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Pacific Resources for Education and Learning

Building Capacity Through Education

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© 2011 PREL ES1002

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Our Earth is part of a solar system, which is made up of the sun, planets, and other objects, including asteroids and meteoroids. The eight planets and their moons revolve around the sun, resulting in the different seasons of the year.

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Cycles in our Solar System

Our Earth, the Sun, and the Stars

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A long time ago, people thought that Earth was at the center of the universe. Their daily lives were in balance with the rising and setting of the sun each day. However, the view of their world changed as new tools, such as the telescope, were invented. Today we know that the sun is the center of our solar system, and day and night occur as Earth rotates on its axis.

Our solar system is just one part of a huge group of stars called the Milky Way Galaxy. This Milky Way Galaxy is only one of billions of galaxies that make up the universe. Have you ever wondered what keeps Earth and all of the planets in place instead of flying off into space? All of the objects that make up our universe are kept in place by natural forces, such as electromagnetism and gravity. ii

Forces in our Universe

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Cycles in Our Solar System Earth: A Place in the Universe An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i-ii Understanding the Cycles of the Moon 30 Moon Nights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Does the Moon Really Change its Shape?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Hina in the Moon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 “No nā kau ā kau”— From Season to Season Kau Ho‘oilo and Kau Wela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Kapa Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7- 8 Ka Nūhou Newsworthy Sightings! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 Factoids Frequently Asked Questions about the Cycles of the Sun, Moon, and Seasons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 What Causes the Seasons of the Year? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 Our Solar System What is the Solar System? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16 Planets in the Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-18 Pāhana Activities and Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-20 Reading for Information Helpful Reading Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Hawaiian Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Resources and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-28 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-30
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30 Moon Nights and Days

In Why Māui Snared the Sun, during the day, Kalā was not just the sun. People relied on Kalā. Because of Kalā, crops flourished, people had enough daylight hours to do their work, and everyone enjoyed his warmth. He ruled the daylight! But as Kalā entered into the horizon each evening (komohana), the moon became the “chief star.” (Kepelino Keauokalani, 1868). You see, in the Hawaiian calendar, nights are counted according to the moon phases, not according to daylight.

Ho‘onui (rising or waxing)
During the first 10 days, the “new moon” arrives from the east. Its shape that reflects the sunlight increases in size each night. The new moon occurs when the first crescent moon called Hilo is visible in the sky.

During the final 10 days, the shape of the moon that reflects the sunlight diminishes in size and shows itself late at night in the east. On the final night, called Muku, the moon is positioned between Earth and the sun. The sun is lighting the back side of the moon, and so, it is not visible from Earth. We usually think of Muku as the “new moon” During the second 10 days, the shape of the moon but on the Hawaithat reflects the sunlight increases until it is full and ian calendar, is seen directly over the islands at midnight. When it is the last night of the Earth, the sun, and moon are approximately aligned, month.

Emi (diminishing or waning)

Poepoe (full or round)

we see the entire sunlit moon called the “full moon."

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Only by the Light of the Moon

Mahina
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Our Hawaiian ancestors depended on the monthly cycle of the moon as a guide for daily activities, especially fishing and farming. Each moon phase was given a name. The people knew these names as important signs that guided their planting, fishing, and harvesting. For example, the first moon of the month was called Hilo, which is a slender crescent. It was considered a good moon for deep-sea fishing, but bad for reef fishing. It was not a good time to gather vegetables or any plants with roots. By knowing exactly where the moon was, they knew exactly what to fish for and what to plant and harvest.

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The moon is also called Mahina. Mahina symbolizes the goddess Hina who is born, grows, dies, and comes back again to start the cycle every month without fail. There are 30 moon nights in Mahina’s cycle. Each night’s moon is given a name that represents the phase that reflects the sun’s light. These 30 phases are divided into three Anahulu (a period of 10 days or 1 week). This means that the Hawaiian month was made up of 3 weeks.

Making Connections

How were the moon phases important to our Hawaiian ancestors? The practices that people followed were passed on from generation to generation. These became their guides or rules to follow. What might the effects of following these practices have on their land and ocean?

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Does the Moon Really Change its Shape?
Like Earth, the moon rotates on its axis. It takes the moon 29.5 Earth days to complete one full rotation. The moon also orbits, or revolves, around Earth. It completes one rotation for each revolution it makes around Earth. That is why we always see the same side of the moon.

Hina in the Moon

During the moon’s revolution around Earth, it appears that the moon changes its shape. What we see are the parts of the moon’s surface, or phase, that is reflecting light from the sun. These phases occur as the moon orbits Earth. Sometimes, as Earth and the moon are orbiting the sun, they align (form a line) with the sun. This is when an eclipse occurs.

One story tells of Hina as the woman who can be seen in the moon making her kapa cloth. She once made fine kapa cloth on Earth, but grew weary. One day she threw her kapa into the sky. It created the most colorful rainbow in the sky. She climbed her rainbow to the sun, but found it too hot. She climbed down to the moon, where you can still see her today creating new kapa. How do scientists today explain the face(s) on the moon? Spacecrafts that have observed the moon and astronauts who have landed on the moon describe the markings on the moon as basins or hollows on the surface that may have been caused by asteroids or meteors that crashed into the moon billions of years ago.

Think

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Making Connections

What does this story explain about our moon? Observe the moon during the next full moon. What do you see? Draw the outline of what you see in the moon. Name it and create a poem or an explanation of how the object you drew is now part of the moon.

© 2011 PREL

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An eclipse of the moon, also called a lunar eclipse, occurs when Earth is between the moon and the sun, blocking part of the sun’s light from shining on the moon. The moon becomes dark and reddish in color. This color is the result of the sun’s rays shining through Earth’s atmosphere. A lunar eclipse usually occurs once every 6 months, but is only visible in different parts of the world.

A Lunar Eclipse

An eclipse of the sun, also called a solar eclipse, occurs when the new moon passes between Earth and the sun. Light from the sun is blocked by the moon and causes darkness on Earth. How is this possible since the moon is much smaller than the sun? 4 See Pāhana section.

