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Pacific Resources for Education and Learning

Building Capacity Through Education

© 2011 PREL

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The story, Pele Searches for a Home, tells of how Pele traveled through the islands searching for a safe home. On each island, she used her ‘ō‘ō to create fissures and craters. Over millions of years, volcanic activity in the Pacific has shaped, and continues to reshape, the most incredible landforms of the Hawaiian Islands. How is Pele’s story related to this volcanic activity?

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Volcanoes!

© 2011 PREL

We think of the earth that we stand on as solid, stable, and stationary. But the fact is that Earth is in constant motion. From the beginning of time, people have asked questions, such as: Why is the earth so restless? What causes the ground to sometimes shake so violently? How are earthquakes related to volcanoes? Earthquakes are part of the forces that have shaped and changed the land, including the islands of Hawai‘i.

Earthquakes!

Waves are the most familiar features of the ocean. Waves of all sizes endlessly roll onto our beaches. There are different kinds of ocean waves: the tides (true tidal waves) caused by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon; wind waves created by the wind; and tsunamis (sometimes incorrectly called tidal waves) caused by disturbances, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. Surrounded by the ocean, Hawai‘i is a natural setting for understanding waves.

Waves!

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Forces That Shape Our Earth: Waves! Understanding the Forces that Shape our Earth Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i–ii Legendary Connections Ka ‘Ōlelo Hawai‘i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1– 4 Understanding Waves Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 – 8 Tides and Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 – 10 Understanding Tsunamis What is a Tsunami? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11– 12 How Does A Tsunami Wave Travel? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 – 14 Signs of a Tsunami . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 – 16 Tsunamis from Across the Pacific . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17– 22 Hawai‘i-Generated Tsunamis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 – 26 Ka Nūhou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27– 28 Tsunami Warning Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 – 30 Factoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31– 32 Linking the Past, Present, and Future Donna W. Saiki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 – 34 Pāhana Activities and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 – 36 Reading for Information Helpful Reading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Hawaiian Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Resources and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39– 40
© 2011 PREL

Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41– 42
The contents of this publication were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

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Where were you the last time a tsunami was headed for Hawai‘i? What did you do? Like most people, you were probably at home with your family. Maybe you were excited because school was cancelled. Maybe you were afraid that you would be asked to evacuate your neighborhood because it is too close to the shoreline. Maybe your family packed up a few supplies, and went to stay in a community shelter. How did you find out about the tsunami? Maybe you turned on your TV, tuned in to the radio, or surfed the Internet for news about the tsunami’s progress across the Pacific Ocean. Whether you were excited or afraid, you were certainly safe, because you knew what was happening, and you were with your family. You might have felt the same way that the composer of these lines felt. Hānau ka ‘ino, hānau ke au Hānau ka pahūpahū, ka pōhāhā Hānau ka haluku, ka haloke, ka nakulu, ka honua naueue. Ho‘īloli ke kai, pi‘i i ka mauna Ho‘omū ka wai, pi‘i kua a hale. Born is the storm, born is the current Born is the booming, born is the crashing Born is the clattering, fluttering, rumbling, swaying earth. The ocean seethes, climbing up to the mountains Silencing the fresh water, rising up to the rafters of houses. These lines come from the Kumulipo, a well-known Hawaiian creation chant. We can tell from the words, ka honua naueue, that the composer knew that tsunamis can be caused by earthquakes. We can also tell, from words like pahūpahū and ho‘īloli, that the composer most likely experienced the “wall of water” effect of a tsunami that has come ashore. When we say these words aloud, whether we say them in Hawaiian or in English, we can really feel the power of nature!

Ka ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i, the Hawaiian language, gives us lots of clues to the observant nature of the native people, both those in the past and those in the present. In Hawaiian, there are three ways to describe a tsunami: Kai mimiki means “swirling sea.” Kai e‘e means “swelling sea.” Kai a Pele means “Pele’s sea.” The first term, kai mimiki, has to do with the way that an oncoming tsunami causes all the water near the beach to drain away. The second term, kai e‘e, describes the way that the mass of water travels in a rising wave. Finally, the third term, kai a Pele, points to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes as the source of a tsunami.
Lava meets the ocean

Ocean entry explosion

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Think

© 2011 PREL

Large waves flood Kahiki Nāmaka sends a wall of waves as Pele and her family escape their homeland.

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Lessons to be Learned
In Pele Searches for a Home, the force of a tsunami is felt through Nāmaka‘okaha‘i, the older sister of Pele. How does the storyteller share the forces of nature (volcanoes, tsunamis, and earthquakes) through the characters? “Nāmaka, Goddess of the Sea, was said to control tsunamis.” We see Nāmaka riding the crest of the wave. “A devastating tsunami destroys Pele’s homeland.” Nāmaka crashes down, bringing tidal waves from all sides of the island. “The wall of water surges toward Pele. In a swift movement, she quickly grabs her Pāoa stick and gouges a deep arc in the dirt in front of her. The ground cracks open and a curtain of lava shoots straight up into the air, turning Nāmaka’s wall of water into steam.” Kū au i kai Paio aku paio mai Pēnei ka hiu hou ‘ana e ku‘u wahi kaina You on land, And I on sea. Constant struggle. This is how it will always be, My beloved sister. Another story of Pele searching for a home describes a tsunami as the sea of Ka hina li‘i. A sea! A sea! Forth bursts the sea, Bursts forth over Kanaloa (Kaho‘olawe), The sea rises to the hills…” “Thrice” (according to the chant) the sea floods the land, then recedes. These floodings are called the-sea-of Ka hina li‘i. (Forbes, 2011)
The ‘Ōlelo No‘eau is a collection of Hawaiian proverbs and poetical sayings that were passed on from one generation to the next. It gives us clues and lessons about the relationship between the forces of nature and one’s character. Here are two examples:

Kaha aku la ka nalu o ku‘u ‘āina. The surf of my land has swept everything away. This saying was a retort to one who boasts about the value and beauty of his own land. (Pukui 1285, p. 140) Mimiki ke kai, ahuwale ka papa leho. When the sea draws out in the tidal wave, the rocks where the cowries hide are exposed. This saying means “Secrets will come out on the day of wrath.” (Pukui 2157, p. 235)

© 2011 PREL

Making Connections
Have you ever made connections between the chants, such as the Kumulipo, and stories, such as Pele Searches for a Home, and the forces of nature (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes)? Look through Pele Searches for a Home and look for clues that make those connections. What do we learn from them?

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There are three forms of ocean movements: WAVES, TIDES, and CURRENTS

Waves
Ocean waves are generated by wind, the gravitational pull of the moon and sun, or by seismic disturbances to the ocean. We are most familiar with the typical wind generated waves that break onto our shores. As wind sweeps over the surface of the ocean, the friction forces the water to ripple or create waves. Stronger winds cause larger waves. Waves caused by the wind are wind-generated waves or surface waves. The size of wind-generated waves average about 12 feet.
Colors of the ocean

Motion of a Wave
A wave is really a forward movement of energy. The water appears to be moving forward; however, it is really the wave’s energy that is moving. The water actually moves in a circle. The water moves forward with the wave’s crest, then backward with the wave’s trough. Watch a buoy in the ocean. You will see it bob up and down. This demonstrates the water’s movement. You feel the same movement when you float in the water. Notice what happens when you float in the water. You feel the forward movement with each wave crest, then the backward movement in the trough of a wave. Over the wide ocean, waves travel with little change. However, as waves reach the shore, the ocean gets shallower. The shallow ocean causes the water energy to slow down and increase in wave height. Eventually, the front of the wave breaks and collapses as surf. The water surges up on the shore. Watch a simulation of waves in action at Wind Waves simulation at: http://earthguide. ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/waves/swf/wave_wind.html Ocean in Motion simulation at: www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/motion/waves1.htm Watch a video on wave motion at Science of the Surf: Episode 1 video at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=dv_Sis0Hntk&feature=related

Parts of a Wave
The crest of a wave is the highest point on a wave. The trough is the lowest point or valley between two crests. The wave length is the horizontal distance between two consecutive wave crests or troughs. The wave height is the distance between the crest and its trough. The wave period is the time it takes two consecutive crests or troughs to pass a selected point.

