900 Fort Street Mall ■ Suite 1300 ■ Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96813-3718 Phone: (808) 441-1300 ■ Fax

: (808) 441-1385 U.S. Toll-free Phone: (800) 377-4773 U.S. Toll-free Fax: (888) 512-7599 Website: www.prel.org

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning

Building Capacity Through Education

© 2011 PREL

ES1009

1

2

1
The story, Pele Searches for a Home, tells of how Pele traveled through the islands searching for a safe home. On each island, she used her ‘ō‘ō to create fissures and craters. Over millions of years, volcanic activity in the Pacific has shaped, and continues to reshape, the most incredible landforms of the Hawaiian Islands. How is Pele’s story related to this volcanic activitiy?

3
Volcanoes!

© 2011 PREL

We think of the earth that we stand on as solid, stable, and stationary. But the fact is that Earth is in constant motion. From the beginning of time, people have asked questions, such as: Why is the earth so restless? What causes the ground to sometimes shake so violently? How are earthquakes related to volcanoes? Earthquakes are part of the forces that have shaped and changed the land, including the islands of Hawai‘i.

Earthquakes!

Waves are the most familiar features of the ocean. Waves of all sizes endlessly roll onto our beaches. There are different kinds of ocean waves: the tides (true tidal waves) caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon; wind waves created by the wind; and tsunamis (sometimes incorrectly called tidal waves) caused by disturbances, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. Surrounded by the ocean, Hawai‘i is a natural setting for understanding waves.

Waves!

i

ii

Forces that Shape our Earth: Earthquakes! Understanding Forces that Shape Our Earth An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i–ii Legendary Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–2 What’s Shaking the Earth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 Understanding Earthquakes Layers of Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–6 What are Plate Tectonics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 What is an Earthquake?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Plate Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9–10 The Pacific Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–12 Earthquakes in Hawai‘i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–14 Recording Earthquakes Magnitude and Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–16 The Lyman’s Journals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17–18 Ka Nūhou Forces that Shape the Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19–20 Factoids Frequently Asked Questions about Forces that Shape Our Earth . . 21–22 Linking the Past, Present, and Future Interview with Dr. Scott Rowland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23–24 Pāhana Activities and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–26 Reading for Information Helpful Reading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28–29 Hawaiian Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Resources and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–35
© 2011 PREL

Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37–38
The contents of this publication were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

iii

Both geologists and Hawaiians know that Pele is also responsible for earthquakes. Just as geologists rely upon scientific instruments like seismometers and laser sensors, Hawaiians rely upon ancestral knowledge and centuries of keen observation. Here is a section from the Kumulipo that describes earthquake phenomena as precisely as a scientific report: ‘Ōla‘ila‘i, ōla‘i kū honua ‘Ōwela, ‘ōē, ‘ōā ka lani ‘O ia wahine pi‘i lani, a pi‘i lani nō Pi‘ilani i ka nahelehele ‘Ōnehenehe lele kū lani ka honua Trembling, the earth shakes and shivers The atmosphere is feverish, filled with rustling and cracking It is that sky-climbing woman who ascends to the heavens Rising upward through the forest As the earth crackles and leaps Rather than record their work in writing, Hawaiians recorded it in their oral traditions. By combining their research with poetic art, they were able to remember far more data than by memorizing just facts and figures alone. For example, many of the words in this section of the Kumulipo start with an “oh” sound: ‘ōē, ōla‘ila‘i, ‘ōwela, ‘ōnehenehe. Not only does this make it easier for the chanter to remember what information comes next, but it also reminds the audience to look upon nature with awe and reverence. The composer knew that Pele’s work in causing volcanic eruptions was directly related to those movements of the lithosphere that we now recognize as earthquakes. The “shaking,” “rustling,” and “leaping” of the Earth is very similar to the actions caused by the arrival of P, S, and L waves (types of seismic waves) as they travel outward from the epicenter. Isn’t it interesting to consider that Hawaiians have been using their senses for millennia to observe, gather data, and create hypotheses to explain what they see?

Although Pele is certainly famous throughout the Pacific, she is not the only Polynesian deity connected to earthquakes. The Māori people of Aotearoa/New Zealand are familiar with the god Ruaumoko. He spends most of his time sleeping, curled up peacefully on his mother, Papatuanuku, the Earth herself. However, like most babies, Ruaumoko sometimes has trouble sleeping. His shifting about in search of a more comfortable position is often seen to be the cause of Earth’s tremors.

Halema‘uma‘u Caldera Collapse

Rumbling of Underground Lava Flow

Hau

Volcanic Fissure

the ir quak nk Thibefore earths passed onthrough theearn l n s o we Long , Hawaiia rthquake hat d ry, Pele g ea n of la. W e sto writi d hu ding h rstan hants, an hrough t de es t s, c e uak stori arthq me? out E for a Ho ab ches Sear
© 2011 PREL

in ded t It oues were reciorunAb r

Making Connections
Explosive Water and Lava Encounter

1

What did you learn about Earthquakes through the Kumulipo? Why were the stories remembered for many generations? Are there stories that you were told about earthquakes? Think about the stories. What made you remember these stories?

2

Earthquakes were described in the people’s ‘ōlelo no‘eau, a wise saying or proverb, which was passed on from one generation to the next.

Nei ka honua, he ‘ōla‘i ia. When the earth trembles, it is an earthquake. We know what it is by what it does. (Pukui 2307, p. 251)

‘Ōlelo No‘eau

Stories from Other Cultures
Each culture’s explanations of what shook the earth were unique. Find out what beliefs, beings, things, or events in the daily lives of people were associated with earthquakes.
Kapoho 1960 Kīlauea Eruption (USGS)

In Hawai‘i

In the animated story, Pele Searches for a Home, Pele was born to be the keeper of the forces that burn deep within Earth. Pele would thrust her ‘ō‘ō into the ground, creating a fissure, which then became a huge crater. Sometimes lava came out of Pele’s craters. She could also cause earthquakes, called ‘ōla‘i, by stamping her feet before a volcanic eruption. “Earthquakes came when Pele stamped the floor of the fire-pit in anger.” (Westervelt 1916, p. 13) Other stories tell of Kāne pōhaku ka‘a, who was a brother of Pele. An earthquake was Kāne, the earthquake-maker, rolling stones.

The Gabrielino Indians of Southern California tell a story of turtles carrying a beautiful land with lakes and rivers (California) on their backs. When they argued, two of the turtles would head east, while the others swam west. The earth shook and cracked with a loud noise when this happened. In India, people explained that Earth was held up by four elephants. These elephants stood on the back of a turtle who was balancing on the back of a cobra. The earth shook when these animals moved. According to the people of Romania, Earth was balanced on the tips of three columns representing faith, hope, and charity. The earth would shake when people weakened one of the columns by not following the three ideals.

ow n te Thine the earth Yrou would knhere were t i

t It ing boubling or shakit is an A k m
Crack in Hilina Pali Road, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (USGS)

, and ing. fore Imag warn aking er, be thout e. Howev re this sh ple devel wi eo uak asu e q ,p en earth ents to m ts causes is oft out th t postrum n about i ins ns ab a atio natio ature. Wh ns of inform any expla of n waiia m Ha nce oped l occurre d the hquake? woul rt ightfu lanations an ea fr e with exp t sible o associa g ag lon

Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Crater Floor Collapses (USGS)

Making Connections

In spite of all the advances in instruments and information that help us understand earthquakes, people continue to wonder about these occurrences. Interview people you know to see what they know, think, and believe about earthquakes. Ask them if they have heard any stories about the cause of earthquakes. Are there any modern myths or urban legends that try to explain the cause? Share the stories with your classmates.
Fissure between Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō and Napau (USGS)

© 2011 PREL

3

4

Physical Layers of Earth Layers of Earth
Many of the phenomena that occur on Earth, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, involve interactions that occur below the surface of the earth. Scientists describe the Earth as a sphere made up of different layers that are classified by both their physical state and chemical composition.
The physical layers of Earth are described by their state of matter. The lithosphere is the rock-like outermost layer that is cool and brittle. Its name is from litho, which means “rock.” The lithosphere is about 100 miles thick and includes all of the crust and the outer part of the mantle. The lithosphere makes up the “plates” of plate tectonics. Below the lithosphere is a layer of rock that is hot and may change into solid or fluid forms. The changing state of this layer makes it weak. This layer is called the asthenosphere. Asthenos means “weak.” Slow currents in the asthenosphere drag against the bottoms of the tectonic plates, and this is why the plates move. The rest of the mantle is called the mesosphere (the “middle” sphere). It is hot and solid.

