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Pacific Resources for Education and Learning

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900 Fort Street Mall ■ Suite 1300 ■ Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96813-3718 Phone: (808) 441-1300 ■ Fax: (808) 441-1385 U.S. Toll-free Phone: (800) 377-4773 U.S. Toll-free Fax: (888) 512-7599 Website: www.prel.org

Building Capacity Through Education

Waves are the most familiar features of the ocean. Waves of all sizes endlessly roll onto our beaches. There are different kinds of ocean waves: the tides (true tidal waves) caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon; wind waves created by the wind; and tsunamis (sometimes incorrectly called tidal waves) caused by disturbances, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. Surrounded by the ocean, Hawai‘i is a natural setting for understanding waves.

Waves!

© 2011 PREL

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The story, Pele Searches for a Home, tells the story of how Pele traveled through the Hawaiian islands searching for a safe home. On each island, she used her ‘ō‘ō (digging stick) to create fissures and craters. Over millions of years, volcanic activity in the middle of the Pacific Ocean has shaped, and continues to reshape, the incredible landforms of the Hawaiian islands. How is Pele’s story related to this volcanic activity?

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Volcanoes!

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We think of the earth that we stand on as solid, stable, and stationary. But the fact is that Earth is in constant motion. From the beginning of time, people have asked questions, such as: Why is the earth so restless? What causes the ground to sometimes shake so violently? How are earthquakes related to volcanoes? Earthquakes are part of the forces that have shaped and changed the land, including the islands of Hawai‘i.

Earthquakes!

Waves are the most familiar features of the ocean. Waves of all sizes endlessly roll onto our beaches. There are different kinds of ocean waves: the tides (true tidal waves) caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon; wind waves created by the wind; and tsunamis (sometimes incorrectly called tidal waves) caused by disturbances, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. Surrounded by the ocean, Hawai‘i is a natural setting for understanding waves.

Waves!

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Forces That Shape Our Earth: Volcanoes! Understanding the Forces that Shape Our Earth Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i–ii Legendary Connections What Does It Mean To Be Famous? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–2 Understanding Volcanoes What is a Volcano? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3– 4 Classification of Volcanoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 –6 Typical Life Stages of a Hawaiian Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–12 Active and Extinct Volcanoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–14 Lava Eruptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15–16 Lava Flows and Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17–18 Volcano Wonders and Landforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19–20 Volcanoes Where You Live Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21–22 O‘ahu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23–24 Moloka‘i, Lana‘i, and Kaho‘olawe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–26 Maui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27–28 Hawai‘i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29–30 Ka Nūhou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–32 Factoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–34 Linking the Past, Present, and Future Interview with Jim Kauahikaua and Kevan Kamibayashi . . . . . . . . .35–36 Pāhana Activities and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37–38 Reading for Information Helpful Reading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Hawaiian Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Resources and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42– 47
© 2011 PREL

Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48– 50
The contents of this publication were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

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‘Ōhi‘a Lehua

Pele’s influence on the Hawaiian Islands can still be felt. We can stand at the edge of Halema‘uma‘u Crater, her home in Kīlauea Caldera, and we can observe her with our senses. Not only can we see the fiery red lava churning below us, but we can also smell the sulfurous vapors rising from the floor of the crater. Volcanologists often get near enough to feel the scorching heat, even through many layers of protective gear! Some people have even gotten close enough to the edge of a slow moving ‘a‘ā flow to be able to hear the lava clinking, sizzling, and popping as it crawls along. How important Pele is! By knowing and sharing her stories, we are able to understand the many different forces that are at work, creating and shaping our island home.

What does it mean to be famous? Usually, a person is famous because of who they are, what they have done, or how they influence others. Famous people, such as writers, musicians, actors, and politicians, seem to lead diverse and interesting lives, and it can be very fun to follow their exploits and share their stories. If we look at a wide range of Hawaiian stories, such as those found in both traditional and contemporary literature, then Pele must be one of the most famous people of all! She’s so famous that she has more than one name. Each one of her names describes a part of her personality. Here are just three for you to check out: Pelehonuamea - Red earth Pele Pelewaha‘ula - Red mouthed Pele Pele‘ailā‘au - Tree eating Pele

Glowing ‘a‘ā flow on Kīlauea

Lava creating more land

If a friend shares a secret with you, they might ask you to “cross your heart and hope to die” before you share that secret with anyone else. Another way to say this would be to use the Hawaiian saying,
‘Ohelo Berries

From these names, we get the sense that Pele is not only a creator, but also a destroyer. In a way, she is the great recycler, gobbling up land in order to make new habitats, new places for things to live and grow. Pele is the main character in many stories, and many hula and oli have been composed in her honor. One of the most well-known hula is “Aia lā ‘o Pele i Hawai‘i,” which describes Pele as a vital and necessary part of the Hawaiian landscape: Aia lā ‘o Pele i Hawai‘i, ea - Pele is there in Hawai‘i Ke ha‘a maila i Maukele, ea - Dancing at Maukele ‘Ūhī, ‘ūhā mai ana, ea - Grumbling and rumbling Ke nome a‘ela iā Puna, ea Devouring Puna

Pau Pele, pau manō. Consumed by Pele, eaten by sharks. It tells your friend that you would rather be destroyed in Pele’s fiery pit or chomped on by sharks than to tell their secret. Next time someone confides in you, let them know that you’ll always be true to their trust by using this ‘ōlelo no‘eau, or wise saying. (Pukui 2617, p. 287)

© 2011 PREL

ele at s nk Thiis the story, Phe forces th t ed to How relat me, ai`i? Ho Haw ape resh

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Ulumau Pōhaku Pele Sculpture Ever growing rock of Pele created in honor of creator, Pelehonuamea

Making Connections

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Ask a local museum docent, scientist, kūpuna, or a parent to share other stories of forces that shape and reshape the Hawaiian Islands.

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What is a Volcano?

Where are Volcanoes Found?
Volcanoes are found around the world. Most of them have formed along the boundaries of Earth’s tectonic plates. Some volcanoes, like those in Hawai‘i, are not located on a tectonic plate boundary. Instead, the Hawaiian Islands are located in the middle of the Pacific Plate, 1988 miles from the nearest plate boundary.
Pu‘u ‘O‘o Crater Eruption

A volcano is a site where magma (molten rock) from the earth’s mantle is forced upward through the earth’s crust. When molten rock erupts to the surface, it is called lava. The build-up of lava by multiple eruptions forms hills or mountains called volcanoes. Volcanoes are different from other types of mountains that are formed by folding or pushing up of the earth’s crust.

Hot Spots

Beneath the Pacific plate, there is a stationary hot spot deep in the Earth’s mantle. Heat from this hotspot partially melts mantle rock, creating a source of magma. Magma, which is lighter than the surrounding solid rock, rises through the mantle and weak spots of the plate’s crust. It erupts as lava on the ocean floor, forming a seamount, or undersea mountain. Layers of lava from continuous eruptions build the seamount until it emerges above sea level to form an island volcano. Like the other tectonic plates, the Pacific Plate is in constant motion. The plate above the hot spot is drifting in a northwest direction at 3 to 4 inches per year. As the plate drifts, the volcano over the hot spot is carried away from its source of magma becoming an inactive volcano. Except for the islands of Hawai‘i and Maui, the other islands have moved beyond the hot spot, and therefore cut off from the magma source. The cycle of magma formation, eruption, and movement of the Pacific Plate over the hot spot has built a chain of volcanoes called the Hawaiian–Emperor Seamount Chain. The chain extends from Hawai‘i Island to Kamchatka, Russia. The formation of the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain has taken over 70 million years. The island of Hawai‘i is the southeasternmost and youngest island in this chain. Hawai‘i Island is over the hot spot which is supplying magma to the active volcanoes on the island. The submarine volcano, Lō‘ihi, off the Hawai‘i Island south coast, is actively erupting, and may eventually be the next volcano island.

Ring of Fire

Eruption on Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone

Pu‘u ‘O‘o cone on Kīlauea Volcano

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Ages of the Islands of Hawai‘i
5. 1. Kaua‘i 2. O‘ahu 3. Moloka‘i 4. Maui Complex 5. Hawai‘i 5,100,000 years 3,000,000 years 1,800,000 years 1,320,000 years 0-700,000 years

Hawaiian – Emperor Seamount Chain

© 2011 PREL

The Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain includes the Hawaiian Islands, the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and the Emperor Seamounts. It is called the Emperor Seamounts because the islands in this part of the chain were named after former Emperors of Japan.

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Making Connections

Take a look at the volcanoes that were formed as a result of the Hawaiian hot spot. What patterns do you see in the map? Where do you think the next island might form as the Pacific plate moves the island of Hawai‘i away from the hotspot?
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Classification is a way scientists group or organize things such as plants, animals, stars, and even volcanoes. Scientists classify volcanoes according to characteristics that will help them organize the information they observe and research, and to communicate information with others without confusion. There are several ways that scientists classify volcanoes. They sometimes group volcanoes based on the way they erupt. For example, some volcanoes erupt explosively, producing mostly ash fall and ash flows, whereas other volcanoes erupt more quietly, producing mostly lava flows. Volcanoes are also often classified by their morphology (shape and size).

Halema‘uma‘u Crater, Hawai`i

Stratovolcanoes are tall and coneshaped with steep sides. They can rise more than 8,000 feet above their surroundings. The magma is sticky and contains more gas Mount St. Helens, Stratovolcano bubbles which can create greater pressure and a more explosive eruption. Strato, which means stratified, or layered, describes the layers that build on the sides of the volcano. The sticky lava does not travel far before it starts to cool. As a result, the layers of this fast cooling lava and layers of ash create a volcano with steep slopes. Approximately 60% of the world’s volcanoes are stratovolcanoes. Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington, and Popocatépetl in Mexico, are examples of stratovolcanoes.