Watch a simulation showing wave length at Measure a Wave at: http://oceanexplorer. noaa.gov/edu/learning/player/lesson09/l9la1_b.html

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© 2011 PREL

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Size of Waves
The size of a wave depends on: 1. the distance the wind blows (over open water), which is known as the “fetch”; 2. the length of time the wind blows; and 3. the speed of the wind.
Waves approaching the shore

The greater these three, the larger the wave.

Waves over the wide ocean

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Surging Breakers Breaking Waves
As waves approach the coastline, their shape changes. What happens to the waves as they get into shallow water? What we see at the shore are breaking waves. You may have noticed that some of the beaches have rolling waves, others have crashing waves, and still others have gentle waves. There are three typical ways that a wave breaks as it approaches the coastline. Watch the breaking waves at the beach and see if you can identify which type of breaking waves you see. Remember, the type of waves you see depends on the shape of the shore below the water. The waves you are familiar with at your favorite beach may not be the same type of waves you find at another beach. What makes the difference? If a beach slope is steep, the waves form a bulge at shore and roll onto the beach. The waves do not break.

Plunging Breakers
If the slope of the beach is slightly steep, the waves move from the deep water to the shallow water quickly. As waves move to the shallow water, the waves curls over, forming tubularlike waves. You probably know these waves as dumpers or barrels.

Spilling Breakers
Surging Breakers

If the beach is a gentle slope, the waves break far from the shore, and the top of the waves gently spill over the front of the wave.

Watch the simulation, Catch a Wave, showing surging, plunging, and spilling breakers at: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/edu/learning/player/lesson09/l9la1_a.html
Plunging Breakers

© 2011 PREL

Watch Science of the Surf: Episode 2 video showing surging, plunging, and spilling breakers at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXuQC1qRuEM&feature=relmfu http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXuQC1qRuEM&feature=relmfu

Splilling Breakers

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Currents Closer to the Shore

Tides
Tides are types of waves that are predictable by scientists. If you pass by the ocean every day, you have probably noticed that the tide changes. Your observations of tides are probably as accurate as the scientists’. High tides and low tides are produced by the daily rise and fall of the ocean. We sometimes incorrectly call tsunamis tidal waves. True tidal waves occur as the ocean moves with the gravitational pull of the moon, Earth, and sun. As the tide moves in and out, a rise and fall in sea level can be seen along shores. These daily tides can stretch for thousands of miles across Earth’s surface.
You can easily see the change caused by tidal waves along rivers near the coast. As the tide forces water in and out of rivers, a rise and fall in the water level occurs. In some cases, the water level can change several feet in just a Global Ocean Currents few hours. An extreme example is in the Bay of Fundy in Canada; this is where the highest tidal waves in the world occur. Here, the water level can rise as much as 50 feet by the tide. That’s a building that is about five stories tall! Watch a video about tides at Science of the Surf: Episode 3 at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=6IyRE9azhwQ&fe ature=relmfu

There are a few currents that occur along the shore that affect people who interact with the ocean.

Longshore Currents
The currents along coasts depend on the shape of the coast and the bottom of the ocean close to the coast. Longshore currents strike the beach at an angle. The front part of the wave hits the shallow water, and then slows down. The rest of the wave bends and moves along the side of the shore. The current created is parallel to the beach. You may have felt this current when swimming near shore and were tugged further along by the ocean. Sandbars are often created where longshore currents occur.

Rip Currents
Rip currents, or rip tides, are another type of coastal current. Rip currents are formed when longshore currents are pulled seaward because of the way the bottom is formed underwater. The water is forced to move through narrow areas. For example, if a sand bar has a puka (channel) in it, the water that washes over the top of the sand bar will rush back out through the puka, forming a rip current. Rip currents can be very dangerous and it is best to study the ocean’s currents from shore before entering.

Upwelling and Downwelling
Forces that move the water in vertical loops, as opposed to horizontal loops, create two kinds of currents, upwelling and downwelling. Upwelling occurs when winds blow offshore (from land to the ocean). The surface water is pushed away from shore. The deeper ocean water rises and replaces the surface water blown into the ocean. The deep water brings all of the nutrients that have been trapped on the ocean floor to the surface. Downwelling is the opposite of upwelling. It happens when the wind blows surface water onshore (from the ocean to land). The surface water near the shore is then pushed down and away from the coast. Upwelling and downwelling coastal currents are important for the marine environment. They help move nutrients around in the water. When there is upwelling, the colder, deeper layers that are rich in nutrients and carbon dioxide move to the surface. At the same time, the warmer surface water that’s filled with oxygen moves down. The exchange of water results in an exchange of nutrients and gases. Upwelling and downwelling help keep marine life alive.

Tide Calendar

Large global currents are water flowing from one part of the ocean to another. Large surface currents of the ocean are the result of the usual yearly wind patterns. Winds close to the equator are normally northeast and southeast trade winds. At the mid latitudes (between the equator and north or south poles), the winds are called westerlies, and closer to the poles, the winds are called polar easterlies. There are seven large ocean currents that flow in large loops. The large ocean flow in the area of Hawai‘i is affected by the North Equatorial Current and the Kuroshio Currents.

Currents in the Open Ocean

© 2011 PREL

Making Connections
In what ways are all waves similar? What are the major differences? Did you have a chance to observe the beaches where you live? Which beach would you surf at? Why? Which beach is best for body surfing? Why? Which beach is great for walking on the wet sand? Capture the waves in photos to share with your class.

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What is a Tsunami?
Tsunamis, unlike waves, currents, or tides, occur when the ocean is disturbed. A tsunami is a series of waves that is generated as a result of a sudden and violent movement of the ocean floor, or shoreline. Earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, can create these sudden movements. When this happens, the displaced water travels as waves from where the disturbance occurred to all directions in the ocean. You can see how this occurs when you drop a pebble in a pan of water. The water radiates outward in all directions from where the pebble is dropped. Tsunami (pronounced soo-NAH-mee) is a Japanese word. The kanji symbol, or character, for the word tsu means “harbor,” and nami means “wave.” When combined, tsunami means “great wave in harbor.”
Japanese characters for the word the word Tsunami

Earthquakes
A tsunami can be generated by an earthquake, landslide, or volcanic eruption. Earthquakes frequently occur at the boundaries of tectonic plates, such as the Pacific Plate. As the boundaries of plates come in contact with one another, the plates could collide, pull apart, or slide past each other, causing great strain on the plate boundaries. When the pressure of the stress is too great, the edge of the plate may dislodge itself and spring back or crack, releasing the built-up energy. This sudden release of energy causes the earthquake. If the earthquake measures a magnitude of 7 or more, tsunami waves could be generated. The waves move outward in all directions from where the earthquake occurred.

Volcanoes
Volcanoes can also generate earthquakes in a number of ways. These earthquakes, in turn, could generate tsunamis. Most of the volcanic earthquakes are not large in magnitude. Volcanic earthquakes could occur when: • • • • a caldera collapses as magma level suddenly drops hot volcano lava flows into the ocean, producing explosions of steam large sections of the volcano slide into the ocean coastal deltas that are formed by volcanic eruptions become unstable and slide into the ocean

Volcanic earthquakes are usually small; however, if an earthquake measures a magnitude of 6 or more, the ocean floor or coastal land could also shift, which could then generate a tsunami. (See Forces that Shape and Reshape the Earth, Earthquakes! and Volcanoes! for information about earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes.)

Landslides
Landslides occur on land or underwater. Landslides are caused when the slopes of mountains or volcanoes become too steep and unstable. With rain, earthquake, or just the added weight of the unstable part of the land, a portion could slide into the ocean. A large landslide could displace water and generate a tsunami. A landslide could also occur below the ocean surface. Deltas formed by rivers or volcanoes may become unstable and also suddenly drop. The sudden shift in the underwater landslide could displace water and generate a tsunami. Watch a simulation of an earthquake at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Xebwzb3dDE&feature=related
Landslides (sections of the island slipping into the ocean) could generate a tsunami.

In Hawaiian, two words are used to describe tsunamis. Kai e‘e means “tsunami wave.” Kai mimiki means “withdrawal of water.” When combined, Kai mimiki refers to the withdrawal of water before the Kai e‘e, or tsunami wave, sweeps in.

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© 2011 PREL

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Volcanic eruptions could generate a tsunami.