A Solar Eclipse

The first visible crescent moon, named Hilo, signals the first day of the month in the Hawaiian calendar. There are 30 moon nights and days in a month. Twelve moon months make up the Hawaiian calendar year.

Kau Ho‘oilo

Kau Ho‘oilo and Kau Wela

Kau Ho‘oilo is the wet, winter season at the beginning of the Makahiki season. One meaning of ho‘oilo is “to cause to sprout, or germinate.” All the rain falling in Kau Ho‘oilo season means it is a good time to plant seeds and watch them sprout. This season takes place from approximately November through April. During most of Kau Ho‘oilo, the sun arrives in the southeast and enters the horizon in the southwest. For this reason, days are generally shorter and nights longer. The weather is cooler.

The Hawaiian months were named by the appearance of the stars at sunset. Although there were slight differences on how each of the Hawaiian island’s passage of time was recorded, the names of the lunar months used were maintained at each location. Signs of the Hawaiian new year begins with the rise of the constellation Makali‘i, the “little eyes” (Pleiades) over the horizon at sunset. The rise of the first new moon after the rise of Makali‘i is the official Hawaiian new year. It is also a sign of the return of the rainy season. This happens during the Hawaiian months of ‘Ikuwā or Welehu. In the Gregorian calendar, this would be late October and early November. During this time of the year, the Makahiki tradition was followed. Makahiki means year. It was the time for a festival lasting several months during the rainy season. It was a time to honor the god of rain and peace, Lono. It is said that at this time, Lono came to the islands to bring food that was grown, and then left, promising to return again. It was a time of renewal and pleasure, as well as a time when Kapu would forbid the gathering of certain food, fish, and seaweed. This would allow the resources on land and in the sea to be renewed. (Handy p. 331) (Malo p. 34, 141) The 12 months of the Hawaiian calendar year are divided into two seasons. The two seasons are called Kau Ho‘oilo and Kau Wela. In Hawaiian, “kau” refers to a period of time, such as a season.

Kau Wela

Think About It

Which of the seasons (Kau Ho‘oilo or Kau Wela) does the story Why Māui Snared the Sun explain? How were the seasons determined by the Hawaiian astronomers?
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In Hawaiian, “wela” means to be hot in temperature. Kau Wela is the hot, dry, summer season. During this time, the sun gradually creeps northward. The sun arrives in the northeast and enters into the horizon in the northwest. This means that there are longer hours of daylight and the weather is warmer. Kau Wela occurs approximately from May through October. In Why Māui Snared the Sun, Māui convinces Kalā to travel more slowly across the sky. This explains why we have longer Kau Wela days. It is the time when Hina’s kapa could dry properly.

1962

Astronaut John H. Glenn was the first American to orbit Earth.

1969

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Apollo 11 landed astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong on the moon. Neil Armstrong’s first words from the moon are well remembered: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”

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Kapa Origins

The saying Kau ke kapa is often used during Kau Wela, meaning it was time when kapa could be spread out to dry with safety. (Malo, p. 34) Kapa was not prepared during the Kau Ho‘oilo since it was a time for resting and the days were too short. Hina’s kapa was used to make the clothing of our Hawaiian ancestors, such as kīhei (cape), malo (loin cloth) for the men, and pā‘ū (skirt) for the women. Kapa was made from the wauke plant. The stories of Why Māui Snared the Sun and the wauke plant illustrate how practices followed by the Hawaiians were based on their personal connections (lokahi) with the elements of the earth, sky, sea, as well as the spiritual world. These personal connections are told in stories, are shown in their daily work practices, and recorded in sites that were built to mark these practices.

Where to Plant Wauke

• Wauke was planted along streams, in woods, in dry taro patches, moist land where water flowed, and in wetlands. • It grew best in places that were sheltered from wind.

How to Care for the Wauke

Wauke Connections with the Spiritual World

There are several stories of the wauke plant, which was used to make kapa. One story tells of wauke growing from the body of Maikoha. Maikoha wanted his daughters, Lauhuiki and La‘ahana to be protected from the cold winds. Maikoha instructed his daughters to bury him beside a stream. The wauke plant would grow from this burial site, he promised. “You will call it wauke.” (Alameida p. 35) His daughters followed his wishes. The wauke grew and the daughters pounded the wauke bark to make the kapa clothing. Maikoha’s daughters are said to be the ‘aumakua (family guardian) of kapa making. “The body of Maikoha was carved into calabashes (‘umeke) and placed before the priests and the chiefs for remembrance.” (Handy p. 208) From this site, the wauke tree spread to other islands. From this plant, Hina created her kapa clothing pieces.

• The surface of the planting area was covered with leaves to rot and serve as fertilizer. • Side-shoots were carefully removed without damaging the piko (tap root), the life of the plant. • Side branches were also plucked off, leaving a straight stalk of wauke.

Moana Eisele, veteran kapa artist, continues the “beat” of kapa making.

A Time to Plant, A Time to Harvest Wauke Planting Season
• It is believed that wauke grows best if planted at the beginning of a rainy period. • Wauke was planted on the three nights of the Kaloa Pau moon (24th–27th nights). It was the time for planting “those with long stems, long vines, or long leaves, such as the mai‘a, ko (sugar cane), wauke (paper mulberry), and ‘ohe (bamboo).” (Choy p.1) • It was harvested 18 months later at the end of the rainy season of the next lunar calendar year.
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Whether it was the wauke or kalo, planting during the right season, the right moon, and personally connecting with the plant by maintaining the rules of planting would result in having the best kapa. The wauke shrub can still be found on most of the islands and the art of kapa making is still practiced today.

Making Connections

Your classmates are a rich source of information. What connections are made between the sun, moon, stars and daily living practices within the different cultures in your class? Collect “sayings” they have learned from their elders.

1971

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American space probe Mariner 9 was the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, Mars. During the year, it mapped all of Mar’s surface.

