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Pacific Resources for Education and Learning

Building Capacity Through Education

© 2011 PREL ES1001


Our Earth is part of a solar system, which is made up of the sun, planets, and other objects, including asteroids and meteoroids. The eight planets and their moons revolve around the sun, resulting in the different seasons of the year.

Cycles in our Solar System

Our Earth, the Sun, and the Stars

© 2011 PREL

A long time ago, people thought that Earth was at the center of the universe. Their daily lives were in balance with the rising and setting of the sun each day. However, the view of their world changed as new tools, such as the telescope, were invented. Today we know that the sun is the center of our solar system, and day and night occur as Earth rotates on its axis.

Our solar system is just one part of a huge group of stars called the Milky Way Galaxy. This Milky Way Galaxy is only one of billions of galaxies that make up the universe. Have you ever wondered what keeps Earth and all of the planets in place instead of flying off into space? All of the objects that make up our universe are kept in place by natural forces, such as electromagnetism and gravity. ii

Forces in our Universe


Our Earth, the Sun, and the Stars Earth: A Place in the Universe An overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i-ii Understanding our Earth, the Sun, and the Stars Ka lā is the Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 4 Navigating with the Stars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua Links the Past, Present, and Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 KA NŪHOU Galileo Galilei Looks Beyond Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 FACTOIDS Frequently Asked Questions about our Earth, the Sun, and the Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 Earth’s Rotation A Cycle of Day and Night. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 Our Earth, a World Clock World’s Standard Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16 Pāhana Activities and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-18 Reading for Information Helpful Reading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Hawaiian Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Resources and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
© 2011 PREL The contents of this publication were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.


Ka Lā “is” the Day

Understanding the movements of the sun during the day and the stars that appear at night was important to the Hawaiian people. They observed them closely and depended on their movements to guide their daily activities. The sun, ka lā, was therefore regarded with great respect.

Haleakalā, World’s Largest Dormant Volcano
Haleakalā is still a wahi pana. It means a place with special meaning. It is the world’s largest dormant volcano. A dormant volcano is one that isn’t active or erupting. However, it could erupt one day. Haleakalā last erupted more than 200 years ago (in 1790). It is 10,023 feet above sea level. It is so high that its peak rises above the clouds. Viewers at the top can see the horizon up to 115 miles out to sea. This is why the top of Haleakalā has about 15 minutes more sunlight than the communities on the coast below.

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Many legends about ka lā were passed on from one generation to the next. In the legend, Why Māui Snared the Sun, Māui captures Kalā, the sun, and slows it from traveling too fast across the sky. The story of Māui explains why some days are longer than others. According to one legend, ‘Āheleakalā was a snare made by Māui to capture Kalā. ‘Ā heleakalā eventually became known as Haleakalā, the house of the sun.

Akakū Ānuenue

© 2011 PREL

Have you seen a reflection rainbow? You might be able to see one on Haleakalā if the weather is right. You must be at one of the lookouts above the clouds. Stand at the edge of the crater, with the sun directly behind you, so your shadow appears on the clouds below. You will see your own shadow on the upper surfaces of the clouds surrounded by a rainbow. The Hawaiians call this awesome phenomenon akakū ānuenue (reflection rainbow). This reflection rainbow can be experienced at only a few other places. It is described in the legends of Brocken, which is the highest peak in the Harz Mountains in Germany. They call their rainbow the “Spectre of Brocken.” It has also been reported in Cairngorm, Scotland.


Ka lā was not just a brilliant sun. Ka lā was the day. It provided sunlight for warmth and energy so farmers could grow their crops, fishermen could fish, and children could play on the warm beaches.

Try This

Imagine yourself as the sun. Face in the direction you are traveling from sunrise to sunset. Stretch your hands out. Your right hand points to the ‘ākau, which is north. Your left hand points to the hema, which is south. This is how the Hawaiian people established where the islands were located.

Ka lā Served as a Compass

During the day, the sun’s path across the sky was used to point out directions. The sun rose or entered from the eastern direction, which the people called kūkulu hikina. It set, or entered, the sea in the western direction, called komohana.
T Your
n directio s, what (East) se term e cated? Using th awai‘i lo island H is the (West) Lehua?