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A Wave is Generated
As a disturbance occurs to the ocean floor or coastal area, a tsunami wave could be generated. A tsunami travels outward from the origin of a disturbance. Because tsunamis have such long wavelength, the distance from one wave crest to the next is many times the depth of the water. The energy of the wave, unlike surface waves, extends to the bottom of the ocean. This means the energy of the whole wall of water, from its crest to the bottom of the ocean, advances forward. The series of tsunami waves form what scientists call a tsunami wave train. The behavior of a tsunami wave is determined by the ocean depth, the tide, and the shape of the coastline it approaches.

Approaching the Coastal Areas
In the open ocean, the height of the wave may not be noticeable (1 to 3 feet). However, as the waves approach land, the shape of the sea floor determines the behavior of the wave and the wave height. Tsunamis are large in harbors, or bays, or any area where the water flows through a channel of water. TsuTsunamis become larger in bays (Hilo Bay, Hawai‘i Island) nami waves also wrap around islands; therefore, in Hawai‘i, all shores are affected by a tsunami. Tsunamis are smaller on smaller islands that have ocean floors that drop into deep water. The waves do not build in deeper water. Tsunamis are less severe along reef-protected shorelines. The reef reduces the energy of the tsunami, and lessens the impact of the wave.

Seismic waves are generated

Velocity (Speed) of a Tsunami Wave
The deeper the ocean, the faster the tsunami travels. Tsunami waves could travel as fast as 300 to 600 miles per hour in oceans that are 20,000 feet deep. This is as fast as an airplane travels. The Pacific Ocean is considered a deep ocean—about 12,000 feet deep—so tsunami waves could travel rapidly across the Pacific. A tsunami generated along the edge of the Pacific plate could travel across the Pacific Ocean and reach Hawai‘i in 5 hours. A tsunami wave, however, slows down to tens of miles per hour as it reaches the shoreline.

Wave Features
Depth of water affected Speed (Deep Ocean) Wave length (distance between one crest and the next) Wave period (the time it takes for two crests to pass the same point)

Wind Wave
Less than 500 feet 20 to 50 miles per hour 120 to 1300 feet

Tsunami
From the crest to the sea floor 300 to 500 miles per hour 12 to 180 miles

Wave Period
The wave period of a tsunami ranges from a few minutes to an hour or more.

Height of Wave
A tsunami that is 3 feet high in the deep ocean could increase in height to 30 feet at the shoreline.

5 to 25 seconds

A few minutes to an hour

© 2011 PREL

Wave Size (Deep Ocean)
A tsunami wave changes its shape in shallow water near the shore.

1 to 20 feet

A few inches to 10 feet
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Signs of a Tsunami
The first signs of a tsunami along a shoreline depend on which part of a wave length reaches shore first. The first sign may either be: 1) water receding from the shore, or 2) ocean rising in its water level. The first wave is usually not the largest.

Tsunami Bore
During the 1946 tsunami, a bore of 6 to 8 feet was seen traveling up the Wailuku River. The third wave of the 1960 Chile tsunami developed into a bore as it entered the bay. The bore rose 35 feet above sea level. What is a bore? It is described as a traveling wave with a vertical front or wall of water. It is formed when a tsunami wave enters a river channel, and travBore waves advancing up Wailuku River, Hawai‘i Island, 1946 els upstream. As a wave moves into shallow water, it travels more slowly than the wave behind it. The waves in the back then catch up with the front wave. Since the wavelength decreases but the height does not, the waves become steeper, forming a bore.

Typical Tsunami Waves
As the waves approach shore, the speed of the waves decreases, but the height of each wave increases. The leading tsunami wave slows as it approaches shore. The trailing part of the wave maintains its fast speed. As a result, the energy of the tsunami builds, and the wave height increases. Typically, a tsunami looks like a giant river of water that floods the shore. Tsunamis can generate other wave phenomena, called seiche and bores.

Water receding in front of Coconut Island, 1946

Intensity of a Tsunami
The intensity of a tsunami, like the intensity of an earthquake, is measured by its effect on the people and the structures. Once the tsunami waves surge onshore, the energy of the water has the potential of destroying buildings, and even whole communities.

Waves advancing up Wailuku River, Hawai‘i Island, 1946

Waves towering over the trees on Coconut Island, 1946

Seiche

Have you ever carried a pan of water from one location to another and noticed that with a sudden movement, the water started to slosh back and forth until it spilled over the sides of the pan? Or have you ever sat in a bathtub of water and rocked back and forth to create waves? If you continue, the waves will get larger until the water overflows. The movement of the water is called a seiche (pronounced sigh-shh). Tsunamis can generate seiches. During the 1946 tsunami, the tsunami’s wave period, or interval between the waves, was 15 minutes. The natural wave period, or interval between waves, of Hilo Bay is about half an hour. So every second wave was in motion with the wave in Hilo Bay, creating a seiche reaching a height of 45 feet. The word seiche was invented by the Swiss seismologist, F.A. Forel, in 1890. It was originally used in Switzerland to describe the oscillations, or swaying motions, that occurred in the alpine lakes. See a simulation of a seiche at: http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/ waves/swf/wave_seiche.html
Background image: Coconut Island, 2011, Hawai‘i Island

Simulation of a Tsunami
Computer simulations show a tsunami from its generation to its impact as it reaches land. The simulation is based on the December 26, 2004 tsunami of the Indian Ocean (WGBH Educational Foundation, 2011). Watch Anatomy of a Tsunami at: www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ earth/anatomy-tsunami.html
Seiche waves in Hilo Bay

© 2011 PREL

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Tsunamis can be generated elsewhere, such as from across the Pacific, or can even be generated here in Hawai‘i.
Hawai‘i is located in the center of the “ring of fire” that extends along the boundary of the Pacific Plate. More than 80% of the world’s largest earthquakes occur along this outer edge of the Pacific Plate. Hawai‘i has experienced several tsunamis that were generated by earthquakes along this rim. The 1946 and 1960 tsunamis were two of the largest that Hawai‘i has experienced. On the south shore, workmen described the ocean as they watched in disbelief to find that “… there was no water in the bay. Water started to flow back into the bay. When it reached the shore, it did not stop, but kept on flowing up the valley, snapping off tree branches as it rose higher and higher.” (Dudley and Lee, 1998, p. 5) Seventeen lives were lost on Kaua‘i.

O‘ahu
A 35-foot wave was recorded at Makapu‘u Point. Six lives were lost on O‘ahu.

Maui
Maui recorded 33 feet waves at Kahakuloa. “We lived about 200 feet from the beach, and on April 1, 1946, we were getting ready for school. My brother heard someone shout, ‘Tidal Wave,’ so we all ran down to the beach and stood there for 15 minutes. We saw the ship in the harbor sink down and lean against the wharf. There was no water in the bay. We weren’t scared at first. We watched as the water built up and when it started coming, we were frightened and ran.” (1946 Kahalui, Maui, by Anita Bissen Rodden, Courtesy of the Pacific Tsunami Museum.) Fourteen lives were lost on Maui, ten in the village of Hāmoa, on Maui’s east coast.

April 1, 1946
On April 1, 1946, seismographs at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kīlauea and the University of Hawai‘i campus on O‘ahu recorded the Aleutian earthquake, 2,300 miles away. This earthquake generated a tsunami that surged more than 100 feet onto Scotch Cape, Unimak Island, Alaska, only 48 minutes after the earthquake. At the same time, tsunami waves were spreading across the Pacific. It would take 5 hours to reach the Hawaiian Islands. The first wave reached the island of Kaua‘i at 5:55 a.m., O‘ahu at 6:30 a.m., and Hawai‘i Island at 7 a.m.