Stratovolcanoes (also known as Composite Volcanoes)

Hawaiian Shield Volcanoes

Shield Volcano, Mauna Loa, Hawai`i

The volcanoes of Hawai‘i are shield volcanoes, with sloping shaped profiles. Their shapes resemble the shields used by the Hawaiian warriors. The eruptions of shield volcanoes are sometimes described as gentle, however, Kīlauea can also produce explosive eruptions. The magma is very fluid, resulting in lava fountains. The fluid lava travels a longer distance before it cools. As a result, the volcano has gentle, rather than steep, slopes. Hawaiian shield volcanoes erupt at their summits or along rift zones, well-defined zones of weakness extending from the summit through the flank of the volcano. All Hawaiian volcanoes have one or more rift zones. For example, Kīlauea has two: an east rift zone and a southwest rift zone. Kīlauea’s east rift zone extends from its summit caldera through Cape Kumukahi and onto the ocean floor, a distance of more than 80 miles. Eruptions can occur at vents, passageways through which magma reaches the surface, anywhere along this rift zone. Despite their gentle slopes, Hawai‘i’s shield volcanoes have created the largest and highest mountains. Mauna Kea rises 13,796 feet above sea level. Mauna Loa, which means “long mountain,” makes up more than half of Hawai‘i Island and is the most massive volcano on Earth.

Pyroclastic Cones

Pyroclastic is a combination of two Greek words “pyro,” which means “fire,” and “klastos,” which means “broken.” This word refers to fragments of lava, such as ash, cinder, or spatter, that are erupted from a vent. Fragments falling to the ground around the vent can build a cone-shaped structure. Therefore, pyroclastic cones are also known as “cinder cones” or “cinder-and-spatter cones.”
Popocatépetl, Mexico, Strato Volcano

Pyroclastic cones can form on the flank of a stratovolcano or shield volcano. They range in size from 20 to more than 600 feet in height. They can form rapidly, and remain active for long periods of time.

Shield Volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawai`i

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© 2011 PREL
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Eruption on Kīlauea’s east rift zone

Main vent of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Cone

Making Connections

The island you live on is the top of one or several volcanoes. Look around you. Can you determine the part of a volcano where you live? Are you living on the slopes of a volcano? Between two volcanoes? Look at an aerial view of your island.
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Formation of Volcanoes
Each Hawaiian island has gone through similar stages of growth. The formation of a volcano begins with an eruption on the sea floor above a hot spot. From this preshield stage, an island progresses through stages that could take over 30 million years. Over this time, the island continues to erode until it becomes a flat reef, and eventually sinks below sea level.

Shield Building Stage
Once a volcano grows above sea level, continued eruptions produce layer upon layer of fluid lava and build broad, gentle slopes that resemble the shape of a warrior’s shield. Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are examples of Hawaiian volcanoes in the shield-building stage.

Lava Fountain on the Side of Pu‘u ‘O‘o Cone

Youngest Hawaiian Volcano,Lō‘ihi

Eruptions of this stage produce lava flows of pāhoehoe (rope like) or ‘a‘ā (blocky) lava. The ‘a‘ā flows are usually associated with the beginning of eruptions. Pāhoehoe flows occur during the later part of the eruption, when the eruption rate is lower. Ninety-five percent of the volcano is formed by frequent eruptions during this stage. The flanks of the volcano sometimes become unstable with large volumes of lava. Think Abou t It This is when many landEach volcano in the Hawaiia n chain has be slides occur. the same sequ en formed thro ence of growth ugh . From its begi underwater, un nning, deep til it becomes This stage of volcano extinct, the lif volcano could e span of a Haw be as long as aiian formation occurs over several millio of growth are n years. At wha the volcanoes t stage 500,000 years. on your island ?

Submarine Stage
Lō‘ihi, a submarine volcano off the southeast coast of Hawai‘i Island, is Hawai‘i’s youngest volcano. Its summit is still about 3,000 feet below sea level. The most recent known eruption of Lō‘ihi was in 1996.

Pillow Lava

The cooling effect of water on the erupting lava creates lava pillows. The Pillow Lava continues to shape the volcano. During this stage, a volcano’s caldera and rift zones are beginning to form. As the volcano reaches closer to the water’s surface, the seawater and magma mix, resulting in steam explosions. This stage of volcano formation takes about 200,000 to 500,000 years.

Eruption Along a Rift Zone (pāhoehoe lava on both sides of the fissure) Pāhoehoe Lava Flow

© 2011 PREL

Before 1823
Descriptions of eruptions were based on interpretations of Hawaiian chants, dances, or stories like Pele Searches for a Home

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The first written descriptions of volcano eruptions were recorded by Reverend William Ellis, who visited the summit region of Kīlauea. (Halema‘uma‘u Crater, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park)

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Kōhala Volcano from the Slopes of Mauna Kea

Hualālai Surrounded by ‘A‘ā Flows

Erosional Stage
Kōhala, Lāna‘i, and Wai‘anae volcanoes are examples of this stage. Processes of weathering and erosion occur during this stage. Deep canyons are carved into the sides of the volcano. The island also loses elevation. Coral reefs form in the shallow waters around the island and their growth keeps pace with the subsidence (sinking) of the island.

Post Shield Stage

Mauna Kea and Hualālai on Hawai‘i Island and Haleakalā, on Maui, are examples of post shield volcanoes. These volcanoes have moved off the center of the hot spot. The magma supply decreases, resulting in fewer eruptions. At the beginning of this stage, volcanoes produce small explosive eruptions that can build cinder cones.

Map of Hawai‘i Island Volcanoes

Mauna Kea, Hawaii‘s Tallest Volcano

The volcano slopes become steeper. ‘A‘ā flows accumulate up near vents, around the summit, and along rift zones, making the volcano tops seem more bumpy than the younger shield volcanoes when viewed from a distance. Scientists describe this process as building a “cap” of lava over the top of the shield. Eruptions at the caldera stops. The rift zone eruptions also become less active.
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Lāna‘i Before Sections of the Volcano Sank

This stage lasts over 250,000 years.

1840–1841

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The first geologic study of Hawaiian volcanoes was conducted by James Dwight Dana. Dana recognized that the islands became younger from the northwest to southeast.

1912
Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), established the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

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Rejuvenated Stage
Some volcanoes may go through a final eruption stage. These eruptions may occur on the sides of existing volcanoes, through the reefs that have formed around the islands, or on a nearby ocean floor. Why do these eruptions occur since the volcanoes have moved away from the hot spot? Scientists think that even after a shield volcano stops erupting, magma may be trapped in small chambers. As the island sinks, the pressure could create cracks that allow the magma to surface as an eruption. These eruptions are short and produce small volumes of lava. Examples of volcanoes that occurred during this stage are: 1. Kalaupapa. A low volcano erupted after the cliff was eroded by waves. 2. On O‘ahu, Diamond Head, Punchbowl, Mānana (Rabbit) Island, Koko Head and Koko Crater, Āliapa‘akai and Āliamanu are considered rejuvenated volcanoes. 3. On Kaua‘i, Kōloa volcano was formed during this stage. This stage could occur several million years after the formation of the volcano.
Diamond Head Crater

Coral Reef and Guyot Stages
An example of a volcanic island at this stage is the island of Midway. During this stage, a volcanic island is eventually eroded until it reaches sea level. Coral reef growth in shallow waters around the island continues to keep pace with the island’s subsidence creating a surrounding coral ring or an atoll. As plate motion carries the atoll northwestward into colder ocean waters, the coral reefs can no longer keep pace with the island’s subsidence, they die, and the atoll sinks below the sea level. Islands at this stage are called guyots. The Hawaiian volcanoes, by then are more than 30 million years old.

View east across Haleakalā Crater, with young cinder cones in foreground
© 2011 PREL

Hanauma Bay and Koko Head Crater

1963

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John Tuzo Wilson, a Canadian geophysicist, proposed the “hot spot” hypothesis.

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Kīlauea’s Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kupaianaha eruption begins its nonstop eruption. 12

Volcanoes are classified as active if they have erupted within the last ten thousand years. These volcanoes also show signs of magma beneath them and will more than likely erupt again. In Hawai‘i, the active volcanoes are Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Haleakalā, Mauna Kea, and Lō‘ihi.

Active Volcanoes

Active Volcano (Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i Island)

Active Volcanoes Lo‘ihi Kīlauea Mauna Loa Hualālai Haleakalā Mauna Kea

Most Recent Eruption 1996 1983-Current 1984 1801 1400-1600 4,500 years ago

Inactive or Extinct Volcanoes

A volcano is classified as inactive, or extinct, if it has not erupted for more than 10,000 years. What causes a volcano to become extinct? When a volcano is cut off from its lava supply, it becomes extinct. In Hawai‘i, the Pacific plate on which volcanoes are located, is slowly moving northwest. As the volcanoes move away from the hotspot, their source of magma is cut off and they eventually become extinct.

Predicting Volcanic Activity Through Volcanic Monitoring

Volcanologists cannot definitely predict when an eruption will occur. However, they use a combination of clues to help them understand when a volcano might erupt.

Volcanologists monitor:
1. the land changes around the volcano. They use satellite images. These images show that the ground seem to rise as the magma rises toward the surface. 2. the past eruptions for patterns. They use these patterns to determine when an eruption could occur.
Active Volcano (Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i Island, A fissure erupting between Pu‘u ‘Ō ‘ō Crater and Nāpau, March 6, 2011) Inactive Volcano (Koko Crater, O‘ahu Island)

3. the gases produced. Higher levels of sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide sometimes rise before an eruption. 4. seismic activity. All earthquakes are measured on seismograms. There is usually earthquake activity before an eruption.
These clues provide the volcanologists with information to predict when an active volcano might erupt.
Jim Kauahikaua, Lead Scientist at USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

There are more than 1,550 active volcanoes in the world. An interactive world map, which includes information about the active volcanoes of the world, can be found at www.geocodezip.com/v2_activeVolcanos.asp. Kīlauea is often called the “most active volcano in the world.” But there are other volcanoes around the world that have been erupting for a long time. Examples include Etna, Italy (3,500 years); Stromboli, Italy (2,000 years); and Yasur, Vanuatu (800 years).

© 2011 PREL

Making Connections

Each island is the top of one or several volcanoes. Can you locate the volcanoes that formed your island? Are the volcanoes active or extinct? Which ones are “rejuvenated” (erupted many years after the island was formed)?
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Scientists also describe volcanoes by types of eruptions and flows that occur. The types of eruptions depend on the pressure that is released as magma surfaces and the amount of gas that is mixed with liquid magma.

