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Pacific Resources for Education and Learning

900 Fort Street Mall Suite 1300 Honolulu, Hawaii 96813-3718 Phone: (808) 441-1300 Fax: (808) 441-1385 U.S. Toll-free Phone: (800) 377-4773 U.S. Toll-free Fax: (888) 512-7599 Website: www.prel.org

Building Capacity Through Education

Waves are the most familiar features of the ocean. Waves of all sizes endlessly roll onto our beaches. There are different kinds of ocean waves: the tides (true tidal waves) caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon; wind waves created by the wind; and tsunamis (sometimes incorrectly called tidal waves) caused by disturbances, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. Surrounded by the ocean, Hawaii is a natural setting for understanding waves.

Waves!

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The story, Pele Searches for a Home, tells the story of how Pele traveled through the Hawaiian islands searching for a safe home. On each island, she used her (digging stick) to create fissures and craters. Over millions of years, volcanic activity in the middle of the Pacific Ocean has shaped, and continues to reshape, the incredible landforms of the Hawaiian islands. How is Peles story related to this volcanic activity?

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Volcanoes!

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We think of the earth that we stand on as solid, stable, and stationary. But the fact is that Earth is in constant motion. From the beginning of time, people have asked questions, such as: Why is the earth so restless? What causes the ground to sometimes shake so violently? How are earthquakes related to volcanoes? Earthquakes are part of the forces that have shaped and changed the land, including the islands of Hawaii.

Earthquakes!

Waves are the most familiar features of the ocean. Waves of all sizes endlessly roll onto our beaches. There are different kinds of ocean waves: the tides (true tidal waves) caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon; wind waves created by the wind; and tsunamis (sometimes incorrectly called tidal waves) caused by disturbances, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. Surrounded by the ocean, Hawaii is a natural setting for understanding waves.

Waves!

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Forces That Shape Our Earth: Volcanoes! Understanding the Forces that Shape Our Earth Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Legendary Connections What Does It Mean To Be Famous? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Understanding Volcanoes What is a Volcano? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 Classification of Volcanoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 Typical Life Stages of a Hawaiian Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712 Active and Extinct Volcanoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1314 Lava Eruptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1516 Lava Flows and Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1718 Volcano Wonders and Landforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1920 Volcanoes Where You Live Kauai and Niihau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2122 Oahu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2324 Molokai, Lanai, and Kahoolawe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2526 Maui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2728 Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2930 Ka Nhou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3132 Factoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3334 Linking the Past, Present, and Future Interview with Jim Kauahikaua and Kevan Kamibayashi . . . . . . . . .3536 Phana Activities and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3738 Reading for Information Helpful Reading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Hawaiian Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Resources and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 47
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Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 50
The contents of this publication were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

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hia Lehua

Peles influence on the Hawaiian Islands can still be felt. We can stand at the edge of Halemaumau Crater, her home in Klauea Caldera, and we can observe her with our senses. Not only can we see the fiery red lava churning below us, but we can also smell the sulfurous vapors rising from the floor of the crater. Volcanologists often get near enough to feel the scorching heat, even through many layers of protective gear! Some people have even gotten close enough to the edge of a slow moving a flow to be able to hear the lava clinking, sizzling, and popping as it crawls along. How important Pele is! By knowing and sharing her stories, we are able to understand the many different forces that are at work, creating and shaping our island home.

What does it mean to be famous? Usually, a person is famous because of who they are, what they have done, or how they influence others. Famous people, such as writers, musicians, actors, and politicians, seem to lead diverse and interesting lives, and it can be very fun to follow their exploits and share their stories. If we look at a wide range of Hawaiian stories, such as those found in both traditional and contemporary literature, then Pele must be one of the most famous people of all! Shes so famous that she has more than one name. Each one of her names describes a part of her personality. Here are just three for you to check out: Pelehonuamea - Red earth Pele Pelewahaula - Red mouthed Pele Peleailau - Tree eating Pele

Glowing a flow on Klauea

Lava creating more land

If a friend shares a secret with you, they might ask you to cross your heart and hope to die before you share that secret with anyone else. Another way to say this would be to use the Hawaiian saying,
Ohelo Berries

From these names, we get the sense that Pele is not only a creator, but also a destroyer. In a way, she is the great recycler, gobbling up land in order to make new habitats, new places for things to live and grow. Pele is the main character in many stories, and many hula and oli have been composed in her honor. One of the most well-known hula is Aia l o Pele i Hawaii, which describes Pele as a vital and necessary part of the Hawaiian landscape: Aia l o Pele i Hawaii, ea - Pele is there in Hawaii Ke haa maila i Maukele, ea - Dancing at Maukele h, h mai ana, ea - Grumbling and rumbling Ke nome aela i Puna, ea Devouring Puna

Pau Pele, pau man. Consumed by Pele, eaten by sharks. It tells your friend that you would rather be destroyed in Peles fiery pit or chomped on by sharks than to tell their secret. Next time someone confides in you, let them know that youll always be true to their trust by using this lelo noeau, or wise saying. (Pukui 2617, p. 287)

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ele at s nk Thiis the story, Phe forces th t ed to How relat me, ai`i? Ho Haw ape resh

It ra outearches fohape and b A S

Ulumau Phaku Pele Sculpture Ever growing rock of Pele created in honor of creator, Pelehonuamea

Making Connections

Ask a local museum docent, scientist, kpuna, or a parent to share other stories of forces that shape and reshape the Hawaiian Islands.

What is a Volcano?

Where are Volcanoes Found?


Volcanoes are found around the world. Most of them have formed along the boundaries of Earths tectonic plates. Some volcanoes, like those in Hawaii, are not located on a tectonic plate boundary. Instead, the Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the Pacific Plate, 1988 miles from the nearest plate boundary.
Puu Oo Crater Eruption

A volcano is a site where magma (molten rock) from the earths mantle is forced upward through the earths crust. When molten rock erupts to the surface, it is called lava. The build-up of lava by multiple eruptions forms hills or mountains called volcanoes. Volcanoes are different from other types of mountains that are formed by folding or pushing up of the earths crust.

Hot Spots

Beneath the Pacific plate, there is a stationary hot spot deep in the Earths mantle. Heat from this hotspot partially melts mantle rock, creating a source of magma. Magma, which is lighter than the surrounding solid rock, rises through the mantle and weak spots of the plates crust. It erupts as lava on the ocean floor, forming a seamount, or undersea mountain. Layers of lava from continuous eruptions build the seamount until it emerges above sea level to form an island volcano. Like the other tectonic plates, the Pacific Plate is in constant motion. The plate above the hot spot is drifting in a northwest direction at 3 to 4 inches per year. As the plate drifts, the volcano over the hot spot is carried away from its source of magma becoming an inactive volcano. Except for the islands of Hawaii and Maui, the other islands have moved beyond the hot spot, and therefore cut off from the magma source. The cycle of magma formation, eruption, and movement of the Pacific Plate over the hot spot has built a chain of volcanoes called the HawaiianEmperor Seamount Chain. The chain extends from Hawaii Island to Kamchatka, Russia. The formation of the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain has taken over 70 million years. The island of Hawaii is the southeasternmost and youngest island in this chain. Hawaii Island is over the hot spot which is supplying magma to the active volcanoes on the island. The submarine volcano, Lihi, off the Hawaii Island south coast, is actively erupting, and may eventually be the next volcano island.

Ring of Fire

Eruption on Klaueas East Rift Zone

Puu Oo cone on Klauea Volcano

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2. 3. 4.

Ages of the Islands of Hawaii


5. 1. Kauai 2. Oahu 3. Molokai 4. Maui Complex 5. Hawaii 5,100,000 years 3,000,000 years 1,800,000 years 1,320,000 years 0-700,000 years

Hawaiian Emperor Seamount Chain

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The Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain includes the Hawaiian Islands, the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and the Emperor Seamounts. It is called the Emperor Seamounts because the islands in this part of the chain were named after former Emperors of Japan.

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Making Connections

Take a look at the volcanoes that were formed as a result of the Hawaiian hot spot. What patterns do you see in the map? Where do you think the next island might form as the Pacific plate moves the island of Hawaii away from the hotspot?
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Classification is a way scientists group or organize things such as plants, animals, stars, and even volcanoes. Scientists classify volcanoes according to characteristics that will help them organize the information they observe and research, and to communicate information with others without confusion. There are several ways that scientists classify volcanoes. They sometimes group volcanoes based on the way they erupt. For example, some volcanoes erupt explosively, producing mostly ash fall and ash flows, whereas other volcanoes erupt more quietly, producing mostly lava flows. Volcanoes are also often classified by their morphology (shape and size).

Halemaumau Crater, Hawai`i

Stratovolcanoes are tall and coneshaped with steep sides. They can rise more than 8,000 feet above their surroundings. The magma is sticky and contains more gas Mount St. Helens, Stratovolcano bubbles which can create greater pressure and a more explosive eruption. Strato, which means stratified, or layered, describes the layers that build on the sides of the volcano. The sticky lava does not travel far before it starts to cool. As a result, the layers of this fast cooling lava and layers of ash create a volcano with steep slopes. Approximately 60% of the worlds volcanoes are stratovolcanoes. Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington, and Popocatpetl in Mexico, are examples of stratovolcanoes.