Kaua‘i
h i Thinunami storer people? Wami? ts d t It bous have you rea do t kA a e
On the island of Kaua‘i, waves pounded Haena and swept 500 yards inland. “It was an ordinary morning on April 1, 1946, when suddenly, the ocean went dry, as if somebody pulled a plug and sucked the water away. The fish were flopping around in the wet sand. Everyone raced to the fish except Linda Sproat’s father. He yelled, ‘Tidal Wave’ from the bottom of his lungs, but everyone thought it was another April Fool’s prank.” (From “The Tsunami That Wiped Out Kalihiwai,” Linda Sproat. Courtesy of the Pacific Tsunami Museum)

© 2011 PREL

What d from oth ut the tsun ? r o ld or hea ember ab es often to hat m i e W stor they r them? these y are e learn from ries raise Wh do w e sto What ns do thes io quest unamis? t ts abou

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Hawai‘i Island felt the intensity of the tsunami in several communities. In Laupāhoehoe, unaware of the potential danger of a tsunami, students watched the tsunami as it approached their school. “How come the water was so high when I was on top of the Pali coming down, and now when I was by the ocean, it was so low? Lots of other kids were there, most of them older than me. As we all stood there and watched the ocean, the tide started going out again. It would go way out and then come back in, cutting all the bushes along the shore. We all thought it was fun seeing the ocean doing Laupāhoehoe such strange things. But then I was beginning to get scared. Then one wave took the boat house and went way out, beyond the rocks. I got really scared and I turned and I ran. I ran past the grandstand, through center field and up the steps to the school, and I never looked back until I heard a crashing sound and turned to see the wave taking the teachers’ cottages. I kept on running. Later we returned to the top of the point road to watch the rescuers and that was when I found out that those I had been with had died.” (Laupahoehoe-1946 Robert Ferguson, Courtesy of the Pacific Tsunami Antone Aguiar freeing the Brigham Museum)
Victory from the pier

George Wong, living in Virginia, recognized Running from the wave (in background) during the 1946 tsunami, Hilo, Hawai‘i his photo as he watched a 2002 TV tsunami documentary on the 1946 Hawai‘i tsunami. He tells this story. George was just 15 then. He came from Honolulu to live with his uncle who owned the Kwong See Wo Store on Kamehameha Avenue, in Hilo. Every morning he would help his uncle open the store before going to school. As usual, he came to open the store on April 1, 1946. When he and his uncle entered the store, it had been flooded. Unaware that the flood was the first wave of the tsunami, George’s uncle told him to head on to school. As he exited the back door of the store, he headed down Ponahawai Street. That is when he heard someone shout, “Wave!” He looked back and saw a large wave coming in over Hilo Bay. George’s swift reaction saved him. He turned and ran. He nearly knocked over the photographer as he yelled at him to get out of the way. (From “Who’s the Boy in the Picture?” Courtesy of the Pacific Tsunami Museum) Setsuyuki Yamada was a seventh-grade student at Hilo Intermediate School and was on his way to school aboard a sampan bus. They had just passed Hilo Iron Works as the whistle blew at the seven o’clock starting time. They were going on Kamehameha Avenue when all of a sudden the driver stopped and jumped out and ran. Setsuyuki and his friends looked out to see water higher than the land. He thought the island was sinking. (From “Kamehameha Avenue-Setsuyuki Yamada,” Courtesy of the Pacific Tsunami Museum. Damage on Kamehameha Avenue

Twenty four (sixteen school children) lost their lives. In Hilo, “…he saw the bay empty, the sea floor exposed, the water piled up on the ocean side of the breakwater. Then the wave overwhelmed the breakwater and rushed towards the land. When it hit the shoreline Albert saw that the water reached halfway up the coconut trees.” (Dudley and Lee, 1998, p. 20) “Coconut Island was inundated. Kwong See Wo, where George Wong All at once, he helped his uncle on the morning of the tsunami realized that the latest wave had built to an enormous height and presented a terrifying appearance. As it crashed onto the breakwater, boulders the size of automobiles were flung into the air.” (Dudley and Lee, 1998, p. 27) Ninety six people in Hilo lost their lives.

Damage on Kamehameha Avenue, 1960

Craig Hirashima was nine years old in 1946 and lived in Shinmachi near the Iron Works. He heard the train coming as he was getting ready for school. Someone yelled, “tidal wave,” but he thought it was an April fool’s joke. When the water came in, he clung to a post but got washed out to sea and found himself on a rooftop. He got washed all the way to Pepeekeo and then washed back again into the Wailoa River where Red Cross workers rescued him.” The tsunami took 159 lives in Hawai‘i and caused $26 million in damages.

Inundation of Coconut Island
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April 1, 1946

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An 8.6 magnitude earthquake in the Aleutian Islands generated a destructive Pacific-wide tsunami in the 20th century.

1949

Pacific Tsunami Warning Center was established to help warn people ahead of time of possible tsunamis. (Dr. Gerard Fryer at PTWC)

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1960

Tsunami wave generated from Chile Earthquake, 1960

The 1960 tsunami was caused by the largest earthquake ever measured. A 9.5 magnitude quake occurred along the coast of Chile on May 22, 1960. The earthquake occurred where the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate converge, or move toward each other. The Nazca Plate descends, or slides under, the South American Plate, slowly bending and dragging the South American Plate’s edge under and creating a bulge behind its edge. This happens slowly over decades or centuries.

At 12:46 a.m., the second wave of 9-foot flooded the street along the Hilo Bay area. By 1:01 a.m. “…all could hear the loudening roar as it came closer through the night. At 1:04 a.m., the 20-foot high nearly vertical front of the in-rushing bore churned past our lookout...” (Dudley and Lee, 1998, p. 148) The 1960 tsunami disaster caused damages that were estimated at $50 million. Sixty one people lost their lives.

When plates push against each other, pressure builds, until eventually the leading edge of the South American Plate breaks free and springs upward. This raises the sea floor and the water above it, creating the tsunami. At the same time, the bulge behind the leading edge collapses, causing the coastline to fall. This earthquake and ground movement caused part of the water to rush over the coastal area of Chile to as high as 50 feet. The other part of the tsunami traveled toward the open Pacific Ocean toward Hawai‘i and the other coasts surrounding the Pacific. A tsunami warning was issued at 6:47 p.m. by Large boulder from the breakwater in the the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, and at 8:30 middle of Kamehameha Avenue, Hilo, Hawai‘i p.m., sirens were sounded. At 12:30 a.m., after traveling 6,600 miles from Chile, the first wave of about 4 feet arrived in Hilo. That means the waves were traveling about 442 miles per hour across the Pacific. “When Kay was about 10 years old, and in the 5th grade, the siren went off. The whole family, Kay, her parents, and two sisters crowded in the upstairs room and huddled together. The ocean seemed to come alive as it curled into a fist-like creature. Out on the horizon, it seemed like a tiny thing, but it rolled in quickly. …their house was lifted and floating out towards the bay, while hearing the screams and cries of people being carried away. The house seemed as if it would float out to sea, it didn’t because it got wedged between two mango trees.”
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Measurements of water levels beneath the Wailuku River Bridge during the 1960 Chile earthquake tsunami

1952, 1957, and 1964
Other Hawai‘i tsunamis that were generated from other sites in the Pacific occurred in 1952, 1957, and 1964. The largest recorded earthquake in the United States was a magnitude 9.2 that struck Prince William Sound, Alaska, on Good Friday, March 28, 1964. Although it was the largest earthquake, the intensity of the tsunami waves that affected Hawai‘i was small. This earthquake took place in the Gulf of Alaska. As a result, the angle of the waves generated was directed toward Alaska, the coasts of Canada, and the west coast of the United States. Hawai‘i reported minor waves and damages.

Making Connections
What did you learn about tsunamis from these stories? How do you think human lives have been reshaped by these stories? What connections can you make between these stories and how tsunamis have shaped and reshaped the land?

Aerial view of Hilo Bay front after the 1960 tsunami

November 4, 1952

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November 4, 1952: An 8.2 magnitude earthquake occurred off the coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, located in the far east of Russia. Minor damages were reported in Hawai‘i.

May 22, 1960

May 22, 1960: A 9.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at South Central Chile. This was the largest earthquake of the 20th century! 22

We usually think that tsunamis are generated elsewhere, like the 1946 tsunami, which was the result of an earthquake in the Aleutian islands, and the 1960 tsunami, which was the result of an earthquake in Chile. Tsunamis that originate in Hawai‘i have the potential of being destructive because of their immediate impact.