Pyroclastic Eruptions

Lava Fountains

Hawaiian volcanoes present spectacular displays with their lava fountains. Lava fountains form when jets of escaping gas blast fluid lava high into the air. Lava fountains usually range between 30 to more than 350 feet, and may reach heights of more than 1,500 feet. The highest lava fountain observed at Kīlauea Volcano on Hawai‘i Island, was more than 1,900 feet in height in the 1959 eruption at Kīlauea Iki. Lava can also erupt from fissures (cracks in the ground), and lava tubes when water enters a tube.

A pyroclastic eruption is an explosive eruption that ejects large volumes of hot fragments such as ash, pumice, and rocks into the air. Pyroclastic in Greek means, “fire broken” rocks (MacDonald, 1983). The pyroclastic debris may be greater than 930° F. The heat and weight of the ash, pumice, and rock fragments flatten and weld, or fuse, the material together once they settle.

Lava Lake in Kīlauea Iki Crater Before It Began to Drop, 1959

The 1790 and 1924 eruptions at Kīlauea were considered pyroclasictic type eruptions. Debris from the 1790 eruption of Kīlauea indicate that a pyroclastic eruption may have occurred. Thirty-five foot thick pyroclastic material was found A Footprint Preserved in Ash of Kīlauea’s 1790 Eruption around the summit of Kīlauea. A story relates how the eruption rose at least 30,000 feet into the air. The eruption took the lives of warriors from Ka‘ū who were crossing the summit region of Kīlauea returning from a battle with Kamehameha. Some reported that 80 warriors lost their lives. Others reported that as many as 5,400 people lost their lives. In 1924, steam explosions occurred as ground water flowed into the Halema‘uma‘u magma conduit. The falling rocks from the walls of the crater created a barrier preventing the steaming water from escaping. The pressure that built resulted in the explosive eruptions of 1924.

Lava Fountain at Kīlauea Iki 1959 Eruption, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i Lava Fountain of the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Cinder and Spatter Cone, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

Lava Lakes

© 2011 PREL

Sixty-Five Foot Dome Fountain, 1969–71 Mauna Ulu Eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

Sometimes the lava fountains form dome fountains. This phenomenon is created when a large volume of gas-poor lava is erupted at a nearly constant rate. The resulting shape is a hemisphere (half of a sphere) lava dome. Lava domes can reach heights of more than 30 feet.

Many Kīlauea eruptions have formed ponds or lakes of lava in a vent, crater, or area where there is a depression. Lava lakes can form when an active vent within a crater erupts molten lava that completely or partly fills the crater. Lava lakes can also form when lava flows pour into a crater, partly or completely filling it with molten lava. Lava erupted in Kīlauea Iki Crater in 1959 filled the crater about halfway, creating a 445-foot deep lava lake. Lava lakes, such as Kīlauea Iki’s, provide scientists with information about lava cooling and changes that occur after eruptions.
Lava Lake at the top of the Kupaianaha Vent, East Rift of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

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Lava Tubes
Hawaiian lava is about 2,100°F, some of the hottest lava in the world. When lava erupts, it can flow on the surface, forming streams or channels of molten rock. There are two main types of Hawaiian lava flows, called pāhoehoe and ‘a‘ā, depending on their surface texture. Both pāhoehoe and ‘a‘ā are Hawaiian words, but commonly used throughout the world to describe lava flow types.

Pāhoehoe

As soon as lava reaches the surface, it begins to cool and harden. Lava that solidifies with a smooth or ropy surface is called pāhoehoe. Pāhoehoe means “smooth and unbroken, having a satiny appearance” (Pukui and Elbert, 1986). The shine is the result of lava cooling rapidly and forming a thin glass layer. A pāhoehoe flow advances, or moves forward, as small lobes break out from a cooled crust. When cooled, the surface of the lava looks like twisted rope, and shines like satin.

Lava also flows underground through self-made tubes. Lava tubes form when the tops of a lava flow cools and hardens, creating an enclosed passageway through which molten lava can flow. The solid crust prevents heat loss, so the lava Nāhuku (Thurston) Lava Tube inside remains hot and fluid. Because of this, lava inside a tube can travel many miles from an erupting vent. For example, in 1990, lava traveled through a tube toward the community of Kalapana. There, lava broke out of the tube, forming surface lava flow that destroyed many homes in the area. Sometimes, the roof of a tube collapses, creating an opening, or “skylight,” through which you can see the molten lava flowing through the tube. The Nāhuku (Thurston) Lava Tube in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park is an example of a lava tube that was formed during an eruption 500–600 years ago. At the end of the eruption, the lava drained from the tube, leaving a cave-like feature.

Channel of ‘A‘ā Flow on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawai‘i, 1984

Lobes or “Toes” of Pāhoehoe Lava, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 1985

Tephra (Lava Fragments)
Volcanic rock fragments ejected from eruptions and spattering vents form different lava shapes.

Volcanic Ash

Volcanic ash is fragments of lava, rock, and volcanic glass that are typically less than 0.1 inch in diameter. Volcanic ash is created during explosive eruptions when molten lava and rocks are shattered into tiny bits.

The skylight displays shallow moving lava within a lava tube.

‘A‘ā

Pele’s Hair

Pāhoehoe Transitions to ‘A‘ā, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 1998

‘A‘ā, on the other hand, is jagged and sharp. ‘A‘ā means “to burn; glowing; fire, staring, as eyes” (Pukui and Elbert, 1986). According to Scientistin-Charge at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, James Kauahikaua, “observing an ‘a‘ā flow at night is like seeing a million glowing eyes staring at you!” As the ‘a‘ā cools, it is transformed into porous, jagged rocks with sharp edges.

When fluid lava is spewed into the air, thin strands of the lava can stretch and spin, creating hairlike strands of volcanic glass. These strands are called Pele’s Hair, named for Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of volcanoes. The strands vary in length, from 3 to 6 inches, and appear golden in color. During an eruption, the wind can blow Pele’s hair many miles downwind.
Thin Strands of Volcanic Glass, Pele’s Hair, Kīlauea Volcano, 1984

Cinder
© 2011 PREL

Cinders are glassy rock fragments formed as magma explodes and is cooled quickly. Cinders can accumulate around a vent, creating a cinder cone.

Pele’s Tears

As lava fountains erupt, small bits of molten rock flying through the air quickly cool and harden, forming small glassy particles shaped like spheres or tear drops. Pele’s tears are about ¼ to ½ inch in size and black in color.
Cinder, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i Pele’s Tears

17 Rope-Like Pāhoehoe Crust, 2001

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Landforms ‘Lava Trees
When lava flows through a forest, the molten rock cools and hardens around the trunks of trees. As it does, the living tree burns, leaving a hole, or mold, in place of the tree trunk. If the lava flow drains away, the solid crust of lava surrounding the tree is left standing above the surface, like a column of rock, forming a “lava tree.” A few hundred years ago, the Kīlauea volcano’s East Rift erupted pāhoehoe lava that entered the forest near what is now Pāhoa town. It filled the forest with lava over 11 feet high. As the eruption gradually lessened, the lava flow drained away and its surface dropped, leaving the tree molds.

The eruptions of Hawaiian volcanoes have shaped and reshaped the islands. All of the volcano islands are shield volcanoes, built up by the fluid lava flows that travel great distances from the summit. The shields are gentle slopes.

Halema‘uma‘u Crater within Kīlauea Caldera, 1997

Calderas are located at the summits of the shields. Calderas form by the collapse of magma reservoir. Kīlauea’s summit caldera measures 2.5 miles long and 2 miles wide. The summit caldera of Mauna Loa, Moku‘āweoweo, measures 3 miles by 1.5 miles. Craters are smaller depressions, usually less than 2 miles in diameter. Rift zones extend from the summit down its flank, or side, into the sea. These are the ridges with open fissures, craters, and spatter cones. Most of the eruptions take place in the volcano’s caldera or along the rift zones. Cinder and spatter cones are higher volcanic landforms built by eruptions along the vents. Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō cone is an example.

Lava trees form when molten lava cools and solidifies around the trunks of trees, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 1986

Aerial view of the northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawai‘i, 1975

Tree Mold

Spatter cones along a fissure on the northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa, Hawai‘i, 1984

Kīpuka

(Hawaiian word for “Island”). A kīpuka is an island of forest that is surrounded by lava. Kīpuka are important ecosystems because they are the sources of seeds, spores, and insects of native species that colonize the surrounding lava flows.
© 2011 PREL

Halema‘uma‘u Crater, 2011

Rift Zones of Kīlauea Volcano

Kīpuka, surrounded by lava, formed during the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Kupaianaha Eruption, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

Between 1983 and 1986, episodic lava fountains erupting from a vent on Kīlauea’s east rift zone built a cinder-and-spatter cone that reached a height of more than 800 feet high. This cone, named Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō, was one of the highest landforms on Kīlauea. Since 1986, the cone has slowly collapsed, and as of 2011, is about 600 feet high.
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Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kūpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Ni‘ihau

On the island of Ni‘ihau, one shield volcano formed the island 4.9 million years ago. Scientists think a large landslide removed part of its summit and east side of the shield. Small eruptions occurred during the rejuvenation stage of Ni‘ihau’s volcano. Lehua Island, north of Ni‘ihau, is an example of a rejuvenated volcano. Lehua was often referred to when directions to the west were given, since it is the island located in the most western direction.
Mai ka hikina a ka lā i Kumukahi a ka welona a ka lā i Lehua From the sunrise at Kumukahi To the fading light at Lehua From sunrise to sunset. Kumukahi, in Puna, Hawai‘i, was known as the land of the sunrise. Lehua was known as the land of sunset. (Pukui 2058, p. 223).