Stratovolcanoes (also known as Composite Volcanoes)

Hawaiian Shield Volcanoes

Shield Volcano, Mauna Loa, Hawai`i

The volcanoes of Hawaii are shield volcanoes, with sloping shaped profiles. Their shapes resemble the shields used by the Hawaiian warriors. The eruptions of shield volcanoes are sometimes described as gentle, however, Klauea can also produce explosive eruptions. The magma is very fluid, resulting in lava fountains. The fluid lava travels a longer distance before it cools. As a result, the volcano has gentle, rather than steep, slopes. Hawaiian shield volcanoes erupt at their summits or along rift zones, well-defined zones of weakness extending from the summit through the flank of the volcano. All Hawaiian volcanoes have one or more rift zones. For example, Klauea has two: an east rift zone and a southwest rift zone. Klaueas east rift zone extends from its summit caldera through Cape Kumukahi and onto the ocean floor, a distance of more than 80 miles. Eruptions can occur at vents, passageways through which magma reaches the surface, anywhere along this rift zone. Despite their gentle slopes, Hawaiis shield volcanoes have created the largest and highest mountains. Mauna Kea rises 13,796 feet above sea level. Mauna Loa, which means long mountain, makes up more than half of Hawaii Island and is the most massive volcano on Earth.

Pyroclastic Cones

Pyroclastic is a combination of two Greek words pyro, which means fire, and klastos, which means broken. This word refers to fragments of lava, such as ash, cinder, or spatter, that are erupted from a vent. Fragments falling to the ground around the vent can build a cone-shaped structure. Therefore, pyroclastic cones are also known as cinder cones or cinder-and-spatter cones.
Popocatpetl, Mexico, Strato Volcano

Pyroclastic cones can form on the flank of a stratovolcano or shield volcano. They range in size from 20 to more than 600 feet in height. They can form rapidly, and remain active for long periods of time.

Shield Volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawai`i

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Eruption on Klaueas east rift zone

Main vent of Puu Cone

Making Connections

The island you live on is the top of one or several volcanoes. Look around you. Can you determine the part of a volcano where you live? Are you living on the slopes of a volcano? Between two volcanoes? Look at an aerial view of your island.
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Formation of Volcanoes
Each Hawaiian island has gone through similar stages of growth. The formation of a volcano begins with an eruption on the sea floor above a hot spot. From this preshield stage, an island progresses through stages that could take over 30 million years. Over this time, the island continues to erode until it becomes a flat reef, and eventually sinks below sea level.

Shield Building Stage


Once a volcano grows above sea level, continued eruptions produce layer upon layer of fluid lava and build broad, gentle slopes that resemble the shape of a warriors shield. Mauna Loa and Klauea are examples of Hawaiian volcanoes in the shield-building stage.

Lava Fountain on the Side of Puu Oo Cone

Youngest Hawaiian Volcano,Lihi

Eruptions of this stage produce lava flows of phoehoe (rope like) or a (blocky) lava. The a flows are usually associated with the beginning of eruptions. Phoehoe flows occur during the later part of the eruption, when the eruption rate is lower. Ninety-five percent of the volcano is formed by frequent eruptions during this stage. The flanks of the volcano sometimes become unstable with large volumes of lava. Think Abou t It This is when many landEach volcano in the Hawaiia n chain has be slides occur. the same sequ en formed thro ence of growth ugh . From its begi underwater, un nning, deep til it becomes This stage of volcano extinct, the lif volcano could e span of a Haw be as long as aiian formation occurs over several millio of growth are n years. At wha the volcanoes t stage 500,000 years. on your island ?

Submarine Stage
Lihi, a submarine volcano off the southeast coast of Hawaii Island, is Hawaiis youngest volcano. Its summit is still about 3,000 feet below sea level. The most recent known eruption of Lihi was in 1996.

Pillow Lava

The cooling effect of water on the erupting lava creates lava pillows. The Pillow Lava continues to shape the volcano. During this stage, a volcanos caldera and rift zones are beginning to form. As the volcano reaches closer to the waters surface, the seawater and magma mix, resulting in steam explosions. This stage of volcano formation takes about 200,000 to 500,000 years.

Eruption Along a Rift Zone (phoehoe lava on both sides of the fissure) Phoehoe Lava Flow

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Before 1823
Descriptions of eruptions were based on interpretations of Hawaiian chants, dances, or stories like Pele Searches for a Home

1823

The first written descriptions of volcano eruptions were recorded by Reverend William Ellis, who visited the summit region of Klauea. (Halemaumau Crater, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park)

Khala Volcano from the Slopes of Mauna Kea

Huallai Surrounded by A Flows

Erosional Stage
Khala, Lnai, and Waianae volcanoes are examples of this stage. Processes of weathering and erosion occur during this stage. Deep canyons are carved into the sides of the volcano. The island also loses elevation. Coral reefs form in the shallow waters around the island and their growth keeps pace with the subsidence (sinking) of the island.

Post Shield Stage

Mauna Kea and Huallai on Hawaii Island and Haleakal, on Maui, are examples of post shield volcanoes. These volcanoes have moved off the center of the hot spot. The magma supply decreases, resulting in fewer eruptions. At the beginning of this stage, volcanoes produce small explosive eruptions that can build cinder cones.

Map of Hawaii Island Volcanoes

Mauna Kea, Hawaiis Tallest Volcano

The volcano slopes become steeper. A flows accumulate up near vents, around the summit, and along rift zones, making the volcano tops seem more bumpy than the younger shield volcanoes when viewed from a distance. Scientists describe this process as building a cap of lava over the top of the shield. Eruptions at the caldera stops. The rift zone eruptions also become less active.
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Lnai Before Sections of the Volcano Sank

This stage lasts over 250,000 years.

18401841

The first geologic study of Hawaiian volcanoes was conducted by James Dwight Dana. Dana recognized that the islands became younger from the northwest to southeast.

1912
Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), established the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

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Rejuvenated Stage
Some volcanoes may go through a final eruption stage. These eruptions may occur on the sides of existing volcanoes, through the reefs that have formed around the islands, or on a nearby ocean floor. Why do these eruptions occur since the volcanoes have moved away from the hot spot? Scientists think that even after a shield volcano stops erupting, magma may be trapped in small chambers. As the island sinks, the pressure could create cracks that allow the magma to surface as an eruption. These eruptions are short and produce small volumes of lava. Examples of volcanoes that occurred during this stage are: 1. Kalaupapa. A low volcano erupted after the cliff was eroded by waves. 2. On Oahu, Diamond Head, Punchbowl, Mnana (Rabbit) Island, Koko Head and Koko Crater, liapaakai and liamanu are considered rejuvenated volcanoes. 3. On Kauai, Kloa volcano was formed during this stage. This stage could occur several million years after the formation of the volcano.
Diamond Head Crater

Coral Reef and Guyot Stages


An example of a volcanic island at this stage is the island of Midway. During this stage, a volcanic island is eventually eroded until it reaches sea level. Coral reef growth in shallow waters around the island continues to keep pace with the islands subsidence creating a surrounding coral ring or an atoll. As plate motion carries the atoll northwestward into colder ocean waters, the coral reefs can no longer keep pace with the islands subsidence, they die, and the atoll sinks below the sea level. Islands at this stage are called guyots. The Hawaiian volcanoes, by then are more than 30 million years old.

View east across Haleakal Crater, with young cinder cones in foreground
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Hanauma Bay and Koko Head Crater

1963

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John Tuzo Wilson, a Canadian geophysicist, proposed the hot spot hypothesis.

1983

Klaueas Puu -Kupaianaha eruption begins its nonstop eruption. 12

Volcanoes are classified as active if they have erupted within the last ten thousand years. These volcanoes also show signs of magma beneath them and will more than likely erupt again. In Hawaii, the active volcanoes are Klauea, Mauna Loa, Huallai, Haleakal, Mauna Kea, and Lihi.

Active Volcanoes

Active Volcano (Mauna Kea, Hawaii Island)

Active Volcanoes Loihi Klauea Mauna Loa Huallai Haleakal Mauna Kea

Most Recent Eruption 1996 1983-Current 1984 1801 1400-1600 4,500 years ago

Inactive or Extinct Volcanoes

A volcano is classified as inactive, or extinct, if it has not erupted for more than 10,000 years. What causes a volcano to become extinct? When a volcano is cut off from its lava supply, it becomes extinct. In Hawaii, the Pacific plate on which volcanoes are located, is slowly moving northwest. As the volcanoes move away from the hotspot, their source of magma is cut off and they eventually become extinct.

Predicting Volcanic Activity Through Volcanic Monitoring

Volcanologists cannot definitely predict when an eruption will occur. However, they use a combination of clues to help them understand when a volcano might erupt.

Volcanologists monitor:
1. the land changes around the volcano. They use satellite images. These images show that the ground seem to rise as the magma rises toward the surface. 2. the past eruptions for patterns. They use these patterns to determine when an eruption could occur.
Active Volcano (Klauea Volcano, Hawaii Island, A fissure erupting between Puu Crater and Npau, March 6, 2011) Inactive Volcano (Koko Crater, Oahu Island)

3. the gases produced. Higher levels of sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide sometimes rise before an eruption. 4. seismic activity. All earthquakes are measured on seismograms. There is usually earthquake activity before an eruption.
These clues provide the volcanologists with information to predict when an active volcano might erupt.
Jim Kauahikaua, Lead Scientist at USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

There are more than 1,550 active volcanoes in the world. An interactive world map, which includes information about the active volcanoes of the world, can be found at www.geocodezip.com/v2_activeVolcanos.asp. Klauea is often called the most active volcano in the world. But there are other volcanoes around the world that have been erupting for a long time. Examples include Etna, Italy (3,500 years); Stromboli, Italy (2,000 years); and Yasur, Vanuatu (800 years).

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Making Connections

Each island is the top of one or several volcanoes. Can you locate the volcanoes that formed your island? Are the volcanoes active or extinct? Which ones are rejuvenated (erupted many years after the island was formed)?
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Scientists also describe volcanoes by types of eruptions and flows that occur. The types of eruptions depend on the pressure that is released as magma surfaces and the amount of gas that is mixed with liquid magma.

