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Pacific Resources for Education and Learning

Building Capacity Through Education

© 2011 PREL

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Each plant, animal, and insect in the rainforest has a specific role. These organisms depend on one another for survival. This interdependence among the organisms, including man, has kept the rainforest in balance. As people settled and traveled to the islands, rainforests were replaced by agriculture, especially sugar, pineapple, and ranching. Other plants and animals also were introduced to the environment. Some of these plants and animals were invasive and became a threat to the balance of the rainforest.

Interdependence in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest

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Adaptations in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest
Before people arrived, Hawai‘i’s location made it difficult for many plants, animals, and insects to reach the islands. The islands are surrounded by ocean. The nearest continent is 2,400 miles away. Even those that dispersed well had a small target of land in the middle of the largest ocean on Earth. The few species that made their way to the islands found a huge range of opportunities to adapt to the different environments. As a result, some of the world’s most unique endemic organisms developed in Hawai‘i. Energy in a rainforest is passed on through the natural flow of energy among the organisms. The food chain shows how each living organism gets its energy from food, and then passes that energy along to other organisms. Human and animal activities and interactions with the rainforest have affected the quality of the flow of energy in the rainforests.

The Flow of Energy in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest

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The Flow of Energy in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest Survival in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i–ii
Understanding the Balance Among Organisms

Balance Between Land and Sea Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–2
Cycle of Matter in the Hawaiian Rainforest

Do Watersheds Really Matter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 – 4
Flow of Energy in the Hawaiian Rainforest

A Food Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 – 6 Food Webs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7– 8
Ka Nūhou

Protecting and Preserving: Our Kuleana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 –10
The Threatened, Endangered, and Extinct

Plants and Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–12
Factoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 –14 Conservation of Hawai‘i’s Rainforest

Protection, Preservation, and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 –16 Restoration and Improvement of Rainforest Habitat . . . . . . . 17–18 Interview with Sam ‘Ohukani‘ōhi‘a Gon III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19–20
Pāhana Linking the Past, Present, and Future

Activities and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21–22 Helpful Reading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Hawaiian Words and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Resources and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 –28 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 –30
The contents of this publication were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

Reading for Information

© 2011 PREL

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Balance Between Land and Sea Organisms

As you walk around your school each day, from classroom to cafeteria, to computer room to library, you are sure to pass many different living organisms. When was the last time you actually saw them, each one, as you made your way from place to place? From squawking mynah birds up in monkey pod trees to wriggling earthworms in playground dirt, from sticky-toed geckos on the ceiling to marching ants on the walls, living things surround us, in every place, at every hour, of every day.

Just like everyone else, early Hawaiians shared a relationship with the living things in the environment. We can understand these relationships by taking another look at the Kumulipo, the great epic poem of creation. Here are a few lines from the Wā ‘Alua, the Second Era, of the poem: Hānau ka Pahaha noho i kai Kia‘i ‘ia e ka Pūhala noho i uka Hānau ka Pāhau noho i kai Kia‘i ‘ia e ka Lauhau noho i uka Hānau ka He‘e noho i kai Kia‘i ‘ia e ke Alahe‘e noho i uka The Mullet gives birth, living at sea Guarded by the Hala, living upland The Flatfish gives birth, living at sea Guarded by the Hau, living upland The Octopus gives birth, living at sea Guarded by the Alahe‘e, living upland

v k A ect o u ha hin inute to reflsms that yo ehune anid s T m p ni en

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a h a M tions ? Take of the org ory, The t l rela ganisms s e ia or denc nimated ere spec e dew ea ng th this inter in th ds. What amo f ir lance re part o the B pt the ba ou a ke wy sms. that ut ho gani k abo mong or Thin a ence pend

Hau

‘Ōhi‘a Lehua

Did you notice the connections between the land and sea organisms mentioned? Let’s take a closer look. The Pahaha fish’s name sounds a lot like the Pūhala tree’s name; even though it doesn’t look exactly the same, it has the same amount of syllables, and they both start and end with the same letters. Also, the Pāhau fish’s name rhymes with the Lauhau tree’s name, and the Alahe‘e tree even has the name of the He‘e octopus in it. In fact, each creature that gives birth in the sea is “guarded” by a land creature with a similar sounding name. The Kumulipo includes many such partnerships between land creatures and sea creatures. This poem, the Kumulipo, shows us that the land and the sea are connected. Terrestrial, or land-based organisms, guard their activities so that they do not harm the lives of the aquatic-, or water-based, organisms. There is a balance between the land and the sea. Without the sea, there would be no rain to water the plants, or to quench the thirst of the animals. Without the land, there would be no rich source of nutrients to feed the sea creatures. We must care for both the land and the sea for a connected and healthy system.

What kinds of feelings do you have about the organisms that share your world? Maybe the new leaves of grass poking out of the dirt make you feel happy. Maybe the crowing of the rooster next door makes you feel grouchy. Maybe the twitching antennae of a brown cockroach make you feel nervous. Or maybe the fluttering wings of a passing butterfly make you feel hopeful. Whatever emotions you feel, you can’t deny that you have some kind of relationship with the living things with which you share space.

Making Connections

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Alahe‘e

So, what can you do to protect our land and our ocean? What kuleana, or responsibilities and duties, do you have to care for our terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems? Maybe some answers will come to you as you walk around each day, so keep your eyes and ears open for all the living organisms around you. You just might find that your classroom, your school, your playground, and your home are a few great places to start!

© 2011 PREL

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Do Watersheds Really Matter?