1979

Voyager 1, which was launched in 1977, arrived at Jupiter. Images of the planet and its moons were sent back to Earth.

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Beware, the Box Jellyfish Invasion Cycle! Do you notice when the box jellyfish invasion occurs? Does it follow the cycle of the moon? In the last 20 years, we have learned to be careful of the box jellyfish after the full moon. A particular species of the winged box jelly, called Alatina Moseri, have been regularly coming to the waters around the island of O‘ahu. The box jellyfish first appeared on O‘ahu in the late 1800s, but recently have arrived in Hawai‘i according to a predictable schedule. They normally come near shore 7–12 days after each full moon. Nowhere else in the world are they so reliably on time.

Did You Hear? A Hawaiian Goddess is Now Part of our Cosmos! New Dwarf Planet Named Haumea

However, it rotates in less than 4 hours, so the days are really short. Haumea is an oblong planet, smaller than Pluto, another dwarf planet. It is 1,218 miles across at its longest and only about half that across (619 miles). It has two moons named Hi‘iaka and Namaka. In Hawaiian mo‘olelo (story), Haumea is the goddess of childbirth. It is told that Haumea’s children were born from different parts of her body. Astronomers believe that the dwarf planet may have crashed into another large object resulting in its oblong shape. And like the story, the two moons sprang from its body. Haumea is also the goddess of earth and it appears that the dwarf planet Haumea is made of rock, covered with a thin layer of ice. It is the 5th dwarf planet. The others are Pluto, Eris, Ceres, and Makemake.

Ānuenue Kau Pō (Rainbows at Night)

The box jellyfish has a square shape and is one of the most dangerous jellyfish. Not only do the jellyfish sting, but they have complex eyes that detect light, and they can actually pursue prey. Scientists know little about the life cycle of the box jellyfish. During the morning high tide, they can be seen swimming in the water. After they spawn, adult jellyfish seem to disappear and then suddenly return after the next full moon to spawn again.

We normally see rainbows during the day. Have you seen one at night? Ānuenue Kau Pō happens at night, , closer to the full moon ht when the moonlig e is bright. You may se are it if the conditions right: d • The moon is behin you. • The light from the gh moon streams throu the light rain or moisture in front of you. e • The rainbow you se is usually shades of one color.

Haumea, a dwarf planet, was discovered with a telescope located in Gemini Observatory in Hawai‘i in 2005, and in 2008, was named Haumea by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Haumea is located on the outer edges of the solar system. It is so far away from the sun that it takes 285 Earth years to orbit the sun.

© 2011 PREL

1989

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Voyager 2, which was launched in 1977, arrived at Neptune. The first close-up images of Neptune and its moons were sent back to Earth

2006

Samples from the comet Wild 2 were returned to Earth. The journey to the comet and back took 7 years. Scientists believe that the samples will provide them with clues on how the solar system was formed.

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ho, ku, kau ‘opae “the star that brings out the ‘opae” when ‘A’a (Sirius) rises, right before the sun comes out, the ‘opae comes out.

Paoa ka lawai‘a i ka ‘olelo ia o ka ‘awa. Unlucky is fishing when ‘awa is discussed. (Pukui 2598, p. 285)

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What is Lahaina Noon?
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Pua ka wiliwili nanahu ka Mano When the wiliwili flower blooms, the sharks bite. (Pukui 2701, p. 295)

Close to the summer solstice, Hawai‘i experiences 2 days when the sun reaches its zenith, an imaginary point directly overhead. This phenomenon occurs in places that are located in the tropics, like Hawai‘i. The tropics include places that are located 23.5° north or south of the equator. The first zenith occurs in May and the second in July. The exact date and time depends on the location’s latitude. In Honolulu, the first zenith passage of the sun occurs on May 26 at 12:28 p.m. The second occurs on July 16 at 12:37 p.m. See the Lahaina Noon chart in the Pāhana Section for dates and times for different island locations. The phenomenon is sometimes referred to as Lahaina Noon. Lahaina Noon means “cruel sun,” because it is what the sun feels like when it is directly overhead. This name was chosen in a naming contest sponsored by the Bishop Museum in the 1990s. Our Hawaiian ancestors called this phenomenon Kau ka lā i ka lolo, “the sun rests on the brain.” They believed that at Kau ka lā i ka lolo, one’s shadow and mana or spiritual power is collected within the person. It is a time when one experiences great personal power.

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Besides being personally connected with the elements of the sky, earth, and sea, keen observations of what happened on land were connected to what happened in the ocean. The ‘Ōlelo No‘eau reflects how our Hawaiian ancestors looked to nature and made these connections. These have even been recorded into chants.

What were signs of the seasons the Hawaiians looked for during the year?

The Gregorian Calendar

Think About It

Why Māui Snared the Sun is one story that explains why we have seasons. What interesting details in the story can be related to the explanation of why we have seasons?

Today, we use the Gregorian calendar to mark the passage of time. The calendar is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who revised an earlier calendar in 1582. The Gregorian calendar has 365 days that are grouped into 12 months. The first month of the year is January and the last month is December. Unlike the Hawaiian lunar calendar, which is based on the rise of the moon, this calendar is based on Earth’s orbit around the sun. Since it takes 365 1/4 days for Earth to make one complete revolution around the sun, the Gregorian calendar adds an extra day every 4 years. This extra day is called a “leap day” and occurs on February 29.

Earth Moves in Two Ways

Earth rotates on its axis. Day and night occur as Earth rotates on its axis. The second way Earth moves is by orbiting or revolving around the sun. In space, an orbit is the path of an object around another object. It follows an elliptical orbit. An ellipse is like an oval or a flattened circle. It takes about 365 1/4 days for Earth to make one complete orbit around the sun. We call this a solar year.

Equinox (March 21)

Solstices

Earth’s revolution around the sun results in the different seasons of the year. As Earth orbits the sun, sometimes Earth’s axis leans towards the sun and sometimes it leans away from the sun. These two points are called the summer and winter solstices.