Tsunamis Generated by Earthquakes in Hawai‘i April 2, 1868
In Hawai‘i, the island of Hawai‘i records large numbers of earthquakes. Most of the quakes are small, some not even felt. However, a large earthquake shook the island on April 2, 1868. The quake, which happened before earthquakes were measured, was later estimated to be 7.25 to 7.75 in magnitude. Its epicenter was located in Ka‘u, the southeast coast of Hawai‘i Island. The earthquake caused a large landslide. A large part of the slopes of Mauna Loa, about 5 miles above Pāhala, slid seaward. A 2 ½ mile area covered with lava slid from 3,500 feet down to 1,620 feet. “…slight jars were felt almost constantly for a few minutes after which the earth commenced rocking again fearfully. This continued but a short time and was followed by a tidal wave.” (Sarah Lyman’s Earthquake Journal p. 13) “All over Ka‘u and Hilo, the earth was rent in a thousand places, opening cracks and fissures from an inch to many feet in width, throwing over stone walls, prostrating trees, breaking down banks and precipices, demolishing nearly all stone churches and dwellings…” (Dudley and Lee, 1998, p. 222) The earthquake also generated a tsunami that destroyed the villages of Punalu‘u, Nīnole, Kawa‘a, Honu‘apo, and Keauhou Landing. Keauhou Landing is the site of the current Kona airport. “Immediately after the earthquake, men working at Keauhou reported, “the sea rolled in over the tops of the coconut trees, probably sixty feet high, and drove the floating rubbish, timber, and so forth, inland a distance of a quarter mile taking out to sea when it returned, houses, men, women, and almost everything movable.” (Dudley and Lee, 1998, p. 223) It is estimated that the waves rose 45 feet at Keauhou Landing and 9 feet at Hilo. This tsunami took 46 lives in Hawai‘i.
Keauhou Landing
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Mauna Loa

Earthquakes , volcanoes, and landslid also occur in es Hawai‘i. Hav e tsunamis been generat ed from distu rbances that occur in Haw ai‘i? How are these tsunamis different from those g enerated in distant parts of the Pacific Ocean?

Think Abo

ut It

March 29, 1964

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March 29, 1964: A 9.2 magnitude earthquake occurred at Prince William Sound, Alaska. By the time it hit Hawai‘i, tsunami waves were fairly small with 12.5 feet at Hilo, 11 feet at Kahului, and 1 foot on Kaua‘i.

November 29, 1975

November 29, 1975: Local earthquakes off the coast of Hawai‘i Island were some of the largest since 1868. It is also known as the Kalapana Earth24 quake of 1975.

island at 3:36 a.m. The 5.7 magnitude earthquake occurred below the south flank of Kīlauea, about 3 miles north of Kamoamoa. About an hour later, a second earthquake which measured a 7.5 magnitude was described as “a terrible shaking and shuddering.” (Dudley and Lee, 1998, p. 227) The 1975 earthquake is well-known in reports about quakes in Hawai‘i. Survivors have told their stories about the disaster that took place during the Thanksgiving weekend. It was a weekend camping trip for several groups at a remote campsite, Halapē, only accessible by foot or on horseback. The campsite lay below a 1,000-foot cliff, Pu‘ukapukapu (Forbidden Hill). Hikers, fishermen, the Sierra Club, and Boy Scout Troop 77, made their camp at Halapē for the weekend. The earthquake was caused by the sudden movement of the sea floor. The ground along the seashore subsided, or dropped, about 10 feet. This ground movement also caused the tsunami that followed. The tsunami radiated, or traveled in all directions, from the area. The south shore area of Punalu‘u was swept by the second wave within 10 minutes. The tsunami damaged park facilities as far south as Ka‘alu‘alu Bay. The wave also wrapped around to Hilo within 20 minutes. At 5:30 a.m., the largest wave of 8 feet surged up the Wailuku River in Hilo. Traveling 350 miles per hour, the tsunami reached Honolulu within 30 minutes, Los Angeles in 6 hours and 45 minutes, and Japan in 8 hours. Heights of the tsunami in these places ranged between 1 to 2 feet. On the island of Hawai‘i, however, wave heights of 47 feet (Keauhou Landing), 26 feet (Halapē), 25 feet (Punalu‘u), and 8 feet (Wailuku River in Hilo) were recorded. Damage

On November 29, 1975, another earthquake in the same area shook the

Geologists study the sheer cliffs of the islands. Examples include the Nā Pali coast on Kaua‘i, Nu‘ūanu Pali on O‘ahu, and Waipi‘o and Waimanu on Hawai‘i Island. As scientists use new under-sea mapping tools to study the sea floor, they have discovered mateA sudden drop of a lava delta could generate a tsunami rial deposited on the ocean floor were not only deposits of erosion from the islands, but layers of volcanic material. They think that the material may be the parts of the cliffs that subsided, or dropped, leaving the sheer coastlines seen today. On Hawai‘i Island, the sheer cliff at Kealekekua Bay may have been the result of volcanic material sliding off the west flank of Mauna Loa. The material covers an area 35 miles wide by 50 miles long and is at least 250 feet thick in the sea. Geologists think that this slide, known as the ‘Ālika slide, may have generated a large tsunami. Currently, the Hilina slump, or chunk, of the Kīlauea volcano is moving in a southerly direction about 4 inches per year. As the slump continues to move, landslides like the 1868 and 1975 slides could occur. Scientists say the movements and slides on the flanks, or sides, of the volcanoes could be a hazard to the safety of people, but are part of a volcano’s growth process.

Halapē before the earthquake and tsunami, 1975

Do Hawai‘i Volcanoes Cause Tsunamis?
A couple of Hawai‘i-generated tsunamis may have been indirectly related to volcanic activity. In 1919, in Hilo, water receding and rushing in at “14 feet higher than the high water mark” were reported. However, no earthquakes were reported or recorded at the Hawaiian Volcanoes Observatory that could have caused the tsunami. One explanation that scientists provided was that, at the time, the Mauna Loa eruption flow sent large amounts of lava into the sea. Scientists think that as the lava built the delta in the sea, the front end of the delta collapsed, causing a tsunami. The past Hawai‘i-generated tsunamis were related to earthquakes and volcanic landslides. Scientists explain that Hawai‘i’s current volcano eruptions are mild and not explosive, making it unlikely that a tsunami will be generated by a volcanic explosion. Tsunamis that are generated in Hawai‘i, such as those of 1868 and 1975, could be the most hazardous. The time between the disturbance such as an earthquake and the arrival of the first wave may be too short to warn people. In 1975, the first wave reached Punalu’u immediately after the earthquake; it arrived at Hilo in 20 minutes. Any earthquake strong enough to cause difficulty in standing or walking should be taken as a tsunami warning. People in coastal areas should immediately head for higher ground.

Halapē after the earthquake and tsunami, 1975

on Hawai‘i Island was estimated at $4 million. The lives of two people were taken at Halapē.

Tsunamis Generated by Landslides in Hawai‘i
The 1868 and 1975 tsunamis were caused by a combination of the earthquakes and landslides that originated on Hawai‘i Island. Geologists who study the rate at which the islands subside, or drop, have made discoveries suggesting that landslides on the islands in the past may have also caused large tsunamis.
© 2011 PREL

Making Connections
Kīlauea Volcano’s slow movement to the south

What are the dangers of Hawai‘i-generated tsunamis? Do these dangers apply only to people who live near the coastlines? How do these affect everyone?
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Hawai‘i is surrounded by the ocean. Even if our homes, work, or schools are not located near the shoreline, everyone has some connection with the ocean. Many watch the water for the perfect surfing waves, others enjoy fishing, collecting shells, sunbathing, swimming, or picnicking. So no matter where you live in Hawai‘i, you need to know what to do when there is a threat of a tsunami.

Be Aware, Share What You Know

Tsunami Warning Systems

Why is it necessary to have an official tsunami warning system that includes all nations? Do you know how the warning system works and, more importantly, do you know what the different tsunami warnings mean? The Tsunami Warning System (TWS) is the official tsunami warning system made up of 16 nations across the Pacific area. Hawai‘i serves as the operational center for the Tsunami Warning System (TWS) at the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS). The center is located at ‘Ewa Beach on the island of O‘ahu.

Levels of Bulletins

Information: A message about an earthquake. The earthquake is not expected to generate a tsunami.

Advisory: An

earthquake has occurred in the Pacific area and a tsunami is expected, but it will not be large enough to require an evacuation. The tsunami, however, is expected to produce strong enough currents to make the shoreline dangerous. Stay off the beach and out of the water.