A rainforest is an example of a watershed. A watershed is an area that is surrounded by mountain ridges and catches and collects rainwater to continuously refill our ground water supply. The water also flows into streams and back to the ocean where the water cycle is repeated. The rainforests capture large amounts of water. Each layer of the forest plays an important role in keeping a healthy watershed. The emergents, such as koa and ‘ōhi‘a trees, receive the rain and moisture. The water drips from the leaves, through the branches, and eventually to the plants on the ground. The canopy is like a filter. The rain passes through the leaves and falls on shorter trees and shrubs below it. The water flows along the stems and stalks to the ground. This layer also helps slow down evaporation, or loss of water. The ferns and shrubs of the understory absorb the water from the taller trees. It also acts as a protective layer so water drips slowly to the ground. The ground cover, or floor of the forest, acts like a sponge. Moss, grass, and algae help keep the moisture in the ground and prevent the soil from eroding, or washing away.
Understory

A healthy rainforest provides man with wood to build canoes, feathers to create kāhili, cloaks for ali‘i, and medicine for man’s illnesses. We see the rainforest as an important watershed that: • • • • refills our underground fresh water supply provides clean streams, beaches, and reefs provides healthy fishing resources supplies plants to help continue traditions, such as storytelling, hula, and medicine • lessens the effects of climate change by absorbing carbon dioxides Keeping a rainforest healthy is more than keeping the balance of the rainforest. Keeping a rainforest healthy means keeping the environment and life in balance. Hāhai no ka ua i ka ululā‘au. Rain always follows the forest. Translation: The rains are attracted to forest trees. Knowing this, Hawaiians hewed only the trees that were needed. (Pukui 405, p. 50)

Wainiha Valley

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© 2011 PREL

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Making Connections

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Wainiha Ridge

Did you think that your clean drinking water had anything to do with the rainforests? If the rainforests are shrinking due to the introduction of invasive plants and animals, global warming, and destruction by man, what other parts of your environment would also change? Notice the beaches, the reefs, and the streams in your neighborhood. Are they healthy?
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All organisms need energy to survive and grow. Energy comes in the form of the sun and food. How does energy flow in an ecosystem like the Hawaiian rainforest? The energy from the sun to the producer, such as the koa tree, to the consumer, shows the path, or flow of energy, from one organism to another. This transfer of energy is called a food chain. Each organism is an important link in a food chain. A food chain shows the energy flow from the sun through producers to consumers and decomposers, and back again to producers.

Organism
‘Ōhi‘a tree

Energy Level
Producer Producer Producer Carnivore Omnivore Carnivore Carnivore Carnivore Carnivore Carnivore Herbivore

Eats
Produces its own food Produces its own food Produces its own food Small insects Insects, Nectar Insects Birds Insects Insects Insects

Eaten By
Birds Insects ‘I‘iwi Hawaiian Hawk ‘Io Hawaiian Hawk ‘Io Birds None None Birds Birds

Levels in a Food Chain: Rainforest Example
Sun Top of the Food Chain

Food Webs in the Rainforest

Koa tree Nuku ‘I‘iwi ‘Elepaio ‘I‘iwi Carnivorous caterpillar ‘Io Hawaiian hawk ‘Ope ‘ape‘a Hoary bat Happy Face Spider

The sun provides the energy for plants to produce their own food through a process called photosynthesis.

Secondary Consumer
When a secondary consumer feeds on the primary consumer, some of the energy stored in the primary consumer is passed on to the secondary consumer.

Most of the organisms are part of several food chains. They eat more than one kind of food to survive. And they, themselves, may be eaten by different kinds of consumers. A simple food chain is part of a larger food web.

Primary Consumer
When a consumer feeds on a producer, some of the stored energy of the producer is passed on to the organism. This energy is used by the consumer to grow.

Damselfly ‘Apapane

Nectar of Koa, Hawaiian Hawk ‘Ōhi‘a, Mamane ‘Io Flowers Small Birds None

Pueo

Carnivore

Producers

Producers change energy from the sun and nutrients from the soil into food energy. This energy is used by the producer to survive and grow. Some of this energy is stored in the producer’s cells for later use.

Other Examples of Food Chains in a Rainforest

Decomposers

Decomposers change animal waste and all dead and decaying organisms into nutrients for the soil.

Nuku ‘I‘iwi –> ‘I‘iwi –> ‘Io Algae on Māmaki –> Kāhuli Tree Snail –> Cannibal Snail Decaying Leaves –> Picture Wing Fly –> Carnivorous Caterpillar Decaying Leaves –> Picture Wing Fly –> Hoary Bat Koa Tree –> Picture Wing Fly –> Carnivorous Caterpillar –> ‘Io
Think Abo
in w of energy scribe the flo Scientists de t items are in.” Wha m as a “cha an ecosyste together at are linked with th you familiar ristics of a aracte What are ch like a chain? is used to de food chain why a chain? See ecosystem. in an w of energy scribe the flo

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© 2011 PREL

500s

1800s

First settlers to Hawai‘i

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Livestock, such as cattle, were introduced and allowed to roam throughout the islands. They destroyed hundreds of thousands of acres of forest.

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An Example of a Rainforest Food Web
The arrows point in the direction of the energy flow. For example, the ‘I‘iwi feeds on, and gets its energy from, the Nuku ‘I‘iwi. The ‘Io feeds on, and gets its energy from, the ‘I‘iwi. See the relationships of the organisms in a food web. This relationship shows the flow of energy from the sun to the producers, and from the producers to the consumers.

‘Alalā Kāhuli Snail Algae on ‘Ōhi‘a

‘Io

Energy
‘I‘iwi

Pueo

Picture Wing Fly ‘Ōhi‘a Lehua

Nuku ` I‘iwi

Carnivorous Caterpillar
Eventually, all organisms decay and add nutrients to the soil.