Solstice (December 21)

Winter Solstice

Summer Solstice

For Hawai‘i, summer solstice takes place around June 21. At summer solstice, the Northern Hemisphere is leaning toward the sun. It is the longest day of the year. The weather is generally warm during this time of the year because the sun travels high in the sky so the ground receives more direct rays of light and heat. Our Hawaiian ancestors called this the Kau Wela season. At the same time, it is the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere is leaning away from the sun. This causes shorter hours of daylight and less direct rays of sun, so the weather is cooler.
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Solstice (June 21)

Equinox (September 21)

Six months after the summer solstice, around December 21, the Northern Hemisphere is leaning away from the sun. This is winter solstice, the shortest day of the year. The sun is low in the sky. Temperatures are cooler during this time of the year because the ground receives less direct rays of light and heat. Our Hawaiian ancestors called this the Kau Ho‘oilo season. The opposite is true for the Southern Hemisphere. Around December 21, the Southern Hemisphere is leaning toward the sun. It is the longest day of the year, the sun gets high in the sky and temperatures are generally warm.

Spring and Autumn Equinoxes

Making Connections

Check out the graphic representation of the revolution of Earth. Can you explain what season you are currently in?

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Sometimes Earth’s axis is neither leaning toward nor away from the sun. These points are called the equinoxes. The equinoxes take place around March 21 and September 21. On these days, Earth is neither leaning toward nor away from the sun. All parts of Earth receive equal amount of daylight. The March equinox marks the first day of spring for the Northern Hemisphere and the first day of fall for the Southern Hemisphere. The September equinox marks the first day of fall for the Northern Hemisphere and the first day of spring for the Southern Hemisphere. 14

Planets Seen as “Moving Stars”

Planets

The largest of these objects, or spheres, are called planets. These eight planets travel in circular paths, or orbits, around the sun. They each travel in their own orbit, but move in the same counter-clockwise direction around the sun. Each planet also rotates as it revolves around the sun. Earth is one of eight planets that travels, or revolves, around the sun in its own orbit. One trip, or revolution, around the sun is a planet’s year. Earth’s revolution around the sun takes 365 days.

Before the introduction of telescopes, our Hawaiian ancestors were able to observe five planets. They described the planets they saw as “moving stars” and constellations as “fixed stars.” Besides the sun and the moon, the Hawaiian people considered Venus as the third greatest “star.” Venus was known by a number of names: Hōkū loa, great star Hōkū ali‘i-wahine, chiefess star Ka‘a wela, star close to the sun Ka ‘elele o ka wana ‘ao, messenger of the dawn Kahoku komohana, star of the west

Moons

In addition to the sun and planets, other objects that are part of the solar system include asteroids, meteoroids, comets, and moons. Some of the planets have one or more moons that orbit around them. Moons are rock-like spheres. As a moon orbits the planet, both the planet and its moon(s) orbit the sun.

When Venus, the morning star, appeared, farmers knew it was time to work in the fields. Venus, the evening star, meant time for the fishermen to return home. The other “stars” were given names, descriptive of their appearances. How important were these “stars” in the people’s daily life? Some say that the positions of planets in relation to the stars were read as signs of events, such as time for battles, or the birth or death of someone important. There have been a number of names associated with each planet. The names that were descriptive of their appearances and movements included: Mars as Hōkū‘ula, the Red Star Venus as Hōkū loa, the Great Star, Morning Star Jupiter as Ka‘ā-wela, the Brilliant One Mercury as Ukali ali‘i, the Sun Follower, Following the Chief Saturn as Makulu, a Drop of Mist

Asteroids

Asteroids are made up of the same material as the planets, but are much smaller than a planet. Scientists believe that asteroids are loose particles that never formed into planets. Thousands of asteroids located between Mars and Jupiter also orbit the sun. This group of asteroids is called an asteroid belt. Another asteroid belt is located beyond the planet Neptune.

Meteoroids

Meteoroids are also space rocks, or dust, that are smaller than asteroids. We can sometimes see them as they enter Earth’s atmosphere. When they enter Earth’s atmosphere, they are called meteors or shooting stars (even if they are not stars). Most meteors burn and turn into dust as they pass through Earth’s atmosphere. A few land on Earth. These are usually the size of sand grains and are referred to as meteorites.

Comets

Comets are located further out in space. They are balls of icy space dust. As a comet travels through space, the sun’s heat creates what looks like a tail. In 1986, Halley’s comet could be seen from Earth. Halley’s comet’s revolution around the sun is approximately 76 years. This means that its next appearance should be in the year 2061.

What is the Solar System?

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Most scientists believe that before the solar system even existed, space looked like swirling clouds of dust and gas particles. About 4.6 billion years ago the particles merged together to form the sun. The sun is the center of our solar system. The word solar means “of the sun.” As the clouds of dust and gas continued to swirl around the sun, the solar system expanded as other objects were formed.
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Until spacecrafts were launched into space to study what was beyond Earth, people described planets as “moving stars” and related them to the group of stars or constellations that appeared in the sky when they were visible. Close-up views of some of the planets and the moon are now available from pictures taken by space orbiters and probes. Probes are robot crafts that have equipment to investigate information about a planet, moon, or asteroid. Space orbiters are spacecrafts that circle the planets and send information and photos of the planets back to Earth. Information about the planets resulted in a rapid expansion of our understanding of the solar system.

Think About It

Check out the unique features of the planets. On which planet would you take longer to grow up? On which planet would you have too much daytime?

Planet
Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

Name
Ukali ali‘i, the Sun Follower, following the Chief (sun) Hōkū loa, the Great Star, Morning Star Honua, earth, world Hōkū‘ula, the Red Star Ka‘ā-wela, the Brilliant One Makulu, a drop of mist

Size
8th largest 6th largest 5th largest 7th largest Largest 2nd largest

Revolution
87.97 days 224.70 days 365.26 days 686.98 days 11.86 years 29.46 years 84.01 years 164.79 years

Rotation
58.6 days 243 days 23.93 hours 24.62 hours 9.93 hours 10.66 hours 17.24 hours 16.11 hours

Too faint to see with the naked eye 3rd largest Too faint to see with the naked eye 4th largest

Try This

Check out the planet visibility chart at http://www.bishopmuseum.org/planetarium/ planetarium.html to locate the planets in the night sky.

