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Pacific Resources for Education and Learning

Building Capacity Through Education

© 2011 PREL

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Each plant, animal, and insect in the rainforest has a specific role. These organisms depend on one another for survival. This interdependence among the organisms, including man, has kept the rainforest in balance. As people settled and traveled to the islands, rainforests were replaced by agriculture, especially sugar, pineapple, and ranching. Other plants and animals also were introduced to the environment. Some of these plants and animals were invasive and became a threat to the balance of the rainforest.

Interdependence in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest

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Adaptations in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest
Before people arrived, Hawai‘i’s location made it difficult for many plants, animals, and insects to reach the islands. The islands are surrounded by ocean. The nearest continent is 2,400 miles away. Even those that dispersed well had a small target of land in the middle of the largest ocean on Earth. The few species that made their way to the islands found a huge range of opportunities to adapt to the different environments. As a result, some of the world’s most unique endemic organisms developed in Hawai‘i. Energy in a rainforest is passed on through the natural flow of energy among the organisms. The food chain shows how each living organism gets its energy from food, and then passes that energy along to other organisms. Human and animal activities and interactions with the rainforest have affected the quality of the flow of energy in the rainforests.

The Flow of Energy in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest

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Adaptations in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest Survival in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i–ii
Understanding the Hawaiian Rainforest

The Hawaiian Islands’ Unique Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1–2 The Hawaiian Rainforest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–6 Native, Endemic, and Indigenous Inhabitants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–8
Legendary Connections

The Menehune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 –10
Ka Nūhou Rainforest Adaptations

Story of the Honeycreepers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11–12
Rainforest Factoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13–14

Kaua‘i ‘Elepaio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Hawaiian Hoary Bat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Nuku ‘I‘iwi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Carnivorous Caterpillar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Snail-Eating Caterpillar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Kāhuli Snail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Linking the Past, Present, and Future

Unique Adaptations

Ask a Wildlife Biologist, Jack Jeffrey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19– 20
Pāhana

Activities and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21– 22
Reading for Information

Helpful Reading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Hawaiian Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Resources and References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 –32 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 –34
The contents of this publication were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

© 2011 PREL

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The Hawaiian Islands’ Unique Location

The Hawaiian islands are located in the Pacific Ocean, more than 2,400 miles from the nearest continent. The islands lie north of the equator and just south of the Tropic of Cancer. In this region, few changes in the climate occur. Daytime temperatures range between 78 and 85 degrees throughout the year. The volcanic islands formed a variety of unique surface features. Land rises from sea level at the coastline to the mountaintops. The highest mountain in Hawai‘i is Mauna Kea, on the island of Hawai‘i. It rises more than 13,000 feet above sea level. The different altitudes of the islands’ mountains, the amount of rainfall, and temperature create a variety of climate zones that provide ideal conditions for rainforests. In fact, Hawai‘i has 11 of the world’s 13 climate zones. Abundant rainfall and warm temperatures add to the tropical rainforests’ growth and survival.

bout ue s kA hin u thought a es it a uniqor globe. T k o

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Tropical rainforests are located between 23.5° N latitude and 23.5° S latitude. The Hawaiian islands are 2,400 miles away from the nearest continent.

You may know of some of these rainforests:
• Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu • East Moloka‘i Mountains

• Wainiha of Kaua‘i

• West Maui Mountains • Windward East Maui

• Lāna‘ihale of Lāna‘i • Hāmākua Forest of Hilo, Hawai‘i Island
© 2011 PREL

• Kohala Mountains of Hawai‘i Island • Ka‘ū Forest of Hawai‘i Island

Rainforests in Hawai‘i are generally found in upland regions. While different types of rainforests may be found at different elevations, most are found on the windward side of the island, which may receive anywhere from 50 to 350 inches of rain per year.

Location of the Rainforests in Hawai‘i

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The Wainiha Rainforest

The Menehune and the Birds animated story takes place in the Wainiha Valley. Wainiha Valley is located above Ha‘ena on the windward coast of Kaua‘i. Legend tells of the menehune who dwelled at Lā‘au, an area of rocky ridges and gulches separating the Wainiha and Lumaha‘i rivers deep within the valley. Today, Wainiha Preserve is a well-known rainforest stretching from the Wainiha Valley to the Alaka‘i Summit Plateau, located more than 3,000 feet above sea level. The Hawaiians divided this land into ahupua‘a. Each ahupua‘a included the area that stretched from the mountain top out to the open ocean. The ‘āina (land) was also divided into horizontal zones, according to altitude of the land and type of vegetation found in each zone. The forested area of the Hawaiian ahupua‘a was called the wao.

The Wainiha rainforest preserve, or wao, is home to three major Hawaiian ecosystems:

Wainiha Bottom Stream

Lowland wet forests are found up to elevations of 2,000 feet. This area usually receives more than 75 inches of rainfall per year. Lowland wet forests were once abundant in Hawai‘i and were important habitats to native species. The area was known as the wao kanaka. Men harvested the forest resources for canoes, medicine, bird feathers, greenery for lei, and other daily needs.

Wainiha Valley

Above the lowland forest of the slopes of Mount Wai‘ale‘ale is an example of a montane forest. A montane forest grows on cool, moist slopes of mountains up to an altitude of 3,300 feet. The Hawaiians knew this forest area as the wao akua, the dense area of forest where the spirits lived. This was the home of Kū, god of war, and upright growth. Kū was known as the protector of the forest plants. In ancient Hawai‘i, man hardly entered this area of the forest. The kia manu, skilled bird catchers, could only enter this area after asking permission from the gods. By not disturbing this area, the seed-producing trees were able to keep the forest healthy with new growth. The Alaka‘i Plateau is known for many natural communities, including montane bogs. Bogs occur in flat places where rainwater gathers faster than it can drain away. These waterlogged areas are usually covered with low-lying plants, grasses, mosses, and stunted trees. Above the montane, Mount Wai‘ale‘ale peaks at an elevation of 5,006 feet. Mount Wai‘ale‘ale is the wettest spot on Earth. It receives 460 inches of rain per year. Together with the steep pali surrounding the valley on three sides, this area provides remarkable La‘au-Wainiha Summit examples of this wet forest and wet cliffs, which the Hawaiians called the wao Ma‘ukele. The highest section of Mount Wai‘ale‘ale was known as the sacred mountaintop called the kuahiwi (backbone). Because the height of the mountains varied on each island, the horizontal land divisions were not always the same. What was similar was how the Hawaiians followed the unwritten rules of the use of the different mountain zones.