Chemical Layers of Earth
Earth can be described as a sphere made up of three major chemical layers. Look around you. The land that you see—the mountains, flat land, floor of the rivers, and floor of the ocean—all make up the top layer, or crust, of Earth. The crust that covers land is called the continental crust, and the layer beneath the ocean is called the oceanic crust. The continental crust is 10 to 50 miles thick, and consists of all kinds of rocks, such as granite, sandstone, limestone, shale, marble, to name a few. The continental crust is also rich in the elements oxygen, silicon, aluminum, magnesium, and iron. The oceanic crust is only about four miles thick, and consists almost entirely of basalt, including the elements oxygen, magnesium, iron, and silicon. Below Earth’s crust, the mantle extends 1,800 miles down into the earth. The mantle makes up 80–85% of Earth’s weight and mass. This layer is made of a rock called peridotite, which includes olivine and pyroxene minerals. The elements in the mantle include oxygen, magnesium, iron, and silicon. At the very center of Earth’s sphere is its core. The core consists of a mixture of iron and nickel.

The outer core is a hot liquid that flows around the inner core as Earth rotates. The inner core is even hotter. The extremely high pressure keeps it in a solid state. We know that anytime an electrical conductor moves, it generates a magnetic field. Like an electrical conductor, the flowing of the liquid outer core generates the Earth’s magnetic field. This magnetic field extends more than 37,000 miles beyond Earth, into space. Since scientists cannot drill deeper than seven or eight miles beneath the earth’s surface, they depend on indirect evidence to determine the chemical composition and physical state of Earth’s layers. For example, they study the material from volcanic eruptions for information about the uppermost mantle. They study meteorites to understand Earth’s core since some meteorites are thought to be material from the core of an Earth-like planet. And studying the earth’s magnetic field allows scientists to monitor changes within Earth’s outer core layer.

Layers of Earth

© 2011 PREL

Hold up a w orld globe. What you s is its outer ee layer or su rface. Wha beneath its t lies surface? O ne way to fi is by drillin nd out g below the Earth’s surf However, s ace. cientists ha ve been ab drill only 7 le to –8 miles be low the surf which bare ace, ly gets into the outerm er. How the ost layn, do scien tists study layers of th deeper e Earth?
Chemical Layers of Earth

Think Ab

out It

Most of our knowledge about the deep layers of Earth, however, comes from studying earthquakes and the way that earthquake waves do (or don’t) pass through Earth. When an earthquake occurs, seismic waves radiate outward in all directions from the point where the rocks first break (the focus of the earthquake). Some of these seismic waves travel all the way through Earth. The behavior of the waves varies as they travel through the solid and liquid parts of the earth. By studying the wave patterns, scientists can determine what is within the earth. The scientists also conduct laboratory experiments using samples of the layers (or at least of rocks they think are similar to the layers) to test their hypotheses.

Making Connections

Study the chart on Earth’s layers. What is the relationship between temperature and layers —the physical and chemical layers? Why is the hottest inner core not liquid, like its outer core?
6

5

What are Plate Tectonics?
A plate is a large piece or slab of solid rock. Tectonics comes from a Greek root meaning “to build.” By combining these two words, the phrase plate tectonics describes how Earth’s surface is built by plates.

What is an Earthquake?
Stresses occur at the plate boundaries as the plates collide, slip, or pull apart. As the stress increases, rocks break, releasing energy that causes movement of the ground. This sudden release of energy is what we call an earthquake. Most earthquakes occur along pre-existing faults, or breaks in the earth’s crust, such as the plate boundaries. However, some faults occur in the middle of plates, and they too can generate earthquakes. This is what happens in Hawai‘i. The location where the earth movement originates is called the hypocenter or sometimes the focus. The location on the surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter.

House Destroyed by Earthquake in Kaplapana, June 25, 1989 (USGS)

Seismic Waves
The lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) is not a single outer layer that surrounds Earth, but instead consists of seven separate major pieces called tectonic plates—the African, North American, South American, Eurasian, Australian, Antarctic, and Pacific plates, as well as several smaller plates.
These plates are arranged like a giant jigsaw puzzle around Earth. They float on the asthenosphere. The plates are in constant motion, moving from one to t eight inches every year. As these plates move, they outwI g b ink aA map sho inich may collide, pull apart from each other, or they Th look t a On wh a . may scrape past each other. The places where Take plates What major cated? arth’s these interactions take place are called plate lo E ai‘i’s awai‘i te is H ut Haw pla boundaries. These different types of plate boundabo notice the do you tion to aries have different names depending on how the la n in re te? locatio the pla f plates come in contact with one another. It is at aries o bound these boundaries where most earthquakes occur. In fact, the location of earthquakes was one piece of evidence that led scientists to the idea that the outer layer of earth was made up of plates.
© 2011 PREL

Seismic Waves

When an earthquake occurs, seismic waves are generated. The waves move outward in all directions from where the earthquake occurred. Have you ever dropped a rock in a still pond? As the rock hits the water, you see waves moving outward from where the rock entered the water. Seismic waves move in the same manner through the earth in all directions (north, south, east, west, and up and down).

Aftershocks
Aftershocks are smaller earthquakes that occur after a large earthquake. Depending on the size of the main earthquake, aftershocks may continue for weeks, months, and even years. These aftershocks provide scientists with information about the main earthquake. These are important pieces of information to determine the actual size of the main earthquake. This is why the reported sizes sometimes change after a large earthquake has occurred.

Magnitude 6.6 Earthquake, November 16, 1983, at the Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (USGS)

Before Written Earthquake Records
Pele stamped the floor of the fire-pit.

1832

7

Mrs. Sarah Lyman, a missionary, wrote in her journal, “Two earthquakes, one of them heavy.” Her journal was the first written description of earthquakes. (Westervelt 1916, p. 177)

8

What Plate Movements Create Earthquakes? Plates Collide
As the boundaries of plates come in contact with one another, three types of interactions can take place: 1) plates collide; 2) plates pull apart; or, 3) plates slide past each other. When two plates collide, the boundary is called a convergent boundary. Depending on the type of plates that collide, these convergent boundaries can produce very different results. When an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate, the oceanic plate is pushed under the continental plate. This is because the oceanic plate is denser, thinner, and bends more easily. When two oceanic plates collide, one of them gets pushed under the other one. When two continental plates collide, they crush against one another. Both are thick and unlikely to bend. In all of these cases, the great pressures strain the rocks, eventually breaking them, and release energy that results in an earthquake. The Himalaya Mountains are a result of the Indian plate pushing against the Asian plate. Both are continental plates. The spectacular crumpling of the huge rocks has continued for the past 48 million years, producing the highest mountains on Earth. Other mountain ranges that were produced by continent-continent collisions in the past include the Alps and Ural Mountains in Europe, the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian Mountains in North America, and the Atlas Mountains in North Africa. The earthquake that occurred in the Sendai region of Japan on March 11, 2011, was caused by the Pacific plate being pushed under part of the North American plate. The Pacific plate is constantly being pushed westward and downward. For most of the time, the two plates are locked. This causes the eastern edge of this part of the North American plate to bend downward. On March 11, 2011, the pressure that caused the two plates to be locked was released as an enormous earthquake. The eastern edge of the North American plate that had been bent downward suddenly snapped back upward, and in the process it lifted the entire water column above it. This is how the huge tsunami was generated. Meanwhile, the Japanese coastline, which had been slowly pushed upward as the strain built, dropped as the strain was released. The combination of a huge tsunami and a three-to-four foot drop in the elevation of coastal areas proved disastrous.

