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• • • • • • • • Set against backdrop of civil conflict 1990-1992 Drought had also triggered rural to urban migration !960’s-Post-colonial establishment of Hutu Government Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)-Tutsi rebels, many refugees, launch cross border raids RPF control of coffee and tea producing areas-impact on Govt revenue Hard line response from Government-8,000 arrested in purges on antigovernment sentiment Militias form (backed by Government weapons) e.g Interhamwe (“Those who attack together”) Escalation of Political violence/Ethnic tensions
• 6 April 1994- President’s plane crashes, suspected rocket attackInterhamwe mobilize support for reprisal attacks • UN peacekeeping forces refused permission to intervene in massacre • UN could only provide shelter and food, but not protection • Genocide-Army and militias aim to eradicate all Tutsi • When RPF launched an offensive from the North, retaking the country in July 1994, Hutus fled to neighbouring countries • Revenge attacks by Tutsi police, continuing border tensions in Hutu dominated areas
• • • • • • • • • Neighbouring African countries have always had Rwandan populations Initial movements to UN safe havens, then to refugee camps for many Rwandans-food aid and shelter Many Tutsi fled to Burundi Some managed to go to Belgium Hutu militia, government officials and the army fled to French controlled zone in Southwest (regime and army had been French backed) Refugee camps for Hutu in Tanzania, DR Congo (was Zaire) Importance of migration networks-family, ethnic groups Distance? Half of Rwanda’s 7.5 million people forced to leave their homes
• • • • • • • • • Violence Roadblocks by militias Ineffective UN protection Cost Corruption Distance Family-especially if fears for safety Return migrations-Hutu fear of reprisals, threats by own militia Return migration- homes, especially in rural areas, now occupied by new tenants
Migration-Permanent or Temporary?
• 100, 000 Rwandans repatriated from Burundi in 1996 • 720, 000 of displaced Rwandans return from DR Congo in 1996 after beginning of Civil war there • Tanzania returned 480, 000 refugees in 1997 • 10,000 returned voluntarily from Uganda • 1 million Rwandans who had left the country in the 50’s and 60’s have returned since 1994 • Fewer than 100, 000 Rwandans now remain outside the country
Effects on country of Origin/Destination?