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16660182 Elementary Bulgarian Grammar

16660182 Elementary Bulgarian Grammar

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11/23/2012

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Bulgarian adjectives (прилагателни имена) change in gender and number because they agree
with the nouns they refer to. In the masculine gender the adjectives usually end in a consonant. The
corresponding forms for the feminine, the neuter and the plural are constructed by adding -А, -О,
-И. If the vowel in front of the final consonant in the masculine is Ъ or E it disappears

in the forms

for the feminine, the neuter and the plural; as usually there are exceptions to that rule. Here are
some examples (the accented vowel is underlined):

висок, висока, високо, високи (tall)
голям, голяма, голямо, големи (big)
драг, драга, драго, драги (dear)
евтин, евтина, евтино, евтини (cheap)
мек, мека, меко, меки (soft)

добър, добра, добро, добри (good)
малък, малка, малко, малки (small/little)
топъл, топла, топло, топли (warm)
вкусен, вкусна, вкусно, вкусни (tasty)
домашен, домашна, домашно, домашни (domestic)
летен, лятна, лятно, летни (summer attr.)

лунен, лунна, лунно, лунни (moon attr.)
странен, странна странно странни (strange)

Exceptions:

червен, червена, червено, червени (red)
зелен, зелена, зелено, зелени (green)

кожен, кожена, кожено, кожени (made of leather or fur),
but
кожен, кожна, кожно, кожни (of skin)

стъклен, стъклена, стъклено, стъклени (of glass)
дървен, дървена, дървено, дървени (of wood),
but
бетонен, бетонна, бетонно, бетонни (of concrete)

вълнен, вълнена, вълнено, вълнени (of wool)
копринен, копринена, копринено, копринени (of silk),
but
памучен, памучна, памучно, памучни (of cotton)

As you can see, apart from the adjectives like червен (red) and зелен (green) that are qualificative,
all the other adjectives that belong to the exceptions are relative but not all the relative adjectives
belong to the exceptions.

There are some adjectives that end in -И in the masculine. It is the final vowel of the suffix -СК-И.
The forms for the feminine, the neuter and the plural are constructed by replacing the -И of the
suffix with -А, -О, -И. Naturally, the forms for the masculine and the plural are homonymous:

българСКИ, българСКА, българСКО, българСКИ (Bulgarian attr.)
техничеСКИ, техничеСКА, техничеСКО, техничеСКИ (technical)

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