Tsunami Warning System

Reminders of the force of a tsunami wave

Facts You Should Know!
• All low-lying coastal areas can be struck by tsunamis. Waves can easily wrap around islands, even strike shores that are not facing the oncoming tsunami. • Tsunamis are most often caused by earthquakes. Earthquakes may occur far away as Alaska or Japan, or anywhere along the
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Pacific Plate boundaries. Earthquakes may also occur in the Hawaiian Islands. Tsunamis that are generated by earthquakes far away may take hours to reach Hawai‘i’s shores, whereas earthquakes that occur in Hawai‘i could generate waves that arrive onshore within minutes. • Tsunamis move faster than a person can run. • Tsunamis can occur anytime, day or night. • Tsunamis are made up of a series of waves that may arrive anywhere from a few minutes to an hour. The danger from the tsunami may last several hours after the arrival of the first wave. The first wave is usually not the largest wave.

• Do not surf tsunami waves. The waves do not curl and break like surfing waves. Furthermore, tsunami waves are full of debris. • The first sign of a tsunami may be a wave but sometimes the first sign is the water receding, or moving back or away from shore, exposing the ocean floor. This is a warning sign that tsunami waves will follow. • The force of tsunami waves can move houses, boats, and large rocks weighing tons several hundreds of feet inland. • If an earthquake is felt in an area, move to higher grounds.

Watch: A tsunami may
have been generated. The expected arrival time is at least three hours.

Warning: A tsu-

nami may have been generated. The tsunami could cause damage. People are advised to evacuate.

Tsunami inundation area sign

View from the top of the inundation area to Hilo Bay, Hawai‘i, 2011

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Warning System at Work
When a major earthquake occurs, seismographs all over the world record the size and location of the epicenter of the quake within minutes. Seismic alarms are triggered when an earthquake 6.5 or greater occurs. The information about the quake is sent to computers at PTWS where the data about the quake is interpreted.

Tsunami Warnings in the Pacific Region
The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) automatically issues a Tsunami Watch for an earthquake magnitude 7.0 with an epicenter located close to the ocean. The radio and television stations announce a Tsunami Watch. During a watch, however, the sirens aren’t activated. Tide gauging stations that record the rise and fall of tides in the area of the earthquake are usually the first places where unusual wave activity is recorded. The stations quickly detect the tsunami and transmit the data to PTWC. If the stations report no changes in their recordings, the Tsunami Watch is cancelled. It they do report a tsunami threat, the Tsunami Watch warning is upgraded to a Tsunami Warning.

3.

Satellite receives signal

Sirens

The Civil Defense warning system is a set of siren soundings. Three-minute steady siren tone signals are sounded three, two, one, and a half hour before the arrival of the first wave. (Dudley and Lee, 1998, p. 177) The speed of the tsunami waves is determined by many factors, such as the depth of the ocean, the magnitude of the earthquake, or the origin of the tsunami. One of the most important factors is the depth of the water through which the wave passes. Scientists have charted the depths of the Pacific Ocean, so they are able to accurately calculate the time for a tsunami arrival.

What happens during a Tsunami Warning?
State and County Civil Defense, police departments, and the American Red Cross are notified. The Hawai‘i State Emergency Broadcast System announces the warning on all radio and television stations. State and County Civil Defense agencies implement plans to evacuate tsunami inundation areas and the tsunami sirens sound. Warnings of tsunamis generated from distant places can be monitored; however, there is little time to prepare for tsunamis that are generated by local landslides and earthquakes, such as those that occurred on the island of Hawai‘i in 1868 and 1975. An automatic Tsunami Warning is generated in these instances.

4.

Early warning system receives signals within 15 minutes of an earthquake

Other Warning Systems 1. 2.
Ocean floor sensor measures wave pressure Buoy receives pressure measurement

Moloka‘i-Hālawa Valley The Warning System “…if they were in the valley and there was a tsunami watch, the ranch hands would park on the hill, put on their headlights, honk their horns, and shoot off their guns to warn the campers in Halawa Valley.” (Pacific Tsunami Museum) “They were also told that the other warning was the menehunes who would come down the switch back trail, so if you ever looked up and saw them, they were coming down to 30 warn the campers.”

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If you are in a tsunami evacuation area and feel a strong earthquake, what should you do once the earthquake stops?
Evacuate the area immediately. If a tsunami is generated from an earthquake that occurs in Hawai‘i, there may not be time for a warning.

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Why do Tsunami Warning Centers rely upon seismic data?

Seismic waves generated by earthquakes travel about 100 times faster than tsunami waves. This means that the center can detect and study the earthquake much more quickly than the tsunami wave.

© 2011 PREL

Where do most tsunamis occur?

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The largest recorded earthquake in the world was a magnitude 9.5 in Chile on May 22, 1960. This earthquake generated the disastrous tsunami that affected Hawai‘i.

What was the biggest earthquake ever recorded?

Most of the past tsunamis have occurred in the Pacific Ocean. 59% in the Pacific Ocean 25% in the Mediterranean Sea 12% in the Atlantic Ocean 4% in the Indian Ocean

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What natural warning signs of a tsunami did people depend on before warning systems were invented?

1. Severe ground shaking from local earthquakes, like the descriptions of the 1868 earthquake. 2. As the tsunami waves approach the shore, water may recede from the shoreline. This is when the ocean floor, or reef area can be seen. 3. Unusual ocean phenomena such as a high wall of water approaching the shoreline may be a tsunami wave. 4. Stories from survivors remember hearing loud “roaring” sounds similar to that of a train. Survivors knew these signs and ran to higher ground.

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Linking the Past, Present, and Future

Q: Have you experienced a tsunami? Can you describe your experience? A: Since the 1970s I have lived near the water and experienced many evacuations from earthquakes far away, which did not materialize into tsunamis. In 1975, though, I did experience a tsunami but it was a locally generated one. A 7.2 earthquake off Hawai‘i Island at a place called Halapē generated a tsunami that reached Hilo Bay in 20 minutes. Immediately after the extreme shaking had stopped my husband and I argued about the need to get away from the water. I had just taken a science class and had learned about locally generated waves. When I finally convinced him that we had to go, the water across the street had already risen several feet and was being observed by our neighbor who was a university geography professor. We did drive away though and made mistake number two; we drove along the shoreline road. I learned two valuable lessons that morning. First, be ready to evacuate quickly and get away from the water. I still live near the water and sleep with my flashlight, slippers, and purse near my bed, and hope that I am ready to evacuate quickly away from the water once I survive the earthquake.

Donna W. Saiki has been inspired by many tsunami stories. During the past 13 years, she has been linking these stories of the past with what we now know about tsunamis to help inform the community before the next big wave. Donna has a special connection with a good part of the population of the city of Hilo. She has served as principal of four schools in Hilo for more than twenty-nine years. She has been part of the lives of many Hilo families over the span of several generations.

Q: What advice would you leave for children to remember? A: “Education saves lives. Share what you have learned.” On September 29, 2009, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake struck 120 miles south of Apia, Samoa. A powerful tsunami was generated, which came ashore just as the population was starting the day. Children in American Samoa had recently completed a tsunami education program and knew what to do. They informed others around them and ran for high ground. The tsunami caused 34 deaths in American Samoa. The children knew what to do and shared their knowledge. Lives Tsunami stories were saved. An extraordinary story was told to me by an elderly Hawaiian woman in Waipio Valley. “In 1946 the tsunami sent 40 foot waves up Waipio Valley and yet, none of the people who lived there lost their life. When I asked an elderly Hawaiian woman why they all survived, she said they heard the singing rocks and made it to safety.”

Ask Donna Saiki:
Q: What inspired you to become the director of the Pacific Tsunami Museum? A: At first, it wasn’t the inspiration, it was simply a reaction to a need. In 1998 I had been retired for a year from my job as principal at Hilo High School and volunteered to help the museum director with membership. When she suddenly relocated to the mainland, I was transformed from volunteer to that of Volunteer Executive Director. Over the years I have been fortunate. Under the mentorship of Dr. Walter Dudley, I learned on the job. What has inspired me over the years is the spirit of Hiloans who have shared their tsunami experiences and helped me understand that indomitable faith they have in themselves and in their community. Q: Can you tell us a story of the most extraordinary, or unusual, tsunami occurrence you have experienced in Hawai‘i? A: There are so many stories of fate but one that is truly inspiring is that of Mrs. Ito. In 1946 she ran from the wave as it swept up the Wailoa River. Determined to be safe, she built herself a home in what she thought was a safe zone. In 1960, her friends gathered at her safe home and at 1:05 a.m. the tsunami wave came in and swept away her house. Her friends died and she got swept nine miles out to sea clinging to a screen door. Miraculously the next morning she was spotted by a plane and was rescued by the Coast Guard. She lived into her nineties and was a favorite Pacific Tsunami Museum docent who shared her story with people from all over the world, many of whom kept in touch with her. Q: What are some current myths (misunderstandings) about tsunamis in Hawai‘i?
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A: Tsunamis are not surfing waves. They have no face, yet you hear many surfers say they want to surf a tsunami wave. What you have is a wall of water and with each subsequent wave, an accumulation of debris. It is like a giant flood that surges in and out. Most people caught in a tsunami do not drown; they die from trauma after being hit by debris in the water.