By studying the active volcanoes of Hawai‘i Island, scientists have a better understanding of the processes that have created, shaped, and changed the islands of Hawai‘i. They have also explored observations that the early Hawaiian settlers have passed on through their stories, chants, dances, and artifacts. Interpretations of some of these stories, like Pele Searches for a Home, have been rich sources of information that have added to the science of volcanoes before written records were kept.
Steep Cliffs of Na Pali Coast

Kaua‘i

Kaua‘i Volcano formed the island of Kaua‘i between five and six million years ago. The eruptions continued to build Kaua‘i for about a million years. The Waimea Canyon was eroded into the shield volcano and shows the many layers of lava flows that shaped the island. Scientists have found fields of rubble deposited on the ocean floor which leads them to think that a large part of the Waimea end of the island slid into the ocean. Another large portion of the Na Pali coastline later slid into the ocean, leaving the sea cliffs we see today. The summit of Mount Wai‘aleale was the site of a sacred heiau, or temple, which was dedicated to Kāne, the akua of the water and the forests. The Alaka‘i Swamp, above Wainiha Valley, is perched on thick lava flows thought to have been ponded within the caldera of Kaua‘i Volcano. The thick lava flows have prevented the water from seeping through the rocks, creating the swampy Alaka‘i area.

Pele on Kaua‘i Pele thrusts her ‘ō‘ō near Wailua

Waimea Canyon’s layers of lava flow that shaped Kaua‘i Island

Island of Kaua‘i

Lehua, north of Ni‘ihau

Smaller eruptions took place during Kaua‘i’s rejuvenation stage, about 2.6 to 0.15 million years ago. These eruptions, known as the Koloa volcanic series, occurred through vents located throughout the east section of Kaua‘i, from Waimea to Hanalei. The formation of the Kilohana Crater, Haupu Ridge, Kukui o Lono Park, and Pohakea are a few examples of eruptions during this period.

Island of Ni‘ihau

In Pele Searches for a Home
Most Recent Eruption Status

Volcano © 2011 PREL

Hawaiian Meaning

Elevation Above Sea Level (in feet) 5,148 984

Kaua‘i Ni‘ihau

No translation No translation

5 million years ago 4.9 million years ago

Extinct Extinct

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Pele thrust her Pa‘oa into the ground, only to find water! It is said in one story, that this was the site at the current Wet Caves on the North side of the island of Kaua‘i. She then went inland to a place that is now called “Pu‘u ka Pele” (Pele’s Hill). Pu‘u ka Pele was one of the volcano vents of Mount Wai‘ale‘ale. It is now a Forest Reserve located in the area of the Pu‘u ka Pele Lookout at Waimea Canyon. Still having no luck, Pele followed the Waimea Canyon to the south side, to Poipu. It was from Pu‘u ka Pele, where Pele left Kaua‘i for O‘ahu. If you look for it, there is a pit at the top of the hill that was supposedly made as she stamped her foot for the leap to O‘ahu. 22
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Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kūpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Ko‘olau Volcano

Wai‘anae Volcano

The Wai‘anae volcano formed about 3.8 to 2.9 million years ago. The mountain range is about 22 miles long. The caldera is located near the center of the Wai‘anae Range. Rift zones are located on the northwest and southeast. Extensive erosion along the west side of the volcano has created large valleys, like the Lualualei Valley. Most of the active eruptions took place around the Lualualei Valley. Mount Ka‘ala, part of the Waianae range, is the highest spot on the island of O‘ahu at 4,025 feet.

Ko‘olau, which means “windward” in Hawaiian, is the volcano range that makes up the eastern shield volcano on the island of O‘ahu. Part of its caldera, located near Kāne‘ohe Bay and a section of the Ko’olau flank that was at least 130,000 feet long and 5,600 feet tall, slid over 100 miles into the ocean. This is sometimes called the giant Nu‘uanu Landslide. This landslide took almost half of the Ko‘olau volcano. Pu‘u Konahuanui, the highest point on the Ko‘olau, is one of the more popular hiking sites for experienced hikers. Ko‘olau remained inactive for thousands of years. Then, about 800,000 years ago, as many as 30 renewed eruptions occurred which created Le‘ahi (Diamond Head), Hanauma Bay and Koko Head, Pūowaina (Punch bowl Crater), Tantalus, and Āliapa‘akai.

Ko‘olau Range Lualualei Valley, Wai‘anae Range Volcano Crater

Le‘ahi (Diamond Head) is an extinct eroded tuff cone. The crystals (calcite) were thought to be diamonds. Le‘ahi was formed between 520,000 and 350,000 years ago. Water from the ocean entered the vent, causing an eruption that left the symmetrical steep sides of the volcano.

Island of O‘ahu

O‘ahu
Volcano © 2011 PREL

O‘ahu is made up of two volcanoes, Wai‘anae and Ko‘olau.
Hawaiian Meaning Water of the mullet fish Windward or wet side Elevation Above Sea Level (in feet) 3,937 3,100 Most Recent Eruption 2.5 million years ago 2.1 million years ago Status

Le‘ahi, Diamond Head

Hanauma Bay and Koko Crater, south of the Ko‘olau Ridge

In Pele Searches for a Home

Wai‘anae Ko‘olau

Extinct Extinct

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Pele tried to find her home in the area that now includes the Koko Head and Hanauma Bay volcanoes that erupted during the rejuvenation stage of the Ko‘olau eruptions. Eruptions were short but more explosive in places close to the water, where water entered the volcanic vent.
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Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kūpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Moloka‘i

Moloka‘i was formed by two shield volcanoes. The younger, Wailau, also called East Moloka‘i, flowed into the eastern sides of the West Moloka‘i volcano, forming an isthmus between the two.

Island of Moloka‘i

At one time when the ocean was lower, the islands of Maui, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, and Kaho‘olawe, were part of a single island. The islands are still part of a large mountain mass but the rising sea levels have separated the peaks of the volcanoes into separate islands. The lower land areas between the volcanoes are now 590 feet below sea level.

Wai lau or Kamakou – East Moloka‘i

Sheer cliffs are left after a portion of of the East Moloka‘i volcano subsided (sank) into the sea.

In the Hawaiian language, wai lau means “many waters.” Studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists indicate that part of the northeast section of the volcano may have sunk beneath the sea in a landslide. This has resulted in the sheer, high ocean cliffs of over 3,600 feet. These cliffs are considered some of the highest on earth.

Volcano

Kalaupapa, located on the north side of the island, is a flat peninsula

Kalaupapa peninsula was created by a rejuvenated volcano.

Hawaiian Meaning No translation

Elevation Above Sea Level (in feet) 1,377

Most Recent Eruption 1.7–1.8 million years ago

Status

West Moloka‘i Mauna Loa East Moloka‘i Wailau Lāna‘i Palawai Kaho‘olawe Moa‘ulaiki West Maui

Extinct

created by a rejuvenated stage eruption that occurred 340,000 years ago. This eruption took place long after the East and West Moloka‘i volcanoes had stopped erupting, and after the landslide that removed the northern part of the island. The source of the lava was the Kauhakō Crater. Kalaupapa means “a flat leaf,” which is an appropriate description of the shape of the peninsula. Today the Kauhakō Crater is a small lake, 800 feet deep.

Many waters

3,969

1.5 million years ago

Extinct

No translation

3,366

1.2 million years ago

Extinct

Mauna Loa, West Moloka‘i Lāna‘i

Mauna Loa is the smaller of two volcanoes that makes up the western half of Moloka‘i.
Island of Lana‘i

Hill on Kaho‘olawe Meaning not certain Hale Mahina House of the moon

1,411

1.1 million years ago

Extinct

6,889

1.2 million years ago

Extinct

Lāna‘i is made up of one shield volcano. Scientists found rubble on the southwest banks of Lāna‘i that indicates a major landslide in the area. See the figure on page 10 that shows what Lāna‘i looked like before the landslide. Today, the Pālāwai Basin, or floor, is all that remains of the volcano. Wind erosion over the centuries has blown away some of the soil surrounding the floor of the volcano to produce a feature called “Garden of the Gods.” The result is the amazing display of a field of rocks and boulders that dazzle in reflection of the sunlight. Many stories about the garden are told. One story tells of the rocks holding the spirits of ancient island warriors. Another is about the garden as a display of the most favored art pieces of the akua.
© 2011 PREL

East Maui Haleakalā

House of the sun

10,023

1400-1600

Active

Kaho‘olawe

Kaho‘olawe is a single shield volcano. Its summit, Moa‘ulaiki, is 1,477 feet above sea level. Its last eruption occurred approximately 1.1 million years ago. According to ancient chants, Polynesian navigators were trained in navigation at Moa‘ulaiki, using the stars to guide them. In 1993, Kaho‘olawe was released to the Kaho‘olawe Island Reserve Commission to restore its ecosystem. Kaho‘olawe can only be used for native Hawaiian cultural and spiritual purposes.
Island of Kaho‘olawe

At Luahiwa Petroglyphs, overlooking the Pālāwai Basin, carved recordings of Lāna‘i’s ancient history can be seen. Over 450 rock drawings and carvings have been found. There are petroglyphs of men, women, animals, such as deer, turtles, and livestock, including what some believe to be someone surfing!

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Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kūpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Haleakalā and its Legendary Landmarks

West Maui Mountains

Maui has two major volcanoes, West and East. The West Maui mountain is the older (1.1 million years) of the two. Its shield rose more than 6,889 feet above sea level. The Hawaiian name for the mountain is Hale Mahina, House of the Moon. Its caldera measured almost two miles. Today, after thousands of years of erosion, ‘Īao Valley has been carved into the Wailuku Volcano caldera. ‘Īao Needle is really a part of the caldera rock. After a long period (600,000 years) of erosion, a series of eruptions occurred. Kīlea was the first. Today, Kīlea is known for its petroglyphs. Several cinder cones are located in Lahaina, including Keka‘a Point, on which part of the Sheraton Maui Resort & Spa stands. After another 200,000 years, a series of eruptions occurred. This was part of the rejuvenated eruption of the Lahaina Volcanic Series. An example is Pu‘u Hele near the Pōhākea Stream. It is now a quarry of cinder rocks. The lava from the West Maui eruptions released silica, which have eroded into stones, known as moonstones. These moonstones have been found in the Wailuku Stream.