© 2011 PREL

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Layers of the Rainforest

The rainforest is the home to a variety of organisms. The plants and trees form four layers of growth. Like the birds and insects, these plants and trees found their way to the islands by wind; water; or on the wings, feet, or feathers of birds.

1. The emergent layer is made up of the

tallest trees that sprout out above the rest of the trees. In the Hawaiian rainforest, some of the koa grew above the ‘ōhi‘a trees to form the emergent layer.

3. The understory is made up of tree ferns, shrubs, young trees, and flowering plants. This level receives less sun, so the plants’ leaves are larger to capture the sunlight they need to survive. Smaller trees in the understory, such as the ‘ōlapa, pilo, and manono provide berries for birds.
The ‘ama‘u and hāpu‘u (ferns) were the most common plants in the understory. Understory Fern spores are easily dispersed by wind. The shoots were harvested for food and the pulu (silky hair on the stems and buds) was used for bedding and medicine. Today, fern roots are used as potting material for orchids. The lobeliads (koli‘i) are also common in the understory. Lobeliads made their way to the islands millions of years ago. From just a few species, they developed into more than 108 species. They are known as bellflowers because of their shape. Many of the nectar-feeding birds feed on the lobelia flowers. Over the years, the birds’ beaks have developed the shape of the flower. Most of the insects and tree snails are found in this layer of the forest.

Emergent Layer

brella over the forest. The leaves that form the canopy receive most of the sunlight, which the trees need to produce their food. The canopy shades the forest floor by blocking out the sunlight. The ‘ōhi‘a and the koa trees dominate Hawai‘i’s rainforest canopy.
Canopy

2. The canopy of the forest is like an um-

According to botanists (scientists that study plants), the ‘ōhi‘a was one of the first trees to make its way to the Hawaiian islands. Its small seeds were scattered by breezes from which more trees easily sprouted. Native forest birds, such as the ‘apapane, ‘amakihi, and ‘i‘iwi, feed on the lehua nectar of the ‘ōhi‘a tree. The Hawaiians used its trunk for carved temple idols, poi bowls, and spears. It was sometimes used for black dye and brewed for tea. Koa is a native tree species. It is the largest Hawaiian tree. It can grow to more than 100 feet tall with an 11-foot diameter. Its sickle-shaped leaves are actually the leaf stalks that have been flattened. The trunk of the koa was used for double-hulled canoes, paddles, weapons, and surfboards. Stories tell of how the Hawaiians knew which trees were healthy for building their canoes by watching the ‘elepaio. If the ‘elepaio pecked on its trunk, it was a sign that the tree probably housed insects, and, therefore, was not good for building a canoe. It is estimated that more than 50 species of endemic insects can live on the koa.

Forest Floor

4. The forest floor is where leaves and fallen branches decompose. These provide

nutrients to the soil. Low-growing mosses, fungi, and algae are found in this layer of the forest.

Making Connections

What are the three amazing things you learned about Hawai‘i because of its location? In which parts of the rainforest did the animated story, The Menehune and the Birds, take place? Provide at least two clues from the story that support your answer.
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Where Did the Native Inhabitants Come From?

Plant seeds, small insects, and bats that were light enough were carried by strong wind currents to the islands. A few organisms may have been transported on floating materials, like logs, in the ocean. About 95% of the flowering plant seeds and snails are thought to have made it to the islands on the wings, feet, or in digestive systems of migrating birds. Because of the distance from other land masses, no reptiles, amphibians, or mammals, except for the Hoary Bat and monk seal, were able to reach the islands. Because of the difficulty to reach the islands, scientists think that a new species arrived and survived once every 35,000 to 50,000 years. Once the organisms reached the islands, their survival depended on the adaptations they made to the different environments.

Organisms that reach Hawai‘i without human assistance are referred to as native. Scientists estimate that approximately 700 plant, animal, and insect species made their way to Hawai‘i without human assistance. Native organisms can be either endemic or indigenous.

Native

Frigate Hoary Bat

Indigenous

The native organisms that are found in Hawai‘i and elsewhere are indigenous. For example, the frigate bird (‘iwa) made its way to Hawai‘i naturally, but can also be found in other tropical oceans of the world. The frigate is, therefore, indigenous.

Nuku ‘i‘iwi

Monk Seal

Endemic

Some of the plants and animals that arrived in Hawai‘i found themselves in new environments with new food sources. Over many years, their features and behaviors developed to survive in the new environment. For example, some of the birds that didn’t have predators developed into flightless birds. Some of the thorny plants or poisonous sap lost their thorns and poison, which served as defenses in previous environments. As a result, 90% of the native organisms developed to be unique to only Hawai‘i. Organisms that cannot be found anywhere else in the world are endemic to Hawai‘i.
© 2011 PREL

Fern

30 million years ago

The Hawaiian islands were being formed.

10 million years ago

Plants, insects, and birds begin to find their way to the islands. 8

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The animated story of The Menehune and the Birds takes place in Wainiha Valley, Kaua‘i. Kaua‘i was known as the “chiefdom of the menehune folk” (Handy, p. 404). According to stories, the menehune settled at Lā‘au, above Wainiha Valley. Stories tell us that the menehune may have migrated from Ka-paia-ha‘a (New Zealand) (Beckwith, p.301) or from Kahiki-ka-paia-ha‘a (Tahiti) (Andrade, p. 8). In the ancient chants of Kaua‘i, the menehune were asked to come help Ola, their chief on Kaua‘i. They came to build structures, such as temples (heiau), fishponds, roads, and waterways to taro patches in the mountains (Handy, p. 404).

The Menehune

The menehune were said to work only in the nighttime and seldom were seen. They were able to complete great building projects in a single night. If they could not, they left the project incomplete (Peñalosa, p. 14). The ‘Alekoko (Menehune Fishpond) on Kaua‘i, the world’s largest reservoir, was too large to complete in one night. It was left unfinished. The other project that is believed to be built by the menehune is Kīkīa ola (Menehune Ditch). The ditch brought water to the taro fields in the hills of Waimea, Kaua‘i. The Menehune Fishpond and the Menehune Ditch can still be seen on Kaua‘i.