To remember them, directions were named after places. For example, the Hawaiian phrase, ka hikina a ka lā i Ha‘eha‘e or the rising of the sun at Ha‘eha‘e (Hawai‘i) was used to describe the direction of the rising sun. Lehua, an island west of Ni‘ihau, was known as the moku kā ‘ili lā, the sun-snatching island. So, sunset was often referred to as lehua.

© 2011 PREL

Making Connections


Why Māui Snared the Sun is one of many stories that parents or grandparents told their children. The Hawaiians told stories about the world around them, such as the sun and the stars. Locate and read another story about Māui that explains why something in nature is the way it is. Add this to your class collection of favorite stories.


We know that the Pacific navigators understood the movements of the sun. Their chants tell us
“Ulu o ka lā. The sun grows. Said of the light of sunrise just as the sun’s rim touches the horizon. The morning sun is used for navigation to determine the direction of east.” (Pukui, 2870, p. 314)

How could they find the islands before they even saw them? To locate the Hawaiian Islands, they first watched for the North Star (Polaris), which they called Hōkūpa‘a (fixed star). It wasn’t a brilliant star, but could be spotted when they found the Big Dipper’s two “pointers.” See if you can find the North Star by following the Big Dipper’s “pointers”.

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How to Locate Hōkūpa‘a, the North Star (Polaris)

1. Find the Big Dipper. 2. Find the two brightest stars (pointers) on the Big Dipper’s bowl. 3. Draw an imaginary line through the two stars toward the Little Dipper’s handle. 4. The brightest star in the Little Dipper is Hōkūpa‘a.


What happened at night? During the night, they used the stars to steer their canoes across the ocean. Each night they watched the same groups of stars cross the sky. These stars were signals to help them steer in accurate directions (north, south, east, and west).
© 2011 PREL

Around 350 BC


Greek philosopher Aristotle taught that Earth was at the center of the universe. He believed that the sun, moon, stars, and planets moved in perfect circles around Earth.

Around 150 BC

Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemy added to Aristotle’s geocentric model by explaining that the planets moved in circles (epicycles) that moved on other circles (deferents).


Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua Links The Past, Present, and Future
Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua is a Hawaiian Cultural Specialist at Kamehameha Schools Program Support Division, Learning Resource Section When Orion (‘Oliona) showed directly overhead, they knew they had reached the equator. They then looked for familiar star groups. They knew the names of more than 150 of them. They memorized their places in the sky.
“E ‘ike ka hōkū o ka nalu, o hōkū ‘ula, o hōkū lei” “Behold the stars of the waves, the red star, the wreath of stars. When the rising and setting stars are near the ocean horizon, they provide clues to direction.” [From a chant in the story of Paka‘a and Kuapaka‘a.] Polynesian Voyaging Society, (n.d.) http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu/ike/canoe_living/proverbs.html They also knew that some of the star groups appeared to pass directly above (zenith) the islands. Hawai‘i’s zenith star was Arcturus or Hōkūle‘a. Hōkūle‘a means “Star of Happiness.” Once they saw Hōkūle‘a directly overhead, they knew they had reached Hawai‘i. Before they knew about the science of astronomy, the Hawaiians used their eyes to make careful observations of Earth and sky. They used their memory to keep accurate maps of what they saw. They created chants, dances, and stories to describe what they knew. They passed these stories from one generation to the next. The ‘Ōlelo no‘eau (proverbs or traditional sayings) were short oral words of wisdom that guided Hawaiian daily lives. Although they were short, these sayings held several layers of meaning. Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua shares a short but powerful proverb that was meaningful to the Hawaiians and continues to guide practices today. Kau ka lā i ka lolo, ho‘i ke aka i ke kino. (Pukui 1611, p. 174). It is translated as “The sun stands over the brain, the shadow retreats into the body.” Said of high noon, when the sun is directly overhead and no shadows are seen — an important time for some ancient rites and ceremonies. Keikio‘ewa explains, “A person’s shadow is part of one’s body. This means that one’s mana (spiritual power) extends from head to the end of one’s shadow. When the sun is directly overhead, the shadow retreats into one’s body. This is when one experiences great personal power.” “This explains why special events and ceremonies are held at noon. In ancient times, ali‘i who captured the opposing ali‘i would wait until noon to kill him because that is when his victim’s mana would be at its highest. Today, many Hawaiian schools hold ‘uniki or graduations at noon. Other events, such as hula festivals and departure of canoes on long trips, are held at high noon.”