Asteroids Most of the asteroids are found between Mars and Jupiter.
© 2011 PREL

Comets

A comet is a collection of rocky dust and ice. Sometimes they enter the solar system. When that happens, they turn into gas and form a glowing head and tail.

Making Connections

Our Hawaiian ancestors named five of the planets they could observe. They didn’t have names for several planets. If you were to name the other planets, what Hawaiian names would you give them? Why? Check your name with a Hawaiian dictionary.
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Can the Moon Really Block the Sunlight in a Solar Eclipse?

Remembering the Names of the Moon Phases

Did you wonder how people remembered the names of each moon? They created chants, stories, and dances to describe what they knew. A traditional chant, Kamali‘i ‘Ike ‘Ole was taught so children could remember the 30 names of the moon. Children were Kamali‘i ‘Ike ‘Ole expected to learn Kamali‘i ‘ike ‘ole i ka helu pō this chant by the Muku Nei, Muku ka malama time they were 6 Hilo nei, kau ka Hoaka years old. ‘Eha Ku, ‘Eha ‘Ole; Huna, Mohalu, Hua, Akua, Hoku, Mahealani, Kulu; ‘Ekolu La‘au, ‘Ekolu ‘Ole, ‘Ekolu Kaloa; Kane, Lono, Mauli, Muku.

How is it possible for the moon to block the sun when it is so much smaller than the sun? An experiment will help explain how this is possible. On a full moon night, hold up a round object, such as a tennis ball. Close one eye and move the ball back and forth until you cover the moon with it. Although the ball is much smaller than the moon, at the right distance and angle, the ball will actually cover the moon. In a solar eclipse, the moon, at the right distance and angle is able to cover the sun.

Enter your birthdates in the space provided. You will then see how old you would be if you were on those planets. On which planet are you the youngest? The oldest? Explain what causes the differences from planet to planet. Hipschman, Ron. (1997). Your Age on Other Worlds. Retrieved April 15, 2010, from http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/age/index.html

How old are you on different planets?

Children who do not know the moon phases; Muku is here, Muku the moon; Hilo is next, then Hoaka Then the four nights of Ku; Followed by the four nights of ‘Ole; Huna, Mohalu, Hua, and Akua, Hoku, Mahealani, Kulu; Then the three nights of La‘au; Three nights of ‘Ole; And the three nights of Kaloa; Kane, Lono, Mauli, Muku (Pukui 1471, p. 159)

Moon Fun Learn more about the moon by exploring these online sites. The site features examples and explanations of extreme science phenomena. Extreme Science. (2010). Full Story on the Moon. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from http://www.extremescience.com/zoom/index.php/space/35-space-science/77-about-the-moon Watch a simulation of an eclipse. Kidseclipse. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2010, from http://www.kidseclipse.com/pages/a1b3c1d0.htm

From Planet to Planet

Check the following sites to find out more about the planets in the solar system. Record your observations in your E Ho‘omau! journal.

Astronomical Events

Learn the Names of the 30 Phases of the Moon
© 2011 PREL

Children as early as 6 years old learned the names of the phases of the moon through chants or hand-clapping games. Try this hand-clapping game from the website below.

1. Check the dates and times you can view the five planets that the Hawaiian people observed without a telescope. 2. Check when the next eclipse will occur in Hawai‘i. Bishop Museum. (2010). The Jhamandas Watumull Planetarium. Daily Schedule. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from http://www.bishopmuseum.org/planetarium/planetarium.html
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Demonstration of the chant with hand clapping sequence.
Stephens Media Group. Big Island Weekly. (2010). Po Mahina, A chant written by Mary Kawena Pukui. Retrieved May 26, 2010, from http://www.bigislandweekly.com/articles/2009/09/23/read/news/news05.txt

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Information and skills you are expected to know and demonstrate after you complete Cycles in Our Solar System

crescent n. the shape of the moon when it looks like a curved line or arc The moon appears as a crescent during its first and fourth quarters. eclipse n. the blocking from view of the sun, moon, or Earth An eclipse of the moon occurs when Earth blocks the sun’s light from shining on the moon. ellipse n. an oval shape The orbit of Earth around the sun is an ellipse. equator n. an imaginary line circling Earth, halfway between the North and South poles If you look at a globe or map, you see that the equator divides Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. expansion n. something made larger Scientists are gathering evidence to explain the rapid expansion of the universe. hemisphere n. one of the two halves of the earth, either north or south of the equator, or east or west of the Meridian Countries north of the equator are in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas countries south of the equator are in the Southern Hemisphere. latitude n. distance north or south from the equator measured in degrees The equator is the starting point for measuring latitude. lunar adj. having to do with the moon Lunar images are sent back to Earth by spacecrafts that have landed on the moon. maintain v. to keep something going; to continue to have it The planets maintain their same orbits around the sun. occur i.v. to happen Days and night occur as Earth rotates on its axis. orbit n. in space, the path of an object around another object Each planet travels around the sun in its own orbit. orbit v. to travel around an object The planets, their moons, meteoroids, and asteroids orbit the sun.

1. Explain the relationship between the sun and Earth’s annual revolution. 2. Use the science and grade-level vocabulary words and word-learning strategies with accuracy. 3. Identify text structures (cause and effect & compare and contrast) that authors use to help you understand what you read.

Reading Tools to Help You Read for Information Look for Text Features
Drawings, timelines, charts, and photos help you understand the text information.

Understand Cause and Effect Text Structures:
Look for text patterns and signal words that explain reasons or causes for an event or phenomenon. Earth’s seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth’s axis, not how far away Earth is from the sun.

Understand Compare and Contrast Text Structure:
Look for text patterns and signal words that explain similarities of, and differences between two or more ideas.