The Menehune Fishpond on the island of Kaua‘i

The Menehune Ditch on the island of Kaua‘i

Today, trails can still be seen along the high cliffs above Wainiha called Ke-ala-pi‘i-aka-Menehune (the climbing road of the Menehune) (Handy, p. 404). Along the cliffs, there is evidence that they planted wild taro, yams, ferns, and bananas.
Mo‘okini Heiau on the island of Hawai‘i

The menehune are described as 2 to 3 feet in height and are known for their great strength and energy.

ut It k Aboe phrase, it’s the it Thin th s

At one time, the menehune population was so large, they had to eat ‘opae (shrimp), because there wasn’t enough fish. One description of their numbers is described as “grown men can form two rows from Makaweli to Wailua,” (approximately 21 miles). (Beckwith, p. 302). They are said to have lived in Hawai‘i before the arrival of settlers from Polynesia. When the Polynesians came to the islands, the menehune are said to have left for the islands north of Hawai‘i. In a census taken in early 1800, 65 persons of the 2,000 inhabitants of Wainiha Valley were registered as Menehune.

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The Lā‘au ridge in Wainiha Valley on the island of Kaua‘i

Making Connections

Share other Menehune stories you have heard. Are there stories that relate to Menehune projects in your part of the island, like the Menehune Fishpond or Menehune Ditch? How is the idea of the Menehune applied to projects today? Observe the advertisements today that include Menehune characters, such as Menehune Water and Menehune Builders.

© 2011 PREL

6 million years ago
The island of Kaua‘i was formed.

3–4 million years ago

Honeycreepers’ ancestors (finches) found their way to Hawai‘i. 10

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How did organisms, such as the honeycreepers, adapt to their environment? It is believed that 20 species of birds inhabited Hawai‘i’s different habitats. Over millions of years, these species developed into more than 100 endemic Hawaiian birds. The story of the honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) is one example of how organisms adapted. Scientists believe that a small flock of finches drifted to the islands by strong wind currents or a strong wind storm. These finches had short stout bills, adapted for feeding on small seeds, insects, and small fruits. These finches were called honeycreepers.

Palila
Finch-billed honeycreeper Endangered, Endemic Seen on the slopes of Mauna Kea (6,000 to 9,000 feet) 7½ inches The palila feeds on buds, flowers, and young seed pods of the māmane tree. Because of this, its bill has not changed compared to other species of honeycreepers. It pulls the pod from the tree, then, on another branch, opens the hull with its beak while holding the pod with its claws. It also feeds on the fruit and flowers of the naio tree.

Kaua‘i ‘Amakihi
Endemic Found on Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, subspecies found on Hawai‘i, Maui, Moloka‘i, and Lāna‘i 4½ inches It has a long and thick multipurpose bill that makes it possible to feed in different places. It eats insects beneath the bark of trees and sips on nectar from flowers in the understory. It has adapted to introduced fruits, such as java plum and the banana poka.

‘I‘iwi
Endemic Common on Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, and Maui 5½ inches The ‘i‘iwi eats nectar from ‘ōhi‘a blossoms and lobeliads, and feeds on insects and spiders. Its bill is long, curved, salmon colored and fits the flower tubes that it feeds on.

Fitting the Bill

The honeycreepers that survived in the different environments developed beaks that fit the shape of the nectar flowers they fed on.

Ākiapōlā‘au

In Hawai‘i, there were more than 100 different natural habitats in which these finches could have survived. There were a variety of food sources. There were no organisms that competed for their food. Some fed on the nectar and insects in hard-toreach places. Some fed on seeds. Over millions of years, these finches became isolated from one another in the different natural habitats. As a result, the birds developed into more than 50 species. Their colors changed, their body features and behaviors changed, and even their bills changed. These changes helped them survive in the habitat in which they settled.

‘Apapane
‘Akepa
Endangered or Extinct, Endemic Seen in Hawai‘i forests (above 4,500 feet) 4½ inches The ‘ākepa searches for food at the ‘ōhi‘a tree tops. It has a short, d cone-like bill with crosse bill tips. It uses its bill to open seed pods and scales of leaf buds, so it can reach insects inside of the buds.

Endemic Native forests on all main islands 5½ inches The ‘apapane can be seen flying above the forest canopy. Its slightly curved bill allows it to sip nectar from flowers of the ‘ōhi‘a lehua. It also feeds on the flowering koa, māmane, and eucalyptus.

Endangered, Endemic Native forests of the island of Hawai‘i 5½ inches The ‘ākiapōlā‘au uses its short, straight lower bill to peck at the bark and uses its long, curved upper bill to get the insects and grubs out of the cracks of tree barks or branches.

© 2011 PREL

Polynesian Migration AD 300-800

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The original Polynesians arrived probably from the Marquesas. They brought with them edible plants and animals.

1778

The arrival of British explorer, James Cook, was possibly the first contact with European explorers.

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h Th re e we Hawai‘i. and t Ther y bat oximaten i hoar r ians What is “ballooning”? phib ound the were app sf re It is when spiders fly like balloons and get caught in the he ant it al. T ds. winds. It is believed that is one way spiders were able to nk se ies of bir mo c reach Hawai‘i without the assistance of man. 7 spe ly 6

Why are the bird species on each island different?

erent 00 diff the than 1 ore 11 of i has m It has Hawai‘ cosystems. nes. le natura 3 climate zo 1 world’s

The different mints are known for their scents that people use to flavor their food. Animals, such as goats and sheep, avoided these plants because of their scent. These scents served as protection or defense from being eaten by the goats and sheep. Because there were no goats or sheep in early Hawai‘i, many of the mints stopped producing the scented oil.
Mount Wai‘ale‘a le is known as th e world’s wettest average of 450 rainforest. It rece inches (1,143 cm ives an ) of rainfall per year.

Loss of Oil Scents

© 2011 PREL

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Approximately 90% of native organisms are endemic or unique to the Hawaiian islands.

Scientists estimate that only one plant seed that made its way to Hawai‘i by wind, wings, or water successfully established itself every 20,000 to 30,000 years.

Before humans arrived in the islands, how long did it take for a new plant to establish itself?

What percentage of the native organisms developed to adapt to Hawai‘i’s unique environment?

Loss of Thorns

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The native birds adapted to the habitat of the islands in which they lived. Each island was different, so the birds that lived on them developed features and behaviors that helped them survive.

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niq ai‘i is s uates, Haw i hatited St

The Hawaiian raspberry was originally full of thorns. The thorns were defenses against animals. Since there were no large animals in Hawai‘i before the first inhabitants arrived, the raspberry plant started to lose its thorns. This adaptive shift occurred gradually over thousands of years.