Navigators who left their homeland, observed the movement of the sun, stars, and ocean swells to help guilde them across hundreds of miles of ocean.

Hōkūle‘a is also the name of the canoe that is being used today to study and understand how the early navigators crossed the ocean.

Captain Cook arrived in Hawai‘i in 1778. He and his crew brought spyglasses, compasses, charts, and clocks. How do you think these tools gradually changed the navigators’ view of Earth, the sun, and stars?
© 2011 PREL

Making Connections

Do you know of other ‘ōlelo no‘eau (proverbs or traditional sayings passed from one generation to the next) about the importance of the sun and stars to the Hawaiian people? To other early cultures? Locate and read one to share with the class. Record the wise saying or lesson of the story in your E Ho‘omau! journal.



Islamic astronomer Al-Zarqali proposes a model of the solar system with the planets moving in elliptical orbits around the sun.


Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus sparks an intellectual revolution when he published his heliocentric theory that the planets, including Earth, orbit the sun in perfect circles.


Think About It Before Galileo, the people believed that Earth was the center of the solar system. The sun and stars traveled around Earth. The church had also established this belief. What might have been some reasons for this belief? Shocking Discovery Upsets the Church Rome, Italy, 1611 Galileo Galilei thinks he has proof that the sun, and not Earth, is the center of the solar system. Church leaders are upset. They call this idea false. They have established that Earth is more important than the sun. How could Galileo prove that the church is wrong?

Galileo Would Never Know!

Geocentric: Earth is the center of the solar system.
Before the invention of the telescope, people studied the sun, moon, and stars by watching their movements. They observed the sun and stars rise and set, and the moon appear in the sky. They could not feel Earth move, so they believed that Earth was the fixed or nonmoving center of the solar system. Everything else circled around it.

Heliocentric: The sun is the center of the solar system.
Galileo claimed that the sun is the center of the solar system. Earth and other planets travel around the Sun.
Galileo Placed Under House Arrest
Rome, Italy, 1633

November 4, 1992 Pope John Paul II clears Galileo Galilei o of his charges. Galile s. would never know thi ars He had died 350 ye before. The Pope said that Galileo’s ideas his were established by ns. scientific observatio It had nothing to do with the beliefs of the Church.

Galileo did not invent the telescope, but was the first to use it to study the stars, moon, and planets. He captured his discoveries in his journal, The Starry Messenger.

Who Invented the Telescope?
If Galileo Galilei didn’t invent the telescope, then who did? Galileo was the first to use the telescope to look at the stars, but he didn’t invent it. It was Hans Lipperhey. He was a German eyeglass maker. According to stories, his children were playing with his lenses and discovered the idea of the telescope.
Making Connection s

Galileo Galilei was arrested this morning by church leaders. He has continued to teach the heliocentric view of the solar system. As he left the trial, it is reported that Galileo muttered to himself, “Nevertheless, it (Earth) does move.” (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Conflict with the Church. 2004)

© 2011 PREL

With his telescope, Galileo was able to see the craters on the moon. He saw the moons of Jupiter and the different phases of Venus. Explore what we can see with today’s telescopes. Check out the images of space at http://heritage. stsci.edu/gallery/galindex. html. What do you think Galileo would be most ld surprised about if he cou these images? see



German astronomer Johannes Kepler publishes his three Laws of Planetary Motion, which describe how the planets orbit the sun in flattened circles called “ellipses.”


Italian scientist Galileo Galilei uses his telescope to observe the phases of Venus and four moons orbiting Jupiter. Galileo’s observations support his theory that the planets orbit the sun.


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How Hot is the Sun?

© 2011 PREL


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The sun is a glowing sphere of gas. The center of the sun is about 27 million degrees Fahrenheit. This heat is created when hydrogen gas changes into helium gas. The surface of the sun is approximately 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. That’s hot! How does this compare to the temperature where you live?

Each culture has its own name for the sun. The name “sun” is the translation of sol, an ancient Roman name. The ancient Greeks called their sun helios. Their legends tell about how Helios rode across the sky in a chariot of flames. The early Hawaiians called their sun ka lā.