Unlike the hot and dry Kau Wela season,
Kau Ho‘oili is known to be the cold and wet time of the year.

equ(equal)

Look for Roots of Words
The root, or main part, of “equator” is equ-, a Greek root meaning “equal.”

equivalent
(having the same aount or value)

(an imaginary line circling Earth, halfway between the North and South pole)

equator

phase n. one of the stages of development The full moon is a phase when the whole moon is lit by the light of the sun. reflect v. return back as light or heat The moon does not shine; it reflects the light of the sun. represent v. to stand for something; to be a sign or symbol of something The arrival of the Makali‘i represents the arrival of the new Hawaiian year. revolve v. to move around in a circle around a central point Earth revolves around the sun once every 365 days. revolution n. the act of moving around in a circle around a central point It takes approximately 29 days for the moon to complete one revolution around Earth. tropics n. the region of Earth near the equator that extends 23.5° north and south of the equator Hawai‘i is located in the tropics. visible adj. able to be seen A few planets, such as Venus and Mars, are visible in the night sky. waning v. decreasing gradually After the full moon, we see the part of the moon lit by the sun waning until the next new moon. waxing v. increasing gradually After the new moon, we see the part of the moon lit by the sun waxing until it becomes a full moon. zenith n. the point in the sky that is directly over the head of a person People in Hawai‘i experience the zenith of passage of the sun twice during the year. 22

Science Words to Know

hemisphere n. one of the two halves of Earth, either north or south of the equator or east or west of the Meridian Countries north of the equator are in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas countries south of the equator are in the Southern Hemisphere. orbit n. in space, the path of an object around another object Each planet travels around the sun in its own orbit. v. to travel around an object The planets, their moons, meteoroids, and asteroids orbit the sun.
© 2011 PREL

revolve v. to move around in a circle around a central point Earth revolves around the sun once every 365 days. revolution n. the act of moving around in a circle around a central point It takes approximately 29 days for the moon to complete one revolution around Earth.

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‘aumakua n. family guardian anahulu n. a period of 10 days or one week of the Hawaiian month ānuenue kau pō n. rainbows at night emi n. diminishing or waning moon ho‘onui n. rising or waxing moon ‘Ikuwā n. name of a month on the Hawaiian calendar (during October-November) kau ho‘oilo n. wet season kau wela n. dry and hot season kīhei n. cape Lono n. one of the Hawaiian gods who was associated with rain and peace Mahina n. symbolizes Hina, goddess of the moon makahiki n. year, festival during the rainy season Makali‘i n. the constellation Pleiades muku n. the last moon of the month malo n. loin cloth mana n. spiritual strength mo‘olelo n. history, story ‘oli n. chant pā‘ū n. skirt piko n. naval poepoe n. full or round moon ‘umeke n. calabash, bowl wauke n. paper mulberry plant used to make kapa Welehu n. name of a month on the Hawaiian calendar (during November – December) Phrases kau ke kapa: a time when kapa could be spread out to dry with safety no nā kau ā kau: from season to season
© 2011 PREL

Overview Bryan, E. H. Jr. (1977). An Introduction to Astronomy. Stars over Hawaii. (pp. 15–18). Hilo, HI: Petroglyph Press. Globio. (n.d.). Glossopedia. Retrieved January 11, 2010, from http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=36# Hamilton, Calvin J. (1995–2009). The Solar System. Retrieved December 29, 2009, from http://www.solarviews.com/eng/solarsys.htm National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). (2010, March 29). Solar System Exploration. Retrieved January 4, 2010, from http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/index.cfm Understanding the Cycles of the Moon Bryan, E. H. Jr. Crowe, Richard A. Ph.D. 2002 Revisions and Additions. (2002). Stars Over Hawai‘i. Hilo, Hawaii: Petroglyph Press, Ltd. Espenak, Fred. Mr.eclipse.com. (2009). Solar Eclipses for Beginners. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from http://www.mreclipse.com/Special/SEprimer.html Finer, Angela. (2009). The Nine 8 Planets Just for Kids. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://kids.nineplanets.org Internet Sacred Text Archive. (n.d.). Hina, the Woman in the Moon. Retrieved May10, 2010, from http://www.sacred-texts.com/pac/maui/maui18.htm Kā‘anapali Coffee Farms. (n.d.). Mythical Origins. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from http://www.kaanapalicoffeefarms.com/kaanapali/history-myth.html Keauokalani, Kepelino. (1868). Ka Mahina, The Moon. Bishop Museum Display Kumu Pono Associates. (2006). Manua Kea, the famous summit of the land (Mauna Kea, ka piko kaulana o ka‘?ina). “Moolelo Hawaii,” p. 56. Retrieved April 19, 2010, from http://ulukau.org/elib/cgi-bin/library?e=q-0mauna-000Sec--11en-50-20-frameset-book-planets-1011utfZz-8&a=d&d=D0.5.39&toc=0 Nordenstrom, Michael. (2003). Hina and the Sea of Stars. China: Best Press. Omandan, Pat. starbulletin.com. (1998). The Sacred Stones of Wahiawa. Retrieved May 10, 2010, from http://archives.starbulletin.com/1998/10/16/news/story3.html Pukui, Mary Kawena, Elbert. Samuel H. Mookini, Esther T. (n.d.). Place Names of Hawaii. Retrieved May 10, 2010, from: http://books.google.com/books?id=fkw4JooFxZAC&printsec=frontcove r&dq=place+names+of+Hawaii&cd=1# Pukui, Mary Kawena. (1983). ‘?lelo No‘eau. Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. Varez, Dietrich. (2002). HINA-The Goddess. Hilo, Hawaii: Petroglyph Press, Ltd.