Do you know where one of the largest volcanoes in the world is located? Here’s a hint: it’s on the second largest Hawaiian island and is known as “the House of the Sun.” The answer is Haleakalā on the island of Maui. Haleakalā towers 28,000 feet from the ocean’s floor. Only 10,023 feet and roughly 3% of the volume of Haleakalā is exposed above sea level. This massive volcano began taking form about 2 million years ago. At the top of this majestic volcano is Haleakalā Crater. This crater is actually a valley. It was formed as the top of the volcano eroded away. Thousands of years later, the crater had new volcanic activity. Lava flow filled parts of the crater. Small eruptions formed the crater’s cinder cones. In the last 30,000 years, most of the activity has been along two rift zones. The southwest rift zone and the eastern rift zone. These combined rift zones are known as Haleakalā Ridge and are one of the longest rift zones in the Hawaiian Island chain. Many volcanic landmarks were created along this ridge. They can still be seen today. (USGS, 2003)

Looking into Haleakalā

In Pele Searches for a Home

940 year and 970 year old lava flows from cinder cones within Haleakalā Crater

Legend says that when Pele was looking for a home, she came upon Haleakalā. She used her ‘ō‘ō (Pāoa) to dig a large pit and to start a fire. The pit she created was extremely large. It was so big that it was hard for her to stay warm. She also had trouble keeping the fire burning. While she was there, her sister, Nāmakaokaha‘i appeared and challenged her to a battle. The fight was difficult for both women. Pele lost and perished. Her bones were scattered along the coast of Kahikinui. Her spirit escaped to Hawai‘i Island, where she now lives in the volcano of Kīlauea. Landmarks of Pele’s presence at Haleakalā can still be found along its slopes. The large pit that she created is the crater of Haleakalā. Within the crater are cinder cones with her name: Pu‘u Ka ‘Iwi o Pele (Hill of the Bones of Pele), Ka Moa o Pele (The Chicken of Pele), Pā Pua‘a o Pele (Pele’s Pig Pen), and Pu‘u o Pele (Hill of Pele). (McGuire and Hammatt, 2000) The rocks that she dug from the pit are visible at Hanaka‘ie‘ie in Kahikinui. (Fornander, 1917)
The Island of Maui

In the last 1,000 years, the volcano of Haleakalā has erupted at least 10 times. The last eruption was estimated to be between 1786 and 1793 in South Maui. Scientists consider it to be an active volcano. It is not a matter if Haleakalā will erupt again, but when. (USGS, 2003)
Pele battles sister Nāmaka, along the eastern slopes of Haleakalā

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Earth scientists commonly use the phrase “rejuvenated-stage” for those eruptions that occur long after a Hawaiian volcano has finished its main stages of growth.

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Discover Volcanoes Where You Live

What shield volcano(es) formed the island you live on? Is there evidence of rejuvenated eruptions that occurred after the main island was formed? Ask your parents or kūpuna about local stories that people tell related to the volcanoes where you live. Are there landmarks that remind people of the stories? Take notes and photos of what you discover.

Kōhala
Kōhala Volcano, which forms the northern end of Hawai‘i Island, is the oldest on the island. It erupted about 60,000 years ago. The erosion and flank failure of the northeast flank of Kōhala has left deep valleys on that side of the volcano. Some of the major valleys include Pololū, Honokane, Waimanu, and Waipi‘o. The south slopes of the Kōhala Mountain are gentler, stretching from Hawi to Kawaihae. The caldera of the Kōhala volcano has been filled and can be seen near the Kawainui Stream.

Hualālai

Five of the youngest volcanoes are located on Hawai‘i Island. These include Kōhala, Mauna Kea, Hualālai, Mauna Loa, and Kīlauea. In addition, a new volcano called Lō‘ihi is growing on the sea floor south of the island.

Hualālai is in the post–shield building stages of a Hawaiian volcano’s life cycle. Kailua-Kona, and the Keāhole Airport are built on the lava flows of Hualālai. Some say that Hualālai was named after the wife of the Hawaiian navigator, Hawai‘i Loa (Hualālai Resort, 2010).

Kīlauea

It is at Kīlauea where Pele dug her final pit in Halema‘uma‘u Crater, at the summit of the volcano. Kīlauea means “spewing,” or “much spreading,” in the Hawaiian language. It is often called the most active volcano in the world. Lava has been erupting from vents along its east rift zone since 1983. In 2008, another vent began erupting at the summit of Kīlauea. Lava flows erupted from Kīlauea’s east rift zone have often reached the oean, adding about 500 acres of new land to Hawai‘i Island’s southeastern coastline.
According to stories, it is at Kīlauea where Pele welcomed her brothers. A cliff on nearby Kīlauea is sacred to her eldest brother, Ka-mohoali‘i, king of the sharks and the keeper of the gourd that held the water of life, which gave him the power to revive the dead. Out of respect for this brother, to this day, Pele never allows clouds of volcanic steam to touch his cliff.
Island of Hawai‘i

Mauna Loa

Mauna Kea

Mauna Kea (White Mountain), is considered an active volcano that rises 13,796 feet above sea level. Its irregular shape is caused by cinder cone eruptions that occurred at its summit. The Hāmākua and Laupāhoehoe eruption series on Mauna Kea helped build the volcano. On the northeast slopes of Mauna Kea, the erosion has left deep ravines such as Maulua, Ka‘awali‘i, and Hakalau. Some of the ravines are 650 feet deep. Near the summit, lake Waiau occupies one of the many craters.
Volcano Hawaiian Meaning Name of the district White Mountain No translation Long Mountain Spewing or much spreading Long Elevation Above Sea Level (in feet) 5,480 13,796 8,271 13,680 4,190

Mauna Loa (Great or Long Mountain) is the most massive volcano on Hawai‘i Island–and Earth. The volcano rises 13,670 feet above sea level, but measured from its base (on the sea floor, which is bowed downward due to the weight of the volcano) to its top, Mauna Loa is 56,000 feet high. Its caldera at the summit is called Moku‘aweoweo (the red of the fish), suggesting the red color of the lava that flows to the ocean during its eruptions. It has erupted 15 times since 1900.
Most Recent Eruption 60,000 years ago 4,600 years ago 1801 1984 1983–Present Status

Kōhala Mauna Kea

Extinct Active Active Active Active

Hualālai Mauna Loa

Lō‘ihi is located off the southeast coast of Hawai‘i Island. Geologists confirmed in 1981 that Lō‘ihi is a growing volcano. Lō‘ihi is erupting pillow lava from its summit, which is about 3,200 feet below sea level. It will take many thousands of years before Lō‘ihi will surface above sea level.

Lō‘ihi

Her other brothers also still appear on Kīlauea Volcano: Kane-hekili as thunder, Ka-poho-i-kahi-ola as explosions, Ke-ua-a-kepo in showers of fire, and Ke-o-ahikama-kaua in spears of lava that escape from fissures during eruptions.

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Kīlauea Lō‘ihi

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3,200 Below sea level

1996

Active

Pele emerges at Kīlauea

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Volcanic Hazards and Benefits
Lava Deltas
When lava enters the sea, new land is formed. A fan-shaped rock shelf forms a delta. The deltas are built on a sloping layer of lava flows and fragments, making it unstable. Along the delta, cracks parallel to the shore may appear. If the underwater shore slope is steep, the delta may collapse as the waves weaken it. People should avoid standing on the delta. They can be swept into the sea, or splashed with boiling water, or even hit by flying rock debris. Like the spectacular showdown between Pele and Nāmaka in Pele Searches for a Home, one of the most awesome but dangerous volcanic shows is the lava entry into the sea. Explosions called tephra jets occur as 2000° lava transforms seawater to steam. The resulting explosions blast hot rocks, water, and molten lava into the air.

No Volcano, No Hawai‘i

Lava Flows
Lava flows are a great threat to property. Hawaiian lava flows usually move slowly. A large flow could travel faster, but most of the speeds recorded averaged about 6 miles per hour. Some of the destructive lava flows occurred between 1983 and 1986, when lava from the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent of the Kīlauea Volcano flowed into the Royal Gardens’ subdivision and destroyed 16 homes. In 1986, the Kupaianaha vent erupted over a period of 5 years. After many months of eruption, a lava tube was formed. This allowed the lava to flow farther. These tubes sent lava toward Kalapana and destroyed 165 homes. The effects of these flows did not only destroy homes. Lava covered roadways and destroyed utility lines, making it impossible to travel through the
© 2011 PREL

Sulfur dioxide and other volcanic gases rise from Kīlauea Volcano

Updated SO2 conditions are posted online by the Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park at www. hawaiiso2network.com The Department of Health of the State of Hawai‘i also maintains a site about SO2 levels at www.hiso2index.info/

Although there are hazards associated with volcanic activity, there are also just as many benefits. The Hawaiian Islands are volcanic islands, and would not exist were it not for volcanic activity. The relatively quiet nature of the active volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kīlauea can be enjoyed and studied in safety. Visitors, as well as the scientists, are better able to understand how the forces of the volcanoes shape and reshape our land. Other benefits have been explored: • Harnessing volcanic energy for geothermal energy • Developing fertile land for agriculture • Creating volcanic products for landscaping, construction, and aesthetics By understanding the hazards, and benefits, as well as keeping the balance among research, the environmental, and the cultural interests, the volcanoes could continue to be a unique part of Hawai‘i’s existence.

A lava flow from the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent advances down a street in the Royal Gardens subdivision in April 1983

area, or live in the homes even if they were spared from the volcano. At the same time, eruptions have built the land surface of the islands. The average volume of lava erupted from Kīlauea since 1956 is about 120 million cubic yards per year. (Tilling, Heliker, Swanson, 2010, p. 14). The current Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kupaianaha eruption has added more than 540 acres of land to Hawai‘i Island.

1,500 tons) of sulfur dioxide gas (SO2) per day. When the sulfur dioxide interacts with the sunlight, oxygen, moisture, and dust, volcanic pollution, or vog, conditions occur. High vog levels reduce the quality of air, creating hazy sky conditions that decrease visibility for motorists, and air traffic. The sulfuric acid in vog combines with moisture to form acid rain. Acid rain is known to damage agricultural crops and other plants, and causes metallic objects, such as fences, to rust more quickly.