Making Connections

Using the information on the Rainforest Organism Chart, create an example of one food chain. Record your example in your E Ho‘omau! journal.
© 2011 PREL

Decaying Leaves and Fruit

1903
The legislature’s Act 44 created Hawai‘i’s forest reserve system in an effort to restore Hawai‘i’s forests.

1973

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The Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) was passed. The purpose of the Act was to conserve endangered species and their habitats.

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‘Ōhā Wai Sighting!
August 2010 A native Hawaiian plant species, ‘ōhā wai, that was believed to be extinct was discovered in the Kohala upland rainforest. It was last seen in 1909 on the Island of Hawai‘i and collected on Maui in 1920. The plant is an epiphyte that was growing on the ‘ōhi‘a and hāpu‘u. The Nature Conservancy staff collected seeds and took them to the Volcano Rare Plant Facility to grow. Epiphyte: A plant that grows on another plant. ‘Ōhā wai, a lobelia (Clermontia), is said to be a name that honors Pele, the volcano goddess.

Ten Ways To Help Conserve Hawai‘i’s Rainforests

Carnivorous Plant

Mikinalo (miki: to suck; nalo: fly) is the only native carnivorous plant. It is found in the Alakai bogs of Kaua‘i. The Mikinalo’s leaves have extensions tipped with a red gland that rele ase s a sweet-smelling liquid to attract small insects. The sticky liquid traps the insects. The glands also remove the protein from the insect’s body, leaving only its shell.

1. Encourage your school and family to use products that are recycled and environmentally friendly, such as paper. 2. Organize a school fundraiser to raise money for an organization that works to conserve rainforests. 3. Write a letter to an organization that is conserving a rainforest and let them know that they’re doing a great job! 4. Save water while taking a bath, brushing your teeth, or washing your car. 5. Make your own native garden at home or school. 6. If you visit a rainforest, plant a native plant that grows there. If you’re unsure, check with a neighborhood nursery or conservation agency. 7. Before entering a rainforest, clean your hiking boots and clothes of all debris, including seeds and dirt. 8. If you see a plant or animal that may be harmful to a rainforest, ask an adult to help you investigate it and remove it, if possible. 9. Volunteer with a conservation organization in your neighborhood. 10. Encourage your family, friends, and neighbors to learn about Hawai‘i’s rainforests and ways they can help conserve them.

‘I‘iwi

Hawai‘i's Forests and Wildlife Resources
Ask a Bishop Museum Scientist
an You can participate in um with scienonline for tists at the Bishop Museum. See how you can participate at http://ask. dex. bishopmuseum.org/in ut-this-site php/abo Harold Lyon Arboretum of A university (University Arboretum and Hawai‘i) Botanical Garden proal vides access to a tropic t. The Arboretum rainfores for provides opportunities tion in activities participa of fostering stewardship . www.hawaii.edu/ the forest lyonarboretum

‘I‘iwi is Threatened by Global Warming
Getting a glimpse of an ‘I‘iwi might be possible in the higher elevations of the rainforests. However, scientists warn that by 2050, it is possible that it might become extinct. For hundreds of years, the ‘I‘iwi has been making its home at higher elevations. It had to leave the lower areas of the forest as disease-carrying mosquitoes infected the birds with avian malaria and pox. yond 5,000 feet, which means that the ‘I‘iwi would not be able to survive on the other islands.

‘Ōhā Wai

As islands get The movement of the birds to higher elevawarmer each year, the tions also leaves the plants that depended mosquito breeding on the birds for pollination to decrease in grounds have risen population. from 1,900 feet to 5,000 feet. This forces The Center for Biological Diversity filed a petition to protect the scarce ‘I‘iwi. What the ‘I‘iwi to move to even higher elevadoes this mean? Protective agencies could tions. Only Maui and set rules to protect the bird. Congress could the Island of Hawai‘i pass laws to control practices that affect have elevations beglobal warming.

Mikinalo

© 2011 PREL

2003

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The Hawai‘i State Legislature declared 2003 the Year of the Hawaiian Forest, the centennial to Act 44.

Today

Watershed partnerships including private and public landowners work together to save Hawai‘i’s forests.

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Threatened: Any species whose population is greatly reduced and in danger of becoming endangered within the foreseeable future. Government agencies designate the status of the birds under the Endangered Species Act (Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of Forestry and Wildlife, p. 1). Examples ‘I‘iwi
Po‘ouli

Reported on Islands O‘ahu All islands

Koa Endangered: Any species that is in danger of extinction in the wild within the foreseeable future. Examples Reported on Islands ‘Alalā (Hawai‘i Crow) Hawai‘i Hawai‘i O‘ahu Hawai‘i Hawai‘i
O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Maui, Hawai‘i

common: Any species that is commonly seen. Examples Reported on Islands ‘Elepaio Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Endangered on O‘ahu ‘Apapane Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Maui, and Hawai‘i Uncommon on Moloka‘i ‘Amakihi Kaua‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i Uncommon on O‘ahu ‘I‘iwi Maui and Hawai‘i Rare on O‘ahu, Kaua‘i, and Moloka‘i Hāpu‘u Māmaki ‘Ōhi‘a All islands All islands All islands Thrives in sulfur-filled air Kamehameha Butterfly Carnivorous Caterpillar
© 2011 PREL

‘Akia pōlā‘au ‘Elepaio ‘Io Palila Happy Face Spider Kāhuli Lobeliad
`Akia pōlā‘au Extinct Hawai‘i Mamo

O‘ahu All islands
‘Alalā

Extinct: Any species that is no longer in existence Examples Reported on Islands Mamo ‘Ō‘ō Po‘ouli
Hawai‘i (1899), Molokai (1907)

O‘ahu (1837), Hawai‘i (1934), Kaua‘i (1987) Maui (2004)

All islands except Kaho‘olawe All major islands

Making Connections

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What might be some of the effects you would notice if some of the organisms in the rainforest disappeared? What difference would it make to plants in the rainforest? What difference would it make to other animals? What difference would it make to your drinking water?

