NATIONAL SEARCH AND RESCUE MANUAL (NATIONAL SAR MANUAL

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B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL

RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
AMENDMENT
ENGLISH VERSION PG VIII ENGLISH VERSION PG XIX ENGLISH VERSION PG XX ENGLISH VERSION CHAPTER 1 - PGS 1, 8, 9, 17, 18 ENGLISH VERSION CHAPTER 3 - PGS 3, 9,13 ENGLISH VERSION CH. 4-PGS 12, 13, 17, 22, 23 ENGLISH VERSION CHAPTER 5 -PGS 32, 51, ENGLISH VERSION CHAPTER 7-PGS 26, 27, 28,61, 62 ENGLISH VERSION CHAPTER 9 -PGS 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 39, 47. VERSION FRANÇAISE PG XI, XXI, XXII VERSION FRANÇAISE CHAPTER 1 - PG 1, 9, 17, 18 VERSION FRANÇAISE CHAPTER 3 - PG 3, 10, 15, VERSION FRANÇAISE CHAPTER 4 - PG 14, 19, 24, 25 VERSION FRANÇAISE CHAPTER 5 - PG 35, 55 VERSION FRANÇAISE CHAPTER 7 - PG 29,30, 64 VERSION FRANÇAISE CHAPTER 9 - PG 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 39, 47,

DATE
JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000

DATE ENTERED
JUNE 2, 2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000

ENTERED BY
DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS

JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000

JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000 JUNE 2,2000

DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS DIANNE TIMMINS

REVISED — MAY 2000

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B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL

AMENDMENT

DATE

DATE ENTERED

ENTERED BY

REVISED — MAY 2000

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B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL

NATIONAL SEARCH AND RESCUE MANUAL
FOREWORD
1. This National Search and Rescue Manual, B–GA–209–001/FP–001 – DFO 5449, is issued under the joint authority of the Deputy Minister of National Defence, the Chief of Defence Staff, and the Commissioner, Canadian Coast Guard. The purpose of the publication is to assist personnel of all federal departments and agencies involved in Search and Rescue (SAR) to meet the SAR objectives of the Canadian Government. 2. This manual presents federal SAR policy and describes the federal SAR organization and the interdepartmental structure established to provide effective SAR. It presents the common procedures, techniques, and terminology which have been developed to enhance the effectiveness of operations conducted by any combination of SAR forces. 3. Amendments of this publication shall be co-ordinated through the Department of National Defence/Canadian Coast Guard (DND/CCG) and will be issued under the joint authority of the DND/CCG. Suggested changes shall be forwarded to: Chief of Air Staff/D Air FE 3 National Defence Headquarters Major-General George R. Pearkes Building Ottawa (Ontario) Canada K1A 0K2 Fax: (613) 995–5814 or to: Director, Search and Rescue Canadian Coast Guard Centennial Towers 200 Kent Street, 5th Floor Ottawa (Ontario) Canada, K1A 0E6 Fax: (613) 996–8902

4. This edition of the National SAR Manual is effective upon receipt and supersedes previous versions. 5. In order to conform to international phraseology, the terms “aeronautical, maritime and ground SAR” have replaced the previous “marine, air and land SAR”. Also, many French abbreviations have been replaced by their international equivalent, such as SAR, SRR, RCC and MRSC (see List of abbreviations).

ORIGINAL — MAY 1998

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...... i NATIONAL SEARCH AND RESCUE MANUAL.............................................................. CHAPTER 6—SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES—AERONAUTICAL INCIDENTS ............................................................................ v ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................ CHAPTER 5—SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES—GENERAL ..................................................................................................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS RECORD OF AMENDMENTS....................................... CHAPTER 3—TERMS OF REFERENCE—CANADIAN SAR SYSTEM ..................................................................................................................................iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................iii FOREWORD.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 PAGE V ...................................... CHAPTER 2—SAR AGREEMENTS .............................................................................................................................................................................. vii GLOSSARY ..................................................................................... CHAPTER 7—SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES—MARITIME INCIDENTS.................................................................. CHAPTER 8—COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURES........................................................................ CHAPTER 4—POLICY AND OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVES .............................................................................................. CHAPTER 9—REPORTS AND RETURNS............................................................................... xvii CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION......................................................

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Bold characters indicate that the abbreviation is the same in both languages. with the French equivalent in brackets. 1 CAD (1 DAC) A3 TSR (A3 Disp Op Tpt/SAR) ACC AOC (COA) AGL AMVER ASCC ATC BC C CANSARP CAS CAS (CEMFA) CASARA (ACRSA) 1 Canadian Air Division A3 Transport and SAR Readiness area control centre air operations centre above ground level Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System Air Standardization Co-ordinating Committee air traffic control bottom current coverage factor Canadian Search and Rescue Planning Program co-ordinator aeronautical search Chief of Air Staff Civil Air Search and Rescue Association (also see SERABEC) Computer Assisted Search Planning system (United States Coast Guard) Canadian Coast Guard CASP CCG (GCC) ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 PAGE VII .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ABBREVIATIONS NOTE: The abbreviations are listed alphabetically in the first column.