The continuous activity at Kīlauea Volcano’s east rift zone and summit vents emits large amounts (between 300 to

Gas Emissions

When lava enters the coastal waters and mixes with the chlorides in the seawater, large steam plumes form. These plumes include hydrochloric acid (HCI). This lava haze, also called laze, poses a hazard to anyone near the ocean entry where lava pours into the sea. For your safety, keep away from areas where lava enters the ocean. NOTE: Warning signs are not always posted at ocean entries.

Explosive interaction between lava and sea water

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How many active volcanoes are there in Hawai‘i?

There are six active volcanoes in the State of Hawai‘i. On the island of Hawai‘i, Kīlauea has been erupting essentially non-stop since 1983, the most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in 1984, and Hualālai most recently erupted in 1801. The most recent eruption of Lō‘ihi, a submarine volcano south of Hawai‘i Island, was in 1996. Haleakalā, on the island of Maui, erupted 400-500 years ago.

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What is the largest active volcano in the world?
13,679 feet above sea level. Mauna Loa,

Mauna Loa, on Hawai‘i Island, is the world’s largest active volcano. Mauna Loa stands

Research at the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

which means “long mountain,” makes up more than half of Hawai‘i Island and is the most massive volcano on Earth.

© 2011 PREL

How hot is Hawaiian lava?

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In 1911, the first temperature reading of molten lava was made. Scientists stretched a cable 1,500 feet long across Halema‘uma‘u Crater at the summit of Kilauea. With pulleys, they lowered a tool (electric pyrometer) into the lava lake. One reading registered 1,850 Fahrenheit. Other readings recorded from 1,800 to 2,000 F.

In 1912, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established to study the activity of Mauna Loa and Kīlauea. “Volcanology emerged as a modern science with the founding of HVO.” (Tilling, Heliker, and Swanson, 2010, p. 15) It is operated by the United States Geological Survey. During the past 100 years of research, HVO scientists have contributed to the science of volcanology shared among scientists and observatories worldwide. Some of the major advances include: 1. Volcano monitoring or observations and measurements scientists make to document changes in the state of a volcano during and between eruptions. 2. Use of global positioning system (GPS) to monitor ground movements at active volcanoes. 3. Continuous recording of seismic activity to help scientists track the subsurface movement of magma. 4. HVO has made significant strides in monitoring gas emissions using satellite-and groundbased sensing instruments and techniques.

Hawai‘i is a living laboratory for research in volcanology!

Which volcano is the world’s most active?

Kīlauea on Hawai‘i Island is considered one of the world’s most active volcanoes. It has been erupting nearly non-stop since 1983.

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erup Etna awai‘i), Mt. Kīlauea (H rnaise n de la Fou (Italy), Pito ira, (D.R. Nyamurag (Reunion), no auea Volca Congo). Kil million re than 18 erupts mo y. of lava dail cubic feet

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Kevan Kamibayashi Linking the Past, Present, and Future

Kevan leads a team of technicians who are in constant search of new technologies and better ways of monitoring Hawai‘i’s active volcanoes. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitoring network includes instruments such as tilt meters, GPS, seismographs, gas sensors, particle sensors, infrasound, thermal cameras, gravimeters, and web cameras!

Jim Kauahikaua is a geophysicist by training, a person who looks at the earth using physical properties other than those that can be detected by our 5 senses. For the last several years he has been the scientist-in-charge of HVO responsible for its operation and research.

Jim Kauahikaua Linking the Past, Present, and Future

Q: What inspired you to be so interested in volcanology? A: At the age of 11, I entered Nā Pua No`eau’s summer institute. The “Rocks and Rolls” class was a geology course with an emphasis on volcanology. As a student in this class, I was given the opportunity to collect a sample of molten lava. There is no doubt that I have been hooked on volcanology ever since. Q: What is the most common myth or misunderstanding about volcanoes in Hawai`i? A: I think a common misunderstanding has to do with the actual size of Hawaiian shield volcanoes, which are among the largest active volcanoes on earth. Because our volcanoes are so large, a very small moveKevan checks a gravimeter* ment could mean a very large volume change within the volcano’s magma system. HVO’s monitoring instruments need to be extremely accurate to ensure our best understanding of the ongoing activity. This makes our job more challenging. Q: What are you researching now that will help us better understand volcanoes? A: I’ve been working on extensive upgrades to HVO’s monitoring network. We are increasing our abilities to retrieve data in real time (as it occurs) and conduct maintenance and repairs remotely. Because of these capabilities, our volcanologists can work safer, longer, and in more remote areas, providing for a better understanding of volcanoes. Q: What is one thing you would like us to remember about Hawaii’s volcanoes? A: Hawaii’s volcanoes have many mysteries; study hard because one day you could be the person that explores them. “Volcanology is one of the many natural sciences studied through observation.” *A gravimeter is a gravity meter. It is used to identify where magma is stored within Kīlauea Volcano. It can also record the rise and fall cycles of magma within the magma chambers, or lava columns within an active vent.

Q: Can you tell us a story of the most extraordinary or unusual, volcanic occurrence you have experienced in Hawai‘i? A: I’ve been fortunate enough to see so many amazing volcanic events that it’s hard to pick out just one. Early in the current eruption when my daughter was about 2 or 3, I remember watching one of the last Pu`u `Ō`ō lava fountains while explaining to her what was happening and how it worked. I’ll never forget that because lava was shooting really high in the air and I really enjoyed trying to explain it to her so that she could appreciate it as much as I did. Q: What inspired you to become a geophysicist? A: I had a very good teacher who got us all interested in how the earth works and how it evolved into what we see today. I remember his stories about natural disasters and how many people have been killed because of a lack of knowledge about the tremendous earth forces behind earthquakes and volcanoes. That was enough to interest me in figuring it out. Q: What is the most common myth or misunderstanding about volcanoes in Hawai‘i? A: Hawaiian volcanoes can be dangerous and the most common misunderstanding people have is that our volcanoes are never dangerous. Q: What are you researching now that will help us better understand volcanoes? A: I am working on the best way to let people know the dangers of living on active Hawaiian volcanoes. While they are generally safe, there are times when they are not safe and our scientific information could be used to educate and help residents and visitors stay safe. Q: We have just seen a video, Pele Searches for a Home. How are these stories related to volcanoes? A: Native Hawaiians have lived with volcanoes a lot longer than most people and, if we carefully listen to their stories, we can learn important details that cannot be learned any other way. Q: What would be a quotation that you’d like us to remember about Hawai‘i’s volcanoes? A: Living safely on the active volcanoes comes from learning what they do and how they behave.
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Build An Erupting Volcano Materials

Create a Virtual Volcano Tour of Your Community

1. Computer 2. Internet Connection 3. Website: http://www.activitytv.com/138-erupting-volcano

Procedure

(Activities and Projects)
Build Your Own Virtual Volcano

1. Follow the safety guides presented before proceeding with the experiment. 2. Follow the directions presented by the TV host to create your volcano eruption.
Activity TV. (2011). Erupting Volcano. Retrieved July 7, 2011, from http://www.activitytv. com/138-erupting-volcano

Materials

Setting the Stage

1. Digital Camera 2. Map of your tour area 3. Resource information about volcanic activity of your tour area 4. Crayons or felt tip pens

Procedure

This simple experiment shows the effect of pressure. See how this demonstrates the effect of pressure during movement of volcanic magma.

Procedure

Materials

1. Glass bottle 2. A balloon (medium sized)

3. Water 4. A Large Bowl

1. Fill the bottle with hot water and let it stand for about 3 minutes. 2. Pour cold water into the bowl. 3. Pour the hot water out of the bottle. 4. Quickly place the balloon over the top of the bottle. 5. Place the bottle into the bowl of water. 6. What happens? What stage of the volcano does this represent?

Materials

1. Computer 2. Internet Connection 3. Website: http://kids.discovery.com/games/buildplay/volcano-explorer

Procedure

1. Create different types of volcanoes by changing the type of magma and amount of gas created by a virtual volcano. 2. What did you find out about the different types of volcano eruptions?

1. Do research about your tour area. 2. Draw a map of your tour area. 3. Label areas of interest. 4. Take photos of the area of interest. 5. Write a short descriptive caption for each area of interest. 6. Display your tour on the map or on the computer using a graphic or presentation program.

Virtual Tour of Kīlauea Crater Rim Drive Materials

© 2011 PREL

1. Computer 2. Access to the Internet 3. Website: http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/oldroot/ crater_rim_drive/menu5.html

Procedure

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1. Take a tour of the most active volcano in the world, Kīlauea. 2. Share your tour with your family, classmates, and kūpuna.

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Helpful Features and Tools Information and skills you are expected to know and demonstrate after you complete Volcanoes!:
1. Describe how volcanoes shape and reshape the earth. 2. Use the science and grade-level vocabulary words and word-part clues to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words. 3. Use text features and structures (cause and effect, compare and contrast) to help you understand what you read.

ancient adj. very old; having existed for a long time We studied both the modern and ancient customs of the Hawaiian people. avoid v. keep away from Avoid the hazardous volcanic ash by staying away from areas that are downwind from a volcano. deposit n. let fall as sediment; accumulation of solid The floodwaters left a deposit of mud at the edge of the road. extinct adj. no longer active, like a volcano A volcano is considered extinct if it hasn’t erupted for over ten thousand years. fissure n. a long fracture or crack at the surface from which lava erupts Fissure eruptions occur along the volcano’s rift zone. flank n. a side of Lava accumulates on the flanks of a volcano. formation n. something that has been formed or shaped (e.g., rock formation, cloud formation) The formation of the islands occurred over millions of years. inactive adj. not in motion or use, not active An inactive volcano is extinct if it hasn’t erupted over tens of thousands of years. locate v. to find Scientists use seismic wave motions to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. location n. place or position Kīlauea, on the island of Hawai‘i, is the location of the current volcano eruption. mantle n. the layer of Earth that lies between the crust and core The mantle makes up 80–85% of Earth’s weight and is composed of oxygen, silicon, magnesium, and iron. pressure n. a steady physical force upon a surface, weight When two plates collide, the great pressure causes the land to fold and bend. tephra n. volcanic rock fragments exploded or carried into the air during an eruption Tephra could be as large as volcanic rocks or as small and light such as ash. unavoidable adj. inescapable; inevitable; cannot be avoided Earthquakes are unavoidable in Hawai‘i, so we should be prepared for them. vent n. openings in the Earth’s crust from which magma and volcanic gases erupt Lava fountains often erupt from vents on the ridges of a volcano.