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awa s d sp ore t ir eshwater birangered. Me native to Hut it now ha b fr of ar .B the end ratteve land and7 more areered speciesies on Earth e world. Inine he i h c t is twere 68 naextinct and 1nd endangndemic spesewhere in tmpared to n ha there el da W 3, co fe re atene umber o tates and e extinct ies a n n 189 ose spec st of thre S I t m beca th nited . li ighes 29 of n the U.S had the h n in the U America o ‘i rth tio birds e, Hawai xtinc in No i. s of e species n Hawai‘ tim te one ti ird st ra inc ighe wo b e ext the h 0 years, t ecam 0 tb last 2 ecies tha p s bird
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Are there endemic butterflies in Hawai‘i?

The Kamehameha butterfly was the first native butterfly reported in Hawai‘i. It was first seen in 1821. It is named in honor of King Kamehameha I. The Kamehameha butterfly is one of two butterflies endemic to Hawai‘i. The other is Blackburn Blue. The Blackburn Blue can be found where koa trees are located.

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What are the most common causes of habitat loss?
Alien weeds (92%), pigs and goats (82%), fire (45%), rats (33%), release of personal plant and animal collections (33%), development projects (15%).

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© 2011 PREL

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Control of Invasive Animals and Plants
Grazing Livestock

Protection, Preservation, and Management

Rainforest conservation is the protection, preservation, and careful management of the rainforest. Without proper conservation, Hawai‘i’s rainforests would be in danger. Early Hawaiians settlers brought animals and plants with them. They depended on nature for everything and only took what was needed. They lived by the Kapu system, rules and laws that kept order among the people. Kapu were placed on people, places, and things. Kapu was the traditional Hawaiian way of what we now call “conservation.” Later, settlers brought about a new way of managing the land. They introduced new animals and plants that changed the Hawaiian environment. Grazing livestock destroyed rainforests that were once lush with native trees and animals. Rainforests were replaced with pasturelands. By the early 1900s, people realized the damage. They worried that there would not be enough water for the new sugar plantation businesses. As a result, in 1903, the Territorial Legislature approved Act 44. This Act created Hawai‘i’s forest reserve system and many people became interested in forest restoration. (TNC, 2003) This was the beginning of a new era of conservation. Today, conservation practices continue to be used across the state to protect, preserve, and carefully manage our rainforests. Natural area reserves, watershed partnerships, bird recovery programs, and invasive species committees are some of the groups making a difference.

Benjamin Franklin once said, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” (Independence Hall Association 1995) This could not be more true than when it comes to invasive species affecting Hawai‘i’s rainforests. Conservationists have learned that the best way of controlling these species is to prevent them from entering rainforests in the first place. Feral ungulates, such as pigs, goats, deer, and sheep, cause some of the most harm to our rainforests. To control them, miles of fence are built around a forest to stop them from entering. When these predators are trapped within the fence, they are hunted and eliminated. Eventually, native plants grow again and rainforests are given a new chance to regenerate. This type of control is used often in the Natural Area Reserve System. The system preserves land and water where there has been little or no impact to the natural plants and animals. Rare endemic species that are near extinction are protected here. These reserves are found throughout Hawai‘i and range from marine environments to lava flows, tropical forests, and alpine deserts. There are 19 reserves on five islands. More than 115,000 acres of the State’s most unique ecosystems are protected here. (DOFAW, 2010)
Mouflon (Big Horn Sheep)

ha nk nk o ive Thi you thiinforests,tw n of Natnd io en u

t It g bofuonservtinomes A c c

The threat of invasive plants also is being managed statewide by Invasive Species Committees. Work crews enter rainforests and search for plants that harm the forest. As they find them, they record their location and control the plants. By taking notes of where they are found, conservationists can better understand how severely the plants have invaded an area. They can also work on a sequence of steps to prevent their spread. Their goal is to stop invasive species from becoming established in the rainforests. If an invasive plant is found before becoming a problem, it can be easily controlled. But, if it is left alone, it can quickly get out of control and cost lots of money. This has been a hard lesson learned in East Maui, where one of the State’s largest populations of invasive miconia plants is found. It costs nearly $900,000 a year to inspect and control thousands of acres where miconia may be found. If miconia were detected in its early stage, before it became widespread and established, it would have only cost about $50 to control! (MISC, 2008) Benjamin Franklin was right, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure!”

© 2011 PREL

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Miconia

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Restoration and Improvement of Rainforest Habitat

Hawai‘i’s rainforests have been harmed, but there’s still hope. When native ecosystems are improved and restored, native plants and animals return. Conservationists are growing rare native plants and breeding rare native birds in protected and controlled areas so that they can eventually be reintroduced into the rainforests. On the Island of Hawai‘i, the Kōhala Watershed Partnership has an inspiring story. The partnership protects 65,500 acres of land in North Kōhala. (HAWP 2008) It is the only known home of the pūpū kani oe, a rare Hawaiian tree snail nicknamed the “singing snail.” Its habitat has changed during the last century by deforestation, feral cattle, rats, and other predators. To restore this area, partners are controlling invasive species and using fences to manage feral animals. (Simon, 2009) During the summer of 2010, as researchers were studying the pūpū kani oe, a remarkable discovery was made. A plant species that was once thought to be extinct was rediscovered! The last time this lobelia, ‘oha wai, had been seen on the Island of Hawai‘i was in 1909. It Fences Manage Feral Animals was last collected on Maui in 1920. Since then, it was nowhere to be found. But surprise! It was rediscovered along with 29 other plants that had flowers and fruit. This native plant had made a comeback! Researchers are now collecting seeds to hopefully help improve its population for the future. (TNC, 2010) Conservation practices are also helping Hawai‘i’s birds. The Hawaiian Endangered Bird Conservation Program is protecting endangered Native Hawaiian bird species by breeding and raising them in captivity. If possible, they are eventually released back into the wild.