) crash position indicator Canada Shipping Act Canadian Search Area Definition co-ordinator surface search Co-operative Vessel Traffic Services continuous wave total drift aerospace trajectory Air FE 3 (DEF Air 3) Directorate of Air Force Employment 3 individual drift error CPI (IPC) CSA (LMMC) CSAD CSS CVTS (—) CW D da D de PAGE VIII REVISED — MAY 2000 .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CCGA (GCAC) CF (FC) CFB (BFC) CFS (SFC) CFSRS (RRSFC) CGFO (OFGC) CMCC OA (LO) COSPAS Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary Canadian Forces Canadian Forces Base Canadian Forces Station Canadian Forces Supplementary Radio System Coast Guard Fleet Order Canadian Mission Control Centre Oceans Act “Kosmicheskaya Sistyema Poiska Avariyny Sudov” (Russian for: Space system search for distressed vessels.

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL De de minimax DF DFO (MPO) DG (DG) DMB DND (MDN) dp DR (—) ds DSC (ASN) E ECAREG CANADA EGC (AGA) ELT EPIRB (RLS) ETA (HPA) ETD (HPD) ff FLIR total drift error minimax drift error direction finder Department of Fisheries and Oceans Director General datum marker buoy Department of National Defence parachute drift dead reaconing sinking drift digital selective calling total probable error Eastern Canada Traffic Zone Regulations enhanced group call emergency locator transmitter emergency position-indicating radio beacon estimated time of arrival estimated time of departure crew fatigue correction factor forward-looking infra-red ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 PAGE IX .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FM fs FSS fv fw GEOREF GHz GMDSS (SMDSM) GPS GRS (SRG) GRT (TJB) HF HQ (QG) ICAO (OACI) ICSAR (CIRES) IMO (OMI) Inmarsat IRB (ESC) JETS kHz frequency modulated optimal search factor flight service station search aircraft speed correction factor weather condition correction factor geographic reference system gigahertz Global Maritime Distress and Safety System Global Positioning System General Radio Service gross register ton or tonnage high frequencies (3 to 30 MHz) headquarters International Civil Aviation Organization Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue International Maritime Organization International Mobile Satellite Organization inshore rescue boat Joint Enroute Terminal System kilohertz PAGE X ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL LC LKP LM SAR (—) Loran LSC LUT LW M MAJAID (CATAIR) MANOT MARB (—) MARLANT [FMAR (A)] MARPAC [FMAR (P)] MCC MCTS (SCTM) MCTSO (OSCTM) MCW medevac MF MHz lake current last known position Lead Minister for Search and Rescue LOng RAnge Navigation long shore current local user terminal (satellite tracking station) leeway nautical mile major aeronautical disaster missing aircraft notice maritime assistance request broadcast Maritime Forces Atlantic Maritime Forces Pacific mission control centre Marine Communications and Traffic Services Marine Communications and Traffic Services Officer modulated continuous wave medical evacuation medium frequencies (300 to 3000 kHz) megahertz ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 PAGE XI .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 MRSC MSI MVFR N/A (s/o) NATO (OTAN) NBDP (IDBE) NDHQ (QGDN) NDOC (CODN) NIF (FNI) NOCL NOK (—) NORAD NORDREG CANADA NOTAM NSM (MSN) NSP (PNRS) NSS (SNRS) NVGs (—) OBS (BSN) OIC (—) maritime rescue sub-centre maritime safety information Mountain Visual Flight Rules not applicable North Atlantic Treaty Organization narrow-band direct-printing telegraphy National Defence Headquarters National Defence Operations Centre new search and rescue initiatives fund notice of crash/casualty location next-of-kin North American Air Defence Arctic Canada Traffic System notice to airmen National Search and Rescue Manual National Search and Rescue Program National Search and Rescue Secretariat night vision goggles Office of Boating Safety Officer in Charge PAGE XII ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL OSC PEP on-scene commander Provincial Emergency Program (volunteer organization in British Columbia) person in water personal locator beacon persons on board probability of containment probability of detection RAdio Detection And Ranging river current Royal Canadian Air Force rescue co-ordination centre Royal Canadian Mounted Police Regional Director Rescue. Safety and Environmental Response Regional Supervisor. Maritime Search and Rescue track spacing search and rescue search and rescue exercise Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking PIW PLB POB POC POD Radar RC RCAF (ARC) RCC RCMP (GRC) RD (DR) RSER (SSIE) RSMS (RRSM) S SAR SAREX SARSAT ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 PAGE XIII .