Plates Pull Apart
Places where plates are pulled away, or diverge, from each other are called divergent boundaries. The plate edges crack and the section between the cracks collapses, forming a valley called a rift. Numerous, usually small, earthquakes occur during the cracking and dropping of the section. Rock from the asthenosphere flows upward to fill the sunken area. As the rock rises, it starts to melt and fills the crack and rift, creating new lithosphere. Most divergent boundaries involve two oceanic plates pulling away from each other. These are called mid-ocean spreading centers. The Rio Grande rift in New Mexico is a place where two parts of the continental North American plate started to pull away from each other. Scientists are not sure why this happened, nor why it stopped only part-way through the process. If this continent-continent divergence continued, the rift valley would have been flooded by the ocean water, forming a narrow sea. This is how the Atlantic ocean was created more than 250 million years ago. Europe and Africa were joined to North America and South America, respectively.

Plates Slide Past Each Other
The place where two plates slide past each other is called a transform boundary. The well-known San Andreas fault is an example of a transform boundary. The Pacific plate is moving northwest relative to the North American Plate. Some parts of this transform boundary are tightly locked, and a huge amount of built-up strain is needed to get them to move. The result is infrequent, but very large earthquakes. The severe 1906 San Francisco earthquake is one example.

© 2011 PREL

April 2, 1868

9

The largest recorded earthquake in Hawai‘i, the Ka‘ū earthquake, occurred beneath the southeast flank of Mauna Loa. This 7.9 magnitude quake destroyed more than 100 homes, and claimed the lives of 81 people.

November 29, 1975
A 7.2 magnitude earthquake occurred beneath Kīlauea’s South Flank that generated a tsunami that swept the beaches at Punalu‘u, Keauhou Landing, and Halapē on Hawai‘i Island.

10

Take a Look at the Pacific Plate
What do you notice about the boundaries of the plate? Along the boundaries there are over 450 volcanoes that make up 75% of the world’s active volcanoes. This circle of volcanoes is called the Ring of Fire. Nearly 90% of the world’s earthquakes occur along this Ring of Fire.

The Pacific plate is moving to the northwest at a rate of about three inches per year; the hot spot does not move, however. As a result, Hawaiian volcanoes are constantly being dragged off their hot spot magma source. Eventually, a Hawaiian volcano is moved so far off the hot spot that it gets cut off from the supply of magma and stops erupting. If you look at the map of the Hawaiian islands, you will see the direction in which the Pacific plate has been moving.

Hot Spot

Hawaiian Islands – Tops of Volcanos

The oldest volcano associated with the Hawaiian hot spot is Meiji Seamount, up near Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Rock samples from Meiji are about 70 million years old, so we know that the Hawaiian hotspot has been actively forming volcanoes since at least that long ago. Dinosaurs still ruled the Earth 70 million years ago, and perhaps a few ocean-dwelling ones swam around the coastline of Meiji way back then.

Did you notice that the Hawaiian islands are volcanoes in the middle of the Pacific plate? How does magma rise in the middle of a plate? Below the active volcano on the island of Hawai‘i, there is what we call a hot spot in the earth’s mantle. Scientists describe a hot spot as a plume of hot (but solid) mantle rock that slowly rises through slightly cooler mantle. Rising mantle rock starts to melt. This magma forces its way upward to the surface to erupt as a volcano.
© 2011 PREL

The Rise of Magma (USGS)

November 16, 1983

11

A 6.7 magnitude earthquake caused landslides, ground cracking, and heavy property damage on Hawai‘i Island. (USGS)

October 15, 2006

A 6.7 magnitude earthquake occurred near the underwater segment of the major rift zone of the Hualalai volcano. This Kīholo Bay earthquake was a plate-bending earthquake.

12

Volcanic earthquakes
Earthquakes in Hawai‘i are associated with volcanic eruptions and magma movement. Hawaiian earthquakes can be grouped into three classes: 1) volcanic earthquakes; 2) volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and 3) plate-bending earthquakes.

Volcano-tectonic earthquakes occur when different parts of a volcano shift or when two volcanoes next to each other move. As new volcano dikes (magma forcing its way through loose rocks in a volcano) are created, the parts of the volcano need to spread apart to make room for the additional magma. When the volcano spreads suddenly, a volcano-tectonic earthquake occurs. What happens is a whole section of the volcano moves seaward. These large earthquakes do not occur frequently. The most destructive one ever recorded occurred in Hawai‘i on April 2, 1868. It is known as the great Ka‘ū earthquake, with a magnitude between 7.9–8.0, and a maximum intensity of XII. Eighty one people lost their lives, and more than 100 homes were destroyed. A large landslide occurred, dropping the coast about six feet. A large tsunami was generated on the southern coast of Hawai‘i.
A major Hawaiian earthquake occurred on November 2, 1975, below Kīlauea, Hawai‘i Island. Downward and seaward ground movement resulted in the 7.2 magnitude quake.
Volcanic eruptions such as this Kīlauea fissure followed the earthquake. (USGS)

are the most common. Volcanic earthquakes are directly related to the movement of magma and the expansion of gas. Thousands of them occur every year, and in fact, thousands may occur during a single eruption as the magma surfaces through the rocks and as gas bubbles rise and burst. These earthquakes are numerous and very small, and can only be felt very close to where they occur.

1962-1985 Earthquakes On or Near Hawai‘i Island (USGS)

Plate-Bending Earthquakes are caused by the weight of the Hawaiian islands. The lithosphere beneath the islands sags due to the added weight of the volcanoes. The hotspot heats the lithosphere from below, causing it to weaken slightly. Great volumes of lava erupt onto the surface. Loading a heavy weight on a weakened lithosphere causes it to bend downward. Earthquakes that occur as a result of these plate-bending pressures happen throughout Hawai‘i. They sometimes even occur as far away from the hotspot as O‘ahu. The October 15, 2006, Kīholo Bay earthquake was the most recent large plate-bending earthquake. There was a small one south of O‘ahu in February of 2011, which many people felt. Ainahou Debris From The 2006 Kīholo Bay Earthquake (USGS) Making Connections

The study of the movements of the islands over the hotspots provides information about the rate and direction of the movement of the Pacific Plate. How does this relate to the animated story, Pele Searches for a Home? Where did Pele start her search for a new home? Where did she finally locate a home for her family?
14

© 2011 PREL

13

Magnitude and Intensity of Earthquakes The Dragon Jar
In China, earthquakes were considered something unnatural. To some people, it meant that the Emperor was not ruling well. In 100 AD, a Chinese mathematician and philosopher, Chang Heng, invented the first instrument to register the occurrence of an earthquake. It was called a dragon jar. Eight dragon heads were attached to a six-foot tall jar to represent the eight points on a compass. A ball was placed in each dragon’s mouth. Eight frogs with open mouths were placed directly under the dragons. When an earthquake occurred, a ball from the mouth of the dragon facing the earthquake, and the ball from the mouth of the dragon facing away from the earthquake, would each fall into their respective frogs’ mouths. Therefore, not only would the dragon jar record that an earthquake had occurred, it would record the direction toward the epicenter. When an earthquake occurs, two types of measurements are made by seismologists—the magnitude and intensity of the quake. Seismic waves are recorded by a seismometer, which transfers the signal to a seismograph. The seismograph produces a trace, called a seismogram, on paper or computer disk. These zigzagging lines can provide data to determine the time, location, and magnitude of an earthquake. The magnitude is a measurement of the energy that is released during the earthquake. The magnitude represents a scale. For every increase in magnitude (for Seismograph example, from 4.0 to 5.0), there is a 32 times increase in the amount of energy released by the earthquake. So an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.0 releases 32 times more energy as an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.0. The magnitude scale is often called the Richter scale, after Charles Richter. His “Richter scale,” however, was developed specifically for earthquakes in California. Seismologists now use what is called the moment-magnitude, and that is what they report when an earthquake occurs.