Other birds they are helping are the puaiohi, Maui parrotbill, and the palila. All three of these species are critically endangered in the wild. Since 1999, 188 puaiohi have been released at the Alaka‘i Wilderness Preserve on Kaua‘i. The palila have been freed on the northern slopes of Mauna Kea in hopes that they will create a new population. The Maui parrotbill is still being studied in captivity. (San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, 2010)

Palila

With the help of these and other conservation programs throughout the state, there’s hope that some of Hawai‘i’s most critically endangered Hawaiian forest plants and animals may be saved from near extinction.

Adult ‘Alalā

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One of the program’s best success stories is the ‘alalā. The Hawaiian crow has not been seen in the wild since 2002. Only 67 birds are known to exist and all 67 are being cared for by this conservation program. Without this program, the ‘alalā could possibly be extinct.
‘Alalā Raised in Captivity

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Take a look at the 10 ways you can help conserve Hawai‘i’s rainforests. Which ones are you already practicing? Select one that caught your attention, but is unfamiliar to you (or something that is not on the list). Find out more about it, then decide on one thing you could act on. Have fun!

Making Connections

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As a conservation biologist and a traditionally trained Hawaiian cultural practitioner, Sam Gon III, is best noted for “consciously integrating Hawaiian culture into the mission of biological conservation.” He has seen the different ecosystems of all the islands, with the thousands of native plants and animals within them, and “works to protect and preserve them in a changing world.” Q. What has been the most extraordinary example or story of restoration of organisms in the rainforest? A. “When we started to manage Waikamoi preserve, it was horribly impacted by pigs and goats, and anywhere you stood in the rainforest, you saw mud, pig diggings, and the exposed roots of trees.” “After we fenced that preserve and actively hunted out the animals, the recovery was remarkable. Lush and fragile ferns and native groundcover regained their dominance of the forest floor. The seedlings of trees, which would never have survived to replace their parents, could now grow up past the vulnerable early stages of their lives.” “The most famous example was way back in the early 1970s, in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, at a time when there were thousands of feral goats grazing the lower portions of the park of lava and grass rootstalks. A small fenced area was established in the area called Kukalau‘ula. Within a year, a rare Hawaiian vine germinated in the exclosure and provided the only splash of green in the barren landscape.”

Sam ‘Ohukani‘ōhi‘a Gon III Links the Past, Present, and Future
Sam ‘Ohukani‘ōhi‘a Gon III is a senior scientist and cultural advisor at The Nature Conservancy Hawai‘i.

Poamoho Trail on O‘ahu is one of the easiest ways to see the summit forest of the Ko‘olau Mountains

Q. What is the one famous “Sam Gon quote” you would like students to remember about the “stewardship” of the rainforest? A. “Not all green is good–learn your native plants and animals–they are the first Hawaiians. They have nowhere else in the world to live, and they make our islands truly Hawaiian. As the people who live here, our kuleana is to defend the native ecosystems that make our islands a paradise on Earth.” Q. Why is a balanced forest important to people who live in urban areas, far from the rainforests? A. “When you turn on the water at home, where does that water come from? If you live on O‘ahu, it comes from our huge and abundant groundwater sources. But before it gets into the ground, we need functioning forests. The complex layers of vegetation from trees to shrubs, to ferns and mosses, allow rainfall to gradually percolate, as through a living sponge into the soil, and then into the underground water sources.”

© 2011 PREL

Kamakou Preserve is one of the places protected by the Nature Conservancy of Hawai‘i

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Cycle in a Rainforest Bottle

Hāhai no ka ua I ka ululā‘au. Rain always follows the forest. Translation: The rains are attracted to forest trees. Knowing this, Hawaiians hewed only the trees that were needed. (Pukui 405, p. 50) Build a model of a rainforest in a bottle and observe what happens.

(Activities and Projects)
Materials
1. A 2-liter plastic bottle with cap 2. Gravel 3. Charcoal bits 4. Potting soil 5. Small house plants (philodendron type, moss, small fern-type plants) 6. Scissors or knife 7. Clear packing tape
Name of the Bird (species, if known) Fairy Tern

Take part in an annual 4-day Great Backyard Bird Count with other students throughout the United States. Your data will be added to the material and will be available for view. Which birds do you think were most commonly reported? See Hawai‘i’s count for 2010 at www.birdsource. org/gbbc/
Description of the Bird • Approximately 9–10 inches from head to tail • All white with long black bill • Black ring around eyes Research: The Fairy Tern is also called the White Tern (manu-o-Kū ). It was named the official bird of Honolulu, Hawai‘i on April 2, 2007. It is a native bird of Hawai‘i.

Procedures

1. Remove labels from the plastic bottle. 2. Wash the bottle. 3. Cut the bottle in half – cross-wise (have an adult do this for you). 4. Layer the potting material in the bottom half of the bottle. a. 1 to 2 inches of gravel at the bottom prevents the soil from having too much water. b. Charcoal bits filter the water to keep it clean. c. 4 inches of potting soil adds nutrients for the plants. d. Plant the plants. e. Water the plants with ½ cup of water. 5. Place the top half of the bottle back on top of the bottom half and tape them together. 6. Place the bottle in a sunlit area, but not direct sunlight.