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e the e ma Hawa i mm i ‘i monk has only t r way wo n sea to al (‘ō H s pe‘ap l (‘īlio holo ative mam mals— awai‘i kai) a by hu e‘a). All o nd th ? the th m er la ans . nd ma e Hawaiian Hawaiian mmal hoar s we re intr y bat oduce d

adiation? r, the hat is Adaptive Rmade their honeycreeper. From a finch ancestothan 40 W re t
ms tha ed into mo Some of the first organis honeycreeper develop several adapough diets contributed to way to Hawai‘i went thr ons. From one species. The variety of ati aptive shifts. These tive shifts or transform the honeycreepers’ ad veloped into llions of years. de ges took place over mi ancestor, the organisms to the different chan apted new species as they ad waiian . An example is the Ha environments

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Some of the organisms that made their way to Hawai‘i have made adaptive shifts or transformations. An adaptive shift is a change in an organism that enables it to survive better in a new environment.

What is an Adaptive Shift?

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Forest and Mountain Birds of the Hawaiian Islands He ali‘i ka manu. A bird is a chief. A bird flies and perches higher than any human. (Pukui 534, p. 63)

Hawaiian Hoary Bat

The ‘elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) is a member of the endemic flycatcher family (Muscicapidae). It is 5½ inches long with a short, straight gray bill. Its name sounds like its song e-le-pa-i-o, a squeaky whistle sound. Each island’s ‘elepaio looks different, as it has adapted to the different environments. The Kaua‘i subspecies has a gray-brown back with a pale breast of light orange. It has white tail tips and rump and two white bars on its wings. It darts around and snatches insects, such as moths and flies, in the understory and even flies up to the canopy to find insects. They can still be seen on Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i, but are considered endangered on O‘ahu. Canoe builders considered the ‘elepaio their guardian spirit. They believed that the ‘elepaio led them to the right koa tree to use to build their canoes. If the ‘elepaio pecked at the tree it landed on, it meant that the tree was full of bugs, and, therefore, not good for canoe building. If it landed on a tree and began singing, the men believed that the tree would be good for building the canoe. An ancient proverb states, “Ua ‘elepaio ‘ia ka wa‘a,” or, The ‘elepaio has [marked] the canoe [log], meaning there is an indication of definite failure. (Pukui 2777, p. 306)

Kaua‘i ‘Elepaio

The hoary bat is the only native land mammal that inhabited the Hawaiian islands. Scientists guess that the hoary bat may have arrived on a wind current or drifted on a log from the North American continent. They are not sure when the bat arrived. Because there are no fossils of the bat and the appearance of the Hawaiian bat is less grizzled than the North American bats, scientists believe that it could have arrived more than 10,000 years ago. It is called hoary (frosty) because its dark-brown and gray fur is lightly colored with silverwhite tinges. The Hawaiians named it ‘ōpe‘ape‘a, which means half-leaf. The wings, when extended, looks like half of a taro leaf. The hoary bat is thought to be a subspecies of the North American hoary, but the Hawaiian hoary bat established a unique population in Hawai‘i that is now endemic to the Hawaiian islands. It can be found at elevations between 3,280 and 13,500 feet. Its body has developed to fly about in the dense habitat. As a result, it weighs 6 ounces, which is half of the weight of the North American species. It has a 3½-inch body and a wingspan of about 14 inches. The wings have evolved to beat faster to catch flying insects. It feeds on flying termites, moths, and other insects, including hard-bodied insects, such as beetles, which the bat crushes with its powerful jaw. It is prey to the native ‘io (Hawaiian hawk) and the native pueo (Hawaiian owl). Because of the loss of the native forests to agricultural growth, scientists believe that the population of the bat has been reduced. Although they were not able to get accurate counts in 1969, and again in 1973, the hoary bat was determined to be an endangered species. It can be found on Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and the island of Hawai‘i.

f t It Abou h percentage o ink Th do you s a hig hy ‘i ha sms. W Hawai organi ic endem o? his is s think t

Nuku ‘I‘iwi (Strongylodon ruber)
The nuku ‘i‘iwi (Strongylodon ruber) is an endemic woody climbing vine. It is a member of the pea family. It is found in the forests of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i, Maui, and Kaua‘i between the elevations of 600 to 2,700 feet. Its bright orange-red flowers are narrow and curved, coming to a point. In Hawaiian, nuku ‘i‘iwi means “beak of the ‘i‘iwi” because it looks like the shape of the beak of the ‘i‘iwi (Vestiaria coccinea), an endangered native Hawaiian honeycreeper bird. Nuku ‘i‘iwi plants still survive at the lower elevations where ‘i‘iwi birds once lived.
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Carnivorous Caterpillars

Have you ever watched what a caterpillar eats? We usually think about caterpillars eating the leaves of plants. But have you heard about carnivorous caterpillars? Of the estimated 160,000 known caterpillars (butterfly or moth species), less than 200 eat meat. These carnivorous caterpillars have been discovered in Hawai‘i forests.

Native Tree Snail (Kāhuli or Pūpū)
The O‘ahu tree snails may have been transported by floating logs or rafts that washed up on Hawai‘i’s shores, or the snail eggs could have been carried in the mud on the feet of migrating birds. These are tiny snails averaging ¾ inches in length. Their shells are smooth and glossy with different patterns and colors. They live under leaves of the ‘ōhia and kopiko trees, above 1,300 feet. The snails feed on the fungi of the leaves. Because they are nocturnal, they are safe from predators. Unlike other snails, this snail gives birth to only one snail at a time, four times a year. Most of the snails live for 10 years. The snails spend their entire lifetime on the underleaf of one tree.

Camouflage Works

The caterpillar of the moth (Eupithecia scoriodes) is endemic to Hawai‘i. It has developed adaptive features that help it survive. It disguises itself as bark, a twig on a branch, or part of a fern leaf. The hairs on its back serve as feelers. When it feels prey, it twists backward and snatches it with its pincer-type front legs.

Snail-Eating Caterpillar

A new species of caterpillar (Hyposmocoma) was discovered by Daniel Rubinoff, an invasive species biologist at the University of Hawai‘i. Rubinoff collected these caterpillars from the wet rainforests on Maui, Moloka‘i, Kaua‘i, and the island of Hawai‘i. He fed them carrot, lichen, and algae, which caterpillars are known to eat. The caterpillars wouldn’t eat them. When a snail was placed with the caterpillar, it used silk-spinning to capture the snail for its food. According to Rubinoff, the caterpillars developed these adaptive features because snail predators, such as ants and yellow jacket wasps, weren’t around as animals began to inhabit the forests. Therefore, the caterpillars developed these unique features to take advantage of a new source of food.