Dragon Jar

Earthquake Intensity compares descriptions of the severity of shaking and the types of damage produced by an earthquake. These include the effects on people, the environment, and structures, such as collapsed buildings, crumbled freeways, and damaged cars. These are effects that can be described, but not actually measured, and for that reason the intensity scale is considered to be a relative scale rather than an absolute scale. The U.S. Geological Survey collects these observations after earthquakes in order to understand the patterns of ground shaking because sometimes these patterns are not related to the magnitude of an earthquake. Before seismometers were invented in the 1800s, the descriptions of damage from earlier earthquakes were used to estimate magnitudes of the quakes. This is how we estimate that the great 1868 Ka‘ū earthquake had a magnitude of 7.9 or 8.0.
Intensity is expressed with Roman Numerals. An intensity of I means it was felt by a few people. An intensity of XII means damage to the area is severe. Objects are thrown into the air, lines of sight are not clear, and cracks in the earth’s crust may have occurred.

Damage to Home in Punalu‘u (USGS)

© 2011 PREL

Abo The U.S . Geolo ut It gical S thousa urvey r nd eco Most o s of earthqua kes eve rds f them are too ry day. feel. W sma hic Throug h ones do we ll for us to ho actually oped in ut history, pe ople ha feel? strume ve deve nts to m waves. leas W the nee hy do you thin ure seismic d to rec k peop le foun ord ear d thquak es?
Seismic Station on Kīlauea

Think

Community Intensity Map, 2007

15

16

In 1832,
Mrs. Sarah J. Lyman, a missionary, started writing her observations of earthquakes in Hawai‘i. On October 3, 1833, she recorded “Two earthquakes, one of them heavy.” (Westervelt 1916, p. 177) Mrs. Lyman continued to describe the earthquakes she witnessed. Some of those descriptions include the following:
Mrs. Lyman

The 1869 earthquake was the strongest earthquake to affect the Hawaiian islands, with an estimated magnitude of 7.9. The epicenter was located approximately five miles north of Pāhala. Scientists believe it was caused by the seaward movement of the south section of Kīlauea Volcano, sliding on the layer that is about six miles below the ocean’s surface. T.M. Coan, journalist, described the event this way: “The shock was awful. The crust of the earth rose and sank like the sea in a storm.” (U.S. Geological Survey, 1998)

“All motions combine, earth like the sea.” “Kai mimiki (sea shaken or rolling sea caused by an earthquake).” (Westervelt 1916, p. 177)

Mrs. Lyman’s Journal

“1868 has been marked as the ‘volcano year of Hawaiian history.’” (Westervelt, 1916, p. 178). Mr. F.S. Lyman also kept a journal that included descriptive accounts of earthquakes, such as the following: March 27–31, 1868: “In Ka‘ū, we had quite a sprinkling of Pele’s hair (a form of airborne lava that looks like strands of hair), peculiar earthquakes–first hard shakes, then a swaying motion, as if the whole island were swaying back and forth and we with it.” (Westervelt, 1916, p. 178) Thursday, April 2, 1868: “We experienced the most fearful of earthquakes. The earth swayed north, south, east, west, round and round, up and down, and in every imaginable direction, everything crashing around us, trees thrashing as if thrown by a mighty wind, impossible to stand.” (Westervelt, 1916, pp. 178–179) During this earthquake, there were more than two thousand continuous shocks. The strongest destroyed every church and structure in the district. This quake generated a tsunami more than 60 feet high at Punalu‘u. Two eruptions accompanied the earthquake, one underground. Mr. Lyman wrote, “After the hard shaking had ceased, we went right over to a hill with the children and our natives expecting every moment to be swallowed up by the lava from beneath, for it sounded as if it were surging and washing under our feet all the time. Outside of Punalu‘u, we saw a long black point of lava slowly pushing out to sea. An island about four hundred feet high rose out of the sea at the south point. The lava river has extended the shore to this island one mile at least.” (Westervelt, 1916, pp. 180–181)
© 2011 PREL

The Lyman’s House Memorial

Making Connections
Since the beginning of time, observations by people provided the information needed to understand earthquakes. Today, people still play an important role in providing information about earthquakes, especially the intensity of the quakes. See Do You Feel It? at http://geology.about.com/od/quakemags/a/didyoufeelit.htm to add to the information being collected from earthquake sites around the world.
18

17

Are You Prepared?
Emergency Safety Checklist Earthquakes are not predictable: they occur suddenly, without warning. Advanced awareness and planning are the best protection against the dangers of serious injury. Everyone should be familiar with available resources that provide important earthquakerelated information. The list below provides tips on what families in Hawai‘i can do to protect themselves and their homes. More detailed information is available online at Natural Hazards Hawai‘i. www.hilo.hawaii. edu/~nat_haz/earthquakes
1. Secure Shelves Secure bookshelves, kitchen shelves, storage shelves and any other freestanding shelves. Avoid storing heavy items on the high shelves.

Thousands of earthquakes occur every year in Hawai‘i. These earthquakes are an important part of the island-building processes. Check http://tux. wr.usgs.gov/ for Recent Earthquakes in Hawai‘i.

Hawaiian Hot Spot Theory Disputed
May 26, 2011

Indonesian Earthquake Affects Earth
January 4, 2005

1983 Landslide of Sections of the Kilauea Caldera (USGS) 2. Prepare Emergency Survival Kits After a large earthquake, water and electricity may be cut off. Stock up on food and emergency items that would last several days. For example, portable radio, flashlight, medications, non-perishable food, water… 3. Secure Gas Water Heater Gas water heaters that are not secured may fall and break the gas line. This could cause an explosion and fire. 4. Protect your Home Secure the foundation of the house to keep it from being lifted or rocked back and forth. 5. Prepare the Family Review the safety procedures by going over scenarios if at work, school, or at home.

Halape Shoreline Dropped Over 11 Feet, 1975 Earthquake (USGS)

The Effects of Earthquakes

After each major earthquake, scientists calculate changes made to Earth as a result of an earthquake. Dr. Richard Gross of the National Aeronautics Science Administration’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, who monitors earthquake effects on Earth, explains how Earth is affected.

© 2011 PREL

An earthquake with a magnitude of 9.1 struck Indonesia on December 26, 2004. Dr. Gross reported that Earth’s “mean North Pole” shifted by 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) in an eastern direction after the earthquake. The quake also affected the Earth’s shape, by making it 1 part in 10 billion times less oblate (flat on the top and bulging at the equator). In other words, it became more round. Dr. Gross calculated that, as a result, Earth spins a little faster than it did before the quake, shortening the length of day by 2.68 microseconds. A microsecond is one millionth of a second (.000001) Wild, isn’t it?