Pyroclastic Eruptions

Lava Fountains

Hawaiian volcanoes present spectacular displays with their lava fountains. Lava fountains form when jets of escaping gas blast fluid lava high into the air. Lava fountains usually range between 30 to more than 350 feet, and may reach heights of more than 1,500 feet. The highest lava fountain observed at Klauea Volcano on Hawaii Island, was more than 1,900 feet in height in the 1959 eruption at Klauea Iki. Lava can also erupt from fissures (cracks in the ground), and lava tubes when water enters a tube.

A pyroclastic eruption is an explosive eruption that ejects large volumes of hot fragments such as ash, pumice, and rocks into the air. Pyroclastic in Greek means, fire broken rocks (MacDonald, 1983). The pyroclastic debris may be greater than 930 F. The heat and weight of the ash, pumice, and rock fragments flatten and weld, or fuse, the material together once they settle.

Lava Lake in Klauea Iki Crater Before It Began to Drop, 1959

The 1790 and 1924 eruptions at Klauea were considered pyroclasictic type eruptions. Debris from the 1790 eruption of Klauea indicate that a pyroclastic eruption may have occurred. Thirty-five foot thick pyroclastic material was found A Footprint Preserved in Ash of Klaueas 1790 Eruption around the summit of Klauea. A story relates how the eruption rose at least 30,000 feet into the air. The eruption took the lives of warriors from Ka who were crossing the summit region of Klauea returning from a battle with Kamehameha. Some reported that 80 warriors lost their lives. Others reported that as many as 5,400 people lost their lives. In 1924, steam explosions occurred as ground water flowed into the Halemaumau magma conduit. The falling rocks from the walls of the crater created a barrier preventing the steaming water from escaping. The pressure that built resulted in the explosive eruptions of 1924.

Lava Fountain at Klauea Iki 1959 Eruption, Klauea Volcano, Hawaii Lava Fountain of the Puu Cinder and Spatter Cone, Klauea Volcano, Hawaii

Lava Lakes

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Sixty-Five Foot Dome Fountain, 196971 Mauna Ulu Eruption of Klauea Volcano, Hawaii

Sometimes the lava fountains form dome fountains. This phenomenon is created when a large volume of gas-poor lava is erupted at a nearly constant rate. The resulting shape is a hemisphere (half of a sphere) lava dome. Lava domes can reach heights of more than 30 feet.

Many Klauea eruptions have formed ponds or lakes of lava in a vent, crater, or area where there is a depression. Lava lakes can form when an active vent within a crater erupts molten lava that completely or partly fills the crater. Lava lakes can also form when lava flows pour into a crater, partly or completely filling it with molten lava. Lava erupted in Klauea Iki Crater in 1959 filled the crater about halfway, creating a 445-foot deep lava lake. Lava lakes, such as Klauea Ikis, provide scientists with information about lava cooling and changes that occur after eruptions.
Lava Lake at the top of the Kupaianaha Vent, East Rift of Klauea Volcano, Hawaii

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Lava Tubes
Hawaiian lava is about 2,100F, some of the hottest lava in the world. When lava erupts, it can flow on the surface, forming streams or channels of molten rock. There are two main types of Hawaiian lava flows, called phoehoe and a, depending on their surface texture. Both phoehoe and a are Hawaiian words, but commonly used throughout the world to describe lava flow types.

Phoehoe

As soon as lava reaches the surface, it begins to cool and harden. Lava that solidifies with a smooth or ropy surface is called phoehoe. Phoehoe means smooth and unbroken, having a satiny appearance (Pukui and Elbert, 1986). The shine is the result of lava cooling rapidly and forming a thin glass layer. A phoehoe flow advances, or moves forward, as small lobes break out from a cooled crust. When cooled, the surface of the lava looks like twisted rope, and shines like satin.

Lava also flows underground through self-made tubes. Lava tubes form when the tops of a lava flow cools and hardens, creating an enclosed passageway through which molten lava can flow. The solid crust prevents heat loss, so the lava Nhuku (Thurston) Lava Tube inside remains hot and fluid. Because of this, lava inside a tube can travel many miles from an erupting vent. For example, in 1990, lava traveled through a tube toward the community of Kalapana. There, lava broke out of the tube, forming surface lava flow that destroyed many homes in the area. Sometimes, the roof of a tube collapses, creating an opening, or skylight, through which you can see the molten lava flowing through the tube. The Nhuku (Thurston) Lava Tube in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is an example of a lava tube that was formed during an eruption 500600 years ago. At the end of the eruption, the lava drained from the tube, leaving a cave-like feature.

Channel of A Flow on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii, 1984

Lobes or Toes of Phoehoe Lava, Klauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1985

Tephra (Lava Fragments)


Volcanic rock fragments ejected from eruptions and spattering vents form different lava shapes.

Volcanic Ash

Volcanic ash is fragments of lava, rock, and volcanic glass that are typically less than 0.1 inch in diameter. Volcanic ash is created during explosive eruptions when molten lava and rocks are shattered into tiny bits.

The skylight displays shallow moving lava within a lava tube.

Peles Hair

Phoehoe Transitions to A, Klauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1998

A, on the other hand, is jagged and sharp. A means to burn; glowing; fire, staring, as eyes (Pukui and Elbert, 1986). According to Scientistin-Charge at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, James Kauahikaua, observing an a flow at night is like seeing a million glowing eyes staring at you! As the a cools, it is transformed into porous, jagged rocks with sharp edges.

When fluid lava is spewed into the air, thin strands of the lava can stretch and spin, creating hairlike strands of volcanic glass. These strands are called Peles Hair, named for Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of volcanoes. The strands vary in length, from 3 to 6 inches, and appear golden in color. During an eruption, the wind can blow Peles hair many miles downwind.
Thin Strands of Volcanic Glass, Peles Hair, Klauea Volcano, 1984

Cinder
2011 PREL

Cinders are glassy rock fragments formed as magma explodes and is cooled quickly. Cinders can accumulate around a vent, creating a cinder cone.

Peles Tears

As lava fountains erupt, small bits of molten rock flying through the air quickly cool and harden, forming small glassy particles shaped like spheres or tear drops. Peles tears are about to inch in size and black in color.
Cinder, Klauea Volcano, Hawaii Peles Tears

17 Rope-Like Phoehoe Crust, 2001

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Landforms Lava Trees


When lava flows through a forest, the molten rock cools and hardens around the trunks of trees. As it does, the living tree burns, leaving a hole, or mold, in place of the tree trunk. If the lava flow drains away, the solid crust of lava surrounding the tree is left standing above the surface, like a column of rock, forming a lava tree. A few hundred years ago, the Klauea volcanos East Rift erupted phoehoe lava that entered the forest near what is now Phoa town. It filled the forest with lava over 11 feet high. As the eruption gradually lessened, the lava flow drained away and its surface dropped, leaving the tree molds.

The eruptions of Hawaiian volcanoes have shaped and reshaped the islands. All of the volcano islands are shield volcanoes, built up by the fluid lava flows that travel great distances from the summit. The shields are gentle slopes.

Halemaumau Crater within Klauea Caldera, 1997

Calderas are located at the summits of the shields. Calderas form by the collapse of magma reservoir. Klaueas summit caldera measures 2.5 miles long and 2 miles wide. The summit caldera of Mauna Loa, Mokuweoweo, measures 3 miles by 1.5 miles. Craters are smaller depressions, usually less than 2 miles in diameter. Rift zones extend from the summit down its flank, or side, into the sea. These are the ridges with open fissures, craters, and spatter cones. Most of the eruptions take place in the volcanos caldera or along the rift zones. Cinder and spatter cones are higher volcanic landforms built by eruptions along the vents. Puu cone is an example.

Lava trees form when molten lava cools and solidifies around the trunks of trees, Klauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1986

Aerial view of the northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii, 1975

Tree Mold

Spatter cones along a fissure on the northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, 1984

Kpuka

(Hawaiian word for Island). A kpuka is an island of forest that is surrounded by lava. Kpuka are important ecosystems because they are the sources of seeds, spores, and insects of native species that colonize the surrounding lava flows.
2011 PREL

Halemaumau Crater, 2011

Rift Zones of Klauea Volcano

Kpuka, surrounded by lava, formed during the Puu Kupaianaha Eruption, Klauea Volcano, Hawaii

Between 1983 and 1986, episodic lava fountains erupting from a vent on Klaueas east rift zone built a cinder-and-spatter cone that reached a height of more than 800 feet high. This cone, named Puu , was one of the highest landforms on Klauea. Since 1986, the cone has slowly collapsed, and as of 2011, is about 600 feet high.
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19

Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Niihau

On the island of Niihau, one shield volcano formed the island 4.9 million years ago. Scientists think a large landslide removed part of its summit and east side of the shield. Small eruptions occurred during the rejuvenation stage of Niihaus volcano. Lehua Island, north of Niihau, is an example of a rejuvenated volcano. Lehua was often referred to when directions to the west were given, since it is the island located in the most western direction.
Mai ka hikina a ka l i Kumukahi a ka welona a ka l i Lehua From the sunrise at Kumukahi To the fading light at Lehua From sunrise to sunset. Kumukahi, in Puna, Hawaii, was known as the land of the sunrise. Lehua was known as the land of sunset. (Pukui 2058, p. 223).