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What appeared to be the major reasons for the development of so many endemic species? Which organism do you think developed the most amazing characteristic or feature? 18

Making Connections

Inspired by Photographs
Browse through any book, magazine, or watch a video about the native birds of Hawai‘i, and you’re sure to come across a Jack Jeffrey photograph. Jack says his “claim to fame,” is his native bird photography, which he has been also doing for many years. If you see a photograph of a native bird, 9 out of 10 times, it’s a photograph that was taken by Jack. “I started photographing birds because I thought that having pretty pictures of Hawai‘i’s native birds was important in protecting them. Because many of Hawai‘i’s birds are only found in remote forests, where the average person never goes, the birds are never seen by the public. But, if people know what these special birds look like, then they are more likely to support funding to protect them.” Jack finds all of his work fascinating. “From searching for nests, to surveying birds in remote forests, building fences to protect native habitat, or sitting for hours waiting for a bird to come to a flower so that I can get the perfect photo; all of these are challenging, yet inspire me to want to do more for Hawai‘i’s native species.”

Jack Jeffrey has been a wildlife biologist in Hawai‘i for more than 30 years. During that time he has been conducting forest bird surveys, feral animal surveys, rare bird and plant surveys and most importantly, has been helping to protect more than 30,000 acres of native forest on the Big Island of Hawai‘i.

Jack Jeffrey Links the Past, Present, and Future

been planted in protected areas. Over the past 10 years I’ve been watching these plants flower each year, but no ‘i‘iwi had ever come to the nectar laden flowers because they had forgotten, over generations, that these flowers were a food source. In June of 2008, I was with a group of young students going to look at the plants. I was standing in front of the plants explaining to the group that I have never seen birds visiting the flowers when suddenly, there was an ‘i‘iwi visiting the flowers! We watched stunned as the bird flew from flower to flower, pollinating and taking nectar. It was very exciting to be the first people in maybe 50–100 years to see this! A few months later I was with a Hawaiian Studies group. I had just explained my excitement about seeing the ‘i‘iwi pollinating the plants a few months before, but explained to the group that unless the fruit/seed are dispersed by ‘ōma‘o, we wouldn’t see much in the way of new plants. As we approached the very same plants, lo and behold, an ‘ōma‘o flew from the plant. Upon inspection of the fruit we could see the tell-tail signs of fruit feeding by ‘ōma‘o. The cycle had been completed!” Q. Why study birds and other organisms in the rainforest? A. “We need to know more about what’s happening in Hawai‘i’s forests. The threats, such as invasive species, from the outside are real, and we need as much information as possible about native species and the invasive species threats to protect Hawai‘i’s native habitats and endemic species.” Q. What is the one famous “Jack Jeffrey quote” you would like our students to remember about the organisms in the rainforest? A. “It’s up to all of us to make a difference in Hawai‘i and see that protection of native habitats continues. This will allow the ‘i‘iwi to continue dipping it’s bill into the flowers and pollinating the ‘ōhā wai, to which it evolved a special connection.” Q. What can our students do to be active partners in keeping a healthy natural community? A. “Everyone needs to know that Hawai‘i is a very special place. Plants and animals found here are found nowhere else in the world. By knowing more about the problems confronting Hawai‘i’s native species, students can help prevent invasive species introductions, habitat destruction, pollution of streams and ocean. Students can volunteer to help clean beaches, plant trees, assist biologists in growing native species. With knowledge of the issues, they can become part of the solution rather than being part of the problem.”

Ask a Wildlife Biologist
Q. You have so many stories to tell about the birds in the rainforest. Is there a special one that our students would find fascinating? A. “Because of millions of years of isolation many plants and birds in Hawai‘i have become reliant on each other for food, pollination, and seed dispersal. With the introduction of invasive species and habitat destructive species (i.e., cows, pigs, sheep), many plant populations have declined to a point where there are only a few left. The birds no longer use these plants as a nectar source, and so the plants no longer get pollinated. With no fruit and no seeds for reproduction, it won’t be long before many of these plants become extinct. Plant scientists and interested people have been able to hand-pollinate some of these last plants, getting seeds and growing them in protective greenhouses. Once the plants are big enough, they are planted into large fenced areas where pigs, cattle, and other ungulates have been removed.
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One such place is Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, high on the windward slope of Mauna Kea on the Big Island. Here, hundreds of rare and endangered haha and ‘oha wai have

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Unique Organisms

(Activities and Projects)

Picture an imaginary organism in a tropical rainforest. Does it live in the canopy, understory, or forest floor? 1. Draw an image or create a 3-D model of the organism. 2. Describe its features and behaviors that help it survive. 3. Share your organism with your classmates. 4. Decide which organism that was created would have the best features and behaviors for survival.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Directions

Take a walk through the nearest rainforest area, if possible. Take a photo of a unique organism. Find out what adaptations help your organism survive in its environment. Create an Organism Card with the information you find out about the organism.

What does it look like?

The Happy Face Spider has unusual markings on their bodies. Some have clown-like faces, others look like alien invaders. Each spider has a pattern that is different on each island. It is about ¼ inch long, including its legs.

The carnivorous caterpillar is an example of how camouflage helps an insect survive. What were the features and behaviors of the carnivorous caterpillar that helped it survive? 1. Invite your class to create imaginary insects that are camouflaged. 2. Each person selects an area in your school campus. Describe the habitat (may be written). 3. Create imaginary insects and place them in their habitat. 4. Conduct an insect hunt. Which insects were easily found? Which ones were well camouflaged? 5. Hunt for “real” insects that are well camouflaged. 6. Create an insect card for insects found.

Insect Camouflage

A Special Place

Where is it found?

The Happy Face Spider is found in the native rainforests of the island of Hawai‘i. They crawl around the tree trunks and leaves.

What do they eat?

The Happy Face Spider eats other spiders or plant nectar. It hunts for food at night.

What are its unique behaviors?

The female spider takes care of its eggs until they’re hatched. Although this happens, the spider is still endangered. The main reason is the fast rate of forest destruction. Also, larger insects are a threat to the spider.

Take a trip to a forested area near you. If you are not close to one, locate a place where there is more vegetation than homes. 1. Put into words your interaction with the place you have chosen. 2. Weave these words and phrases into a form that reflects your feelings. 3. Continue to record your interaction with the same place over a period of time in your E Ho‘omau! journal.