) situation report survival kit air droppable self-locating datum marker buoy searchmaster search and rescue mission co-ordinator International Convention of the Safety of Life at Sea.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 SARSUM (—) SART SAR Tech (SAR Tec) SC SERABEC search and rescue summary search and rescue (radar) transponder Search and Rescue Technician sea current “Sauvetage et recherches aériens du Québec” (also see CASARA) “Sistema de Cooperation Fuerzas Aereas Americanas” (Spanish for: System of co-operation among the American Air Forces. 1974 standard operating procedures search and rescue region search and rescue unit surface picture tidal current SICOFAA SITREP SKAD SLDMB SM (—) SMC SOLAS SOPs (IPO) SRR SRU SURPIC TC PAGE XIV ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL TSB (BST) Transport Safety Board—working title for the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation Safety Board (CTAISB) total water current wind speed in knots ultra high frequencies (300 to 3000 MHz) unnecessary search and rescue alert United States United States Air Force United States Coast Guard Co-ordinated Universal Time visual flight rules very high frequencies (30 to 300 MHz) vessel traffic services sweep width wind driven current uncorrected sweep width initial position error search and rescue facility position error TWC U UHF UNSAR US (—) USAF USCG UTC VFR VHF VTS (STM) W WC Wu X Y ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 PAGE XV .

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“position SARSAT confirmée” Co-ordinated SAR system The combined facilities. “système SAR coordonné” ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 PAGE XVII . “escadron de support au combat” Confirmed SARSAT position a. “aire de rassemblement des blessés” Combat support squadron A Canadian Forces (CF) squadron established to provide search and rescue service and other support to specified CF formations. The French equivalent is indicated between quotation marks in italics.5/243.0 MHz SARSAT position which has been confirmed either by • • at least two different satellite passes. or one satellite pass with another outside source such as an aircraft report. a 406 MHz SARSAT location for an operationally coded distress beacon. Aeromedical evacuation A Canadian Forces (CF) term meaning the medical evacuation by CF aircraft of service personnel from one facility to another.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL GLOSSARY NOTE: The terms are listed alphabetically in bold characters in the first column. a 121. “incident aéronautique” Casualty staging area An intermediate forward location where a large number of survivors can be treated prior to evacuation to appropriate medical facilities. “évacuation aéromédicale” Aeronautical incident A search and rescue incident involving an aircraft. equipment and procedures established in each search and rescue region to provide the response to search and rescue incidents. at the end of the definition. or b.

has lost all means of propulsion. or to serve as location reference. at any specific time. “balise de détresse” Ditching The forced landing of an aircraft on water. designated to coordinate surface search and rescue operations within a specified search area. “amerissage forcé” PAGE XVIII ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . “point de repère ou DATUM” Datum marker buoy (DMB) Droppable floating beacon used to determine actual sea current. “détresse” Distress beacon A generic term used to describe any emergency locator transmitter (ELT). “COSPAS–SARSAT” DATUM The most probable position of a search object. “coordonnateur des recherches en surface” COSPAS–SARSAT International organization which operates one of the satellite distress beacon alerting systems. corrected for drift. other than a search and rescue unit. “désemparé” Distress A search and rescue incident where there is a reasonable certainty that one or more individuals are threatened by grave and imminent danger and require immediate assistance. “bouée-repère électronique” Disabled A situation wherein a vessel or aircraft afloat and not in distress or potential of distress. steering or control to such a degree as to be incapable of proceeding to safety without assistance.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 Co-ordinator surface search (CSS) A vessel. emergency position-indicating radio beacon (EPIRB) or personal locator beacon (PLB).

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 Duckbutt An airborne standby posture carried out by Canadian Forces aircraft to provide navigation or other assistance to aircraft duringa specific operation. if necessary) to support a major aeronautical disaster operation. “opérations majeures de recherche et sauvetage” Forward operations base Ground search and rescue incident Humanitarian Incident Major aeronautical disaster (MAJAID) Major search and rescue operations REVISED — MAY 2000 PAGE XIX . or • Special cases. because of the number of people involved. located as close as possible to an incident site. “incident de recherche et sauvetage au sol” A Humanitarian Incident is a search and rescue (SAR) incident (not aeronautical or Maritime) that requires a response by the SAR System “incident humanitaire” An aircraft incident occurring in Canada which. as directed by the National Defense Headquarters. “duckbutt” A base. which is capable of handling large aircraft and has sufficient facilities (with augmentation. “catastrophe aéronautique” • Aeronautical and maritime search and rescue incidents where primary maritime and/or primary aeronautical search and rescue units are tasked on an incident for more than four calendar days. • Incidents which the search and rescue region commander assesses as being potentially sensitive. requires augmentation of established search and rescue resources. “base avancée des opérations” Any incident not otherwise classified as an aeronautical or maritime incident and involving missing persons or persons in distress.