Date and Time

Numbers Observed

Location of Sighting (e.g., apartment, yard, schoolyard, park, nature reserve, roadside) • State Capitol lawn area • Seen on a tree branch

Bird’s Habitat (woods, urban or city, rural or country, forest, grassland, water)

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• Urban area Research: Nests on trees, rocky ledges, or on buildings

Record Your Observations

How Do You Conduct a Bird Count?
Record the information you observe as accurately as possible. Use a new chart for each observation period. 1. Record the “highest” number of birds of each species that you saw together at any one time. 2. Write the speciesʻ name – such as Zebra Dove, not just Dove. You may need to consult a book on birds.

The bottle is like a little forest watershed. Water is released from plants. Water droplets will form. The water droplets will fall or drip back into the soil. The Threatened, Endangered, and Extinct Have you watched a cartoon about an extinct dinosaur? Even if we do not have dinosaurs today, we sure learn a lot about them through cartoons. Besides cartoons, there are other creative ways for remembering the threatened, endangered, and extinct, such as stamps, coloring books, playing cards, and stories like The Menehune and the Birds. Can you think of others?
© 2011 PREL

Check out the chart on organisms that are listed in the threatened, endangered, and extinct categories. Select one organism. Think of a “creative recovery or comeback,” an idea for others to learn more about the organism. Share your idea with others in class. 21

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Helpful Features and Tools Information and skills you are expected to know and demonstrate after you complete “The Flow of Energy in Hawai‘i’s Rainforest”

cycle n. regular pattern of events that is repeated The water cycle in the rainforest is interrupted by the introduction of non-native plants and animals. eliminate v. to destroy or get rid of It is difficult to eliminate invasive species that spread through the forest. provide v. to give what is needed Many forests provide products for people, such as wood, natural medicines, and food. release v. to let someone or something go; to set free Do not release your pets into the forest. scarce adj. not common; difficult to find Scarce birds are well protected by state laws. sequence n. a process in which one thing follows another Arrange the pictures of the forest organisms in a sequence to show their place in a food chain. terrestrial adj. relating to the earth; land-based In the Kumulipo, terrestrial, or land-based organisms, such as the hale tree, share partnerships with water-based organisms, such as the mullet. . transfer v. to move from one place to another The scientists will transfer the endangered birds to a protected environment, like the zoo, until they can survive independently. watershed n. an area of land surrounded by mountain ridges that catches moisture and rainwater to fill river systems The Hawaiian rainforest is an example of a watershed that continuously refills our ground water supply.

1. Describe the flow of energy in a rainforest ecosystem. 2. Use the science and grade-level vocabulary words and word-part clues to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words. 3. Use text structures (cause and effect & compare and contrast) to help you understand what you read.

Look for the author’s text patterns and signal words that explain reasons or causes for an event or phenomenon. Hawaiian rainforests are shrinking due to the introduction of invasive plants and animals, global warming, and destruction by man.

Helpful Reading Tools Understand Cause and Effect Text Structure

Look for text patterns and signal words that explain similarities of and differences between two or more ideas. The canopy is like a filter as the rain passes through the leaves and falls on shrubs below it.

Understand Compare and Contrast Text Structure

Word-Part Clues

1. Look for word-part endings: -tion, -sion, -ion, -ation a. elimination, observation, explosion 2. Remove the word-ending to determine its base. a. eliminate / observe / explode 3. Use the surrounding words and phrases in the sentence the word appears in to determine the meaning of the word. The goal of a conservation program is the elimination of an invasive species before it establishes itself in the rainforest. (Elimination of an invasive species is “to eliminate,” or get rid of an invasive species.)

Science Words to Know

food chain n. a series of organisms in a community of living things that depend on one another for food Plants are usually the organisms that start a food chain.
© 2011 PREL

predator n. an animal that hunts another animal for food Predators, such as rats, cats, and mongoose, feed on birds of the forest. prey n. an animal that is hunted for food by another animal
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23 Carnivorous caterpillars snatch prey, such as insects, that get too close to them.

‘akia pōlā‘au alahe‘e ‘alalā ali‘i ‘amakihi ‘apapane ‘elepaio hāpu‘u ‘i‘iwi ‘io Ka Nūhou kāhili kāhuli kapu koa kuleana Kumulipo māmaki mamo manu-o-kū mikinalo moa-nalo nuku ‘i‘iwi ‘ōhā wai ‘ōhi‘a ‘ō‘ō ‘ōpe ‘ape‘a pahaha pāhau po‘ouli palila pueo Wā ‘Alua

endangered native bird tree that shares a relationship with the He‘e octopus as expressed in the Kumulipo Hawaiian crow chief, ruler native bird native bird with red and black feathers used for feather work native bird native fern native bird, with red feathers used for capes Hawaiian hawk the news feather standard, a symbol of an ali‘i native tree snail rules and laws; sacredness a native tree known for its wood; used for canoes responsibilities and duties Hawaiian poem of creation native tree used for kapa extinct black honeycreeper fairy tern; native bird native carnivorous plant prehistoric flightless bird native nectar producing tree native plant believed to be extinct; was discovered in 2010 native tree with red blossoms extinct native bird hoary bat fish that shares a relationship with the Pūhala tree, as expressed in the Kumulipo fish that shares a relationship with the Lauhau tree, as expressed in the Kumulipo extinct native bird endangered native bird Hawaiian owl Second Era of the Kumulipo poem