kaloa pau: phase of the moon kau ka lā i ka lolo: the sun rests on the brain

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Wikipedia. (2010). Lunar Eclipse. Retrieved May 19, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_eclipse Wikipedia. (2008). Man in the Moon. Retrieved May 18, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_in_the_Moon#Woman “No nā kau ā kau”—From Season to Season Bryan, E. H. (1965). Astronomy and the calendar. In E. S. Craighill Handy (Ed.). Ancient Hawaiian civilization: A series of lectures delivered at the Kamehameha Schools (pp. 251–256). Rutland, Vermont & Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle, Co. Kamakau, S. M. (1976). The works of the people of old (Na hana a ka po‘e kahiko). (D. B. Barrere, Trans.). Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. (Original work published 1869–1870). Kelley, D. H. & Milone, E. F. (2005). Exploring ancient skies: An encyclopedic survey of archaeoastronomy. New York: Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. Malo, D. (1951). Hawaiian Antiquities (Mo’olelo Hawaii) (2nd ed.). (N.B. Emerson, Trans.) Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. Pukui, M. K. and Elbert, S. (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press. Kapa Origins Alameida, Roy Kākulu. (1997). Stories of Old Hawai‘i. The Legend of the Wauke Tree. Honolulu, HI: The Bess Press, Inc. Choy, Duane. (2005) Hawaiian way is to let moon guide planning. Retrieved May 18, 2010, from http://www.cds.hawaii.edu/kahana/downloads/curriculum/SectionII/Unit5/5.A.Kalo/5.A.4.Moon PlantingActivity.pdf Flashcarddb.com. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2010, from http://flashcarddb.com/cardset/34641-na-hee-na-pa-pai-na-o-pae-flashcards Hunt-N-Fish Maui. (n.d.). The Native Hawaiian Moon Calendar. Retrieved May 18, 2010, from http://www.angelfire.com/sports/huntfishmaui/moon.html Kapa Hawaii LLC. (2006-2008). Kapa Hawaii. The Art of Native Hawaiian Kapa. Retrieved June 9, 2010, from http://www.kapahawaii.com/hawaiian-art-blog/44-blog/95-big-wavesand-kapa.html Kapiolani Community College. (2000). Ethnobotany of the Ahupua‘a. Retrieved May 19, 2010, from http://apdl.kcc.hawaii.edu/~ahupuaa/botany/other/index.htm Kapiolani Community College. (2000). Ethnobotany of the Ahupua‘a. Wauke. Retrieved May 19, 2010, from http://apdl.kcc.hawaii.edu/~ahupuaa/botany/fiber/wauke.htm
© 2011 PREL

Hawaiian Lifeguard Association. (n.d.) 808Jellyfish.com. 2010 Arrival Calendars. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from http://www.808jellyfish.com/index.htm Magical-Hawaii.com. (n.d.). Retrieved May 17, 2010, from: Hawai‘i’s White Rainbow. http://www.magical-hawaii.com/White-Rainbow.html Moskowitz, Clara. USA Today. (2010). New dwarf planet named Haumea for Hawaiian goddess. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/space/2008-09-21haumea-planet_N.htm Ohira, Rod. starbulletin.com. Saturday, October 21, 2000. Invasion of the jellyfish. Retrieved May 17, 2010, from http://archives.starbulletin.com/2000/10/21/news/story1.html Outland, Katrina. (2010). The Blob That Attacked Waikiki: The Box Jellyfish Invasion of Hawaii. The Journal of Young Investigators. Volume 19, Issue 23, May 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2010, from http://www.jyi.org/features/ft.php?id=103 Russell, Randy. (2008). University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). Windows to the Universe. Retrieved April 15, 2010, from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/ our_solar_system/dwarf_planets/haumea.html&edu=elem Factoids Athropolis Productions Limited. (2005). Athropolis Facts: Cold, Icy and Arctic. Retrieved April 28, 2010, from http://www.athropolis.com/arctic-facts/fact-arctic-circle.htm Physlink.com. (2010). Physics & Astronomy Online. Retrieved May 25, 2010, from http://www.physlink.com/education/askexperts/ae515.cfm Pukui, Mary Kawena. (1983). ‘?lelo No‘eau. Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. What Causes the Seasons? Handy, E.S. Craighill and Handy, Elizabeth Green. (1972). Native Planters in Old Hawaii Their Life, Lore, and Environment. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. Keale, Walt. As in the Sky, So Earth. M?lama Kaho‘olawe. Ulukau: The Hawaiian Electronic Library. Retrieved May 17, 2010 from: http://ulukau.org/gsdl2.81/cgi-bin/ cbmalama5?e=010off--00-1--0--010---4-------0-1l--11haw---kukaniloko--00-3-1-00-0-0-11000&a=d&c= cbmalama5&srp=0&srn=0&cl=search&d=D0.3.1.2.1&l=en Kumu Pono Associates. (2006). Manua Kea, the famous summit of the land (Mauna Kea, ka piko kaulana o ka‘?ina). “Moolelo Hawaii,” p. 56. Retrieved April 19, 2010, from http://ulukau.org/elib/cgi-bin/library?e=q-0mauna-000Sec--11en-50-20-frameset-book-planets-1011utfZz-8&a=d&d=D0.5.39&toc=0 NASA. (n.d.). Seasons. In My NASA Data. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/images/seasons.jpg Plait, P. (2001). Bad Astronomy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ka Nūhou Aimforawesome.com. (2010). What’s a Moonbow? An Awesome Life Experience. Retrieved June 17, 2010, from: http://www.aimforawesome.com/tag/night-rainbow/