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The Happy Face Spider is an example of an organism that is endemic to Hawai‘i. What are some of the adaptations that help it to survive? 22

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Information and skills you are expected to know and demonstrate after you complete Adaptations in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest:
1. Describe how the adaptations of an organism allow it to survive in an environment. 2. Use the science and grade-level vocabulary words and word-part clues to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words. 3. Use text structures (cause and effect, compare and contrast) to help you understand what you read.

adaptation n. a change in a plant or animal that makes it better able to survive The long, thin, and hollow beak of a honeycreeper is an adaptation that allows it to get nectar from flowers. colonize v. to survive or live in a place or environment Birds that made their way to Hawai‘i colonized the different forest environments. defend v. to protect against being harmed or attacked Organisms that can defend themselves will survive. definite adj. known for sure, certain We have definite proof that the Menehune built the fishpond. endemic adj. belonging to a particular place or area Many of the endemic organisms are being threatened by the changes in their environment. evidence n. something that helps prove whether or not something is true There is evidence that someone camped here. habitat n. an organism’s natural living place or environment, which meets its needs to live and grow By protecting the rainforest, we preserve the habitat of the honeycreepers. indigenous adj. lives naturally in a specific region or area The frigate bird is an indigenous bird. It found its way to Hawai‘i without human assistance and can also be found in other tropical oceans of the world. native adj. arrived in the Hawaiian islands naturally Many of the native organisms adapted to Hawai‘i’s rainforests. nutrient n. an important substance that people, animals, and plants need to live, grow, and stay healthy Insects are a good source of food because they are full of nutrients. organism n. any living thing The rainforest is home to many organisms. structure n. a part of an organism The structure of the bird’s wings helps it in flight. species n. group of organisms whose members have the same features and produce young (offspring) together The ‘i‘iwi is a native bird species. survive v. to continue to live or exist The comfortable weather helps organisms survive in the rainforest. transform v. to change in form or appearance Changes in weather patterns can transform a healthy rainforest into a drier forest.
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Helpful Reading Tools Understand Cause and Effect Text Structure: Look for the

author’s text patterns and signal words that explain reasons or causes for an event or phenomenon. Because of the loss of the native forests to agricultural growth, scientists believe that the population of the bat was reduced.

for text patterns and signal words that explain similarities of and differences between two or more ideas. The hoary bat in Hawai‘i is smaller and has wings that beat faster than the North American hoary bat.

Understand Compare and Contrast Text Structure: Look

Word-Part Clues

1. Look for word-part endings -er, -or, and -ly. a. explorer/definitely 2. Remove the word-ending to determine its base. a. explore/definite 3. Use the surrounding words and phrases in the sentence it appears in to determine the meaning of the word. The Polynesian explorer kept his canoe sailing in hope of finding land. (Someone who explores or looks for something, such as land.) He wasn’t too sure about all of the organisms that inhabited the Hawaiian forest floor, but definitely knew that he wouldn’t find a snake. (He was very clear, or very sure he wouldn’t find a snake.)

Science Words to Know

adaptation n. a change in a plant or animal that makes it better able to survive The long, thin, and hollow beak of a honeycreeper is an adaptation that allows it to get nectar from flowers. habitat n. an organism’s natural living place or environment, which meets its needs to live and grow By protecting the rainforest, we preserve the habitat of the honeycreepers. organism n. any living thing The rainforest is home to many organisms.

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ahupua‘a n. Hawaiian land division extending from the uplands to the sea ‘amakihi n. a Hawaiian honeycreeper with yellow-greenish body ‘ama‘u n. a type of fern ‘apapane n. a Hawaiian honeycreeper with crimson body and black wings and tail ‘elepaio n. a Hawaiian flycatcher believed to be the goddess of canoe makers hāpu‘u n. fern ‘io n. Hawaiian hawk ‘i‘iwi n. a Hawaiian honeycreeper with a scarlet body ‘īlio holo kai n. Hawaiian monk seal (dog that runs in rough water) kia manu n. bird catcher koa n. largest native forest tree koli‘i n. lobelia kuahiwi n. backbone, sacred mountaintop manono n. a small forest shrub nuku ‘i‘iwi n. beak of the ‘i‘iwi ‘ōhia n. a native forest tree ‘ōlapa n. a native forest tree ‘ōpe‘ape‘a n. Hawaiian hoary bat pali n. steep hill or slope pilo n. a native forest shrub pueo n. Hawaiian owl wao n. inland region, usually forested and uninhabited wao akua n. area of the forest where the spirits lived wao kanaka n. area of the forest where men harvested forest resources wao ma‘ukele n. wettest part of the forest

The Hawaiian Islands Unique Location Mongabay. (n.d.). Rainforests. Retrieved September 15, 2010, from http://rainforests.mongabay.com/0103.htm The Nature Conservancy in Hawai‘i. (2010). Wainiha Preserve. Retrieved September 16, 2010, from www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/ hawaii/preserves/art23109.html Wikipedia. (2010). Hawaiian Tropical Rainforest. Retrieved September 14, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawaiian_tropical_rainforests. Wong, C. P. (2007). Hawaiian Lowland Wet Forests: Impacts of Invasive Plants on Light Availability, The Journal of Young Investigators, 16 (7). Retrieved September 26, 2010, from www.jyi.org/research/re.php?id=1080 World Wildlife. (n.d.). Hawaii Tropical Forest. Retrieved September 14, 2010, from www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/oc/oc0106_full.html The Hawaiian Rainforest Best Places Hawai‘i (2010). The Big Island’s Flora and Fauna. Retrieved September 23, 2010, from www.bestplaceshawaii.com/island_insights/bigisland/ floraFauna.html Division of Forestry and Wildlife. (2003). Department of Land and Natural Resources. State of Hawai‘i. Wao Akua. Honolulu, HI: Division of Forestry and Wildlife. Greenwell, Amy. (2009). Ethnobotanical Guide to Native Hawaiian Plants. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum. HEAR. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR). (2010). Invasive species information for Hawai‘i and the Pacific. Retrieved September 9, 2010, from www.hear.org/ hoike/pdfs/rf_intro.pdf Maui Downhill. (2007). Haleakala Rainforest Plants. Retrieved September 23, 2010, from www.mauidownhill.com/haleakala/plants/rainforestplants.html Mueller-Dombois, Dieter. (2005). Silvicultural Approach to Restoration of Native Hawaiian Rainforests. Retrieved September 24, 2010, from www.lyonia.org/downloadPDF. php?pdfID=2.383.1 Peñalosa, Fernando. (2009). The Alaka‘i Kaua‘i’s Unique Wilderness. Rancho Palos Verdes, CA: Quaking Aspen Books.