Balance Between Land and Sea Organisms Beckwith, M. (1971). The Kumulipo, a Hawaiian Creation Chant. Honolulu, Hawai‘i: University of Hawai‘i Press. Edith Kanaka‘ole Foundation. (2002). Kumulipo: Traditional Hawaiian Philosophy. Retrieved September 1, 2010, from www.edithkanakaolefoundation.org/projects/kumulipo/index.htm Johnson, R. K. (1981). Kumulipo, Hawaiian Hymn of Creation. Honolulu, HI: Topgallant Publishing. Do Watersheds Really Matter? Board of Water Supply. (n.d.). Watersheds Provide Our Water for Life. Retrieved November 6, 2010, from www.boardofwatersupply.com/files/Watershed%20Brochure_ Website3.pdf Hawai‘i Association of Watershed Partnerships. (2008). Why Watersheds Matter. Retrieved November 6, 2010, from http://hawp.org/why-watersheds-matter.asp Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources. Division of Forestry & Wildlife. (2003). Be Forest Friendly. Retrieved November 8, 2010, from www.state.hi.us/dlnr/dofaw/kids/teach/ index.htm Hawai‘i Division of Aquatic Resources and Bishop Museum. (2008). Atlas of Hawaiian Watersheds & Their Aquatic Resources. Retrieved November 6, 2010, from www.hawaiiwatershedatlas.com Nature Conservancy. (2003). Last Stand. The Vanishing Hawaiian Forest. Retrieved November 6, 2010, from www.nature.org/media/hawaii/last_stand_web_lo.pdf Pukui, Mary Kawena. (1997). ‘Ōlelo No‘eau. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. Flow of Energy in a Hawaiian Rainforest Planetpals. (1991). The Food Chain. Retrieved October 5, 2010, from www.planetpals.com/foodchain.html#chart Hawai‘i’s Honeycreepers (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2010, from http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/hawaiihoneycreepers.html Food Chains and Food Webs. (2010). Retrieved October 15, 2010, from www.vtaide.com/png/foodchains.htm Ka Nūhou ‘Ōhā Wai Sighting! Hawai‘i 24/7. (2010). Native plant presumed extinct; found at Parker Ranch. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from www.hawaii247.com/2010/09/02/native-plant-presumed-extinct-found-atparker-ranch/ The Nature Conservancy. (2010). Native Hawaiian Plant Rediscovered on Big Island. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/hawaii/ press/press4666.html ‘I‘iwi is Threatened by Global Warming Center for Biological Diversity. (2010). Petition to List the ‘I‘iwi as Threatened or Endangered Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/birds/iiwi/pdfs/Iiwi_Petition.pdf 26

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Carnivorous Plant Gon, Sam ‘Ohu III. The Nature Conservancy. (2010). Hawai‘i Beware of Mikinalo! Retrieved November 6, 2010, from www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/ hawaii/projectprofiles/art32595.html The Threatened, Endangered, and Extinct Center for Biological Diversity. (2010). Petition to List the ‘I‘iwi as Threatened or Endangered Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/birds/iiwi/pdfs/Iiwi_Petition.pdf Denny, Jim. (2010). A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Hawai‘i. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai‘i Press. Denny, Jim and Jamieson, Dean. (2001). Hawai‘i’s Butterflies & Moths. Honolulu, HI: Mutual Publishing. Hawai‘i Audubon Society. (2005). Hawai‘i’s Birds. Honolulu, HI: Island Heritage Publishing. Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of Forestry and Wildlife. (2005). A Teacher’s Guide to Hawaiian Birds. Honolulu, HI: Department of Land & Natural Resources Division of Forestry & Wildlife. Factoids Rate of Bird Extinction in Hawai‘i Beckwith, Martha Warren. (1951). The Kumulipo. A Hawaiian Creation Chant. HI: University of Chicago Press. Retrieved January 8, 2011, from www.ling.hawaii.edu/faculty/stampe/ Oral-Lit/Hawaiian/Kumulipo/kumulipo-book.html Hawai‘i’s Honeycreepers (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2010, from http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/hawaiihoneycreepers.html Hawai‘i Forest & Trail, Ltd. (2009). Natural History. Evolution, Hawaiian Style. Retrieved September 15, 2010, from www.hawaiiforest.com/index.php/articles/category/hawaiinei-natural-history-of-hawaii Endemic Butterflies Denny, Jim and Jamieson Dean. (2001). Hawai‘i’s Butterflies & Moths. Honolulu, HI: Mutual Publishing. Prehistoric Birds in Hawai‘i Strauss, Bob. About.com. (2010). Moa-Nalo. Retrieved November 15, 2010, from http://dinosaurs.about.com/od/prehistoricbirds/p/Moa-Nalo.htm Habitat Loss Juvik, Sonia P. and James O. Editors. (1998). Atlas of Hawai‘i Third Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Conservation of Hawai‘i’s Rainforest Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DOFAW), State of Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources. (2010). About: Natural Area Reserves Systems. Retrieved October 14, 2010, from http://hawaii.gov/ dlnr/dofaw/nars/about-nars
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Hawai‘i Association of Watershed Partnerships (HAWP). (2008). [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 14, 2010, from http://hawp.org/kohala.asp Independence Hall Association. (1995, July 4). [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 14, 2010, from www.ushistory.org/franklin/info/index.htm Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC). (2008). A Field Guide to the Early Detection of Invasive Plants and Animals Maui, Hawai‘i. Hawai‘i: MISC. Rainforest Alliance. (n.d.). Retrieved October 18, 2010, from www.rainforest-alliance.org/education/documents San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. (2010). Hawaii Endangered Bird Conservation Program: Saving bird species at the edge of extinction. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from www.sandiegozoo.org/conservation/animals/birds/ Simon, Liza. (2009). In Kohala, an effort to save native ‘singing snail’. Ka Wai Ola Newspaper, 26, 2. The Nature Conservancy. (2003). Last Stand: The Vanishing Hawaiian Forest. Hawai‘i: The Nature Conservancy. The Nature Conservancy. (2010). Hawai‘i. Retrieved October 14, 2010, from www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/hawaii/press/press4666.html Timeline Juvik, Sonia P. and James O., Editors. (1998). Atlas of Hawai‘i Third Edition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. The Nature Conservancy. (2001). Last Stand. The Vanishing Hawaiian Forest. Honolulu, HI: The Nature Conservancy. Pāhana Alba, Gygis. (2005). Manu-o-Kū or White (Fairy) Tern. Retrieved December 12, 2010, from www.state.hi.us/dlnr/dofaw/cwcs/files/NAAT%20final%20CWCS/Chapters/ Terrestrial%20Fact%20Sheets/Seabirds/White%20fairy%20tern%20NAAT%20final%20!.pdf Cornell Lab of Ornithology & National Audubon Society. (2010). The Great Backyard Bird Count. Retrieved November 11, 2010, from www.birdsource.org/gbbc/whycount.html Morgan, Lydi. Hawai‘i Audubon Society. (May, 2007). Manu-o-Kū Named the Official Bird of Honolulu. Journal of the Hawai‘i Audubon Society. Elepaio. 67:4. p. 1. National Aeronautics Science Administration. (NASA). (2010). Earth Observatory. Build a Rainforest. Retrieved November 8, 2010, from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/ Experiments/Biome/hobuildrainforest.php Terrarium Man (n.d.). Make a Soda Bottle Terrarium. Retrieved November 8, 2010, from www.stormthecastle.com/terrarium/soda-bottle-terrarium.htm Wikipedia. (2010). White Tern. Retrieved December 12, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Tern