“incident maritime” Medical evacuation (medevac) —critical The critical evacuation of injured or stranded persons from isolated areas or the recovery of sick or critically injured persons from vessels at sea. MI Distress – A person or persons are threatened by grave and imminent danger and require immediate assistance. “commandant sur place” Resources other than primary or secondary which participate in search and rescue activities when required. “évacuation médicale critique” The routine medical evacuation of patients or vital medical resources from one medical facility to another (aeronautical or maritime ambulance service). or • other related incident involving a vessel with no person on board. This includes civilian agencies. including the medical evacuation (medevac) of persons(s) from a vessel. or • a disoriented or lost vessel in no immediate danger. “évacuation médicale de routine” Telegraphy system for transmission of maritime safety information. “NAVTEX” The commander of a search and rescue unit designated to co-ordinate search and rescue operations within a specified Search area. navigation and meteorological warnings and urgent information to ships. “ressources de recherche et sauvetage—autres” REVISED – MAY 2000 Medical evacuation (medevac) —routine NAVTEX On-scene commander (OSC) Other search and rescue PAGE XX .National SAR Manual B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 Maritime incident A Maritime incident is a search and rescue (SAR) incident on the water involving a vessel or person(s) from a vessel. volunteers and partially Federal Government funded resources such as the Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary and the Civil Air Search and Rescue Association. M3 Situation resolved in the uncertainly phase-such as: • a disabled vessel in no immediate danger.

“centre de coordination de sauvetage” Rescue sub-centre (RSC) A unit subordinate to a rescue co-ordination centre established to complement the latter within a specific area within a Search and Rescue Region. “coordination des opérations de sauvetage” Rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) A unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue (SAR) services and for co-ordinating the conduct of SAR operations within an associated Search and Rescue Region. “centre secondaire de sauvetage maritime” Search and rescue (SAR) Search and Rescue comprises the search for. in distress or imminent danger. “recherche et sauvetage” Search and rescue incident A reported situation which requires a response from the search and rescue system. as judged by the RCC. including those multi-tasked to SAR. established and equipped specifically for SAR with SAR trained crews aboard.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Primary search and rescue resources Federal search and rescue (SAR) aircraft and vessels. The rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) will assign an incident number whenever. “ressources primaires de recherche et sauvetage” Ramp (or strip) alert An increased standby posture maintained by Canadian Forces search and rescue forces during periods of increased Air Defence or other notable activity. a response is made to the reported incident. or are feared to be. “alerte « aire de trafic » ou « piste d’envol »” Rescue co-ordination The function of integrating the efforts of search and rescue (SAR) facilities and resources to achieve concerted and harmonized resolution of SAR incidents in an effective and efficient manner. “incident de recherche et sauvetage” ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 PAGE XXI . Primary SAR resources are under the direct operational control of the Search and Rescue Region Commander for SAR taskings. ships or other craft which are. persons. and provision of aid to.

“coordonnateur de mission de recherche et sauvetage” An area of defined dimensions associated with a rescue coordination centre within which search and rescue services are provided. “commandant d’une région de recherche et sauvetage” Search and rescue resource Search and rescue response A resource capable of responding to a search and rescue incident.).NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 Search and rescue mission co-ordinator (SMC) Search and rescue region (SRR) The official temporarily assigned to co-ordinate response to an actual or apparent distress situation. “région de recherche et sauvetage” Search and rescue region commander The person designated by the Chief of Defence Staff and authorized by the Canada Shipping Act as being responsible for search and rescue operations within a Search and Rescue Region. to determine if a search and rescue incident is occurring. extensive monitoring (when situation dictates) involving one half hour of working time.g. “ressource de recherche et sauvetage” An action required to resolve a situation. • • “intervention de recherche et sauvetage” Search and rescue unit (SRU) A unit composed of trained personnel and provided with equipment suitable for the expeditious conduct of search and rescue operations. acting as search and rescue mission co-ordinator. or investigations involving one half hour working time. “unité de recherche et sauvetage” PAGE XXII ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . distress. such as: • • the tasking of search and rescue units (singular or multiple). urgency or marine assistance request broadcasts. etc. the issuance of any “All Stations” communications (e.

“ressources de recherche et sauvetage secondaires” Self-locating datum marker buoy (SLDMB) A datum marker buoy that determines its own position and includes the position information in the transmission of the beacon signal. These beacons usually transmit through satellite services. “bouée-repère électronique émettant sa propre position” Unknown incident An incident which commences as a search and rescue incident of unknown type and the source of which is untraced. “chef des opérations de recherche” Secondary search and rescue resources All resources of the Federal government that are not Primary search and rescue (SAR) but which may be tasked to aid in the resolution of a SAR incident. “message d’alerte inutile de recherche et sauvetage” Vessel Any displacement or non-displacement vehicle that uses water as a means of navigation.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Searchmaster (SM) An individual who has been appointed by a Search and Rescue Region Commander to co-ordinate and direct a specific search and rescue operation. “incident de source inconnue” Unnecessary search and rescue alert (UNSAR) message A message sent by a rescue co-ordination centre to the appropriate authorities as a follow-up when the SAR system is unnecessarily activated by a false alert. “bateau” ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 PAGE XXIII .

