStep 1: AttentionStep 2: RetentionStep 3: ReproductionStep 4: MotivationQ.3 Explain the Big 5 model of personality?The big five model of personalityQ.4 What are the different factors influencing perception?Q.5 Write a note on contemporary work cohort?Q.6 What are the special issues in motivation? DiscussMotivating ProfessionalsManagerial Implications:Motivating temporary Workers:Motivating Low Skilled Service Workers:Motivating People Doing Highly Repetitive Tasks:Assignment Set- 2Q.1 Explain the theories of emotion?Q.2 Discuss the techniques of decision making in groups?ANS : Planning for Decision Making1. Planning allows the establishment of independent goals. The vision which2. Planning provides a standard of measurement. A plan provides something to4. Planning allows limited resources to be committed in an orderly wayDecision LevelsSome Techniques for Decision MakingPRO CONUse Outside Agency Write Ads In-House5. Decision Matrix or Weighted Decision Table. This is a slightly moreQ.3 Elaborate the different stages in process of conflict?Q.4 Write a note on GAS ( General Adaptation Syndrome)?Stage One: AlarmStage Two: ResistanceStage Three: ExhaustionWhen You're Client Has GAS --The Case of BobQ.5 Discuss the power and influence tactics?Q.6 Explain the characteristics of organization Development?OD ApproachesOD ToolkitsOrganizational Development InterventionsCultural AnalysisProcess ConsultationStructure ChangeTeam BuildingRole NegotiationMaster of Business Administration - MBA Semester -1MB0039 Business CommunicationQ.1 Explain the different types of communication with relevant examples?Verbal CommunicationNonverbal CommunicationTypes of Communication Based on Style and PurposeFormal CommunicationInformal CommunicationQ.2 What are the general

principles of writing especially business writing?ImportanceQ.3 How would you prepare yourself for an oral business presentation?Q.5 Distinguish between circulars and notices along with formats?announcements that are distributed to small or selective groups of peopleQ.1 As a part of top management team, how would you communicate to yourAMBITIOUS TARGETS2011-2014 STRATEGYOUR SHAREHOLDERSQ.2 ABC Ltd. wants to communicate about its corporate image to all itsrecommend them to do it?2 BACKGROUND3 POLICY CONTEXT4 OPTIONS5 PROPOSALS6 BEST VALUE IMPLICATIONS7 FINANCE CONSIDERATIONS8 RISK9 LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS10 HUMAN RESOURCES11 DIVERSITY IMPLICATIONS12 SUSTAINABILITYQ.3 What is oral business communication? Explain its benefits to theorganisation and to the individual employeePresentations:Client Interaction:Interoffice Interaction:Benefits:Q.4. Give short notes on communication network in the organisation?There are several patterns of communication:Q. 5 What are the different types of business letters? Explain with exampleLet's take look at the most common types of business letters:Master of Business Administration MBA Semester -1MB0040 STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENTQ. 1 What is the difference between a qualitative and quantitative variable?Qualitative:Quantitative:Deduction and induction in experimentation and research:Q 2. a) Explain the steps involved in planning of a statistical survey?Step #1: Identify Your ObjectiveStep #2: Determine How Much It Will CostStep #3: Plan The LogisticsStep #4: Define Your ResourcesStep #5: Map The Steps To CompletionSuccessful Deploymentb) What are the merits & Demerits of Direct personal observation andIndirect Oral Interview?Q 3. a) What is the main difference between correlation analysis andregression analysis?Q 5. a) Discuss what is meant by Quality control and quality improvement?b) What are the limitations of a quality control charts?ANS: The limitations of a quality control charts:Easy to Make but Difficult to TroubleshootMultiple Pareto Charts May Be Needed6. a) Suggest a more suitable average in each of the following cases:(i) Average size of ready-made garmentsANS: Characteristics of a Good Average(b) What are the uses of averages?Arithmetic MeanGeometric MeanHarmonic MeanModeQ 3. What is test statistic? Why do we have to know the distribution of a teststatistic?Refresher CourseQ.1 Assure you have just started a Mobile store. You sell mobile sets andand prepare a position statement after every transaction. Did you firm earnprofit or incurred loss at the end? Make a small comment on your financialposition at the endANS: There are two types of users( internal and external):- list of internalMaster of Business Administration - MBA Semester IQ.1 Income elasticity of demand has various applications. Explain eachapplication with the help of an exampleExamplePractical application of income elasticity of demand1. Helps in determining the rate of growth of the firm2. Helps in the demand forecasting of a firm3. Helps in production planning and marketing4. Helps in ensuring stability in production5. Helps in estimating construction of housesQ.2 When is the opinion survey method used and what is the effectiveness ofthe methodQ.3 Show how price is determined by the forces of demand and supply, byusing forces of equilibriumMarket EquilibriumEquilibrium between demand and supply price:Q.4 Distinguish between fixed cost and variable cost using an exampleQ.5 Discuss Marris Growth Maximization model ?Q.6 Explain how fiscal policy is used to achieve economic stabilityAns:To act as optimum allocator of resources: As most of the resources areTo act as a saver:Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester IQ.1 Write down the difference between Personnel management and HumanResource management.[10 Marks]Q.2 Write a note on scope of HR in India. [10 Marks]Q.3 Explain the critical steps in Human Resource Planning system .[10Marks]Need and Importance of HRPFactors affecting Human Resource PlanningLimitations of Human Resource PlanningQ.4 List and explain

the sources of recruitment? [10 Marks]Q.5 Describe the grievance handling procedureAns Handling a grievanceAnsMore from This UserRelated DocumentsMore From This User3 p.PEST Analysis3 p.Why Do You Want to Enter Banking71 p.Comprehensive ProjectNext68 p.Final Project133 p.Smu Assignment Semester 1 Completesmu assignment 2011PrevRelated Documents150 p.Doc 1From Shah Ripal17 p.MB0038From tdsouza123115 p.Engineering ManagementFrom Dayanand PrabhuNext85 p.Doc 1From Gyanendra Mishra241 p.How Organizations Work; Taking a Holistic Approach to Enterprise He...A groundbreaking approach to successful performance improvementAlmost every e...From Wiley67 p.27472From Agnihotri VineetPrev Next409 p.The Growing Business HandbookAs business booms, take some expert advice from professionals who have alread...From Kogan Page53 p.2nd Sem Assignment Set 1From Abhishek Saxena53 p.Assignment Set 1From roushanakelaPrev Next46 p.Pgdba Semester IIFrom yuvi5249 p.Pgdba Semester IIFrom yuvi52PrevUse your Facebook login and see what your friends are reading and sharing.Other login optionsLogin with FacebookSignupI don't have a Facebook account email address (required) create username (required) password (required) Send me the Scribd Newsletter, and occasional account related communications. Sign Up Privacy policy You will receive email notifications regarding your account activity. You can manage these notifications in your account settings. We promise to respect your privacy. Why Sign up?1. Discover and Connect With people of similar interests2. Publish Your Documents Quickly and easily3. Share Your Reading Interest On Scribd and social sites like Facebook and TwitterAlready have a Scribd account?email address or username password Log In Trouble logging in? Login SuccessfulNow bringing you back... Reset Your Password Back to Login Please enter your email address below to reset your password. We will send you an email with instructions on how to continue.Email Address: You need to provide a login for this account as well.Login Submit Upload a Document Search Documents Follow Us! sScribd 101Web StuffSupportFAQDevelopers / APIJobsTermsCopyrightPrivacyCopyright 2012 Scribd Inc.Language:EnglishChoose the language in which you want to experience Scribd:EnglishEspaolPortugus (Brasil)