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Photo Credits ‘Io (Cover, pp. ii, 5, 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography (jjphoto@hawaii.rr.com) Kamehameha Butterfly (p. i) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Douglas Okamura, Harold L. Lyon Arboretum ‘Apapane (Cover, p. ii) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography ‘I‘iwi (pp. i, 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography ‘I‘iwi (p. 5, 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography ‘Ōhi‘a Lehua Kaua‘i (p. 1) . . . . . . . . . ©Jim Di Mora, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Alahe‘e (p. 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Hau (p. 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Understory (p.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Wainiha Ridge (p. 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kaua‘i Nature conservancy Wainiha Valley (p. 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kaua‘i Nature conservancy Picture Wing Fly (pp. 5, 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kevin Kaneshiro Koa (p. 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum Decaying Leaves (pp. 5, 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum ‘I‘iwi on Mamane (p. 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . ©Robert J. Shallenberger, The Nature Conservancy Nuku ‘I‘iwi (p. 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ©Nathan Yuen, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Carnivorous Caterpillar (p. 8) . . . . . . . . . . ©Bill Mull, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Pueo, Hawaiian Owl (p. 8) . . . . . . . . . ©Jim Di Mora, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Kāhuli Tree Snail (p. 8) . . . . . . . . . .©Richard Dewey, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy ‘Alalā (p. 8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography Healthy Hāpu‘u (p. 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harold L. Lyon Arboretum ‘Ōhā wai (p. 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ©The Nature Conservancy Mikinalo (p. 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ©Ken Wood, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy ‘Akia pōlā‘au (p. 11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography Extinct Hawai‘i Mamo (p. 12) . ©Scott Wilson/A. H. Evans, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Alalā (pp. 12, 17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography Po‘ouli (p. 12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ©Paul Baker, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Miconia (p. 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ©Grady Timmons, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Big Island Cattle (p. 15) . . . . . . . . ©Grady Timmons, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Mouflon (p. 16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ©The Nature Conservancy Fence (Kohala) (p. 17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Courtesy of DLNR-DOFAW Juvenile ‘Alalā (p. 17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jack Jeffrey Photography Palila (p. 18) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ©Peter LaTourrette, Courtesy of The Nature Conservancy Sam Gon III (pp. 19–20) . . . . . . . . . . . Courtesy of Sam Gon III, The Nature Conservancy
© 2011 PREL

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) President and CEO Sharon Nelson-Barber Creative Producer Michael Q. Ceballos Evaluators Andrew Sahalie Chuck Giuli Executive Producer Ormond Hammond Curriculum Developer Ellen Miyasato Cultural Advisor Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua, Kamehameha Schools Production Assistant Frances Oshiro Written Contributions Anita Bruce Winona Chang Joylynn Paman Karen Victor AJB Resources Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Curriculum Writer Science Teacher, Ke Kula ‘o S. M. Kamakau LPCS Line Producer Kaira Resch Artist Bryson Luke Curriculum Advisors Susan Hanson Cheryl Taitague

Special Thanks To Christine Antolos John Camac Sheila Conant Javier Elizondo Sam Gon Myra Hasegawa Amber Inwood Ross Inouye Jack Jeffrey Michelle Gorham Jones Hedy Kaneoka Terry Kelly Scott Kunihiro Susan Kusunoki Jill Laughlin Kai Lono Marylin Low Corinne Misaki-Wingert Roger Osentoski Jennifer Padua Lori Phillips Casey Primacio Lee Ann Ānuenue Pūnua Liane Sing Sean Soon Pamela Suga Grady Timmons Melissa Torres-Laing Norine W. Yeung

Bishop Museum Department of Land and Natural Resources Division of Forestry and Wildlife Haha‘ione Elementary School Harold L. Lyon Arboretum

Hawai‘i Audubon Society Hawai‘i Department of Education Kamehameha Schools The Nature Conservancy, Hawai‘i The Nature Conservancy, Kaua‘i Program

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