By studying the active volcanoes of Hawaii Island, scientists have a better understanding of the processes that have created, shaped, and changed the islands of Hawaii. They have also explored observations that the early Hawaiian settlers have passed on through their stories, chants, dances, and artifacts. Interpretations of some of these stories, like Pele Searches for a Home, have been rich sources of information that have added to the science of volcanoes before written records were kept.
Steep Cliffs of Na Pali Coast

Kauai

Kauai Volcano formed the island of Kauai between five and six million years ago. The eruptions continued to build Kauai for about a million years. The Waimea Canyon was eroded into the shield volcano and shows the many layers of lava flows that shaped the island. Scientists have found fields of rubble deposited on the ocean floor which leads them to think that a large part of the Waimea end of the island slid into the ocean. Another large portion of the Na Pali coastline later slid into the ocean, leaving the sea cliffs we see today. The summit of Mount Waialeale was the site of a sacred heiau, or temple, which was dedicated to Kne, the akua of the water and the forests. The Alakai Swamp, above Wainiha Valley, is perched on thick lava flows thought to have been ponded within the caldera of Kauai Volcano. The thick lava flows have prevented the water from seeping through the rocks, creating the swampy Alakai area.

Pele on Kauai Pele thrusts her near Wailua

Waimea Canyons layers of lava flow that shaped Kauai Island

Island of Kauai

Lehua, north of Niihau

Smaller eruptions took place during Kauais rejuvenation stage, about 2.6 to 0.15 million years ago. These eruptions, known as the Koloa volcanic series, occurred through vents located throughout the east section of Kauai, from Waimea to Hanalei. The formation of the Kilohana Crater, Haupu Ridge, Kukui o Lono Park, and Pohakea are a few examples of eruptions during this period.

Island of Niihau

In Pele Searches for a Home


Most Recent Eruption Status

Volcano 2011 PREL

Hawaiian Meaning

Elevation Above Sea Level (in feet) 5,148 984

Kauai Niihau

No translation No translation

5 million years ago 4.9 million years ago

Extinct Extinct

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Pele thrust her Paoa into the ground, only to find water! It is said in one story, that this was the site at the current Wet Caves on the North side of the island of Kauai. She then went inland to a place that is now called Puu ka Pele (Peles Hill). Puu ka Pele was one of the volcano vents of Mount Waialeale. It is now a Forest Reserve located in the area of the Puu ka Pele Lookout at Waimea Canyon. Still having no luck, Pele followed the Waimea Canyon to the south side, to Poipu. It was from Puu ka Pele, where Pele left Kauai for Oahu. If you look for it, there is a pit at the top of the hill that was supposedly made as she stamped her foot for the leap to Oahu. 22
2010 Google

Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Koolau Volcano

Waianae Volcano

The Waianae volcano formed about 3.8 to 2.9 million years ago. The mountain range is about 22 miles long. The caldera is located near the center of the Waianae Range. Rift zones are located on the northwest and southeast. Extensive erosion along the west side of the volcano has created large valleys, like the Lualualei Valley. Most of the active eruptions took place around the Lualualei Valley. Mount Kaala, part of the Waianae range, is the highest spot on the island of Oahu at 4,025 feet.

Koolau, which means windward in Hawaiian, is the volcano range that makes up the eastern shield volcano on the island of Oahu. Part of its caldera, located near Kneohe Bay and a section of the Koolau flank that was at least 130,000 feet long and 5,600 feet tall, slid over 100 miles into the ocean. This is sometimes called the giant Nuuanu Landslide. This landslide took almost half of the Koolau volcano. Puu Konahuanui, the highest point on the Koolau, is one of the more popular hiking sites for experienced hikers. Koolau remained inactive for thousands of years. Then, about 800,000 years ago, as many as 30 renewed eruptions occurred which created Leahi (Diamond Head), Hanauma Bay and Koko Head, Powaina (Punch bowl Crater), Tantalus, and liapaakai.

Koolau Range Lualualei Valley, Waianae Range Volcano Crater

Leahi (Diamond Head) is an extinct eroded tuff cone. The crystals (calcite) were thought to be diamonds. Leahi was formed between 520,000 and 350,000 years ago. Water from the ocean entered the vent, causing an eruption that left the symmetrical steep sides of the volcano.

Island of Oahu

Oahu
Volcano 2011 PREL

Oahu is made up of two volcanoes, Waianae and Koolau.


Hawaiian Meaning Water of the mullet fish Windward or wet side Elevation Above Sea Level (in feet) 3,937 3,100 Most Recent Eruption 2.5 million years ago 2.1 million years ago Status

Leahi, Diamond Head

Hanauma Bay and Koko Crater, south of the Koolau Ridge

In Pele Searches for a Home

Waianae Koolau

Extinct Extinct

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Pele tried to find her home in the area that now includes the Koko Head and Hanauma Bay volcanoes that erupted during the rejuvenation stage of the Koolau eruptions. Eruptions were short but more explosive in places close to the water, where water entered the volcanic vent.
2010 Google

24

Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Molokai

Molokai was formed by two shield volcanoes. The younger, Wailau, also called East Molokai, flowed into the eastern sides of the West Molokai volcano, forming an isthmus between the two.

Island of Molokai

At one time when the ocean was lower, the islands of Maui, Molokai, Lnai, and Kahoolawe, were part of a single island. The islands are still part of a large mountain mass but the rising sea levels have separated the peaks of the volcanoes into separate islands. The lower land areas between the volcanoes are now 590 feet below sea level.

Wai lau or Kamakou East Molokai

Sheer cliffs are left after a portion of of the East Molokai volcano subsided (sank) into the sea.

In the Hawaiian language, wai lau means many waters. Studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists indicate that part of the northeast section of the volcano may have sunk beneath the sea in a landslide. This has resulted in the sheer, high ocean cliffs of over 3,600 feet. These cliffs are considered some of the highest on earth.

Volcano

Kalaupapa, located on the north side of the island, is a flat peninsula

Kalaupapa peninsula was created by a rejuvenated volcano.

Hawaiian Meaning No translation

Elevation Above Sea Level (in feet) 1,377

Most Recent Eruption 1.71.8 million years ago

Status

West Molokai Mauna Loa East Molokai Wailau Lnai Palawai Kahoolawe Moaulaiki West Maui

Extinct

created by a rejuvenated stage eruption that occurred 340,000 years ago. This eruption took place long after the East and West Molokai volcanoes had stopped erupting, and after the landslide that removed the northern part of the island. The source of the lava was the Kauhak Crater. Kalaupapa means a flat leaf, which is an appropriate description of the shape of the peninsula. Today the Kauhak Crater is a small lake, 800 feet deep.

Many waters

3,969

1.5 million years ago

Extinct

No translation

3,366

1.2 million years ago

Extinct

Mauna Loa, West Molokai Lnai

Mauna Loa is the smaller of two volcanoes that makes up the western half of Molokai.
Island of Lanai

Hill on Kahoolawe Meaning not certain Hale Mahina House of the moon

1,411

1.1 million years ago

Extinct

6,889

1.2 million years ago

Extinct

Lnai is made up of one shield volcano. Scientists found rubble on the southwest banks of Lnai that indicates a major landslide in the area. See the figure on page 10 that shows what Lnai looked like before the landslide. Today, the Plwai Basin, or floor, is all that remains of the volcano. Wind erosion over the centuries has blown away some of the soil surrounding the floor of the volcano to produce a feature called Garden of the Gods. The result is the amazing display of a field of rocks and boulders that dazzle in reflection of the sunlight. Many stories about the garden are told. One story tells of the rocks holding the spirits of ancient island warriors. Another is about the garden as a display of the most favored art pieces of the akua.
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East Maui Haleakal

House of the sun

10,023

1400-1600

Active

Kahoolawe

Kahoolawe is a single shield volcano. Its summit, Moaulaiki, is 1,477 feet above sea level. Its last eruption occurred approximately 1.1 million years ago. According to ancient chants, Polynesian navigators were trained in navigation at Moaulaiki, using the stars to guide them. In 1993, Kahoolawe was released to the Kahoolawe Island Reserve Commission to restore its ecosystem. Kahoolawe can only be used for native Hawaiian cultural and spiritual purposes.
Island of Kahoolawe

At Luahiwa Petroglyphs, overlooking the Plwai Basin, carved recordings of Lnais ancient history can be seen. Over 450 rock drawings and carvings have been found. There are petroglyphs of men, women, animals, such as deer, turtles, and livestock, including what some believe to be someone surfing!

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2010 Google

Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Haleakal and its Legendary Landmarks

West Maui Mountains

Maui has two major volcanoes, West and East. The West Maui mountain is the older (1.1 million years) of the two. Its shield rose more than 6,889 feet above sea level. The Hawaiian name for the mountain is Hale Mahina, House of the Moon. Its caldera measured almost two miles. Today, after thousands of years of erosion, ao Valley has been carved into the Wailuku Volcano caldera. ao Needle is really a part of the caldera rock. After a long period (600,000 years) of erosion, a series of eruptions occurred. Klea was the first. Today, Klea is known for its petroglyphs. Several cinder cones are located in Lahaina, including Kekaa Point, on which part of the Sheraton Maui Resort & Spa stands. After another 200,000 years, a series of eruptions occurred. This was part of the rejuvenated eruption of the Lahaina Volcanic Series. An example is Puu Hele near the Phkea Stream. It is now a quarry of cinder rocks. The lava from the West Maui eruptions released silica, which have eroded into stones, known as moonstones. These moonstones have been found in the Wailuku Stream.