.................................................................................................................. 17 AMENDMENTS TO THE CANADA SHIPPING ACT BY THE OCEANS ACT..................................................................................................................... 14 RIGHT TO SALVAGE .............................................................................................................................................................. 15 ASSISTANCE ..........................................................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION........................................................... 17 COAST GUARD SERVICES................................................................................. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................ 18 REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 1 .................. 13 ANSWERING DISTRESS SIGNAL ........................................................................................................................................................................... CONVENTIONS AND AGREEMENTS .............. 15 SALVAGE NOT AFFECTED......................................................................... 3 NATIONAL SAR OBJECTIVE.................................................... 10 OTHER FEDERAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT RESOURCES ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 PENALTY ....................................................................................................... 14 DEFENCE ................... 13 SHIPS REQUISITIONED ..................... 14 MINISTER MAY DESIGNATE RESCUE CO-ORDINATORS ....... 1 GENERAL .......................................................................................... 11 ANNEX 1A—EXCERPTS FROM THE CANADA SHIPPING ACT ................... 8 TRANSPORT CANADA SAR RESPONSIBILITIES ............................... 14 POWER OF RESCUE CO-ORDINATORS ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 13 RELEASE FROM OBLIGATION. 5 FISHERIES AND OCEANS SAR RESPONSIBILITIES ...... 15 ANNEX 1B—EXCERPTS FROM THE OCEANS ACT ................ 3 INTERNATIONAL SAR TREATIES............................................................................................ 5 NATIONAL DEFENCE SAR RESPONSIBILITIES............................................................................... 13 FURTHER RELEASE........................................................................................................................................................................................... 17 INTERPRETATION ............................................................ 13 OFFENCE AND PENALTY .................................................................... 4 AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME SAR SERVICE....................................................................... 15 AIRCRAFT TREATED AS IF SHIP OR VESSEL .............................. 4 NATIONAL SAR PROGRAM MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW................................................

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Where possible and when directly related thereto. Each component is broken down into two sub-components: SAR operations and SAR prevention.3 NSP Components—The National Search and Rescue Program is characterized by the three complementary components of aeronautical. nor require the mandatory expenditure of resources. Lawrence River system are also part of the Canadian federal SAR area of responsibility. efficient and economical use of resources. NATIONAL SAR OBJECTIVE 1.2 Jurisdiction—Membership in the National Search and Rescue Program does not in any way change existing jurisdictions. the National Search and Rescue Program will attempt to reduce the number and severity of SAR incidents. The objective of the NSP is to save lives by enhancing SAR prevention and provide effective and affordable SAR services in Canada’s SAR areas of responsibility. Membership does. responding and aiding activities using public and private resources. the Government of Canada directed the establishment of a National Search and Rescue Program (NSP). ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 3 .5 Area of Responsibility—The Canadian federal area of responsibility is as defined under International Civil Aviation Organization agreements for aeronautical SAR and as defined under International Maritime Organisation agreements for maritime SAR.4 Objective—The national search and rescue (SAR) objective is to prevent loss of life and injury through search and rescue alerting. 1. provide a structure and process to produce effective. Through prevention measures focused on owners and operators most commonly involved in SAR incidents.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL INTRODUCTION GENERAL 1. 1. provincial and municipal governments along with other search and rescue (SAR) organizations. reasonable efforts will be made to minimize damage to or loss of property. The NSP is a co-operative effort by federal. 1. The Canadian waters of the Great Lakes and the St. however. responsibilities or authorities.1 NSP—In 1986. maritime and ground SAR.

the Prime Minister. planning. and the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). This was reconfirmed in 1982 and again in 1986 by Cabinet. in December 1976. this manual will focus on the federal responsibility for aeronautical and maritime SAR activity. agreements between Canadian and American SAR agencies enhance co-ordination and mutual support operations adjacent to the common border. Standardization is also achieved by membership in international military organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Air Standardization Co-ordinating Committee. 1. commercial and volunteer groups contribute to the National Search and Rescue Program. and effectiveness. 1.9 ICSAR— The Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue (ICSAR) is made up of senior federal officials representing departments and central agencies involved in the National Search and Rescue Program. ICSAR is responsible for identifying search and rescue (SAR) requirements and advising the government on how best to respond to these requirements. CONVENTIONS AND AGREEMENTS 1. the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue. identified the Minister of National Defence as the Lead Minister for SAR (LM–SAR) and spokesperson for the government on SAR. Finally. Similarly. NATIONAL SAR PROGRAM MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW 1.6 Participation—Canada participates in a number of international organizations such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO).8 Lead Minister—To establish a single spokesperson for the government on overall search and rescue (SAR) matters. the Canadian Coast Guard seeks standardization of maritime SAR procedures through IMO forums such as the Maritime Safety Committee and the Radiocommunications and Search and Rescue Sub-Committee. ICSAR exists to provide interdepartmental co-ordination and advice to the Ministers in the areas of SAR policy. provincial.10 ICSAR Composition—The Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue (ICSAR) is chaired by the Executive Director of the National Search and Rescue Secretariat and CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 4 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . 1. the focus on search and rescue (SAR) as a distinct integrated activity is maintained through the Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue and the National Search and Rescue Secretariat. resources. municipal.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 INTERNATIONAL SAR TREATIES. This Committee is the primary forum for the development of advice for the Lead Minister. Although numerous federal.7 General—Within the federal system. and has agreed to adopt search and rescue (SAR) standards and practices in accordance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