Intensity of March 11, 2011, Earthquake (USGS)

Japan Earthquake Shifts Earth’s Axis
March 11, 2011

Since 1971, the islands’ formation was related to the hot spot theory developed by Jason Morgan, a geophysicist. This theory explains that the hot spot remains stationary as the plate drifts northwest. The buildup of the magma over the hotspot built the volcanoes that eventually became islands. A new study on the formation of the Hawaiian volcanoes disputes the idea of the hot spot theory. Rather than volcanoes being built from magma over the hotspot, scientists suggest that the pool of rock that produces the volcanic magma is located 1,000 kilometers, or 621 miles, west of the Hawaiian islands. According to Robert van der Hilst, a seismologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, the pool of magma is located 700 km, or 435 miles, below the surface of the crust, and is 1,243 miles wide.

Dr. Gross explained that the Japan earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011, shifted the planet’s axis by 9.8 inches (25 cm.). It increased the speed of Earth’s rotation, and also shortened the length of day by 1.8

microseconds.

Tilt of Earth’s Axis

19

20

How many earthquakes are recorded each year?
More than a million earthquakes occur each year throughout the world; however, only about 500,000 are recorded. Most earthquakes are minor, and many go undetected. About 100 of the stronger quakes cause damage.

In Hawai‘i, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory records thousands of earthquakes each year. These are detected by a network of seismometers. Many earthquakes are too weak to be detected, and therefore are not recorded.

ake hqu ai‘i? w g art ed e r in Hai Warnina iz m cu Tsuna sustain er, ge s lar de) otce Pacificsmall to ar Advertisor h t t ld a “too rs a itu with ” (S rCou magnphysicistslands aregnitude 8.ually occu are deter. s o i a s e u e ke oo m (9.0 Fryer, gns that thrger than n Hawai‘i rgest quae ocean fl īlauea rd
i i a Gera r, expla uake la hquake o the l es on th ide of K e. s s q k t v te Cen w earth . An ear lcanoes that mo e south ude qua hallo 2, 2011) e of vo aterial 1868, th magnit s m as .9 l1 in Apri to the b olcanic quake ated a 7 v r e the rded d gene clos o y an ed b t rec min larges eaward s the In hed pus was

rthq tat est ea d Hawai‘i. e few ich s n Wh ave th rnia a ? east rth Dakota h ed by Califo The l nd No follow aa most, Florid s the ka ha Alas

e the s hav e

most

akes thqu ear
uakes .

?

Hot earthquhquakes
ed te d, un rd ta So co S am illi on re ed e, eW st nit hil nc nC ge U Pri di in ar he rre elt cu sf el nt oc wa rld th e i de wo is ak d? nitu he n t .5. at qu rl .2 mag . ei Whrth wo f a 9 , 1964 hquak de of 9 o ea the uake rch 28 d eart gnitu In rthq Ma rde ma ea , on reco ad a a h t An sk es . It Ala larg 1960 e Th y 22, Ma

What are moon quakes?
Quakes have been recorded on the moon. The quakes with a magnitude of 5.0 sometimes last for several minutes. Some of the quakes may have been caused by meteorite impacts. Scientists also explain that the quakes may occur when the moon’s crust expands when heated by sunlight. Moon quakes were first discovered by astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.

h er o oug noth hot en Mos est eart late or a s are k p dee nental p pth roc r. e ti cu d con his n oc ow t kes ca Bel qua h eart

a b p til e. deekes occurccur at suanic platto be duc w o a ce

Released Energy

Earthquakes release a tremendous amount of energy, which is why they can be so destructive. The table below shows magnitudes with the approximate amount of TNT needed to release the same amount of energy.
Magnitude 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Approximate TNT Energy 6 tons 199 tons 6,270 tons 199,000 tons 6,270,000 tons 99,000,000 tons

© 2011 PREL

From Earthquakes and the Urban Environment, Vol. 1, G. Lennis Berlin, 1980

What was the largest recorded earthquake in Hawai‘i?

21

On Venus, images of landslides were recorded by the Magellan spacecraft in November, 1990, and July, 1991. Scientists believe that these may have been the result of Venusquakes.

The strongest and most destructive earthquake in Hawai‘i’s history occurred on April 2, 1868. By the intensity reported, geologists estimated the quake’s magnitude was 7.9.

Scientists have evidence that there is frequent seismic activity on Mars, Venus, several moons of Jupiter, and a moon of Saturn. It isn’t known why Marsquakes occur.

Are there quakes on other planets?

Which earthquake was the deadliest?

The world’s deadliest recorded earthquake occurred in 1556 in China. It is estimated that 830,000 people were killed in that earthquake.

ar less es, w s abo efore to tE epths ofuction zon is occu,r and ther d in Th e d

ye i es (8 eani es be break ’s lta n 50 mhlere an ouct 400 mitlhey don’t th ha

no su ea o th th’s do0 km) belc wlate dilvoew the earviolently— p rs

k face quarth’s surr either arface. rth e Ea nde su

ur? occ The es .

s?

22

Lava Sampling

Dr. Rowland’s research involves trying to understand how lava flows advance down the slope of a volcano—what makes some fast, or what makes some slow. He is most recognized for identifying factors that decide whether eruption in Hawai‘i will produce ‘a‘ā or pāhoehoe flows. For the past 10 years he and fellow researchers Andy Harris and Harold Garbeil have been working on a set of computer models that will hopefully predict the behavior of future lava flows.

Linking the Past, Present, and Future
Interview with Dr. Scott Rowland
Dr. Scott Rowland is a researcher and instructor with the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Hawai‘i

Q: When was the first earthquake in Hawai‘i registered? Where? Magnitude? A: Probably not too long after the first Hawaiians arrived, and almost certainly on Hawai‘i Island. Who knows what the size was? There were no instruments to measure the magnitude. Q: What are some current myths about earthquakes in Hawai‘i? A: I would guess that the most common modern myths are probably that earthquakes can be predicted or that the ocean always recedes before damaging tsunami waves arrive. Q: We think of an earthquake as a force that is destructive. At the same time, it also shapes our land. What are examples of the latter in Hawai‘i? A: The dramatic Hilina Pali faults along Kīlauea’s south flank are the result of numerous volcano-tectonic earthquakes. Every time there Dr. Rowland at Halema‘uma‘u crater is a large Kīlauea earthquake, these fault blocks shift downward 1–2 meters. The result, after tens of thousands of years, is spectacular steep cliffs. It is important to realize that these faults and fault blocks are the result of earthquakes, not the cause. Q: What do you see in future developments (in Hawai‘i) that will help students better understand earthquakes? A: Probably the most important development is the ability to predict tsunami run-up in a detailed manner. At the moment, when a tsunami warning is declared, it is for the entire state. However, the computer models are at the point that it is possible to predict which parts of Hawai‘i truly must be evacuated while others don’t need to be. Another important effort is to educate the public, particularly folks on Hawai‘i Island, about earthquake hazards and the need to be prepared before an earthquake happens. Nobody can reasonably say that we’ll soon be able to predict earthquakes in Hawai‘i (or anywhere), so the only thing you can do is be prepared beforehand. Make sure you don’t have heavy things on high shelves, bolt your hot water heater to the wall, connect your foundation to your house, have an emergency kit with food, water, blankets, radio, etc. Q: What is the Internet and social media’s impact on earthquakes? A: The availability of photos and video from earthquake events is unprecedented. Geo-nerds like me can watch these for hours. They’re also really useful, especially because they hammer home the fact that earthquakes and tsunami are events over which we have no control.
Dr. Scott Rowland

One of his mentors, Lorin Gill, left him with an important idea that he will never forget: “Every Hawai‘i kid should know how the Hawaiian islands were formed, how they evolved to the shape they are in today, what is happening to them, and how they have had an effect on people living here, both in the past and at present.” Q: Can you tell us a story of the most extraordinary or unusual earthquake occurrence you have experienced in Hawai‘i? A: I guess it was in 1985, when I was a volunteer at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. A dike was propagating along the East Rift zone, causing the ground to crack and spread apart (we could watch it with our very eyes). Every few minutes we’d also hear a loud cracking sound and feel vibrations under our feet. These earthquakes were very tiny, but we felt them because we were only a few tens of meters from their foci. Q: How are Hawaiian earthquakes unique? A: They aren’t, really. There are other oceanic volcanoes similar to Hawai‘i, and they experience the same types of earthquakes as Hawai‘i. Probably what is unique is the extent to which Hawaiian volcanoes are monitored, and this has produced an incredible data set that can be used to study Hawaiian earthquake mechanisms. Q: Is there a pattern to earthquakes in Hawai‘i? Are these quakes predictable? A: There is certainly a spatial pattern to both the volcanic and volcano-tectonic earthquakes. The volcanic earthquakes are concentrated at active volcano summits and along rift zones. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes are concentrated in and under the seaward flanks of the active volcanoes. However, no earthquakes, anywhere in the world, can be predicted, at least with current technology and understanding. Anyone who tells you otherwise is incorrect.