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Tomich, P. Quentin. (2003). ‘Ōhi‘a Adventures with a Genetic Marvel. Wao Akua. Honolulu, HI: Division of Forestry and Wildlife. Wood, Kenneth. (2009). Floristic Survey Along Proposed Strategic Fence Line Wainiha Preserve, Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i. Kalaheo, Kaua‘i, HI: National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved September 5, 2010, from http://hawp.org/_library/documents/kwa/biologicalsurveywainihafencelinewood_krnov09.pdf Legendary Connections Andrade, Carlos. (2008). Hā‘ena Through the Eyes of the Ancestors. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i. Beckwith, Martha Warren. (1940). Hawaiian Mythology. Lexington, KY: Yale University. Handy, E.S. Craighill and Handy, Elizabeth Green. (1991). Native Planters in Old Hawai‘i Their Life, Lore, and Environment. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum. Peñalosa, Fernando. (2009). The Alaka‘i Kaua‘i’s Unique Wilderness. Rancho Palos Verdes, CA: Quaking Aspen Books. Ka Nūhou Conservationhawaii.rog. (n.d.). Native Birds of Hawai‘i. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from www.state.hi.us/dlnr/consrvhi/forestbirds/ Cox, C. Barry and Peter D. Moore. (1973). Biogeography, An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Denny. Jim. (2010). A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Hawai‘i. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i. Hawai‘i Audubon Society. (2005). Hawai‘i’s Birds. China: Island Heritage. Hawai‘i Audubon Society. (2009). Retrieved September 16, 2010, from www.hawaiiaudubon.com/ Hawai‘i Forest & Trail, Ltd. (2009). Natural History. Evolution, Hawaiian Style. Retrieved September 16, 2010, from www.hawaii-forest.com/natural-history/evolution.asp National Academy of Sciences. (2000). The National Academies Press. Retrieved September 16, 2010, from www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_ id=10865&page=30 Pratt, H. Douglas. (1996). Hawai‘i’s Beautiful Birds. Honolulu, HI: Mutual Publishing, LLC.
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Unique Adaptations Birding Hawaii 2003–2006. Retrieved September 7, 2010, from www.birdinghawaii.co.uk/WELCOME%20PAGE.htm Cox, C. Barry and Peter D. Moore. (1973). Biogeography, an Ecological and Evolutionary Approach. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Conservationhawaii.org. (n.d.). Native Birds of Hawai‘i. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from www.state.hi.us/dlnr/consrvhi/forestbirds/ http://www.hawaii-forest.com/natural-history/evolution.asp DLNR. The Hawaiian Endangered Bird Conservation Program. Five-Year Workplan (2001–2005). Retrieved September 7, 2010, from www6.hawaii.gov/dlnr/dofaw/captiveprop/5yrplnd1.html Mutual Publishing. (n.d.). Hawaiian Encyclopedia. Native Hawaiian Species. Retrieved September 11, 2010, from www.hawaiianencyclopedia.com/native-hawaiian-species.asp Travel with a Challenge. (2009). Jack Jeffrey Presents Birds of Hawai‘i. Retrieved September 24, 2010, from www.travelwithachallenge.com/Hawaiian_Bird_ Pictures.htm Zigler, Alan C. Hawaiian Natural History, Ecology, and Evolution. (2002). Retrieved September 7, 2010, from http://books.google.com/books?id=l56J_8teG58C&pg=P A224&lpg=PA224&dq=snail+chirping&source=web&ots=oQ2cv-Bssg&sig=yF1K7Ery1e9mZ Q25DMUi0QP2qXg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#v=onepage&q=sna il%20chirping&f=false Factoids Bird Biogeography. (n.d.). Hawai‘i Honeycreepers. http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/hawaiihoneycreepers.html eHow Inc. (2010). Tropical Rainforest Plants in Hawai‘i. Retrieved September 12, 2010, from www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/oc/oc0106.html Geoworld. (2010). Prehistoric Hawai‘i. Retrieved September 15, 2010, from www.geoworld.org/Hawaii/Prehistory Greenwell, Amy. (2009). Ethnobotanical Guide to Native Hawaiian Plants. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum. Handy, E.S. Craighill and Handy, Elizabeth Green. (1972). Native Planters in Old Hawaii Their Life, Lore, and Environment. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum.

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Hawai‘i Travel Guide. (2010). To-Hawai‘i.com. Retrieved September 15, 2010, from www.to-hawaii.com/ National Geographic Society. (2001). Hawai‘i tropical moist forests. Retrieved September 14, 2010, from www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/ terrestrial/oc/oc0106.html Unique Adaptations BirdLife International. (n.d.). Elepaio Chasiempis sandwichensis. Retrieved September 20, 2010, from www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/indexhtml?action =SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=6075&m=0 Conservationhawaii.org. (n.d.). Native Birds of Hawai‘i. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from www.state.hi.us/dlnr/consrvhi/forestbirds/ Denny, Jim. (2010). Forest Birds. A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Hawai‘i (pp.62–64). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i. Hawai‘i Audubon Society. (2005). Forest Birds. Hawaii’s Birds (pp. 76 –77). Honolulu, HI: Hawai‘i Audubon Society. Mutual Publishing. (n.d.). Hawaiian Encyclopedia. Native Hawaiian Species. Retrieved September 11, 2010, from http://www.hawaiianencyclopedia.com/native-hawaiian-species.asp National Audubon Society. (n.d.). Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis). Retrieved September 20, 2010, from http://audubon2.org/watchlist/viewSpecies.jsp?id=74 Pukui, Mary Kawena. (1983). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum. Nuku ‘I‘iwi Harrington, Daniel. (n.d.). Hawaiian Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 21, 2010, from http://www.hawaiianencyclopedia.com Hawaiian Forest.Com. (2008). Hawaiian Forest. Retrieved September 21, 2010, from http://hawaiianforest.com/exploring-the-back-of-makaha-valley Hawaiian Hoary Bat Janiskee, Bob. (2010). Creature Feature: The Hawaiian Hoary Bat (‘ōpe‘ape‘a) is Hawai‘i’s Only Native Mammal. Retrieved September 12, 2010, from www.nationalparkstraveler. com/2010/03/creature-feature-hawaiian-hoary-bat-%E2%80%98%C5%8Dpe%E2%80%98a pe%E2%80%98-hawaii%E2%80%99s-only-native-terrestrial-mammal5480
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Mutual Publishing. (n.d.). Hawaiian Encyclopedia. Native Hawaiian Species. Retrieved September 11, 2010, from www.hawaiianencyclopedia.com/native-hawaiian-species.asp U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2010). Pacific Islands Office, Ecological Services. Surveys on the Distribution and Abundance of the Hawaiian Hoary Bat. Retrieved September 12, 2010, from www.osti.gov/bridge/purl.cover.jsp;jsessionid=21A9FDCB81E355DBD6B 702E49EE8D365?purl=/10179866-OR9UBQ/native/ Carnivorous Caterpillar National Geographic Society. (1996). Flesh-Eating Caterpillars Discovered in Hawai‘i. Retrieved September 14, 2010, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2005/07/0721_050721_caterpillar_2.html National Geographic Society. (2003). Killer Caterpillars. Retrieved September 14, 2010, from http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0306/feature6/index.html trib.com. Wyoming’s online news source. (2010). Carnivorous Caterpillar Discovered in Hawai‘i. Retrieved September 14, 2010, from http://trib.com/news/national/article_d473efb6a286-5cc9-a3be b33da55b92c0.html National Geographic. (2009). Caterpillar on Fern, Hawai‘i, 2003. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/enlarge/caterpillar-fern hawaii_ pod_image.html Native Tree Snail Hawaiian Forest.com. Revisiting the Singing Kahuli (Oahu Tree Snails). (2009). Retrieved September 23, 2010, from http://hawaiianforest.com/revisiting-the-singing-kahulioahu-tree-snails Important Hawaiian Invertebrates. Oahu Tree Snails. (2005). Retrieved September 23, 2010, from http://www.explorebiodiversity.com/Hawaii/BiodiversityForgotten/Wildlife/Inverts/ Tree%20Snails.htm Mutual Publishing. (n.d.). Hawaiian Encyclopedia. Retrieved September 23, 2010, from http://www.hawaiianencyclopedia.com/part-1-evolutionary-processes.asp Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office. (2010). Endangered Species in the Pacific Islands. Retrieved September 23, 2010, from http://www.fws.gov/pacificislands/fauna/oahutreesnails.html