Do you know where one of the largest volcanoes in the world is located? Heres a hint: its on the second largest Hawaiian island and is known as the House of the Sun. The answer is Haleakal on the island of Maui. Haleakal towers 28,000 feet from the oceans floor. Only 10,023 feet and roughly 3% of the volume of Haleakal is exposed above sea level. This massive volcano began taking form about 2 million years ago. At the top of this majestic volcano is Haleakal Crater. This crater is actually a valley. It was formed as the top of the volcano eroded away. Thousands of years later, the crater had new volcanic activity. Lava flow filled parts of the crater. Small eruptions formed the craters cinder cones. In the last 30,000 years, most of the activity has been along two rift zones. The southwest rift zone and the eastern rift zone. These combined rift zones are known as Haleakal Ridge and are one of the longest rift zones in the Hawaiian Island chain. Many volcanic landmarks were created along this ridge. They can still be seen today. (USGS, 2003)

Looking into Haleakal

In Pele Searches for a Home

940 year and 970 year old lava flows from cinder cones within Haleakal Crater

Legend says that when Pele was looking for a home, she came upon Haleakal. She used her (Poa) to dig a large pit and to start a fire. The pit she created was extremely large. It was so big that it was hard for her to stay warm. She also had trouble keeping the fire burning. While she was there, her sister, Nmakaokahai appeared and challenged her to a battle. The fight was difficult for both women. Pele lost and perished. Her bones were scattered along the coast of Kahikinui. Her spirit escaped to Hawaii Island, where she now lives in the volcano of Klauea. Landmarks of Peles presence at Haleakal can still be found along its slopes. The large pit that she created is the crater of Haleakal. Within the crater are cinder cones with her name: Puu Ka Iwi o Pele (Hill of the Bones of Pele), Ka Moa o Pele (The Chicken of Pele), P Puaa o Pele (Peles Pig Pen), and Puu o Pele (Hill of Pele). (McGuire and Hammatt, 2000) The rocks that she dug from the pit are visible at Hanakaieie in Kahikinui. (Fornander, 1917)
The Island of Maui

In the last 1,000 years, the volcano of Haleakal has erupted at least 10 times. The last eruption was estimated to be between 1786 and 1793 in South Maui. Scientists consider it to be an active volcano. It is not a matter if Haleakal will erupt again, but when. (USGS, 2003)
Pele battles sister Nmaka, along the eastern slopes of Haleakal

2011 PREL

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Earth scientists commonly use the phrase rejuvenated-stage for those eruptions that occur long after a Hawaiian volcano has finished its main stages of growth.

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2010 Google

Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Khala
Khala Volcano, which forms the northern end of Hawaii Island, is the oldest on the island. It erupted about 60,000 years ago. The erosion and flank failure of the northeast flank of Khala has left deep valleys on that side of the volcano. Some of the major valleys include Polol, Honokane, Waimanu, and Waipio. The south slopes of the Khala Mountain are gentler, stretching from Hawi to Kawaihae. The caldera of the Khala volcano has been filled and can be seen near the Kawainui Stream.

Huallai

Five of the youngest volcanoes are located on Hawaii Island. These include Khala, Mauna Kea, Huallai, Mauna Loa, and Klauea. In addition, a new volcano called Lihi is growing on the sea floor south of the island.

Huallai is in the postshield building stages of a Hawaiian volcanos life cycle. Kailua-Kona, and the Kehole Airport are built on the lava flows of Huallai. Some say that Huallai was named after the wife of the Hawaiian navigator, Hawaii Loa (Huallai Resort, 2010).

Klauea

It is at Klauea where Pele dug her final pit in Halemaumau Crater, at the summit of the volcano. Klauea means spewing, or much spreading, in the Hawaiian language. It is often called the most active volcano in the world. Lava has been erupting from vents along its east rift zone since 1983. In 2008, another vent began erupting at the summit of Klauea. Lava flows erupted from Klaueas east rift zone have often reached the oean, adding about 500 acres of new land to Hawaii Islands southeastern coastline.
According to stories, it is at Klauea where Pele welcomed her brothers. A cliff on nearby Klauea is sacred to her eldest brother, Ka-mohoalii, king of the sharks and the keeper of the gourd that held the water of life, which gave him the power to revive the dead. Out of respect for this brother, to this day, Pele never allows clouds of volcanic steam to touch his cliff.
Island of Hawaii

Mauna Loa

Mauna Kea

Mauna Kea (White Mountain), is considered an active volcano that rises 13,796 feet above sea level. Its irregular shape is caused by cinder cone eruptions that occurred at its summit. The Hmkua and Lauphoehoe eruption series on Mauna Kea helped build the volcano. On the northeast slopes of Mauna Kea, the erosion has left deep ravines such as Maulua, Kaawalii, and Hakalau. Some of the ravines are 650 feet deep. Near the summit, lake Waiau occupies one of the many craters.
Volcano Hawaiian Meaning Name of the district White Mountain No translation Long Mountain Spewing or much spreading Long Elevation Above Sea Level (in feet) 5,480 13,796 8,271 13,680 4,190

Mauna Loa (Great or Long Mountain) is the most massive volcano on Hawaii Islandand Earth. The volcano rises 13,670 feet above sea level, but measured from its base (on the sea floor, which is bowed downward due to the weight of the volcano) to its top, Mauna Loa is 56,000 feet high. Its caldera at the summit is called Mokuaweoweo (the red of the fish), suggesting the red color of the lava that flows to the ocean during its eruptions. It has erupted 15 times since 1900.
Most Recent Eruption 60,000 years ago 4,600 years ago 1801 1984 1983Present Status

Khala Mauna Kea

Extinct Active Active Active Active

Huallai Mauna Loa

Lihi is located off the southeast coast of Hawaii Island. Geologists confirmed in 1981 that Lihi is a growing volcano. Lihi is erupting pillow lava from its summit, which is about 3,200 feet below sea level. It will take many thousands of years before Lihi will surface above sea level.

Lihi

Her other brothers also still appear on Klauea Volcano: Kane-hekili as thunder, Ka-poho-i-kahi-ola as explosions, Ke-ua-a-kepo in showers of fire, and Ke-o-ahikama-kaua in spears of lava that escape from fissures during eruptions.

2011 PREL

Klauea Lihi

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3,200 Below sea level

1996

Active

Pele emerges at Klauea

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2010 Google

Volcanic Hazards and Benefits


Lava Deltas
When lava enters the sea, new land is formed. A fan-shaped rock shelf forms a delta. The deltas are built on a sloping layer of lava flows and fragments, making it unstable. Along the delta, cracks parallel to the shore may appear. If the underwater shore slope is steep, the delta may collapse as the waves weaken it. People should avoid standing on the delta. They can be swept into the sea, or splashed with boiling water, or even hit by flying rock debris. Like the spectacular showdown between Pele and Nmaka in Pele Searches for a Home, one of the most awesome but dangerous volcanic shows is the lava entry into the sea. Explosions called tephra jets occur as 2000 lava transforms seawater to steam. The resulting explosions blast hot rocks, water, and molten lava into the air.

No Volcano, No Hawaii

Lava Flows
Lava flows are a great threat to property. Hawaiian lava flows usually move slowly. A large flow could travel faster, but most of the speeds recorded averaged about 6 miles per hour. Some of the destructive lava flows occurred between 1983 and 1986, when lava from the Puu vent of the Klauea Volcano flowed into the Royal Gardens subdivision and destroyed 16 homes. In 1986, the Kupaianaha vent erupted over a period of 5 years. After many months of eruption, a lava tube was formed. This allowed the lava to flow farther. These tubes sent lava toward Kalapana and destroyed 165 homes. The effects of these flows did not only destroy homes. Lava covered roadways and destroyed utility lines, making it impossible to travel through the
2011 PREL

Sulfur dioxide and other volcanic gases rise from Klauea Volcano

Updated SO2 conditions are posted online by the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park at www. hawaiiso2network.com The Department of Health of the State of Hawaii also maintains a site about SO2 levels at www.hiso2index.info/

Although there are hazards associated with volcanic activity, there are also just as many benefits. The Hawaiian Islands are volcanic islands, and would not exist were it not for volcanic activity. The relatively quiet nature of the active volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Klauea can be enjoyed and studied in safety. Visitors, as well as the scientists, are better able to understand how the forces of the volcanoes shape and reshape our land. Other benefits have been explored: Harnessing volcanic energy for geothermal energy Developing fertile land for agriculture Creating volcanic products for landscaping, construction, and aesthetics By understanding the hazards, and benefits, as well as keeping the balance among research, the environmental, and the cultural interests, the volcanoes could continue to be a unique part of Hawaiis existence.

A lava flow from the Puu vent advances down a street in the Royal Gardens subdivision in April 1983

area, or live in the homes even if they were spared from the volcano. At the same time, eruptions have built the land surface of the islands. The average volume of lava erupted from Klauea since 1956 is about 120 million cubic yards per year. (Tilling, Heliker, Swanson, 2010, p. 14). The current Puu -Kupaianaha eruption has added more than 540 acres of land to Hawaii Island.

1,500 tons) of sulfur dioxide gas (SO2) per day. When the sulfur dioxide interacts with the sunlight, oxygen, moisture, and dust, volcanic pollution, or vog, conditions occur. High vog levels reduce the quality of air, creating hazy sky conditions that decrease visibility for motorists, and air traffic. The sulfuric acid in vog combines with moisture to form acid rain. Acid rain is known to damage agricultural crops and other plants, and causes metallic objects, such as fences, to rust more quickly.

The continuous activity at Klauea Volcanos east rift zone and summit vents emits large amounts (between 300 to

Gas Emissions

When lava enters the coastal waters and mixes with the chlorides in the seawater, large steam plumes form. These plumes include hydrochloric acid (HCI). This lava haze, also called laze, poses a hazard to anyone near the ocean entry where lava pours into the sea. For your safety, keep away from areas where lava enters the ocean. NOTE: Warning signs are not always posted at ocean entries.