What is the Sun’s Name?

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Why do Stars Twinkle?

As light travels through these layers, the light refracts. That means it bends or changes directions as it passes through the layers. The bending of the star’s light makes it appear to twinkle.


Earth’s Rotation

Each day, the sun appears to rise in the east, travels across the sky, and then sets in the west, bringing on the darkness of night. It seems like Earth is standing still, but it actually is not! In fact, this cycle of day and night occurs because of the way Earth moves. The sun really doesn’t rise or set at all! It is Earth that rotates, or spins counter clockwise, to cause day and night.

What Is Earth’s Axis?

What is Earth’s axis? It is an imaginary line that passes through the center of Earth extending from the North Pole to the South Pole. We say that this line through Earth is “the point around which Earth rotates.” Earth’s axis is sometimes called its rotational axis. Did you notice that Earth does not spin upright? It is slightly tilted to one side.

One Day, 24 Hours

Imagine Earth spinning as a top does. A new day begins wherever you are as your part of Earth spins to face the sun. This is when you see the sun rise in the east. At the same time, it is night for the places that spin away from the sun. It takes 24 hours for Earth to complete one spin on its axis. The time it takes for Earth to make that one spin or rotation is what we call a day.

Why is Earth Tilted? Your Turn
To see this is so, you can do a simple experiment. First, find a round object. If you have a globe, you can use that, or a ball, or even an orange. Think of the round object as Earth. Next, find a source of light, like a table lamp or a flashlight. Think of this as the sun. Turn it on and point it at the round object from the side. You can see that one side of the globe is in the brilliant light. That’s like the part of Earth that is having daylight. The part away from the light is dark. This is like the part of Earth that is having nighttime. So part of Earth is having daylight and part is having night at the exact same time. Now turn the globe or ball so that the middle turns and the top and bottom stays in the same place. This is what happens when Earth rotates on its axis.

Scientists believe that the tilt is the result of Earth colliding with large objects. This happened as it was formed about four billion years ago. Before the planets were formed, dust and rocks floating around crashed into each other. As they did, they stuck together to form planets. It seems that Earth was knocked around quite a bit and ended up with a tilted axis of about 23 degrees. We will see how the tilt results in longer hours of daylight when traveling around the sun.

How Fast does Earth Rotate?

Earth’s surface at the equator moves about 25,000 miles in 24 hours. That is about 1,040 miles per hour. Almost makes you dizzy, doesn’t it? This speed decreases as one moves in the direction of both poles. This is because the circumference of Earth decreases to 0 at the poles where the speed is 0 miles per hour.

© 2011 PREL

Think About It

Making Connections

Look around you. Is Earth really spinning? What do you see that shows Earth is spinning at a rate of 1,040 miles per hour?

What would be the effect if our Earth rotated at a faster pace? What would be the effect if it did not rotate? Record your reflections in your E Ho‘omau! journal.


What Time is it Where You Live?

Think About It

What time is it where you are right now? What time is it in Washington, DC? Is it earlier or later than your time? Find out how the “world clock” works.

A long time ago, knowing the time of day was simple. You looked to see how high the sun was in the sky. That was before people began to travel long distances in trains and planes. As people traveled longer distances between different communities, knowing the right time became important. This is why time zones were created in 1883. Today in our time system, there are 24 hours in a day. This means that it takes Earth 24 hours to rotate, or spin around, one time. Because it takes Earth 24 hours to rotate each day, Earth was divided into 24 one-hour regions called time zones. As Earth rotates, the sun appears to move westward covering one time zone each hour.

International Dateline


Prime Meridian

Imaginary lines called standard meridians run north and south through each time zone. The “0” or “prime” meridian is where the time zones start. It is located in Greenwich, England. From Greenwich, the zones are numbered east and west starting with 0 through 180 which is located on the opposite side of Earth from Greenwich. This is where the international date line was established.

Gain a Day, Lose a Day

Making Connections

© 2011 PREL

The international date line is located in the Pacific Ocean. Each time the sun passes over this date line, another day is counted. If you are traveling west, like going from Hawai‘i to Japan, and cross the international date line, you are in the next day, like from Monday to Tuesday. If you are traveling east, like from Japan to Hawai‘i, and cross the international date line, you are in the previous day, like from Tuesday to Monday. The standard time zones work well as people travel or do business with others in different places around the world. All clocks within a time zone are on the same time. When people travel to another time zone, they adjust their watches to the standard time of the current zone.