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Ziegler, Alan C. (2002). Hawaiian Natural History, Ecology, and Evolution. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i. Timeline Ala Mau Hawai‘i. (2002). Alternative Hawai‘i Pre Contact Hawai‘i. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from http://www.alternative-hawaii.com/hacul/history.htm Hawai‘i’s Honeycreepers. (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2010, from http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/hawaiihoneycreepers.html + Vision in memorial +. (n.d.). How old is Hawai‘i? Retrieved January 24, 2011, from http://visionerial.blogspot.com/2009/10/how-old-is-hawaii.html Pāhana Jeffrey, Jack. (2009). Jack Jeffrey Presents Birds of Hawaii. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from www.travelwithachallenge.com/Hawaiian_Bird_Pictures.htm Denmark, Eric. Cornell University. (2008). Insect Conservation Biology. Retrieved February 25, 2010, from http://courses.cit.cornell.edu/icb344/abstracts/ Happyspider.htm

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Photo Credits ‘I‘iwi (Cover, i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography (jjphoto@hawaii.rr.com) Kamehemeha Butterfly (p. i–ii). . . . Courtesy Douglas Okamoto, Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Io (p. ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography ‘Apapane (p. iii). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography Native Understory, Waikamoi Preserve, Maui (pp. 1–2) . . . . . . © The Nature Conservancy Wainiha Valley (p. 3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nikolai Barca, The Nature Conservancy Wainiha Bottom Stream (p. 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jon Faford, The Nature Conservancy Lā‘au-Wainiha Valley From Summit (pp. 4, 10) . . The Nature Conservancy, Kaua‘i Program Forest Canopy (p. 5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Forest Emergent Layer (p. 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Native Understory, Waikamoi Preserve, Maui (p. 6). . . . . . . . . . © The Nature Conservancy Forest Understory (p. 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Forest Floor (p. 6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Hawaiian Hoary Bat (pp. 8, 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography Frigate Bird (p. 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Courtesy of Forest and Kim Starr Nuku ‘I‘iwi (pp. 8, 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . © Nathan Yuen, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Native Fern (p. 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Mo‘okini Heiau (p. 9). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Courtesy of Michael Q. Ceballos The Menehune Fishpond (p. 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Courtesy of Michael Q. Ceballos The Menehune Ditch (p. 10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Courtesy of Michael Q. Ceballos Unique Transformations (p. 11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Courtesy of Douglas Pratt ‘Apapane on Lehua (pp. 11–12) . . . . . © Jan Lepson, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy ‘I‘iwi on Clermontia (p. 12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography Palila on Mamane (p. 12) . . . . . © Peter LaTourrette, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Amakihi (p. 12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography ‘Akiapola‘au (p. 12). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography ‘Akepa (p.12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography Kaua‘i Elepaio (p. 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . © Mark Collins, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Carnivorous Caterpillar (p. 17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . © The Nature Conservancy Achatinella Tree Snail (p. 18) . . . . © Richard Dewey, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Jack Jeffrey (p. 20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography Happy Face Spider (p. 21) . . . . . . . . . . . . © Bill Mull, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) President and CEO Sharon Nelson-Barber Creative Producer Michael Q. Ceballos Evaluators Andrew Sahalie Chuck Giuli Executive Producer Ormond Hammond Curriculum Developer Ellen Miyasato Cultural Advisor Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua, Kamehameha Schools Production Assistant Frances Oshiro Written Contributions Anita Bruce Winona Chang Jack Jeffrey Joylynn Paman Karen Victor Special Thanks To Christine Antolos John Camac Sheila Conant Javier Elizondo Sam Gon Myra Hasegawa Amber Inwood Ross Inouye Jack Jeffrey Michelle Gorham Jones Hedy Kaneoka Terry Kelly Scott Kunihiro Susan Kusunoki Jill Laughlin Kai Lono Marylin Low Corinne Misaki-Wingert Roger Osentoski Jennifer Padua Lori Phillips Casey Primacio Lee Ann Ānuenue Pūnua Liane Sing Sean Soon Pamela Suga Grady Timmons Melissa Torres-Laing Norine W. Yeung AJB Resources Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Wildlife Biologist Curriculum Writer Science Teacher, Ke Kula ‘o S. M. Kamakau LPCS Line Producer Kaira Resch Artist Bryson Luke Curriculum Advisors Susan Hanson Cheryl Taitague

Bishop Museum Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of Forestry and Wildlife Haha‘ione Elementary School Harold L. Lyon Arboretum

Hawai‘i Audubon Society Hawai‘i Department of Education Kamehameha Schools The Nature Conservancy, Hawai‘i

© 2011 PREL

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