© 2011 PREL

23

24

Using a map and information about the Pacific hot spot, create a flip book showing how the hot spot created the chain of islands, including the islands north of Hawai‘i.

3-D Model of Earth’s Layers

Have fun creating a model of Earth’s layers using the information from the table.

Materials

(Activities and Projects)
Procedure
1. Acquire the amount of modeling clay necessary to create a model of Earth’s layers based on the table. 2. Weigh each color to the weights provided. 3. Roll the inner core into a sphere. 4. Roll the outer core into a sphere, and then cut it in half. In the middle of each half, create an indentation with a round object equal to the size of the inner core. 5. Place the two halves of the outer core over the inner core. 6. Repeat the procedure for the mantle and crust. 7. Cut the model Earth in half.

Materials

1. 5X8 note cards or drawing paper pad (approximately 25 cards or sheets of paper) 2. Colored felt-tipped pens or crayons 3. Information about the formation of the Northwestern and Hawaiian islands

1. 4 colors of modeling clay (see the table for amount needed) 2. Aluminum foil 3. Scale capable of measuring up to 500g

Procedure

1. Use each card or sheet of paper to show the sequence of the formation of the islands by creating a flip book. 2. Include the hot spot, active volcano, surrounding continents, islands, including the islands north of the Hawaiian islands. 3. Share your flipbook with your classmates and family. What did you notice about the location of the islands created by the Pacific hot spot?

Layer

Type of material Solid Iron Liquid Iron Iron and Magnesium Silica rich rocks

Where have the latest earthquakes occurred? How strong were these quakes? Check out upto-date information about world-wide earthquake occurrences using the WorldWide Earthquake Locator at www.geo.ed.ac.uk/quakes/ The locator provides current information, including dynamic maps of earthquakes across the world. The Information is based on the National Earthquake Information Center, part of the U.S. Geological Survey, in Colorado. What parts of the earth recorded the strongest quakes? The most quakes? Where did most of the quakes occur in relation to the major Earth plates?

Earthquake Hunters

Size (Approximate Radius) 0-755 mi. 755-2166 mi. 2166-3937 mi. 3937-3958 mi.

Volume

Clay Weight 2.1g 47.1g 246g 4.8g

Clay Color Red Yellow Orange Blue

What do you notice about your Earth?

Inner Core Outer Core Mantle Crust

.07% 15.7% 82% 1.6%

1. What relationships do you see among the different layers? 2. What surprised you?

Earthquakes Where You Live
© 2011 PREL

25

The U.S. Geological Survey posts real-time earthquake occurrences. Check the map for earthquake recordings in your area at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/ Click on the icon on the map to see more information about each quake that is recorded. Keep a record of quakes in your area for a week. What did you notice? 1. How many quakes did you record? 2. Did you feel any of these quakes? 26 3. What surprised you about the quakes close to where you live?

Information and skills you are expected to know and demonstrate after you complete Earthquakes!

GLOSSARY
asthenosphere n. the part of Earth’s mantle on which the tectonic plates move Earth’s tectonic plates float on the plastic-like asthenosphere, and currents within the asthenosphere that drag against the bottoms of plates cause them to move. collapse v. to suddenly fall down or give way A poorly built house will collapse during a severe earthquake. collide v. to bump or crash into one another with force When tectonic plates collide at their boundaries, one plate will slide over or under the other, causing an earthquake. continuous adj. without stopping; ongoing The continuous northwest movement of the Pacific plate can be traced on oceanic maps of the area. convergent adj. tendency to move in the direction of a common place Tectonic plates are said to be convergent when they are moving toward each other. In some cases, they collide, and in other cases one plate slides over the other. core n. innermost part of Earth Scientists believe that the outer core of Earth is a molten alloy of iron nickel, and that the inner core is a solid alloy of iron and nickel. crust n. he outermost layer of Earth t Earth’s crust and the upper portion of the mantle make up the lithosphere, which is in constant motion. divergent adj. tendency to move out or in opposite directions When divergent tectonic plates move away from each other, they create a down-dropped fault valley at the surface. epicenter n. the point on the earth’s surface directly above where an earthquake occurs The epicenter of the earthquake was located near the base of the volcano. fault n. any break within the earth across which there has been motion Some faults are really big and correspond closely to tectonic plate boundaries. Other faults are tiny. frequent adj. happening often; many times in a short period of time Although there are frequent earthquakes in Hawai‘i, many are so weak that they go unnoticed. hot spot n. a stationary, long-lived feature of the earth’s mantle that produces a continuous supply of magma that erupts at the surface The Hawai‘i Island and Yellowstone volcano are examples of hot spots where the magma supply is continuous. hypocenter n. the point within the earth where an earthquake occurs, also called the focus The hypocenter of the devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred only 8 miles below the surface. intensity n. a number (I to XII) that describes the severity of the effect of an earthquake on humans and surrounding structures An intensity of XII means that severe damage to humans and their buildings has occurred. 28

1. Describe how earthquakes help shape and reshape the earth. 2. Use the science and grade-level vocabulary words and word-part clues to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words. 3. Use text features and structures (cause and effect, compare and contrast) to help you understand what you read.

Helpful Reading Tools Understand Text Features:

Be an active reader by understanding text features of the book that helped you locate and understand information. This includes the text divisions, organizational tools, graphics, and print features of the book.

Understand Cause and Effect Text Structure

Look for the author’s text patterns and signal words that explain reasons or causes for an event or phenomenon. When the two plates collide, the great pressure causes the land to fold and bend.

Understand Compare and Contrast Text Structure
Look for text patterns and signal words that explain similarities and differences between two or more ideas. Earthquakes in Hawai‘i are the result of the eruptions and magma movement of the active volcanoes, not activity along the edges of the plates.

Word-Part Clues

1. Look for word-part prefix una. undetected, 2. Remove the prefix to determine its base. a. detect 3. Use the surrounding words and phrases in the sentence it appears in to determine the meaning of the word. Scientists are locating fault lines that have been previously undetected. (Scientists are discovering new fault lines that they had not seen before.)

Science Words to Know

fault n. any break within the earth across which there has been motion Some faults are really big and correspond closely to tectonic plate boundaries. Other faults are tiny. plate tectonics n. a theory that the earth’s surface or crust is divided into plates whose constant movement and interaction with one another explains the dramatic differences between continents and oceans, the distribution of many fossils, and the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes Plate tectonics helps us understand that there are several ways an earthquake can occur. seismic adj. relating to an earthquake or to tremors of the earth Seismic waves can be felt as they travel outward from where the earthquake originated.