24 Time Zones Around the World. You are the sun, rising at 7:00 a.m. Monday in Hawai‘i. • Moving in an east direction, where is it 12:00 p.m. on Monday? (Eastern North America) • Where is it 7:00 p.m. on Monday? (in Europe) • Don’t forget, you are crossing the international date line. This is where the clock is turned back one day. • Where is it 12:00 a.m. on Monday? (Asia / Australia) • Where is it 7:00 a.m. on Monday? (Hawai‘i)



• 1 large weaker convex lens (Convex lenses are thicker in the center, like a magnifying glass) • 1 small more powerful concave lens (Concave lenses are thinner in the center) • 2 cardboard tubes (One should slide inside the other)

(Activities and Projects)
Wonder how people kept time using the sun? Before clocks were invented, the sundial was used to measure time using the sun. A sundial is made up of two parts: a base and a gnomon. A gnomon is the hand of the sundial. The first type of sundial was probably made using material from the environment.

Make a Shadow Sundial

Convex Lense Light Light Concave Lense


1. Mount the larger lens on the far end of the larger tube with hot glue or tape. 2. Mount the smaller lens on the end of the smaller tube. This will serve as the eyepiece. 3. Line up the lenses so the centers of the tubes and lenses are parallel with each other.


1. Use a low-powered convex lens and a high-powered concave lens. (Magnifying glasses are convex lenses.) 2. Don’t look at the sun through the lenses. 3. Lenses can be found at optical stores.


1. A person as a gnomon 2. Rocks or sidewalk chalk



To get tubes of the right length, look through the smaller lens while holding the larger one in front of it. Move the larger lens to a distance to focus on an object in the distance. Measure the distance between the two lenses and double the measurement. The two tubes should be this length.

There are many different kinds of telescopes. The telescope you just built is called a “refractor” telescope. The two lenses work together to magnify a distant object. The large convex lens (also called the objective lens) collects the light from the object you are looking at. The shape of the lens refracts (bends) the light. The light then passes through the eyepiece lens, which makes the image larger. It will make it several times larger than what you can see with your own eyes.

1. Find a space with a flat surface. 2. Have someone stand so his/her shadow calls on the marked numbers. 3. At each hour of the day, from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. mark the spot where the shadow falls with a marker (e.g., small rock). Continue this over several days. You may need to adjust the rocks. 4. Compare the time between your sundial and your watch. See how accurate you can get your sundial time with your watch.

© 2011 PREL


Information and skills you are expected to know and demonstrate after you complete Our earth, the Sun, and the Stars
1. Explain the relationship between the sun and Earth’s daily rotation. 2. Use the science and grade-level vocabulary words and word-learning strategies with accuracy. 3. Use graphics and cause and effect text structures to help you understand what you read.

approximate adj. very close to, but not exact The approximate date of Haleakalā’s last eruption is 1790. astronomy n. the scientific study of the stars, planets, and other natural objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere Ancient Hawaiian knowledge of astronomy was based on their careful observations of the moon, stars, and sun. axis n. an imaginary line through Earth’s center from the North Pole to the South Pole Earth turning on its axis results in day and night. It takes Earth 24 hours to complete one turn on its axis. brilliant adj. very bright or shiny; bright in color On a clear night, we can see the brilliant stars in the sky. capture v. (1) to put into a form that will last Galileo was sure to capture what he saw in the sky in his journal. (2) to take control of by force; to catch Māui captured the sun, Ka lā, to slow its journey across the sky. establish v. to show to be true Galileo established that the sun is the center of the universe. glare n. a very bright, strong, dazzling light When looking through a telescope, avoid the glare of the sun. gradual adj. changing very slowly over a long period of time Do you feel the gradual increase of temperature during the day? rotate v. to turn around on an axis Earth rotates on its axis at an approximate rate of 1,000 miles per hour. solar system n. the sun, its eight planets and their moons, and all the other objects that travel around it All of the planets and objects in the solar system travel around the sun.

Reading Tools to Help You Read for Information Look for Text Features
Drawings, timelines, diagrams, and photos help you understand the text information.