Helpful Reading Tools Understand Text Features:

Be an active reader by understanding text features of the book that help you locate and understand information. This includes the text divisions, organizational tools, graphics, and print features of the book.

Understand Cause and Effect Text Structure

Look for the author’s text patterns and signal words that explain reasons or causes for an event or phenomenon. The magma is very fluid with less amounts of gas resulting in lava fountains, rather than explosions.

Understand Compare and Contrast Text Structure

Look for text patterns and signal words that explain similarities of and differences between two or more ideas. The pāhoehoe flows are usually associated with longer ongoing eruptions, whereas the ‘a‘ā flows are from shorter eruptions that produce more lava.

Word-Part Clues

1. Look for word-part prefixes in-, im-, ira. inactive, impossible, irregular 2. Remove the prefix to determine its base. a. active, possible, regular 3. Use the surrounding words and phrases in the sentence it appears in to determine the meaning of the unknown word. Just because a volcano is inactive, doesn’t mean that it will not erupt again. (An inactive volcano does not have any activity happening, or is not active.) Beyond a span of a year or more, it is impossible to predict when a volcano would erupt. (If it is impossible to predict when a volcano would erupt, it means it cannot be done.) The irregular coastlines of the islands are the result of different forces that shape them such as volcano flows, erosion from wave action, and collapsing shelves. (Volcano flows, erosion, and collapsing coastlines, create coastlines that are not even or straight.) crater n. a hollow shaped depression created by a volcanic eruption Diamond Head is an example of a volcanic crater. erupt v. to explode or burst out suddenly As Kīlauea erupts, it produces a fiery display of lava flowing to the ocean.

Science Words to Know

© 2011 PREL

magma n. the molten rock beneath the earth’s surface 39 The magma collected beneath the volcano, and finally surfaced as a lava flow.

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‘a‘ā akua kūpuna kupuna Lua Pele ōla‘i ‘ōlelo no‘eau oli pāhoehoe

A word used to describe a type of lava flow. ‘A‘ā means to burn, glowing, fire, staring as eyes. deity grandparent, ancestor volcano, crater earthquake a wise saying or proverb that was passed on from one generation to the next a chant that was not danced to A word used to describe a type of lava flow. Pāhoehoe means smooth and unbroken, having a satiny appearance.

Introduction U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). This Dynamic Earth. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html#anchor19309449 What Is a Volcano Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Volcanoes in the Sea, The Geology of Hawai‘i. Second Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. McDougal Littell Inc. (2003). Exploring Earth. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/navigation/home.cfm U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. (2011). Learn About Volcanoes. Retrieved April 28, 2011, from http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Outreach/AboutVolcanoes/what_is_a_volcano.html U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). “Hotspots”: Mantle thermal plumes. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/hotspots.html U.S. Geological Survey. (2007). Geologic Map of the State of Hawai‘i. Retrieved August 11, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1089/ Waldron, Melanie. (2007). Mapping Earthforms Volcanoes. China: Heinemann Library. Classification of Volcanoes Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Volcanoes in the Sea, The Geology of Hawai‘i. Second Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. Scott, Rowland. (n.d.). Strato Volcanoes. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/volcano_types/strato.htm Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. (n.d.) Global Volcanism Program. Popocatépetl. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano. cfm?vnum=1401-09= U.S. Geological Survey. (1997). Volcanic Hazards. Retrieved May 27, 2011, from http://pubs. usgs.gov/gip/hazards/hazards.html#cracks U.S. Geological Survey. (2011). Principal Types of Volcanoes. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/volc/types.html U.S. Geologic Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (2004). Kilauea’s east rift zone: an enormous ridge from the summit caldera to the ocean floor. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/gallery/kilauea/erz/erz_overview.html

© 2011 PREL

Waldron, Melanie. (2007). Mapping Earthforms Volcanoes. China: Heinemann Library.

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Typical Life Stages of a Hawaiian Volcano Hawai‘i Center for Volcanology. (2005). The Formation of the Hawaiian Islands. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/haw_formation.html Hawaiian Volcanoes. (n.d.). Retrieved May 27, 2011, from http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/ education/hawaii/intro/intro.html Juvik, Sonia P. & Juvik, James O. (1998). Atlas of Hawai‘i. Third Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Second Edition. Volcanoes in the Sea. Honolulu, Hi: University of Hawai‘i Press. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. (2009). Life-cycle of Hawaiian Hot Spot volcanoes. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from www.mbari.org/volcanism/Hawaii/Default.htm Morgan, Joseph R. (1996). Volcanic Landforms. Hawai‘i: A Unique Geography. Honolulu, HI: Bess Press. pp. 9–13. U.S. Geological Survey. (1995). Evolution of Hawaiian Volcanoes. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1995/95_09_08.html U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). VHP Photo Glossary. Retrieved August 11, 2011, from http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/pglossary/ShieldVolcano.php Lava Eruptions and Flows Harbo, Christopher L. (2008). The Explosive World of Volcanoes. Mankato, Minnesota: Capstone Press. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (n.d.). Lava Tube Formation. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGZ5KNe94bI Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Kilauea Volcano Time Lapse Movies. (2006). Retrieved June 1, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/gallery/kilauea/volcanomovies/#crater http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/main.html Instant Hawai‘i. (2008). Types of Lava. Retrieved June 1, 2011, from www.instanthawaii.com/ cgi-bin/hawaii?Volcano.types/ Pukui, Mary Kawena and Elbert, Samuel H. (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. Westervelt, William D. (1963). Hawaiian Legends of Volcanoes. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc.

Volcanoes Where You Live Kaua‘i and Ni‘ihau Backroad Tours. (2011). Kilohana Crater. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from www.alohakauaitours. com/br/Detailed%20Description.htm Kaua‘i Historical Society. (2001). ‘Āinakumuwai: Ahupua‘a of Nāwiliwili Bay. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from http://www.hawaii.edu/environment/ainakumuwai/html/ainakumuwaiislandformation.htm Nokes, Deston S. (n.d.). Hot Spots. Follow in Pele’s footsteps as you explore Hawaii’s magnificent volcanoes. http://www.destonnokes.com/PDF-NCI/Gateways.pdf Pruitt, B. (2011). Geology of Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from www.vacationrentalkauaihawaii.com/geology-kauai-hawaii-rentals.html Pruitt, B. (2011). Waimea Canyon—Koke‘e Kaua‘i Sights. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from www.vacationrentalkauaihawaii.com/waimea-canyon-sights.html Pukui, Mary Kawena. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. Rowland, Scott K. and Garcia, Michael O. (n.d.). Southeast O‘ahu Geology Field Trip Guide. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/SOEST_News/SEoahufieldtrip4.pdf State of Hawai‘i. Department of Land and Natural Resources. (n.d.). Pu’u ka Pele Forest Reserve. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from http://hawaii.gov/dlnr/dofaw/forestry/FRS/reserves/kauaifr/puu-ka-pele-forest-reserve U.S. Geological Survey.(2001). Hawaiian Volcanoes. Retrieved April 23, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/ Oahu Ozawa, Ayako, Tagami, Takahiro, and Garcia, Michael O. (2005). Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Volume 232, Issues 1–2, 30 March 2005, Pages 1–11. Unspiked K–Ar dating of the Honolulu rejuvenated and Ko‘olau shield volcanism on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X05000609 Rowland, Scott K. and Garcia, Michael O. (n.d.). Southeast O‘ahu Geology Field Trip Guide. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/SOEST_News/SEoahufieldtrip4.pdf Molokai Aloha from Lāna‘i. (n.d.). Lāna‘i History. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from www.lanaicityrental. com/home/lanai-info Coastal Geology Group. (2010). Moloka‘i. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii. edu/coasts/publications/hawaiiCoastline/molokai.html

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Larson, G.T. (2011). Molokai Dispatch. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from www.themolokaidispatch.com/naturally-speaking-6 University of Hawai‘i. (2004). Regional Geology of Maui Nui. Retrieved June 28, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/moore/gg103/class_15a.htm) U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service. (2005). Kalaupapa National Historic Park Hawai‘i. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from www.nature.nps.gov/geology/parks/kala/index.cfm U.S.Geological Survey. (1995). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Maui Nui, the Bigger Island. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1995/95_09_22.html U.S. Geological Survey. (2007). Description: Debris Avalanches and Volcanic Landslides. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/DebrisAval/ description_debris_aval.html Kaho‘olawe Mutual Publishing (n.d.). Retrieved June 23, 2011, from www.hawaiianencyclopedia.com/kahoolawe.asp NOAA. (2004). National Marine Fisheries Service. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://atsea.nmfs.hawaii.edu/islands/kahoolawe.htm Maui AlohaIsles.com. (2008). Learn about the 2 Volcanoes of Maui; Haleakalā, and the West Maui Mountains. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://alohaisles.com/maui/volcanoes.html Fornander, A. (1917). Fornander Collection of Hawaiian Antiquities and Folk-lore, vol. IV. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. McGuire, K. and H. Hammatt. (2000). A Traditional Practices Assessment for the Proposed Faulkes Telescope on 1.5 Acres of the University of Hawaii Facility at Haleakalā, Papa‘anui Ahupua‘a Makawao District, Island of Maui (TMK 2-2-07:8). Honolulu: Cultural Surveys Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey. (2003). East Maui, or Haleakalā — A Potentially Hazardous Volcano. Retrieved December 28, 2010, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/haleakala/ U.S. Geological Survey. (2004). Kaho‘olawe was also a volcano once. Retrieved December 28, 2010, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/haleakala/ U.S. Geological Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (2011). West Maui‘s rejuvenated-stage eruptions were about 600,000 and 385,000 years ago. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/2001/01_09_13.html