© 2011 PREL

27

lithosphere n. the outer part of the earth made up of crust and uppermost mantle Earthquakes usually occur in the lithosphere as plates collide, pull apart, or slide against each other. magma n. a mixture of liquid rock, dissolved gases, crystals, and solids that is beneath the surface of the earth When magma erupts onto the earth’s surface, it produces lava flows and ash. magnitude n. a number (1 to 9+) that describes the amount of energy released by an earthquake The strongest earthquake ever measured occurred in 1960 in Chile and had a magnitude of 9.5. mantle n. one of the earth’s layers that is made of a thick solid rocky substance that represents about 85% of the total weight and mass of the Earth Most of the Earth’s interior is made up of the mantle, located between the Earth’s crust and core. mesosphere n. The lower ¾ or so of the mantle, between the asthenosphere above and the outer core below The mesosphere is a part of the mantle that is hot and solid, unlike the hot and ductile asthenosphere. plate tectonics n. a theory that the Earth’s surface or crust is divided into plates whose constant movement and interaction explains the dramatic differences between continents and oceans, the distribution of many fossils, and the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes Plate tectonics helps us understand that there are several ways an earthquake can occur. protection n. the act of keeping safe against harm or injury It is wise to follow earthquake protection Do’s and Don’ts. seismic adj. relating to an earthquake or to tremors of the earth Seismic waves can be felt as they travel outward from where the earthquake originated. severe adj. very strong, intense, or serious The jolt from the earthquake was so severe it generated a tsunami. undetected adj. unseen; undiscovered Scientists are locating fault lines that have been previously undetected.

a‘a Kai mimiki Kāne pōhaku ka‘a Kīlauea ‘Ōla‘i ‘ōlelo no‘eau ‘ō‘ō pāhoehoe Pu‘u ‘ō‘o

a type of lava that is porous and jagged with sharp edges sea shaken or rolling sea caused by an earthquake Kane, the earthquake-maker volcano on Hawai‘i Island means spewing or much spreading earthquake Hawaiian proverbs and wise sayings digging stick, usually associated with Pele lava that is smooth and unbroken, having a satiny appearance name of the cinder cone located on the eastern rift zone of the Kīlauea volcano

© 2011 PREL

29

30

Forces that Shape our Earth U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). This Dynamic Earth. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html#anchor19309449 What’s Shaking the Earth? Center for Earthquake Research and Information. (n.d.). Earthquake Myths and Folklore. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from www.ceri.memphis.edu/awareness/myths.html www.scsk12.org/Earthquake/Education%20and%20Outreach/cerimyths.pdf Chevron Products Company. (2011). Earthquake Myths and Legends. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from www.chevroncars.com/learn/wondrous-world/earthquakelegends Federal Emergency Management Agency. (n.d.). Earthquakes. Retrieved March 18, 2011, from www.fema.gov/kids/eqlegnd.htm Pukui, Mary Kawena. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau. Hawaiian Proverbs and Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. U.S. Geological Survey. (1998). The Great Ka‘u Earthquake of 1868. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1994/94_04_01.html Westervelt, W.D. (1916). Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes. Boston, MASS: G.H. Ellis Press. Layers of Earth Answers Corporation. (2011). What are the three major chemical layers of the earth? Retrieved April 21, 2011, from http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_three_major_ CHEMICAL_layers_of_the_Earth Center for Educational Technologies. Wheeling Jesuit University. (2004). Plate Tectonics. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/ earthsysflr/plates1.html Van Cleave, Janice. Education.com Inc. (2011). The Earth’s Layers: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Earth. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from www.education.com/sciencefair/article/earth-layers-chemical-physical-properties/ Kidsgeo.com. (2011). Geology for Kids. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from www.kidsgeo.com/geology-for-kids National Geographic Society. (1996). Earthquakes: Nature’s Fury. Retrieved June 30, 2011, from www.nationalgeographic.com/eye/earthquakes/earthquakesintro.html
© 2011 PREL

Tectonic Plates Center for Educational Technologies. Wheeling Jesuit University. (2004). Plate Tectonics. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/ earthsysflr/plates1.html Kidsgeo.com. (2011). Geology for Kids. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from www.kidsgeo.com/geology-for-kids National Geographic Society. (1996). Earthquakes: Nature’s Fury. Retrieved February 9, 2011, from www.nationalgeographic.com/eye/earthquakes/earthquakesintro.html National Geographic Society. (2008). Xpeditions. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/07/g68/noaahotspot.html U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). This Dynamic Earth. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html#anchor19309449 What is an Earthquake? U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. Magnitude / Intensity Comparison. Retrieved December 18, 2010, from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/mag_vs_int.php The Pacific Plate Center for Educational Technologies. Wheeling Jesuit University. (2004). Plate Tectonics. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/ plates1.html Explorevolcanoes.com. (2011). Plate tectonic theory: The Essential low down. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from www.explorevolcanoes.com/Platetectonics.html Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Volcanoes in the Sea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. Macdonald, Gordon A. & Hubbard, Douglass H. (2007). Volcanoes of the National Parks in Hawai‘i. Honolulu, HI: Hawai‘i Natural History Association. National Geographic Society. (2008). Xpeditions. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/07/g68/noaahotspot.html Pacific Disaster Center. (n.d.). Hawai‘i Tsunami Events. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from www.pdc.org/iweb/tsunami_history.jsp University of Washington. (n.d.). 1960 Chilean Earthquake. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from www.ess.washington.edu/tsunami/general/historic/chilean60.html U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey (2001). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Earthquakes. Retrieved December 18, 2010, from http://hvo. wr.usgs.gov/earthquakes/
32

National Geographic Society. (2008). Xpeditions. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/07/g68/noaahotspot.html

31

U. S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). This Dynamic Earth. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic. html#anchor19309449 Worldatlas. (n.d.). Ring of Fire. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/ringfire.htm Effects of Earthquakes in Hawai‘i Pacific Disaster Center. (n.d.). Hawai‘i Tsunami Events. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from www.pdc.org/iweb/tsunami_history.jsp University of Washington. (n.d.). 1960 Chilean Earthquake. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from www.ess.washington.edu/tsunami/general/historic/chilean60.html The Dragon Jar About.com Inventors. (n.d.). Chang Heng’s Dragon Jar. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from http://inventors.about.com/od/weirdmuseums/ig/History-of-Seismometry-/Chang-Heng-sDragon-Jar.htm You Tube. (n.d.). Discovery Education. Part 9: The Seismograph. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from www.youtube.com/watch?v=y5hAFReiRww You Tube. (n.d.). CCTV. Han Dynasty Seismograph in 132AD. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from www.youtube.com/watch?v=GcVFuIccf5c&NR=1 Magnitude and Intensity of Earthquakes eLearning Services. Northern Illinois University. Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. Retrieved July 23, 2011, from http://elearning.niu.edu/simulations/mercalli.html Net Industries. (2012). Land Formation–Constructive Forces, Folding, Faults, Magnitude and Effect, Volcanic Eruptions, Deposition of Sediment, Destructive Forces, Weathering, Erosion. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from http://science.jrank.org/kids/pages/82/LAND-FORMATION.html U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. Magnitude / Intensity Comparison. Retrieved December 18, 2010, from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/mag_vs_int.php Earthquakes Recorded–Hawai‘i Stories Westervelt, W. D. (1916). Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes. Collected and Translated from the Hawaiian. Boston, Mass: Constable & Co., London, G.B. Emergency Safety Checklist Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2011). Earthquake. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from www.fema.gov/hazard/earthquake/