Understand Cause and Effect Text Structures

Look for text patterns and signal words that explain reasons or causes for an event or phenomenon. In fact, this cycle of day and night occurs because of the way Earth moves. The sun really doesn’t rise or set at all! It is Earth that rotates, or spins counter clockwise, to cause day and night.

Look for Roots of Words

The root, or main part, of “astronomy” is aster- or astro-, a Greek root meaning “star”

(star, outerspace)


(the study of stars)

(one who travels in space)


Science Words to Know
astronomy n. the scientific study of the stars, planets, and other natural objects in space Hawaiian knowledge of astronomy was based on careful observations of the moon, stars, and sun. axis n. an imaginary line through Earth’s center from the north pole to the south pole Earth’s turn about its axis results in day and night. It takes Earth 24 hours to complete one turn on its axis. rotate v. to move to a new position by turning around a fixed point Earth rotates on its axis at an approximate rate of 1,000 miles per hour at the equator. solar system n. the sun, its eight planets and their moons, and all the other objects that travel around it All of the planets and objects in the solar system travel around the sun.

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‘Āheleakalā n. a snare to capture Ka lā ‘ākau n. north (facing the direction of the sun’s path, the right hand points to the north) Haleakalā n. the house of the sun hema n. south Hōkūle‘a n. Arcturus, the guiding star for navigators (Hōkūle‘a means “Star of Happiness”) Hōkū pa‘a n. (fixed star) North Star honua n. earth, world ka lā n. the sun Kalā n. the sun in the legend, Why Māui Snared the Sun Ka Nūhou n. The News komohana n. west (where the sun enters the sea) kūkulu hikina n. eastern direction Lehua n. an island west of Ni‘ihau (Lehua is associated with a setting sun) Maui n. name of one of the Hawaiian islands Māui n. the hero and trickster in Hawaiian legends
‘ōlelo no‘eau n. Hawaiian proverbs and wise sayings

Overview Bryan, E. H. Jr. (1977). An Introduction to Astronomy. Stars Over Hawaii. (pp. 15–18). Hilo, HI: Petroglyph Press. Globio. (n.d.). Glossopedia. Retrieved January 11, 2010, from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=36# Hamilton, Calvin J. (1995–2009). The Solar System. Retrieved December 29, 2009, from http://www.solarviews.com/eng/solarsys.htm National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). (2010, March 29). Solar System Exploration. Retrieved January 4, 2010, from http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/ index.cfm Understanding our Earth, the Sun, and the Stars Best Places Hawaii. (1995–2010). Leleiwi Lookout, Maui. Retrieved January 17, 2010, from http://www.bestplaceshawaii.com/tips/hidden_places/leleiwi_lookout.html Bryan. E. H. (2002). Appendix I. Night and Day. Steiger, Walter R. and Bunton, George W. Stars Over Hawai‘i. (pp. 65). Kamehameha Avenue, Hilo: Petroglyph Press. Bryan. E. H. (2002). Chapter IX Hawaiian Astronomy. Stars Over Hawai‘i. (p. 60). Kamehameha Avenue, Hilo: Petroglyph Press. Hale Kuamo‘o. (2003–2000). Ulukau The Hawaiian Electronic Library. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from http://ulukau.org McLeod. Christopher. (1999–2010). Earth Island Institute. Haleakala Crater. Retrieved February 15, 2010, from http://www.sacredland.org/haleakala-crater/ Proverbatim. (2006–2010). Hawaiian Proverbs. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from http://www.proverbatim.com/hawaiian/ SpaceRef Interactive Inc. (1999–2010). Astronomy Consortium Chooses Haleakala As Site for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=15845 Times Reader 2.0. Excerpted from Frommer’s Maui 2009. House of the Sun: Haleakala National Park. Retrieved January 5, 2010, from http://travel.nytimes.com/frommers/travel/guides/north-america/united-states/hawaii/maui/ frm_maui_0015021189.html Navigating with the Stars Bishop Museum. (2010). The Jhamandas Watumull Planetarium. Retrieved January 22, 2010, from http://www.bishopmuseum.org/planetarium/planetarium.html Inspiration Line. (n.d.) Thompson, Chelle. Trivia, Brainteasers and Fascinating Facts. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.inspirationline.com/Brainteaser/star.htm