Operational departments deliver SAR service and. aimed at reducing the number and severity of SAR incidents through education and the enforcement of relevant regulations.1 SAR operations. Treasury Board. Transport Canada (Aviation). 1. This management process allows the Lead Minister to receive the advice of the departments and the independent advice of the NSS (if there is not consensus) with which to make program recommendations to Cabinet. The Executive Director of the NSS has been designated the Chair of the Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue (ICSAR). The ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 5 . aimed at detection. AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME SAR SERVICE 1. Additional ICSAR representatives include the Department of Natural Resources. via ICSAR and/or departmental lines of communication. research and development. The role of the NSS is to enhance the provision of effective. advise the lead Minister in areas of SAR policy. the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canadian Coast Guard). Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.13 DND Responsibilities—General—The primary responsibility for the provision of aeronautical search and rescue (SAR) services and effective operation of the co-ordinated aeronautical and maritime SAR system is assigned to the Department of National Defence. Environment Canada (Atmospheric Environmental Services). resources and effectiveness. analysis and review. and Heritage Canada (Parks Canada). NATIONAL DEFENCE SAR RESPONSIBILITIES 1. efficient and economical SAR services in Canada by facilitating the development of the National Search and Rescue Program (NSP). response and rescue. and . the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. resource planning.2 SAR prevention. and the Privy Council Office. Emergency Preparedness Canada. This includes facilitating the co-operation. He is responsible to the Lead Minister for SAR.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL consists of members from the Department of National Defence.11 NSS—The National Search and Rescue Secretariat (NSS) is an independent body outside the line authorities of search and rescue (SAR) delivery departments and it plays a central managerial support role of the overall SAR objectives of departments. communication and co-ordination among NSP members in the development of policy. planning.12 Joint CCG and DND Activity—The Department of National Defence and the Canadian Coast Guard support the National Search and Rescue Program through two areas of activity related to the aeronautical and maritime search and rescue (SAR) services: . The SAR delivery departments thus retain full control of SAR operations and execute their components of the NSP.

as Commander of the Trenton Search and Rescue Region (SRR).3 the provision of a DND Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue representative responsible for departmental SAR policy co-ordination. is accountable for the co-ordination. CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 6 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . .2 liaison with the National Search and Rescue Secretariat. is accountable for the coordination.1 strategic Department of National Defence (DND) search and rescue (SAR) policy and unit allocation.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 provision of assistance to aircraft in distress through a federal aeronautical SAR service arises out of Canada’s signatory status to the 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation.1 operational command of all aeronautical search and rescue assets. and .4 liaison with other SAR operating departments and agencies. 1. . In 1951.14 CAS Responsibilities—The Chief of Air Staff is responsible for: . As well. control and conduct of search and rescue operations in the Halifax SRR. as Commander of the Halifax Search and Rescue Region (SRR). 1. .16 Commander MARLANT Responsibilities—The Commander Maritime Forces Atlantic.2 the establishment and manning of the rescue co-ordination centres and the SARSAT Canadian Mission Control Centre. 1 Canadian Air Division. the Cabinet authorized the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) to establish facilities and equipment to meet this commitment. control and conduct of search and rescue operations in the Trenton SRR. 1. 1947. Article 25. 1.3 the provision of ground search parties in support of aeronautical and maritime incidents. nationally and internationally.17 Commander 1 CAD Responsibilities—The Commander. and . the Cabinet further delegated responsibility for maritime SAR co-ordination to the RCAF. on June 18. .15 1 CAD Responsibilities—The 1 Canadian Air Division is responsible for: .4 the interface between the Civil Air Search and Rescue Association and the Department of National Defence at the operational level.

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 1. as a complementary tasking. .19 DND SAR Activities − The search and rescue (SAR) activities of the Department of National Defence are: . 1. .8 the establishment of operating standards and the provision of SAR training for the coordinated SAR system in collaboration (when appropriate) with CCG authorities. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 7 .6 the provision of ground SAR and humanitarian assistance. facilities and SRUs in collaboration (when appropriate) with CCG. .11 co-ordination of the Civil Air Search and Rescue Association training and operational activity. . as Commander of the Victoria Search and Rescue Region (SRR). control and conduct of search and rescue operations in the Victoria SRR. . .9 the evaluation of SAR equipment and procedures in collaboration (when appropriate) with CCG authorities.4 the provision of SAR aircraft in response to SAR incidents within the Canadian area of responsibility. control. is accountable for the coordination. . . and conduct of aeronautical SAR operations within the Canadian area of responsibility and between Canada and the United States in accordance with existing agreements.3 the co-ordination. and .5 the setting of priorities pertaining to the allocation of search and rescue units (SRUs) to SAR operations.7 the formulation and promulgation of SAR policy (in collaboration with the Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue). . . Maritime Forces Pacific.1 the efficient operation of the aeronautical and maritime components of the co-ordinated SAR system.2 the provision and operation of the rescue co-ordination centres and other SAR facilities in conjunction with the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG).10 the review of SAR services.18 Commander MARPAC Responsibilities—The Commander.12 the efficient operation of the Canadian components of the SARSAT system.