Explosive interaction between lava and sea water

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How many active volcanoes are there in Hawaii?

There are six active volcanoes in the State of Hawaii. On the island of Hawaii, Klauea has been erupting essentially non-stop since 1983, the most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in 1984, and Huallai most recently erupted in 1801. The most recent eruption of Lihi, a submarine volcano south of Hawaii Island, was in 1996. Haleakal, on the island of Maui, erupted 400-500 years ago.

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What is the largest active volcano in the world?


13,679 feet above sea level. Mauna Loa,

Mauna Loa, on Hawaii Island, is the worlds largest active volcano. Mauna Loa stands

Research at the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

which means long mountain, makes up more than half of Hawaii Island and is the most massive volcano on Earth.

2011 PREL

How hot is Hawaiian lava?

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In 1911, the first temperature reading of molten lava was made. Scientists stretched a cable 1,500 feet long across Halemaumau Crater at the summit of Kilauea. With pulleys, they lowered a tool (electric pyrometer) into the lava lake. One reading registered 1,850 Fahrenheit. Other readings recorded from 1,800 to 2,000 F.

In 1912, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established to study the activity of Mauna Loa and Klauea. Volcanology emerged as a modern science with the founding of HVO. (Tilling, Heliker, and Swanson, 2010, p. 15) It is operated by the United States Geological Survey. During the past 100 years of research, HVO scientists have contributed to the science of volcanology shared among scientists and observatories worldwide. Some of the major advances include: 1. Volcano monitoring or observations and measurements scientists make to document changes in the state of a volcano during and between eruptions. 2. Use of global positioning system (GPS) to monitor ground movements at active volcanoes. 3. Continuous recording of seismic activity to help scientists track the subsurface movement of magma. 4. HVO has made significant strides in monitoring gas emissions using satellite-and groundbased sensing instruments and techniques.

Hawaii is a living laboratory for research in volcanology!

Which volcano is the worlds most active?

Klauea on Hawaii Island is considered one of the worlds most active volcanoes. It has been erupting nearly non-stop since 1983.

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erup Etna awaii), Mt. Klauea (H rnaise n de la Fou (Italy), Pito ira, (D.R. Nyamurag (Reunion), no auea Volca Congo). Kil million re than 18 erupts mo y. of lava dail cubic feet

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34

Kevan Kamibayashi Linking the Past, Present, and Future

Kevan leads a team of technicians who are in constant search of new technologies and better ways of monitoring Hawaiis active volcanoes. The U.S. Geological Surveys Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitoring network includes instruments such as tilt meters, GPS, seismographs, gas sensors, particle sensors, infrasound, thermal cameras, gravimeters, and web cameras!

Jim Kauahikaua is a geophysicist by training, a person who looks at the earth using physical properties other than those that can be detected by our 5 senses. For the last several years he has been the scientist-in-charge of HVO responsible for its operation and research.

Jim Kauahikaua Linking the Past, Present, and Future

Q: What inspired you to be so interested in volcanology? A: At the age of 11, I entered N Pua No`eaus summer institute. The Rocks and Rolls class was a geology course with an emphasis on volcanology. As a student in this class, I was given the opportunity to collect a sample of molten lava. There is no doubt that I have been hooked on volcanology ever since. Q: What is the most common myth or misunderstanding about volcanoes in Hawai`i? A: I think a common misunderstanding has to do with the actual size of Hawaiian shield volcanoes, which are among the largest active volcanoes on earth. Because our volcanoes are so large, a very small moveKevan checks a gravimeter* ment could mean a very large volume change within the volcanos magma system. HVOs monitoring instruments need to be extremely accurate to ensure our best understanding of the ongoing activity. This makes our job more challenging. Q: What are you researching now that will help us better understand volcanoes? A: Ive been working on extensive upgrades to HVOs monitoring network. We are increasing our abilities to retrieve data in real time (as it occurs) and conduct maintenance and repairs remotely. Because of these capabilities, our volcanologists can work safer, longer, and in more remote areas, providing for a better understanding of volcanoes. Q: What is one thing you would like us to remember about Hawaiis volcanoes? A: Hawaiis volcanoes have many mysteries; study hard because one day you could be the person that explores them. Volcanology is one of the many natural sciences studied through observation. *A gravimeter is a gravity meter. It is used to identify where magma is stored within Klauea Volcano. It can also record the rise and fall cycles of magma within the magma chambers, or lava columns within an active vent.

Q: Can you tell us a story of the most extraordinary or unusual, volcanic occurrence you have experienced in Hawaii? A: Ive been fortunate enough to see so many amazing volcanic events that its hard to pick out just one. Early in the current eruption when my daughter was about 2 or 3, I remember watching one of the last Pu`u `` lava fountains while explaining to her what was happening and how it worked. Ill never forget that because lava was shooting really high in the air and I really enjoyed trying to explain it to her so that she could appreciate it as much as I did. Q: What inspired you to become a geophysicist? A: I had a very good teacher who got us all interested in how the earth works and how it evolved into what we see today. I remember his stories about natural disasters and how many people have been killed because of a lack of knowledge about the tremendous earth forces behind earthquakes and volcanoes. That was enough to interest me in figuring it out. Q: What is the most common myth or misunderstanding about volcanoes in Hawaii? A: Hawaiian volcanoes can be dangerous and the most common misunderstanding people have is that our volcanoes are never dangerous. Q: What are you researching now that will help us better understand volcanoes? A: I am working on the best way to let people know the dangers of living on active Hawaiian volcanoes. While they are generally safe, there are times when they are not safe and our scientific information could be used to educate and help residents and visitors stay safe. Q: We have just seen a video, Pele Searches for a Home. How are these stories related to volcanoes? A: Native Hawaiians have lived with volcanoes a lot longer than most people and, if we carefully listen to their stories, we can learn important details that cannot be learned any other way. Q: What would be a quotation that youd like us to remember about Hawaiis volcanoes? A: Living safely on the active volcanoes comes from learning what they do and how they behave.
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Build An Erupting Volcano Materials

Create a Virtual Volcano Tour of Your Community

1. Computer 2. Internet Connection 3. Website: http://www.activitytv.com/138-erupting-volcano

Procedure

(Activities and Projects)


Build Your Own Virtual Volcano

1. Follow the safety guides presented before proceeding with the experiment. 2. Follow the directions presented by the TV host to create your volcano eruption.
Activity TV. (2011). Erupting Volcano. Retrieved July 7, 2011, from http://www.activitytv. com/138-erupting-volcano

Materials

Setting the Stage

1. Digital Camera 2. Map of your tour area 3. Resource information about volcanic activity of your tour area 4. Crayons or felt tip pens

Procedure

This simple experiment shows the effect of pressure. See how this demonstrates the effect of pressure during movement of volcanic magma.

Procedure

Materials

1. Glass bottle 2. A balloon (medium sized)

3. Water 4. A Large Bowl

1. Fill the bottle with hot water and let it stand for about 3 minutes. 2. Pour cold water into the bowl. 3. Pour the hot water out of the bottle. 4. Quickly place the balloon over the top of the bottle. 5. Place the bottle into the bowl of water. 6. What happens? What stage of the volcano does this represent?

Materials

1. Computer 2. Internet Connection 3. Website: http://kids.discovery.com/games/buildplay/volcano-explorer

Procedure

1. Create different types of volcanoes by changing the type of magma and amount of gas created by a virtual volcano. 2. What did you find out about the different types of volcano eruptions?

1. Do research about your tour area. 2. Draw a map of your tour area. 3. Label areas of interest. 4. Take photos of the area of interest. 5. Write a short descriptive caption for each area of interest. 6. Display your tour on the map or on the computer using a graphic or presentation program.

Virtual Tour of Klauea Crater Rim Drive Materials

2011 PREL

1. Computer 2. Access to the Internet 3. Website: http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/oldroot/ crater_rim_drive/menu5.html

Procedure

37

1. Take a tour of the most active volcano in the world, Klauea. 2. Share your tour with your family, classmates, and kpuna.

38

Helpful Features and Tools Information and skills you are expected to know and demonstrate after you complete Volcanoes!:
1. Describe how volcanoes shape and reshape the earth. 2. Use the science and grade-level vocabulary words and word-part clues to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words. 3. Use text features and structures (cause and effect, compare and contrast) to help you understand what you read.

ancient adj. very old; having existed for a long time We studied both the modern and ancient customs of the Hawaiian people. avoid v. keep away from Avoid the hazardous volcanic ash by staying away from areas that are downwind from a volcano. deposit n. let fall as sediment; accumulation of solid The floodwaters left a deposit of mud at the edge of the road. extinct adj. no longer active, like a volcano A volcano is considered extinct if it hasnt erupted for over ten thousand years. fissure n. a long fracture or crack at the surface from which lava erupts Fissure eruptions occur along the volcanos rift zone. flank n. a side of Lava accumulates on the flanks of a volcano. formation n. something that has been formed or shaped (e.g., rock formation, cloud formation) The formation of the islands occurred over millions of years. inactive adj. not in motion or use, not active An inactive volcano is extinct if it hasnt erupted over tens of thousands of years. locate v. to find Scientists use seismic wave motions to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. location n. place or position Klauea, on the island of Hawaii, is the location of the current volcano eruption. mantle n. the layer of Earth that lies between the crust and core The mantle makes up 8085% of Earths weight and is composed of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, and iron. pressure n. a steady physical force upon a surface, weight When two plates collide, the great pressure causes the land to fold and bend. tephra n. volcanic rock fragments exploded or carried into the air during an eruption Tephra could be as large as volcanic rocks or as small and light such as ash. unavoidable adj. inescapable; inevitable; cannot be avoided Earthquakes are unavoidable in Hawaii, so we should be prepared for them. vent n. openings in the Earths crust from which magma and volcanic gases erupt Lava fountains often erupt from vents on the ridges of a volcano.