Tsunami evacuation sign Pacific Tsunami Museum

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Survivor Stories
Learn more about tsunamis by reading stories that survivors have shared with the Pacific Tsunami Museum at: www.tsunami.org/ Read Student Tsunami Essay Winners at: www.tsunami.org/studentstories.html

(Activities and Projects)
Creating Your Own Tsunami Simulations
Materials:
1. Clear Plastic Container (12 inches by 16 inches) 2. Water 3. Scissors 4. Plastic tape (duct tape)

Waves are everywhere. Sometimes we don’t think about what we observe as waves. Did you think that the movements of a Slinky are like waves? Did you participate in a stadium wave creation? Can you recreate wave-like motions with a rope? Did you notice the ripples in the water as the seal splashed in its tank? It is time to observe the familiar waves and encounter the not-so-familiar waves. Create simple drawings or take a photo of your encounters.

Procedure
1. Cut a hole (3-4 inches) in the bottom of the plastic container. 2. Tape plastic wrap on the bottom of the pan opening. 3. Fill the container with water. 4. Simulate a tsunami by tapping on the plastic wrap on the bottom of the pan. 5. Change the strength of the tap. 6. Record what you observe.

Wave Simulator
www.nationalgeographic.com/volvooceanrace/ interactives/waves/index.html Control the wave height, wavelength, and wave period to create different waves. See how each variable will shape the characteristics of the wave.

A Rope Wave
You have played with rope waves before. See if you can create different kinds of waves. 1. Have a partner hold on to one end of a rope that is approximately 5 feet long. 2. Create rope waves by raising and lowering the rope in your hand. 3. Change the speed of the wave. 4. Use snapping motions and observe what happens to the wave. 5. Can you identify the parts of the wave? (Crest, trough, wave length, height of the wave)

Variation
1. Instead of cutting a hole in the bottom of the container, fill the pan with water. 2. Place the plastic container on a table or desktop. 3. With a rubber mallet, tap the different sides of the table (front, side, top). 4. Observe what happens.

Variation
1. Use a Slinky and follow the same procedures. 2. What did you observe?

Neighborhood Waves
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1. Locate wave-like movements and record or take photos of them. 2. Share them with your class.

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Helpful Features and Tools
Information and skills you are expected to know and demonstrate after you complete Waves!
1. Describe how tsunamis shape and reshape the earth. 2. Use the science and grade-level vocabulary words and word-part clues to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words. 3. Use text features and structures (cause and effect, compare and contrast) to help you understand what you read.

disbelief n. a condition of not being able or not willing to believe something The people watched in disbelief as the wave washed boulders from the breakwater onto the highway. disaster n. an event that causes great damage or destruction A tsunami is a disaster that is familiar to people who live in Hilo, Hawai‘i Island. generate v. to cause to happen In Hawai‘i, earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides could generate tsunamis that would surge the coastal areas within a few minutes. hazard n. something that is very dangerous and likely to cause damage It is important to pay attention to hazard warning signs. inundation n. the maximum land area covered by water as a result of a tsunami Coastal inundation areas are outlined in the Tsunami Evacuation Maps. origin n. the point or place from which something comes; source The origin of the earthquake is located 5 miles below the Kīlauea Volcano. originate v. to start or come from Most tsunamis originate from earthquakes occurring at the borders of the plates. potential adj. having the ability to develop; possible A tsunami poses a potential danger to homes on the waterfront. run-up n. rise of the sea above the normal high tide level A tsunami’s run-up varies in different places, depending on the bottom and shape of the coastline. swift adj. moving very quickly The falling tide can cause swift movements of water through a channel. threat n. something or someone likely to cause harm The threat of a tsunami occurs after an earthquake.

tures of the book that help you locate and understand information. This includes the text divisions, organizational tools, graphics, and print features of the book. thor’s text patterns and signal words that explain reasons or causes for an event or phenomenon. A tsunami is a series of waves caused by a sudden and violent movement of the ocean floor, or activity near a coastline.

Helpful Reading Tools Understand Text Features: Be an active reader by understanding text fea-

Understand Cause and Effect Text Structure: Look for the au-

Understand Compare and Contrast Text Structure: Look for text patterns and signal words that explain similarities of and differences between two or more ideas. Although tsunamis are difficult to spot in the open ocean, as waves approach shallow water, the wavelength shortens, and the wave height increases. Word-Part Clues
1. Look for word-part prefix disa. disbelief, discontent, displace 2. Remove the prefix to determine its base. a. belief, content, place 3. Use surrounding words and phrases to determine the meaning of the unknown word. A large landslide that sends chunks of a mountainside or volcano into the ocean could displace water and generate a tsunami. (If chunks of a mountainside or volcano could displace water, it could take the place of water.)

ho‘īoli ka honua kai a Pele kai e‘e kai mimiki ka ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i nāueue ‘ō‘ō pahūpahū pāoa puka

disturbance the land, earth, world Pele’s sea swelling sea swirling sea the Hawaiian language to cause to sway back and forth digging stick or implement to stamp with force rod used by Pele to test the soil hole, opening 38

Science Words
intensity n. strength or power of something The intensity of an earthquake is measured by the amount of damage to property, such as buildings and surroundings of an area. surge n. the rolling swell of the sea The surge crashed against the rocky shore, creating a spray of salt water that splashed the onlookers. surge i.v. to rise, move, or swell forward, like a wave Waves of over 20 feet are expected as the ocean surges after an earthquake.
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tsunami n. a very large, often destructive sea wave, or a series of waves, caused by an earthquake, landslide, volcano, or meteorite and extends from the surface to the ocean floor An 8.9 magnitude earthquake triggered a tsunami alert throughout the Hawaiian islands.

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Introduction U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). This Dynamic Earth. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html#anchor19309449 Legendary Connections Forbes, Rev. A. O. Sacred Texts. (2011). Pele and the Deluge. Retrieved July 29, 2011, from www.sacred-texts.com/pac/hft/hft06.htm Pukui, Mary Kawena. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. Understanding Waves About.com. (n.d.). Waves Ocean Waves. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/waves.htm Brander, Dr. Rob. (n.d.). Science of the Surf: Episodes 1,2,3. Retrieved August 26, 2011, from www.youtube.com/watch?v=6IyRE9azhwQ&feature=relmfu www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXuQC1qRuEM&feature=relmfu www.youtube.com/watch?v=6IyRE9azhwQ&feature=relmfu Earthguide. (2006). Waves – Wind waves. Retrieved August 9, 2011, from http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/waves/swf/wave_wind.html Enchanted Learning. (2011). All about Oceans and Seas. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ocean/Waves.shtml HowStuffWorks, Inc. (2011). How Ocean Currents Work. Retrieved December 28, 2010, from. http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/oceanography/ocean-current1.htm Macdonald, Gordon A., Abbott, Agatin T., Peterson, Frank L. (1983). Volcanoes in the Sea, The Geology of Hawai‘i. Second Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. Office of Naval Research. (n.d.). Science and Technology Focus. Ocean in Motion: Waves – Characteristics. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/motion/waves1.htm Sacred Texts. (2010). Era of Overturning. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from www.sacred-texts.com/pac/hm/hm24.htm Tsunami Scientific Web. (2005). Word Origins. Retrieved February 11, 2011, from http://individual.utoronto.ca/fkrauss/tsunami/word.html University of Hawai‘i. (2011). Pacific Disaster Center. Natural Hazards. High Surf. Retrieved August 9, 2011, from www.pdc.org/iweb/high_surf.jsp?subg=1 University of Texas Marine Science Institute. (2009). Science and the Sea. Retrieved February 11, 2011, from www.scienceandthesea.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=104&Item id=10 Tsunamis Dudley, Walter C., Lee, Min. (1998). Tsunami! Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. Eaton, J. P., Richter, D. H., & Ault, W. U. S. Geological Survey. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, HI (1961). The tsunami of May 23, 1960, on the Island of Hawai‘i. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from http://bssa.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/51/2/135 Earthguide. (2006). Motion of Water Within a Seiche. Retrieved August 2, 2011, from http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/waves/swf/wave_seiche.html EnchantedLearning.com. (2010). Tsunami. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/tsunami/ Fryer, Gerard, Dr. (n.d.). Reply to Ask-An Earth-Scientist. Retrieved July 23, 2011, from www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/seiche.html International Tsunami Information Center. You Tube. (n.d.). Tsunami. Retrieved August 11, 2011, from www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Xebwzb3dDE&feature=related UNESCO-IOC. (2006). Tsunami Glossary. IOC Information document No. 1221. Paris, UNESCO