‘Oliona n. Orion pāhana n. activity, project for a class akakū ānuenue n. reflection rainbow ka hikina a ka lā i Ha‘eha‘e n. the rising sun in the direction of the island of Hawai‘i kilo hōkū n. astronomy, looking at the stars moku kā‘ili lā n. the sun-snatching island ulu o ka lā n. the sun grows wahi pana n. a place with special meaning

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Kalmbach Publishing Co. (2010) Astronomy for Kids. Retrieved February 16, 2010, from http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx?c=ss&id=127 Kawaharada, Dennis. (n.d.) Polynesian Voyaging Society. Wayfinding, or Non Instrument Navigation. Retrieved February 23, 2010, from http://www.pvs-hawaii.com/navigation/summary.htm



Kawaharada, Dennis. (n.d.) The Settlement of Polynesia, Part 1. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.paulwaters.com/migrate.htm KidsKnowIt.com (1998–2009). KidsAstronomy.com. Astronomy for Kids. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from http://www.kidsastronomy.com/ Morishima, Emily. (2002). Pomona Astronomy. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.astronomy.pomona.edu/archeo/islands/hawaii4.html Polynesian Voyaging Society. Selected by Melenani Lessett from Bishop Museum Press. (1983) Mary Kawena Pukui’s ‘Olelo No‘eau: Hawaiian Proverbs and Poetical Sayings (2513) (2870). Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu/proverbs/proverb.html University of Hawai‘i. (10/03/09). Institute of Astronomy. Patrick Chevally Cartes du Ciel Sky Charts. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.stargazing.net/astropc/ University of Hawai‘i at Hilo. Imiloa Astronomy Center. (2009). Hawaiian Starlines. The Guidance in the Sky. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://www.imiloahawaii.org/72/hawaiian-starlines From a Geocentric to a Heliocentric World Astronomy for kids online. (n.d.) Astronomy for Kids Online. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from http://www.kidsastronomy.com The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004). Questia. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from http://questia.com/library/encyclopedia/galileo.jsp Helden, Al Van. (1995). The Galileo Project. Retrieved February 18, 2010, from http://galileo.rice.edu/index.html The Hubble Heritage Project. (n.d.) Hubble Heritage Gallery of Images. Retrieved March 18, 2010, from http://heritage.stsci.edu/gallery/galindex.html Space Telescope Science. Telescopes from the Ground Up. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2010, from http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/ Wikipedia. (2010). International Year of Astronomy. Retrieved February 26, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Year_of_Astronomy#Significance_of_1609 General Earth and Star Factoids Cornell University. (2003). Curious About Astronomy? Ask an Astronomer. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/stars.php EnchantedLearning.com. (2001–2009). Zoom Astronomy. The Stars. Why Do Stars Twinkle? Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/ stars/twinkle.shtml
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Internet Broadcasting Systems. (2010). Hawaiian Word of the Day. Brought to you by Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved March 8, 2010, from http://www.kitv.com/news/124839/detail.html#H National Aeronautical Science Administration. (2007). World Book at NASA for Students. Retrieved March 9, 2010, from http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/wbkids/k_star.html Smale, Dr. Alan. (n.d.). NASA. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center. Retrieved February 24, 2010, from http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/StarChild.html Sun Factoids Astronomy For Kids Online. (n.d.) Astronomy for Kids Online. Retrieved February 15, 2010, from http://www.kidsastronomy.com EnchantedLearning.com. (1998–2009). Zoom Astronomy’s THE SUN. Retrieved January 22, 2010, from http://enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/sun/index.html Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (ipac). NASA. (n.d.) Cool Cosmos. Ask an Astronomer for Kids. Retrieved February 21, 2010, from http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_kids/AskKids/index.shtml Stoyanova, Silvia. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2007). Sun for Kids. Retrieved February 15, 2010, from http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/solarsystem/sun_for_kids_main.html Timeline Evans, James. (1998). The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Oxford, UK: University Press. Hockey, Thomas; et al. (Editors). (2007). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. New York: Springer. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). (2003). Windows to the Universe. The Regents of the University of Michigan. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/ Earth’s Rotation Advancing Science Serving Society. Science Netlinks (2010). Science Update. Tilted Earth. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/sci_update. php?DocID=167 Globio. (n.d.) Glossopedia. Retrieved January 11, 2010, from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=36# http://www.globio.org/ KidsKnowIt.com (1998–2009). KidsAstronomy.com. Astronomy for Kids. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from http://www.kidsastronomy.com/ The Prentice Hall Incorporated. (2005). GeoScience Animations. Retrieved December 21, 2009, from http://esminfo.prenhall.com/science/geoanimations/animations/01_EarthSun_E2.html