Helpful Reading Tools Understand Text Features:

Be an active reader by understanding text features of the book that help you locate and understand information. This includes the text divisions, organizational tools, graphics, and print features of the book.

Understand Cause and Effect Text Structure

Look for the authors text patterns and signal words that explain reasons or causes for an event or phenomenon. The magma is very fluid with less amounts of gas resulting in lava fountains, rather than explosions.

Understand Compare and Contrast Text Structure

Look for text patterns and signal words that explain similarities of and differences between two or more ideas. The phoehoe flows are usually associated with longer ongoing eruptions, whereas the a flows are from shorter eruptions that produce more lava.

Word-Part Clues

1. Look for word-part prefixes in-, im-, ira. inactive, impossible, irregular 2. Remove the prefix to determine its base. a. active, possible, regular 3. Use the surrounding words and phrases in the sentence it appears in to determine the meaning of the unknown word. Just because a volcano is inactive, doesnt mean that it will not erupt again. (An inactive volcano does not have any activity happening, or is not active.) Beyond a span of a year or more, it is impossible to predict when a volcano would erupt. (If it is impossible to predict when a volcano would erupt, it means it cannot be done.) The irregular coastlines of the islands are the result of different forces that shape them such as volcano flows, erosion from wave action, and collapsing shelves. (Volcano flows, erosion, and collapsing coastlines, create coastlines that are not even or straight.) crater n. a hollow shaped depression created by a volcanic eruption Diamond Head is an example of a volcanic crater. erupt v. to explode or burst out suddenly As Klauea erupts, it produces a fiery display of lava flowing to the ocean.

Science Words to Know

2011 PREL

magma n. the molten rock beneath the earths surface 39 The magma collected beneath the volcano, and finally surfaced as a lava flow.

40

a akua kpuna kupuna Lua Pele lai lelo noeau oli phoehoe

A word used to describe a type of lava flow. A means to burn, glowing, fire, staring as eyes. deity grandparent, ancestor volcano, crater earthquake a wise saying or proverb that was passed on from one generation to the next a chant that was not danced to A word used to describe a type of lava flow. Phoehoe means smooth and unbroken, having a satiny appearance.

Introduction U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). This Dynamic Earth. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html#anchor19309449 What Is a Volcano Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Volcanoes in the Sea, The Geology of Hawaii. Second Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. McDougal Littell Inc. (2003). Exploring Earth. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/navigation/home.cfm U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. (2011). Learn About Volcanoes. Retrieved April 28, 2011, from http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Outreach/AboutVolcanoes/what_is_a_volcano.html U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). Hotspots: Mantle thermal plumes. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/hotspots.html U.S. Geological Survey. (2007). Geologic Map of the State of Hawaii. Retrieved August 11, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1089/ Waldron, Melanie. (2007). Mapping Earthforms Volcanoes. China: Heinemann Library. Classification of Volcanoes Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Volcanoes in the Sea, The Geology of Hawaii. Second Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Scott, Rowland. (n.d.). Strato Volcanoes. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/volcano_types/strato.htm Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. (n.d.) Global Volcanism Program. Popocatpetl. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano. cfm?vnum=1401-09= U.S. Geological Survey. (1997). Volcanic Hazards. Retrieved May 27, 2011, from http://pubs. usgs.gov/gip/hazards/hazards.html#cracks U.S. Geological Survey. (2011). Principal Types of Volcanoes. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/types.html U.S. Geologic Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (2004). Kilaueas east rift zone: an enormous ridge from the summit caldera to the ocean floor. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/gallery/kilauea/erz/erz_overview.html

2011 PREL

Waldron, Melanie. (2007). Mapping Earthforms Volcanoes. China: Heinemann Library.

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Typical Life Stages of a Hawaiian Volcano Hawaii Center for Volcanology. (2005). The Formation of the Hawaiian Islands. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/haw_formation.html Hawaiian Volcanoes. (n.d.). Retrieved May 27, 2011, from http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/ education/hawaii/intro/intro.html Juvik, Sonia P. & Juvik, James O. (1998). Atlas of Hawaii. Third Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Second Edition. Volcanoes in the Sea. Honolulu, Hi: University of Hawaii Press. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. (2009). Life-cycle of Hawaiian Hot Spot volcanoes. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from www.mbari.org/volcanism/Hawaii/Default.htm Morgan, Joseph R. (1996). Volcanic Landforms. Hawaii: A Unique Geography. Honolulu, HI: Bess Press. pp. 913. U.S. Geological Survey. (1995). Evolution of Hawaiian Volcanoes. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1995/95_09_08.html U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). VHP Photo Glossary. Retrieved August 11, 2011, from http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/pglossary/ShieldVolcano.php Lava Eruptions and Flows Harbo, Christopher L. (2008). The Explosive World of Volcanoes. Mankato, Minnesota: Capstone Press. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (n.d.). Lava Tube Formation. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGZ5KNe94bI Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Kilauea Volcano Time Lapse Movies. (2006). Retrieved June 1, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/gallery/kilauea/volcanomovies/#crater http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/main.html Instant Hawaii. (2008). Types of Lava. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from www.instanthawaii.com/ cgi-bin/hawaii?Volcano.types/ Pukui, Mary Kawena and Elbert, Samuel H. (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Westervelt, William D. (1963). Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc.

Volcanoes Where You Live Kauai and Niihau Backroad Tours. (2011). Kilohana Crater. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from www.alohakauaitours. com/br/Detailed%20Description.htm Kauai Historical Society. (2001). inakumuwai: Ahupuaa of Nwiliwili Bay. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from http://www.hawaii.edu/environment/ainakumuwai/html/ainakumuwaiislandformation.htm Nokes, Deston S. (n.d.). Hot Spots. Follow in Peles footsteps as you explore Hawaiis magnificent volcanoes. http://www.destonnokes.com/PDF-NCI/Gateways.pdf Pruitt, B. (2011). Geology of Kauai and Hawaii. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from www.vacationrentalkauaihawaii.com/geology-kauai-hawaii-rentals.html Pruitt, B. (2011). Waimea CanyonKokee Kauai Sights. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from www.vacationrentalkauaihawaii.com/waimea-canyon-sights.html Pukui, Mary Kawena. (1983). lelo Noeau. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. Rowland, Scott K. and Garcia, Michael O. (n.d.). Southeast Oahu Geology Field Trip Guide. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/SOEST_News/SEoahufieldtrip4.pdf State of Hawaii. Department of Land and Natural Resources. (n.d.). Puu ka Pele Forest Reserve. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dofaw/forestry/FRS/reserves/kauaifr/puu-ka-pele-forest-reserve U.S. Geological Survey.(2001). Hawaiian Volcanoes. Retrieved April 23, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/ Oahu Ozawa, Ayako, Tagami, Takahiro, and Garcia, Michael O. (2005). Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Volume 232, Issues 12, 30 March 2005, Pages 111. Unspiked KAr dating of the Honolulu rejuvenated and Koolau shield volcanism on Oahu, Hawaii. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X05000609 Rowland, Scott K. and Garcia, Michael O. (n.d.). Southeast Oahu Geology Field Trip Guide. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/SOEST_News/SEoahufieldtrip4.pdf Molokai Aloha from Lnai. (n.d.). Lnai History. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from www.lanaicityrental. com/home/lanai-info Coastal Geology Group. (2010). Molokai. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii. edu/coasts/publications/hawaiiCoastline/molokai.html

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Larson, G.T. (2011). Molokai Dispatch. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from www.themolokaidispatch.com/naturally-speaking-6 University of Hawaii. (2004). Regional Geology of Maui Nui. Retrieved June 28, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/moore/gg103/class_15a.htm) U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service. (2005). Kalaupapa National Historic Park Hawaii. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from www.nature.nps.gov/geology/parks/kala/index.cfm U.S.Geological Survey. (1995). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Maui Nui, the Bigger Island. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1995/95_09_22.html U.S. Geological Survey. (2007). Description: Debris Avalanches and Volcanic Landslides. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/DebrisAval/ description_debris_aval.html Kahoolawe Mutual Publishing (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from www.hawaiianencyclopedia.com/kahoolawe.asp NOAA. (2004). National Marine Fisheries Service. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://atsea.nmfs.hawaii.edu/islands/kahoolawe.htm Maui AlohaIsles.com. (2008). Learn about the 2 Volcanoes of Maui; Haleakal, and the West Maui Mountains. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://alohaisles.com/maui/volcanoes.html Fornander, A. (1917). Fornander Collection of Hawaiian Antiquities and Folk-lore, vol. IV. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. McGuire, K. and H. Hammatt. (2000). A Traditional Practices Assessment for the Proposed Faulkes Telescope on 1.5 Acres of the University of Hawaii Facility at Haleakal, Papaanui Ahupuaa Makawao District, Island of Maui (TMK 2-2-07:8). Honolulu: Cultural Surveys Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey. (2003). East Maui, or Haleakal A Potentially Hazardous Volcano. Retrieved December 28, 2010, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/haleakala/ U.S. Geological Survey. (2004). Kahoolawe was also a volcano once. Retrieved December 28, 2010, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/haleakala/ U.S. Geological Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (2011). West Mauis rejuvenated-stage eruptions were about 600,000 and 385,000 years ago. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/2001/01_09_13.html