4 to provide the resources to operate the Canadian components of the SARSAT system. . In 1958.3 to conduct ground searches in relation to aeronautical and maritime SAR incidents. . to assist in the prosecution of ground SAR and humanitarian incidents which occur within provincial or municipal areas of responsibility.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 1. Canada became a signatory to the Convention on the High Seas.20 DND Basic SAR Tasks—The Department of National Defence has the following basic search and rescue (SAR) tasks: . FISHERIES AND OCEANS SAR RESPONSIBILITIES 1.1 to co-ordinate. and . under Chapter 5. wherein.2 to support Transport Canada (Aviation) and the Canadian Coast Guard in SAR prevention through participation in related educational programs and by advising the appropriate agencies of areas of concern identified in SAR operations.22 DFO Responsibilities—General—The responsibility for the provision of the maritime component of the federal search and rescue program rests with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) and the Canadian Coast Guard.1 To provide search and rescue units when and where available. and . control and conduct SAR operations in relation to aeronautical SAR incidents within the Canadian area of responsibility. These responsibilities are further reflected and amplified in subsequent Cabinet decisions.21 DND Complementary SAR Tasks—The Department of National Defence has the following complementary search and rescue (SAR) tasks: . 1. Canada signed the Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). wherein. This responsibility is assigned to DFO through the Oceans Act (Annex 1B). each contracting state is required to undertake and ensure necessary arrangements for coast watching and for the rescue of persons in distress at sea. and legislation such as the CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 8 REVISED — MAY 2000 .23 DFO Responsibilities—History—In 1948. under Article 12 (2). 1. Regulation 15. every coastal state is required to maintain an adequate and effective search and rescue service regarding safety on and over the sea.2 to provide search and rescue units (SRUs) in support of the prosecution of maritime SAR operations and to exercise ultimate authority in the allocation of all SRUs during a SAR incident.

3 the provision of maritime advice and assistance to DND in the co-ordination of aeronautical SAR and other emergencies which may require the use of maritime units. .9 the organization. The International Convention on Maritime SAR. . control and conduct of maritime SAR operations within the Canadian area of responsibility. . REVISED— MAY 2000 CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 9 .5 the provision of humanitarian assistance (as a secondary task) when such is deemed best provided by CCG SRUs. 1.7 establishment of levels of service. performance and operating standards. the activities of which SRUs are co-ordinated by RCCs and MRSCs. . . .6 formulation and promulgation of SAR policy (in collaboration with the Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue).8 the provision of maritime SAR training for the co-ordinated SAR system in collaboration (when appropriate) with DND.1 the provision of and participation in the maritime component of the rescue co-ordination centres (RCCs) as well as the provision.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Canada Shipping Act (Annex 1A) and now the Oceans Act.24 CCG Responsibilities—The Canadian Coast Guard has primary responsibility for the provision of the maritime component of the federal search and rescue program and for all matters relating to pleasure craft safety.2 in collaboration with DND. equipment and operation of pleasure craft. inspection.25 CCG SAR Activities—The search and rescue (SAR) activities of the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) are: . 1979.4 the provision of maritime search and rescue units (SRUs) in response to SAR incidents within the Canadian area of responsibility. operation and equipping of the maritime rescue sub-centres (MRSCs) and other SAR facilities in co-operation with the Department of National Defence (DND). equipment and procedures. 1. further defines these responsibilities. in collaboration with DND. . including the regulation of the construction. co-ordination and administration of Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary activities. the co-ordination. .10 the evaluation of SAR services. .

2 to provide specialized departmental resources and expertise as a functional part of the SAR program.2 to provide maritime units and communications in support of the prosecution of aeronautical SAR operations where applicable. to assist in the prosecution of humanitarian incidents. 1. when and where available. 1.12 the provision of maritime emergency communications and alerting services. in collaboration with the Department of National Defence. .29 Transport Canada (Aviation) SAR Tasks—Transport Canada (Aviation) has the following search and rescue (SAR) tasks: .27 CCG Complementary SAR Task—The complementary search and rescue task of the Canadian Coast Guard is to provide search and rescue units.26 CCG Basic SAR Tasks—The Canadian Coast Guard has the following basic search and rescue (SAR) tasks: . control and conduct SAR Loss-Of-Life prevention programs to reduce the number and severity of maritime SAR incidents.1 to provide means and methods in respect to civil aircraft in distress in the Canadian area of responsibility to achieve efficiency in alerting the appropriate rescue co-ordination centre and in locating the distressed aircraft.1 to detect maritime incidents and. Co-ordination is effected through the Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue. 1.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 .28 Transport Canada (Aviation)—Transport Canada (Aviation) has primary responsibility for the provision of the aeronautical search and rescue (SAR) prevention program. regulation and enforcement and is executed in close consultation with the Department of National Defence SAR authorities in an effort to optimize program priorities and effectiveness. TRANSPORT CANADA SAR RESPONSIBILITIES 1.11 the review of SAR services and and facilities and of SRUs. This responsibility is met through education programs. and CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 10 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . to co-ordinate. . under the authority of the Aeronautics Act. and . in collaboration with DND. control and conduct SAR operations in maritime SAR incidents within the Canadian area of responsibility. and .3 to co-ordinate.