WGBH Educational Foundation. (2011). Anatomy of a Tsunami. Retrieved July, 2011, from www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/anatomy-tsunami.html Tsunamis from Across the Pacific Dudley, Walter C. & Lee, Min. (1998). Tsunami! Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. Dudley, Walt & Stone, Scott C. S. The Pacific Tsunami Museum. (2000). The Tsunami of 1946 and 1960 and the Devastation of Hilo Town. Virginia Beach, VA: The Donning Company Publisher. Pacific Tsunami Museum. Survivor Stories Who’s the Boy in the Picture? Laupahoehoe-1946 Robert Ferguson Kamehameha Avenue–Setsuyuki Yamada Craig Hirashima-1946 Shinmachi Terror on the Horizon The Tsunami That Wiped out Kalihiwai – Linda Sproat 1946 Kahalui, Maui by Anita Bissen Rodden U.S. Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.) Surviving a Tsunami-Lessons from Chile, Hawai‘i, and Japan. Compiled by Brian F. Atwater, Marco Cisternas V., Joanne Bourgeois, Walter C. Dudley, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H. Stauffer. Circular 1187. YouTube. (n.d.). Hawai‘i Tsunami Receding Waves. Retrieved August 12, 1022, from www.youtube.com/watch?v=1CDbsxf170Y Hawai‘i-Generated Tsunamis Dudley, Walter C. (1999). Tsunamis in Hawai‘i. Hilo, HI: The Pacific Tsunami Museum. Dudley, Walter C., Lee, Min. (1998). Tsunami! Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. U.S. Geological Survey. (1997). Tsunamis. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hazards/tsunamis.html Timeline Pararas-Carayannis, George. (2000). Catalogue of Tsunamis in Hawaii. Retrieved February 11, 2011, from www.drgeorgepc.com/TsunamiCatalogHawaii.html University of Southern California Tsunami Research Center. (2005). 1964 Alaskan Tsunami. Retrieved February 11, 2011, from www.usc.edu/dept/tsunamis/alaska/1964/webpages/index.html Ka Nūhou King County. (2011). Prepare. Retrieved July 28, 2011, from www.kingcounty.gov/safety/prepare/residents_business/Hazards_Disasters/Tsunamis.aspx TechOcular. (n.d.). An insight into technology. Retrieved August 19, 2011, from http://techocular.wordpress.com/2011/03/11/tsunami-early-warning-system/ UNESCO/IOC-noaa International Tsunami Information Center. (2011). Tsunami Basics. This video presents the basic understandings of tsunamis and how to protect yourself. http://itic.ioc-unesco.org/index. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1755&Itemid=2000&lang=en Factoids US Dept. of Commerce/NOAA/NWS. Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. (2009). Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). Retrieved July 26, 2011, from http://ptwc.weather.gov/ptwc/faq.php#5 Pāhana Nova. (2010). Project Oceanography. Retrieved August 15, 2011 from www.marine.usf.edu/pjocean/packets/sp00/tsunamis.pdf National Geographic. (2002). Wave Simulator. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from www.nationalgeographic.com/volvooceanrace/interactives/waves/index.html Pacific Tsunami Museum. (2011). Retrieved August 14, 2011, from www.tsunami.org/ The Physics Classroom. (2011). The Nature of Waves. Retrieved August 22, 2011, from www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/u10l1a.cfm

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Photo Credits
Courtesy of Pacific Tsunami Museum Coconut Island April 1, 1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(pp. ii, Cover) People Running, Photo by Cecilio Licos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 11-12, 15, 20) Water Receding in Front of Coconut Island, 1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 15) Waves Towering Over Trees on Coconut Island, 1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(pp. 15, 19) (p. Seiche Waves in Hilo Bay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 15) Bore Waves Advancing Up Wailuku River, 1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 16) Waves Advancing Up Wailuku River, 1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 16) Laupāhoehoe Peninsula Prior to 1946 Tsunami . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 15) Kwong See Wo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Damage on Kamehameha Avenue, 1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Large Boulder from Breakwater, Hilo, Hawai‘i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 21) Hilo Downtown, Huge Boulder, 1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 21) Aerial View of Destruction on Bay Front, 1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 21) Destroyed House, November 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 24) Reminders of the Force of Tsunami Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 28) Courtesy of U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Weather Service, Pacific Tsunami Warning Center Tsunami Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(pp. 18, 21) (p. Courtesy of U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Antone Aguiar Freeing the Brigham Victory from the Pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 19) Water Level Measurement of Tsunami, 1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 22) Courtesy of the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University of Hawai‘i Hawaiian Islands (Landslides Could Generate a Tsunami) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 12) Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Hawai‘i Volcano Observatory Hawai‘i Volcano Observatory (HVO) is part of the Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. HVO staff conducts research on the volcanoes of Hawai`i and works with emergency-response officials to protect people and property from earthquakes and volcano-related hazards. HVO has contributed much to the growing science of volcanology. See http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/ for more information about HVO. Fissure located between Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō and Napau March 5, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. i) Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Cone, September 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. i) Lava Meets the Ocean, Photo by D. Sherrod, 12/97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 2) Ocean Entry Explosion, Photo by T.N. Mattox, 11/93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 2) Bursts of Molten as Water Enters a Volcano Tube, Photo by T.J. Takahashi, 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 3) Volcanic Eruptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 12) Aerial View of Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa, photo by J.P. Lockwood, 1975. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 24) Keauhou Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 24) Halapē Before the Earthquake, 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 25) Halapē After the Earthquake, 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 25) Kīlauea Volcano’s Slow Movement to the South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 25) A Sudden Drop of a Lava Delta Could Generate a Tsunami . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 26) Photos by E Ho‘omau! Staff Plunging Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 5) Waves Approaching the Shore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 5) Waves Over the Wide Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Surging. Spilling, and Plunging Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 6) Tsunamis Become Larger in Bays (Hilo Bay, Hawai‘i Island) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 14) Pacific Tsunami Warning Center Photo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (p. 20) Pacific Tsunami Museum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (pp. 33-34)

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) President and CEO Sharon Nelson-Barber Creative Producer Michael Q. Ceballos Evaluators Chuck Giuli Malkeet Singh Alice Taum Executive Producer Ormond Hammond Curriculum Developer Ellen Miyasato Cultural Advisor Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua, Kamehameha Schools Production Assistant Bernadette Frank Line Producer Kaira Resch Artist Bryson Luke Curriculum Advisors Susan Hanson Cheryl Taitague

Science Advisors Ethan Allen, PhD Gerard Fryer, PhD Donna W. Saik Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, Director Pacific Tsunami Museum, Director

Written Contributions Gerard Fryer, PhD Donna W. Saiki Karen Victor Special Thanks To Ethan Allen Christine Antolos John Camac Colleen Desa Javier Elizondo Myra Hasegawa Amber Inwood Ross Inouye Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, Geophysicist Pacific Tsunami Museum, Director Science Teacher, Ke Kula ‘o S. M. Kamakau LPCS

Hedy Kaneoka Terry Kelly Scott Kunihiro Susan Kusunoki Marylin Low Corinne Misaki-Wingert Barbara Muffler Yvonne Nakamura Roger Osentoski

Carol Osterheim Lori Phillips Casey Primacio Lee Ann Ānuenue Pūnua Scott Rowland Liane Sing Margaret Torigoe Melissa Torres-Laing

Bishop Museum Haha‘ione Elementary School Hawai‘i Department of Education Hawai‘i Volcano Observatory

Kamehameha Schools The Pacific Tsunami Museum RH Hagemeyer Pacific Tsunami Warning Center University of Hawai‘i

© 2011 PREL

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