Hawaii Island Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Volcanoes in the Sea, The Geology of Hawaii. Second Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. OMeara, Donna. (2008). Volcano, A Visual Guide. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books Ltd. U.S. Geological Survey. (2011). Principal Types of Volcanoes. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/ You Tube. (2010). Hualalai Resort. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from www.youtube.com/ watch?v=NyCKHDiqffc Ka Nhou Instant Hawaii and Cookware Inc. (2008). Lava Tree State Park. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from www.instanthawaii.com/cgi-bin/hawaii?Parks.ltree Tilling, R.I., Heliker, C., and Swanson D.A. (2010). Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes Past, Present, and Future. U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 117. U.S. Department of the Interior. (n.d.). Volcanic Kipuka. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from http://volcano-pictures.info/glossary/kipuka.html U.S. Geological Survey. (1997). Volcanic Hazards. Retrieved on July 3, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hazards/hazards.html U.S. Geological Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (2004). When Lava Enters the Sea: Growth and Collapse of Lava Deltas. Retrieved July 5, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs. gov/hazards/oceanentry/deltacollapse/ U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). VHP Photo Glossary: Lava Tree Mold. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/pglossary/treemold.php Factoids JuniorsBook. (2011). Tell Me Why. Retrieved April 28, 2011, from http://juniorsbook.com/activity_workshop.asp?aid=354 National Geographic Society. (2008). National Geographic Kids. Washington, D.C. U.S. National Geographic Society. Nokes, Deston S. (n.d.). Hot Spots. Follow in Peles footsteps as you explore Hawaiis magnificent volcanoes. Retrieved July 24, 2011, from www.destonnokes.com/PDF-NCI/ Gateways.pdf Rubin, Ken. (2006). Hawaii Center for Volcanology. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/haw_volc.html Search, John. (2010). Volcano Live. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from www.volcanolive.com/active2.html

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U.S. Geological Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (2011). Who is Frank Alvord Perret, and what is his connection to Hawaiian volcanoes? Retrieved August 11, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/2011/11_06_02.html Timeline Babb, J.L., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Tilling, R.I. (2011). The Story of the Hawaiian Volcano ObservatoryA Remarkable First 100 Years of Tracking Eruptions and Earthquakes. U.S. Geological Survery General Information Product 135. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http:// pubs.usgs.gov/gip/135 Tilling, R.I., Heliker, C., and Swanson D.A. (2010). Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes Past, Present, and Future. U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 117. U.S. Geological Survey. (1997). Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes. Retrieved August 2, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hawaii/page09.html U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. The first written account of Klauea. Retrieved August 2, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1997/97_08_01.html Phana Activity TV. (2011). Erupting Volcano. Retrieved July 7, 2011, from www.activitytv.com/138erupting-volcano Discovery Communication, LLC. (2011). Volcano Explorer. Global Perspective. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://kids.discovery.com/games/build-play/volcano-explorer Mattox, Steve. (2011). Klauea Crater Rim Drive. Retrieved July 7, 2011, from http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/oldroot/crater_rim_drive/menu5.html

Photo Credits

Courtesy of Pacific Tsunami Museum Coconut Island April 1, 1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. ii) Courtesy of U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain The Hawaiian Islands - Emperor Seamount chain stretching more than 6000 km in the Pacific Ocean. Image courtesy of Daniel Scheirer, US Geological Survey, based on data from Smith and Sandwell (1997, Science). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 3) NOAAs Americas Coastlines Collection, photo by John Bortniak, NOAA Corps . . . . . .(p. 22) Courtesy of the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawaii Ages of the Hawaiian Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 4) Newest Hawaiian Volcano, Loihi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 7) Lanai Before Sections of the Volcano Sank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 10) Courtesy of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Popocatpetl, Mexico, Strato Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 6) Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is part of the Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. HVO staff conducts research on the volcanoes of Hawai`i and works with emergency-response officials to protect people and property from earthquakes and volcano-related hazards. HVO has contributed much to the growing science of volcanology. See http://hvo. wr.usgs.gov/ for more information about HVO.
Fissure located between Puu and Napau March 5, 2011. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (i) Puu Cone, September 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Cover, i) Glowing a Flow on Klauea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 2) Lava Creating More Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 2) Puu Crater Eruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 4) Eruption on Klauea Ridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 4) Klauea Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 5) Shield Volcano, Mauna Loa, Hawaii, Photograph by J.D. Griggs, 01/10/85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 5) Halemaumau Caldera, Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 56) Eruption on the Ridge of Klauea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Mauna Loa, Hawaii, Rift Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Mount St. Helens, Strato Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Main Vent of Puu Cone, Photo by C. Heliker, 06.1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Pillow Lava . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 7) Lava Fountain on the Side of Puu Cone, Photo by J.D. Griggs, 06/02/1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 8) Eruption Along a Rift Zone, Photo by G.E. Ulrich, 07/18/1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 78) Phoehoe Lava Flow, Photo by S.R. Brantley, 06/24/1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 8) Halemaumau, First Written Descriptions of Volcano Eruptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 8) Huallai Surrounded by A Flows, Photo by J. Kauahikaua, 12/30/1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 9) Map of Hawaii Island Volcanoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 9) The Summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaiis Tallest Volcano, photo by D.A. Swanson, 02/15/1971 . . (pp. 910) Khala Volcano from the Slopes of Mauna Kea, photo by T.J. Takahashi, 12/26/1990 . . . . . . . . (p. 10) Haleakal Crater with Younger Cinder Cones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 11) Klaueas Puu Kupaianaha Eruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 12) Active Volcano (Klauea Volcano, Hawaii Island) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 13)

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Lava Fountain of the Puu Cinder and Spatter Cone, photo by J.D. Griggs, 10/05/1983 . . . (p. 15) Sixty-Five Foot Dome Fountain, photo by J.B. Judd, 10/11/1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 15) Lava Fountain at Klauea Iki, photo by J.P. Eaton, 11/29/1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 15) Lava Lake in Klauea Iki Crater, photo by J.P. Eaton, 12/05/1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 16) A Footprint Preserved in Ash, photo by James F. Martin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 16) Lava Lake at the top of Kupaianaha Vent, photo by E.W. Wolfe, 12/1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 16) Channel of a flow on Mauna Loa Volcano, photo by J.D. Griggs, 03/1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 17) Lobes or Toe-Like Leads of Phoehoe Flow, photo by J.D. Griggs, 07/1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 17) Phoehoe Transitions to A, Klauea Volcano, photo by C. Heliker, 05/02/1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 17) Skylight Displays Shallow Moving Lava . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 18) Thin Strands of Volcanic Glass, Peles Hair, photo by D.W. Peterson, 03/27/1984 . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 18) Peles Tears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 18) Lava Trees, Klauea Volcano, photo by C. Heliker, 09/06/1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Kipuka, Puu Kupaianaha Eruption, photo by J.D. Griggs, 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Spatter Cones along Fissures, Mauna Loa, photo by J.D. Griggs, 03/26/1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Halemaumau Crater within Klauea Caldera, photo by J. Kauahikaua, 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Aerial View of Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa, photo by J.P. Lockwood, 1975. . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Rift Zones of Klauea Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Steep Cliffs of Na Pali Coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 22) Kalaupapa Penninsula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 26) Sheer Cliffs Near Pelekunu Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 26) Looking South from Koolau Gap into Haleakal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 28) 940 and 970 Year Old Lava Flows, Haleakal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 28) Lava Flow from the Puu Vent Advances to Royal Gardens, 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 31) Bursts of Molten as Water Enters a Volcano Tube, photo by T.J. Takahashi, 1988 . . . . . . . . . (pp. 2, 32) Kevan Checks a Gravimeter, photo by Andy Pitty, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory volunteer . . . . (p. 35) Kevan Kamibayashi, photo by Janet Babb, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 35) Klauea Crater Rim Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 38) Photos by E Hoomau! Staff Shield Volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 5) Diamond Head Crater, Oahu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 12, 24) Hanauma Bay and Koko Crater, Oahu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 12, 24) James Kauahikaua, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 14) Cinder, Klauea Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 17) Nhuku (Thurston) Lava Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 18) Tree Mold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Halemaumau Crater, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Sulfur Dioxide and Other Volcanic Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 32) Google Map Hawaiian Islands. Image USGS. Data SOEST/UHM. Data USGS. Image 2011 DigitalGlobe Background of Hawaiian Islands, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 2230) Courtesy of the City and County of Honolulu Lualualei Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 23)

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) President and CEO Sharon Nelson-Barber Creative Producer Michael Q. Ceballos Evaluators Chuck Giuli Malkeet Singh Alice Taum Executive Producer Ormond Hammond Curriculum Developer Ellen Miyasato Cultural Advisor Keikioewa Kapua, Kamehameha Schools Production Assistant Bernadette Frank Line Producer Kaira Resch Artist Bryson Luke Curriculum Advisors Susan Hanson Cheryl Taitague

Science Advisors Ethan Allen, PhD James Kauahikaua Janet Babb Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Scientist in Charge, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Geologist, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

Written Contributions Janet Babb Kevan Kamibayashi James Kauahikaua Karen Victor Special Thanks To Ethan Allen Christine Antolos Michelle Bulos John Camac Javier Elizondo Myra Hasegawa Amber Inwood Ross Inouye Hedy Kaneoka James Kauahikaua Terry Kelly Scott Kunihiro Susan Kusunoki Marylin Low Corinne Misaki-Wingert Cooper Miyasato Barbara Muffler Roger Osentoski Jennifer Padua Lori Phillips Casey Primacio Lee Ann nuenue Pnua Scott Rowland Liane Sing Pamela Suga Melissa Torres-Laing Geologist, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Physical Science Technician, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Scientist in Charge, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Science Teacher, Ke Kula o S. M. Kamakau LPCS

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Bishop Museum Hahaione Elementary School Hawaii Department of Education Kamehameha Schools The Lyman Museum

RH Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center University of Hawaii USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

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