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Eric Wang (with Summer Thompson) Period 7

Chapter 8 Introduction to Metabolism Objectives 1. Explain the role of catabolic and anabolic pathways in cellular metabolism. Catabolic- releasing of energy by breaking down molecules Anabolic-consuming of energy to build complicated molecular molecules. Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy- anything that moves possesses the energy of motion Potential energy-stored energy that matter possesses because of location or structure Explain why an organism is considered an open system. It is considered an open system because energy like food or sunlight is put in and then energy is taken out. Explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics in your own words. The first law is the idea of conservation of energy. The second law is the idea that every transformation of energy creates more entropy. Explain why highly ordered living organisms do not violate the second law of thermodynamics. Although they are highly complex and ordered, the total entropy of the universe is not affected. Write and define each component of the equation for free-energy change. G- a systems total change in quantity of free energy H- a systems total change in energy T- absolute temperature in Kelvin S- the change in entropy 7. Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions in terms of free energy change. Exergonic- the process of net release of free energy Endergonic- the process of absorbing free energy Explain why metabolic disequilibrium is one of the defining features of life. This is defining because if life was already in equilibrium, there would be no reactions occurring, and motion would be at a standstill. But because life is full of disorder and disequilibrium reactions that drive the motion and cycles of life can occur because life is an open system. List the three main kinds of cellular work. Explain in general terms how cells obtain the energy to do cellular work.

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Eric Wang (with Summer Thompson) Period 7

Transport- the pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement. Mechanical- the beating of cilia, the contraction of muscle cells Chemical- the pushing of endergonic reactions that would not occur spontaneously, like the synthesis of polymers. 10. Describe the structure of ATP and identify the major class of macromolecules to which ATP belongs. An adenine attached to three phosphates, and this belongs to the group of macromolecules, nucleic acids. 11. Explain how ATP performs cellular work.

ATP hydrolysis shoots off a phosphate group which creates energy in cells. The phosphate group start the coupling of endergonic and exergonic reactions. Enzymes Are Catalytic Proteins 12. Describe the function of enzymes in biological systems. An enzyme lowers the activation energy needed for the bonds in the reactant molecules to break. This reduces the energy required for cells to function. 13. Explain why an investment of activation energy is necessary to initiate a spontaneous reaction. Without lowering the activation energy, the energy needed to break the molecules would destroy the cell. 14. Explain how enzyme structure determines enzyme specificity. Enzymes each have an active site in the surface of the protein that a molecule of the substrate fits into. The specificity of an enzyme is attributed to the fit between the shapes of the active center and substrate. 15. Explain the induced-fit model of enzyme function. Induced fit brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction. 16. Describe the mechanisms by which enzymes lower activation energy. Active site fits around the substrates and stretches, bending critical chemical bonds that will be broken during the reaction. Doing so will reduce the amount of thermal energy that must be absorbed. 17. Explain how substrate concentration affects the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

Eric Wang (with Summer Thompson) Period 7

The more substrate molecules are available, the more frequently active sites can bind with substrate molecules. Once there are more substrate molecules than enzyme proteins, the reaction rates tapers off. 18. Explain how temperature, pH, cofactors, and enzyme inhibitors can affect enzyme activity. For most enzyme activity to occur, temperature must operate at around 35-45 degrees Celsius and at a pH of 6-8. Cofactors bind with active sites and act as catalysts. Inhibitors bind with enzymes and stop the catalysis reactions. The Control of Metabolism 19. Explain how metabolic pathways are regulated. Metabolic pathways are assembled as a multienzyme complex. The arrangements control the sequence of reactions so that the product of the first enzyme becomes the substrate of the next. 20. Explain how the location of enzymes in a cell may help order metabolism. Some are located within cells as structural components of particular membranes and organelles; others are in its internal chemical environment. These environments are crucial for the reaction to occur.