The Tech Museum. (n.d.). Earthquakes. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from www.thetech.org/exhibits_events/online/quakes/overview/ University of Hawai‘i. (2011). Natural Hazards Hawai‘i. Retrieved May 18, 2011, from www.hilo.hawaii.edu/~nat_haz/earthquakes How do Major Earthquakes Affect Earth? Associated Newspapers Ltd. (2011). Day the Earth moved: How the earthquake tilted the world’s axis by 25cm (and could even cost us a microsecond a day). Retrieved April 19, 2011, from www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1365821/Japan-earthquake-tsunamiEarths-day-length-shortened-axis-tilted-25cm.html Hearst Communication, Inc. (2011). Moseman, Andrew. (How the Japan Earthquake Made the Day Shorter.) Retrieved April 19, 2011, from www.popularmechanics.com/science/ environment/natural-disasters/how-the-japan-earthquake-made-the-day-shorter National Aeronautics Science Administration. (2011). NASA Science News. How the Earthquake Affected Earth. Retrieved April 16, 2011, from http://science.nasa.gov/sciencenews/science-at-nasa/2005/10jan_earthquake/ The Strongest Earthquake in the Hawaiian Islands U.S. Geological Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (1998). The Great Ka‘u Earthquake of 1868. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1994/94_04_01.html Drake, Nadia. (2011). Hawaiian hot spot fuels volcano debate. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110526/full/news.2011.327.html?s=news_rss Factoids Berlin, G. Lennis. (1980). Earthquakes and the Urban Environment, Vol. 1. United States: CRC Press. Krohn, Katherine. (2008). The Earth-Shaking Facts about EARTHQUAKES with MaxAxiom. Mankato, Minnesota: Capstone Press. National Aeronautic Space Administration. (2010). NASA Chats. Ask an Expert. Retrieved April 28, 2011, from www.nasa.gov/connect/chat/earthquakes-transcript-20100304.html#backtoTop State of California. (2007). Department of Conservation–Earthquakes. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from www.consrv.ca.gov/index/Earthquakes/Pages/qh_earthquakes.aspx University of Memphis Center of Excellence. (2011). Center for Earthquake Research and Information. Retrieved April 21, 2011, from. www.ceri.memphis.edu/awareness/follies.html

© 2011 PREL

33

34

U.S. Department of the Interior. (n.d.). U.S. Geological Survey. Magnitude / Intensity Comparison. Retrieved December 18, 2010, from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/ mag_vs_int.php U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey (2001). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Earthquakes. Retrieved December 18, 2010, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/earthquakes/ The Washington Post Company. (2010). Facts About Earthquakes. Retrieved December 15, 2010, from www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2010/04/13/AR2010041304113.html Watanabe, June. Star Advertiser. (April 12, 2011). Size of Isle Volcanoes Factors into Severity of Potential Quake. Retrieved April 28, 2011, from www.staradvertiser.com/ news/20110412_Size_of_isle_volcanoes_factors_into_severity_of_potential_quake.html Wikipedia. (2011). Quake (Natural Phenomenon). Retrieved April 28, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quake_(natural_phenomenon) Pāhana Alden, Andrew. (2011). Do You Feel It? Retrieved April 28, 2011, from http://geology.about. com/od/quakemags/a/didyoufeelit.htm Braile, L. (2006).Three-D Earth Structure Model. Retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/threedearth/threedearth.htm Discovery Communications, LLC. (2011). Make a Quake. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from http://dsc.discovery.com/guides/planetearth/earthquake/interactive/interactive.html Gittings, Bruce M. (2005). World-Wide Earthquake Locator. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from www.geo.ed.ac.uk/quakes/ U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. (2011). Latest Earthquakes in the World–Last 7 Days. Retrieved April 17, 2011, from http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/ Timeline Pararas-Carayannis. (2007). The Earthquake of October 15, 2006 in Hawaii. Retrieved April 18, 2011, from www.drgeorgepc.com/Earthquake2006Hawaii.html Westervelt, W. D. (1916). Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes. Collected and Translated from the Hawaiian. Boston, Mass: Constable & Co., London, G.B.

© 2011 PREL

35

36

Photo Credits Coconut Island April 1, 1946. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Cover) Courtesy of Pacific Tsunami Museum Dr. Scott Rowland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 23-24) Courtesy of Scott Rowland Courtesy of U.S. Department of Interior U.S. Geological Survey, Hawai‘i Volcano Observatory Hawai‘i Volcano Observatory (HVO) is part of the Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. HVO staff conducts research on the volcanoes of Hawai`i and works with emergencyresponse officials to protect people and property from earthquakes and volcano-related hazards. HVO has contributed much to the growing science of volcanology. See http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/ for more information about HVO Fissure located between Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō and Napau March 5, 2011. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Cover) Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Cone, September 1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Cover) Fissure between Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō and Napau, March 5, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 3) Ground crack in the village of Kapoho before the 1960 Eruption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 4) Crack in Hilina Pali Road, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 4) Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Crater Floor Collapse, March 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 4) House destroyed in Kalapana, June 1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 8) Landslide, Chain of Craters Road, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 8) Mauna Loa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 9) Submerged Coconut Grove at Halape, December 3, 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 10) Hot Spot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 12) The Hawaiian Islands, Tops of Volcanoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 12) Cutaway view of Kīlauea Volcano, Diagram by J. Johnson, 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 12) Damage of Crater Rim Drive above Waldron Ledge, Photo J.D. Griggs, November 17, 1983 (p. 11) Massive Rock Slide, USGS photo by E.L. Harp, 11/16/2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 12) Kīlauea Caldera Floor Fissure Spatter, November 29, 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 13) 1962-1985 Earthquakes on or near Hawai‘i Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 14) Ainahou Debris, Kiholo Bay Earthquake, 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 14) Seismic Station on Kīlauea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 15) Seismograph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 16) Damaged House in Punalu‘u, November 1975, Photo by David Shapiro . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 16) Intensity Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 16) 1983 Landslide of sections of the north rim into Kīlauea Caldera, November 1983 . . . .(p. 19) Drop of Halape Shoreline, November 29, 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 19) Intensity Map, March 15, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 20) Honoka‘a Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 20) Lo‘ihi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 20) Courtesy of the Lyman Museum Lyman House Memorial 1932. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 17) David and Sarah Lyan about 1853 with the four younger children: Rufus and Ellen by their father, small Francis and baby Emma with their mother. . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 18) Sarah Joiner Lyman about 1880 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 8, 17)

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) President and CEO Sharon Nelson-Barber Creative Producer Michael Q. Ceballos Evaluators Andrew Sahalie Chuck Giuli Executive Producer Ormond Hammond Curriculum Developer Ellen Miyasato Cultural Advisor Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua, Kamehameha Schools Production Assistant Bernadette Frank Science Advisors Line Producer Kaira Resch Artist Bryson Luke Curriculum Advisors Susan Hanson Cheryl Taitague

Ethan Allen, PhD Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Gerard Fryer, PhD RH Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center Scott Rowland, PhD University of Hawai‘i Written Contributions Gerard Fryer, PhD Geophysicist, RH Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center Scott Rowland, PhD Department of Geology & Geophysics, University of Hawai‘i Karen Victor Science Teacher, Ke Kula ‘o S. M. Kamakau LPCS Special Thanks To Ethan Allen Christine Antolos Michelle Bulos John Camac Javier Elizondo Gerard Fryer Myra Hasegawa Amber Inwood Ross Inouye

Hedy Kaneoka James Kauahikaua Terry Kelly Scott Kunihiro Susan Kusunoki Kai Lono Marylin Low Corinne Misaki-Wingert Maxwell Miyasato

Roger Osentoski Jennifer Padua Lori Phillips Casey Primacio Lee Ann Ānuenue Pūnua Scott Rowland Liane Sing Pamela Suga Melissa Torres-Laing

Bishop Museum Haha‘ione Elementary School Hawai‘i Department of Education Hawai‘i Volcano Observatory Kamehameha Schools

The Lyman Museum RH Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center University of Hawai‘i

© 2011 PREL

37

38