Hawai‘i Island Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Volcanoes in the Sea, The Geology of Hawai‘i. Second Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. O’Meara, Donna. (2008). Volcano, A Visual Guide. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books Ltd. U.S. Geological Survey. (2011). Principal Types of Volcanoes. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/ You Tube. (2010). Hualalai Resort. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from www.youtube.com/ watch?v=NyCKHDiqffc Ka Nūhou Instant Hawai‘i and Cookware Inc. (2008). Lava Tree State Park. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from www.instanthawaii.com/cgi-bin/hawaii?Parks.ltree Tilling, R.I., Heliker, C., and Swanson D.A. (2010). Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes— Past, Present, and Future. U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 117. U.S. Department of the Interior. (n.d.). Volcanic Kipuka. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from http://volcano-pictures.info/glossary/kipuka.html U.S. Geological Survey. (1997). Volcanic Hazards. Retrieved on July 3, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hazards/hazards.html U.S. Geological Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (2004). When Lava Enters the Sea: Growth and Collapse of Lava Deltas. Retrieved July 5, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs. gov/hazards/oceanentry/deltacollapse/ U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). VHP Photo Glossary: Lava Tree Mold. Retrieved July 2, 2011, from http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/images/pglossary/treemold.php Factoids JuniorsBook. (2011). Tell Me Why. Retrieved April 28, 2011, from http://juniorsbook.com/activity_workshop.asp?aid=354 National Geographic Society. (2008). National Geographic Kids. Washington, D.C. U.S. National Geographic Society. Nokes, Deston S. (n.d.). Hot Spots. Follow in Pele’s footsteps as you explore Hawaii’s magnificent volcanoes. Retrieved July 24, 2011, from www.destonnokes.com/PDF-NCI/ Gateways.pdf Rubin, Ken. (2006). Hawai‘i Center for Volcanology. Retrieved May 2, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/haw_volc.html Search, John. (2010). Volcano Live. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from www.volcanolive.com/active2.html

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U.S. Geological Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. (2011). Who is Frank Alvord Perret, and what is his connection to Hawaiian volcanoes? Retrieved August 11, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/2011/11_06_02.html Timeline Babb, J.L., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Tilling, R.I. (2011). The Story of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory—A Remarkable First 100 Years of Tracking Eruptions and Earthquakes. U.S. Geological Survery General Information Product 135. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http:// pubs.usgs.gov/gip/135 Tilling, R.I., Heliker, C., and Swanson D.A. (2010). Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes— Past, Present, and Future. U.S. Geological Survey General Information Product 117. U.S. Geological Survey. (1997). Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes. Retrieved August 2, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hawaii/page09.html U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. The first written account of Kīlauea. Retrieved August 2, 2011, from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1997/97_08_01.html Pāhana Activity TV. (2011). Erupting Volcano. Retrieved July 7, 2011, from www.activitytv.com/138erupting-volcano Discovery Communication, LLC. (2011). Volcano Explorer. Global Perspective. Retrieved June 23, 2011, from http://kids.discovery.com/games/build-play/volcano-explorer Mattox, Steve. (2011). Kīlauea Crater Rim Drive. Retrieved July 7, 2011, from http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/oldroot/crater_rim_drive/menu5.html

Photo Credits

Courtesy of Pacific Tsunami Museum Coconut Island April 1, 1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. ii) Courtesy of U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain The Hawaiian Islands - Emperor Seamount chain stretching more than 6000 km in the Pacific Ocean. Image courtesy of Daniel Scheirer, US Geological Survey, based on data from Smith and Sandwell (1997, Science). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 3) NOAA’s America’s Coastlines Collection, photo by John Bortniak, NOAA Corps . . . . . .(p. 22) Courtesy of the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai‘i Ages of the Hawaiian Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 4) Newest Hawaiian Volcano, Lo‘ihi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 7) Lana‘i Before Sections of the Volcano Sank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 10) Courtesy of the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Popocatépetl, Mexico, Strato Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(p. 6) Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is part of the Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. HVO staff conducts research on the volcanoes of Hawai`i and works with emergency-response officials to protect people and property from earthquakes and volcano-related hazards. HVO has contributed much to the growing science of volcanology. See http://hvo. wr.usgs.gov/ for more information about HVO.
Fissure located between Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō and Napau March 5, 2011. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (i) Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Cone, September 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Cover, i) Glowing ‘a‘ā Flow on Kīlauea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 2) Lava Creating More Land . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 2) Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Crater Eruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 4) Eruption on Kīlauea Ridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 4) Kīlauea Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 5) Shield Volcano, Mauna Loa, Hawai‘i, Photograph by J.D. Griggs, 01/10/85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 5) Halemau‘mau Caldera, Hawai‘i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 5–6) Eruption on the Ridge of Kīlauea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Mauna Loa, Hawai‘i, Rift Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Mount St. Helens, Strato Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Main Vent of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Cone, Photo by C. Heliker, 06.1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Pillow Lava . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 7) Lava Fountain on the Side of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Cone, Photo by J.D. Griggs, 06/02/1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 8) Eruption Along a Rift Zone, Photo by G.E. Ulrich, 07/18/1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 7–8) Pāhoehoe Lava Flow, Photo by S.R. Brantley, 06/24/1999 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 8) Halema‘uma‘u, First Written Descriptions of Volcano Eruptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 8) Hualālai Surrounded by ‘A‘ā Flows, Photo by J. Kauahikaua, 12/30/1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 9) Map of Hawai‘i Island Volcanoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 9) The Summit of Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i’s Tallest Volcano, photo by D.A. Swanson, 02/15/1971 . . (pp. 9–10) Kōhala Volcano from the Slopes of Mauna Kea, photo by T.J. Takahashi, 12/26/1990 . . . . . . . . (p. 10) Haleakalā Crater with Younger Cinder Cones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 11) Kīlauea’s Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Kupaianaha Eruption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 12) Active Volcano (Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i Island) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 13)

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Lava Fountain of the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Cinder and Spatter Cone, photo by J.D. Griggs, 10/05/1983 . . . (p. 15) Sixty-Five Foot Dome Fountain, photo by J.B. Judd, 10/11/1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 15) Lava Fountain at Kīlauea Iki, photo by J.P. Eaton, 11/29/1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 15) Lava Lake in Kīlauea Iki Crater, photo by J.P. Eaton, 12/05/1959 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 16) A Footprint Preserved in Ash, photo by James F. Martin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 16) Lava Lake at the top of Kupaianaha Vent, photo by E.W. Wolfe, 12/1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 16) Channel of ‘a‘ā flow on Mauna Loa Volcano, photo by J.D. Griggs, 03/1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 17) Lobes or Toe-Like Leads of Pāhoehoe Flow, photo by J.D. Griggs, 07/1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 17) Pāhoehoe Transitions to ‘A‘ā, Kīlauea Volcano, photo by C. Heliker, 05/02/1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 17) Skylight Displays Shallow Moving Lava . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 18) Thin Strands of Volcanic Glass, Pele’s Hair, photo by D.W. Peterson, 03/27/1984 . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 18) Pele’s Tears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 18) Lava Trees, Kīlauea Volcano, photo by C. Heliker, 09/06/1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Kipuka, Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Kupaianaha Eruption, photo by J.D. Griggs, 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Spatter Cones along Fissures, Mauna Loa, photo by J.D. Griggs, 03/26/1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Halema‘uma‘u Crater within Kīlauea Caldera, photo by J. Kauahikaua, 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Aerial View of Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa, photo by J.P. Lockwood, 1975. . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Rift Zones of Kīlauea Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Steep Cliffs of Na Pali Coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 22) Kalaupapa Penninsula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 26) Sheer Cliffs Near Pelekunu Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 26) Looking South from Ko‘olau Gap into Haleakalā . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 28) 940 and 970 Year Old Lava Flows, Haleakalā . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 28) Lava Flow from the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Vent Advances to Royal Gardens, 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 31) Bursts of Molten as Water Enters a Volcano Tube, photo by T.J. Takahashi, 1988 . . . . . . . . . (pp. 2, 32) Kevan Checks a Gravimeter, photo by Andy Pitty, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory volunteer . . . . (p. 35) Kevan Kamibayashi, photo by Janet Babb, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 35) Kīlauea Crater Rim Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 38) Photos by E Ho‘omau! Staff Shield Volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 5) Diamond Head Crater, Oahu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 12, 24) Hanauma Bay and Koko Crater, Oahu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 12, 24) James Kauahikaua, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 14) Cinder, Kīlauea Volcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 17) Nāhuku (Thurston) Lava Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 18) Tree Mold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Halema‘uma‘u Crater, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Sulfur Dioxide and Other Volcanic Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 32) Google Map Hawaiian Islands. Image USGS. Data SOEST/UHM. Data USGS. Image ©2011 DigitalGlobe Background of Hawaiian Islands, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 22–30) Courtesy of the City and County of Honolulu Lualualei Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 23)

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) President and CEO Sharon Nelson-Barber Creative Producer Michael Q. Ceballos Evaluators Chuck Giuli Malkeet Singh Alice Taum Executive Producer Ormond Hammond Curriculum Developer Ellen Miyasato Cultural Advisor Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua, Kamehameha Schools Production Assistant Bernadette Frank Line Producer Kaira Resch Artist Bryson Luke Curriculum Advisors Susan Hanson Cheryl Taitague

Science Advisors Ethan Allen, PhD James Kauahikaua Janet Babb Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Scientist in Charge, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Geologist, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

Written Contributions Janet Babb Kevan Kamibayashi James Kauahikaua Karen Victor Special Thanks To Ethan Allen Christine Antolos Michelle Bulos John Camac Javier Elizondo Myra Hasegawa Amber Inwood Ross Inouye Hedy Kaneoka James Kauahikaua Terry Kelly Scott Kunihiro Susan Kusunoki Marylin Low Corinne Misaki-Wingert Cooper Miyasato Barbara Muffler Roger Osentoski Jennifer Padua Lori Phillips Casey Primacio Lee Ann Ānuenue Pūnua Scott Rowland Liane Sing Pamela Suga Melissa Torres-Laing Geologist, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Physical Science Technician, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Scientist in Charge, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Science Teacher, Ke Kula ‘o S. M. Kamakau LPCS

© 2011 PREL

Bishop Museum Haha‘ione Elementary School Hawai‘i Department of Education Kamehameha Schools The Lyman Museum

RH Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center University of Hawai‘i USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

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