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Richards, E. G. (1999). Mapping time: The calendar and its history. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. Swinburne University of Technology. (n.d.). COSMOS: The SAO Encyclopedia of Astronomy. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cms/astro/cosmos Time and Date AS 1995–2010. (2010). December 21 is Solstice Day in 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2010, from http://www.timeanddate.com/calendar/december-solstice.html Our Solar System Cornell University. Astronomy Department. Curious About Astronomy? Ask An Astronomer. Retrieved May 11, 2010, from http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/index.php Finer, Angela. (2009). The Nine 8 Planets Just for Kids. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://kids.nineplanets.org/ King, Samuel Wilder. Polynesian Voyaging Society. Hawaiians as Navigators and Seamen. 34th Annual Report of the Hawaiian Historical Society, 1925, 11–14. Retrieved May 21, 2010, from http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu/hawaiians.html Kumu Pono Associates. (2006). Mauna Kea, the famous summit of the land (Mauna Kea, ka piko kaulana o ka ‘?ina). p. 83. Retrieved April 19, 2010, from http://ulukau.org/elib/ cgi-bin/library?e=q-0mauna-000Sec--11en-50-20-frameset-book-names+of+planets-1-011utfZz8&a=d&d=D0.5.66&toc=0 http://ulukau.org/elib/cgi-bin/library?e=q-0mauna-000Sec--11en-50-20-frameset-booknames+of+planets-1-011utfZz-8&a=d&d=D0.2.10&toc=0 Makemson, Maud W. American Anthropological Association. (1939). Hawaiian Astronomical Concepts II. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from http://www.jstor.org/pss/663054 Office of Hawaiian Affairs. Center on Disability Studies. (2009). Ulukau: The Hawaiian Electronic Library. K?kulu N? Uapo. Retrieved April 16, 2010, from http://ulukau.org/gsdl2.81/cgi-bin/ cbkukulu?e=010off--00-1--0--010---4-------0-1l--11en---planets--00-3-1-00-0-0-11000&a=d&c=cbkukul u&srp=0&srn=0&cl=search&d=D0.7.5.10.3.3 Pukui, Mary Kawena and Elbert, Samuel H. (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu, HI: University Press of Hawaii. Planets in Our Solar System Amazing-space. (2003). Solar System Trading Cards. Retrieved May 25, 2010, from http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations/trading/index.html Couper, Heather and Henbest, Nigel. (1999). Space Encyclopedia. New York, NY: DK Publishing. Eightplanetsfacts.com (n.d.). Retrieved May 13, 2010, from http://www.eightplanetsfacts.com/
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Goldsmith, Dr. Mike. (2004). Solar System. Boston, Massachusetts: Kingfisher Publication. Legendary planets. (n.d.) Retrieved May 25, 2010, from http://yugioh.wikia.com/wiki/Legendary_Planets National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2004). Solar System Exploration Trading Card Pack. Retrieved May 25, 2010, from http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/ multimedia/downloads/SSE_trading_card.pdf Osborne, Mary Pope and Will. (2002). Space. Magic Tree House Research Guide. New York: Random House, Inc. University of Texas McDonald Observatory. (2010). StarDate Online. Retrieved May 29, 2010, from http://stardate.org/nightsky/planets/ Timeline Knight, J. D. (2009). Sea and Sky. Retrieved May 22, 2010, from http://www.seasky.org/spacexp/sky5d1.html National Aeronautic Space Administration. (2009). Retrieved May 14, 2010, from http://www.nasa.gov/externalflash/PQTimeline/ Pāhana Pukui, Mary Kawena. (1983). ‘?lelo No‘eau. Hawaiian Proverbs & Poetical Sayings 1471. Honolulu, HI: Bishop Museum Press. Radway, Scott. Division of Aquatic Resources. (2008). Fishlife. What the Native Hawaiian Moon Calendar Can Teach Us About Conservation. Retrieved May 26, 2010, from http:// hawaii.gov/dlnr/dar/coral/pdfs/12_FISHLIFE_MoonPhases.pdf Stephens Media Group. Big Island Weekly. (2010). Po Mahina, A chant written by Mary Kawena Pukui. Retrieved May 26, 2010, from http://www.bigislandweekly.com/articles/2009/09/23/ read/news/news05.txt Demonstration of the chant with hand clapping sequence.

Finer, Angela. (2009). The Nine 8 Planets Just for Kids. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://kids.nineplanets.org/

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Photo Credits Image (cover) . . . . . . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Solar System (p. i) . . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) John H. Glenn (p. 5) . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Neil Armstrong (p. 6). . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Mariner 9 (p. 7) . . . . . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Voyager 1 (p. 8) . . . . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Voyager 2 (p. 9) . . . . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Comet Sample (p. 10) .. . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Haumea (p. 10). . . . . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Earth (pp. 13-14) . . . . . . . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Solar System (pp.15-18). . Courtesy National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) Hawaiian Seasons and Months (p. 6) . . . . . (c) 2008. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council. www.wpcouncil.org Moana Eisele (p. 8) . . . . . Courtesy of Moana Eisele Wauke Plant (pp. 7-8). . . . Courtesy of Michael Q. Ceballos Winged Box Jelly (p. 9). . . Courtesy of Waikiki Aquarium Jellyfish Sign (p. 9) . . . . . . Courtesy of Michael Q. Ceballos Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) President and CEO Curriculum Developer Sharon Nelson-Barber Ellen Miyasato Creative Producer Michael Q. Ceballos Evaluators Andrew Sahalie Chuck Giuli Executive Producer Ormond Hammond Cultural Advisor Keikio‘ewa Ka‘ōpua, Kamehameha Schools Production Assistant Frances Oshiro Line Producer Kaira Resch

Special Thanks To Christine Antolos John Camac Moana Eisele Javier Elizondo Darlene Fainuulelei-Butler Myra Hasegawa Alyce Ikeoka Ross Inouye Amber Inwood Rubellite Johnson

Hedy Kaneoka Terry Kelly Scott Kunihiro Susan Kusunoki Marylin Low Corinne Misaki-Wingert Troy Mulivai Matthew Kawika Ortiz Roger Osentoski Jennifer Padua

Lori Phillips Lee Ann Ānuenue Pūnua Rona Dale Rosco Rodenhurst Liane Sing Pamela Suga Marisa Torigoe Melissa Torres-Laing Gerald Yutob

Bishop Museum Haha‘ione Elementary School Hawai‘i Department of Education Kamehameha Schools

Waikiki Aquarium Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council

Artist Bryson Luke Curriculum Advisors Susan Hanson Cheryl Taitague

Written Contributions Nancy Alima Ali, Coordinator of Public Programs, Center for Science Education, Space Sciences Lab, UC Berkeley Winona Chang, Pacific Resources for Education and Learning
© 2011 PREL

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