Infrared Processing and Analysis Center. (n.d.) Cool Cosmos. Ask an Astronomer for Kids! Retrieved February 19, 2010, from http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_kids/AskKids/ index.shtml



Russell, Randy. (2005). Windows to the Universe. Retrieved December 21, 2009, from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/uts/earth2.html. Wikipedia. (2010) Axial Tilt. Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axial_tilt Our Earth, a World Clock Bryan, Jr. E. H. (1977). Night and Day. Steiger, Walter R. and George W. Bunton. Stars Over Hawai‘i. (p. 65). Hilo, Hawai‘i: Petroglyph Press eHow, Inc. (1999–2010). How to Make a Sundial. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from http://www.ehow.com/how_13452_make-sundial.html Iowa State University. (2001). Polaris Project North Star. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.polaris.iastate.edu/NorthStar/Unit2/unit2_sub3.htm KidsGeo.com. Geography for Kids, the Study of Our Earth. (1998–2010). Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0023-the-international-dateline.php Metacafe Inc. (2010). Make a Pocket Sundial. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from http://www.metacafe.com/watch/963373/make_a_pocket_sundial/ National Aeronautic Space Administration. (2009). Retrieved March 3, 2010, from SA video. http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/topnav/materials/listbytype/Did_You_Know_ That_the_Earth.html University of Massachusetts. Department of Astronomy. (n.d.). A Sunwheel for the Campus. Retrieved on March 4, 2010, from http://www.umass.edu/sunwheel/index2.html Build a Simple Telescope AMASCI.COM/Science Club Inc. Beaty, Bill. (2005). ULTRA-SIMPLE TELESCOPE. Retrieved December 29, 2010, from http://amasci.com/amateur/teles.html Plotner, Tammy. Universe Today. (2008). Refractor Telescope. Retrieved January 17, 2010, from http://www.universetoday.com/guide-to-space/telescopes/refractor-telescope Make a Shadow Sundial Internetworks, 199702007. (2010). Sundials on the Internet. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.sundials.co.uk/newdials.htm Science Kids at Home. (2008). Sundial. Retrieved March 10, 2010, from http://www.sciencekidsathome.com/science_experiments/sundial-1.html

Photo Credits Earth (pages 13-14) . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Solar System (page i) . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Hawaiian Islands (page 4) Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Image (cover) . . . . . . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Rainbow (page1) . . . . . . . Courtesy of Michael Ceballos, Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) President and CEO Sharon Nelson-Barber Creative Producer Michael Q. Ceballos Written Contributions Nancy Alima Ali Evaluators Andrew Sahalie Frances Oshiro Chuck Giuli Special Thanks To Christine Antolos John Camac Winona Chang Paul Coleman Moana Eisele Darlene Fainuulelei-Butler Myra Hasegawa Alyce Ikeoka Ross Inouye Amber Inwood Bishop Museum Haha‘ione Elementary School Hawai‘i Department of Education ‘Imiloa Astronomy Center of Hawai’i Institute of Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i Kamehameha Schools Nature Conservancy Rubellite Johnson Hedy Kaneoka Terry Kelly Scott Kunihiro Susan Kusunoki Marylin Low Corinne Misaki-Wingert Troy Mulivai Roger Osentoski Jennifer Padua Lori Phillips Lee Ann Ᾱnuenue Pūnua Rona Dale Rosco Rodenhurst Liane Sing Pamela Suga Marisa Torigoe Melissa Torres-Laing Gerald Yutob Executive Producer Ormond Hammond Curriculum Developer Ellen Miyasato Cultural Advisor Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua, Kamehameha Schools Production Assistant Frances Oshiro Line Producer Kaira Resch Artist Bryson Luke Curriculum Advisors Susan Hanson Cheryl Taitague

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