30 Aircraft and vessels of all departments of the federal government are considered secondary search and rescue units and will respond to calls for assistance whenever possible. control and conduct a SAR prevention program designed to reduce the number and severity of aeronautical SAR incidents. OTHER FEDERAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT RESOURCES 1. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 11 .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL .3 to co-ordinate.

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in so far as possible. RELEASE FROM OBLIGATION (3) The master of a ship shall be released from the obligation imposed by subsection (1) when he learns that one or more ships other than his own have been requisitioned and are complying with the requisition. requisition one or more of those ships that he considers best able to render assistance. and. considers it unreasonable or unnecessary to proceed to their assistance. shall proceed with all speed to the assistance of the persons in distress informing them if possible that he is doing so. SHIPS REQUISITIONED (2) The master of any ship in distress may. with the masters of the ships that answer his distress signal. (1) The master of a Canadian ship at sea. from the obligation imposed by subsection (2). on receiving a signal from any source that a ship or aircraft or survival craft thereof is in distress. if he is informed by the persons in the ship in distress or by the master of another ship that he has reached those persons that assistance is no longer necessary. and it is the duty of the master of any Canadian ship that is so requisitioned to comply with the requisition by continuing to proceed with all speed to the assistance of the ship in distress. after consultation.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 1A— EXCERPTS FROM THE CANADA SHIPPING ACT ANSWERING DISTRESS SIGNAL 384. he shall enter in the official log-book the reason for failing to proceed to the assistance of those persons. in the special circumstances of the case. if his ship has been requisitioned. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 13 . but if he is unable or. FURTHER RELEASE (4) The master of a ship shall be released from the obligation imposed by subsection (1).

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 OFFENCE AND PENALTY (5) If the master of a Canadian ship contravenes this section he is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year. RIGHT TO SALVAGE (6) Nothing in this section affects the provisions of section 451 and compliance by the master of a ship with this section does not affect his right. a rescue co-ordinator may: (a) order all vessels within an area specified by him to report their positions to him. MINISTER MAY DESIGNATE RESCUE CO-ORDINATORS 385. aircraft or survival craft or to otherwise render assistance. or the right of any other person to salvage. (1) The Minister may designate persons. to organize search and rescue operations in Canadian waters and on the high seas off the coasts of Canada. aircraft or survival craft. and (c) give such other orders as he deems necessary to carry out search and rescue operations for that vessel. (b) order any vessel to take part in a search for that vessel. to be known as rescue co-ordinators. PENALTY (3) Every master or person in charge of a vessel in Canadian waters or a Canadian vessel on the high seas off the coasts of Canada who fails to comply with an order given by a rescue coordinator or a person acting under his direction is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or both. CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 14 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . POWER OF RESCUE CO-ORDINATORS (2) On being informed that a vessel or aircraft or survival craft thereof is in distress or is missing in Canadian waters or on the high seas off any of the coasts of Canada under circumstances that indicate it may be in distress.

including the provisions of this Part. (1) The master or person in charge of a vessel shall. if any. statutory and other. so far as he can do so without serious danger to his own vessel. to the salvage of life or property and to the duty or obligation to render assistance to ships or vessels in distress applies to aircraft on or over the sea or tidal waters and on and over the Great Lakes.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL DEFENCE (4) No master or person in charge of a vessel shall be convicted of an offence under subsection (3) if he establishes that compliance with an order of a rescue co-ordinator or person acting under the direction thereof would have exposed his vessel or tow or persons on board it to serious danger. to such extent and in such manner as appears necessary or expedient. SALVAGE NOT AFFECTED (2) Compliance with subsection (1) by the master or person in charge of a vessel does not affect his right or the right of any other person to salvage. Royal Ascent Granted March 26. statutory and other. relating to wrecks. and if he fails to do so he is liable to a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars. as it applies to ships or vessels. (2) The owner of an aircraft is entitled to a reasonable reward for salvage services rendered by the aircraft to any property or persons in any case where the owner of the aircraft would be so entitled had it been a ship or vessel. 1987 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 15 . (3) The Governor in Council may make modifications of and exemptions from the provisions of the law. (1) The law. AIRCRAFT TREATED AS IF SHIP OR VESSEL 449. in its application to aircraft. its crew and passengers. render assistance to every person. who is found at sea and in danger of being lost. even if that person is a subject of a foreign state at war with Her Majesty. ASSISTANCE 451.

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“Department” means the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. aircraft and other marine services. board or agency of the Government of Canada. REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 17 . duties and functions of the Minister extend to and include all matters over which Parliament has jurisdiction. inspection.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 1B— EXCERPTS FROM THE OCEANS ACT INTERPRETATION 2. In this Act. relating to (a) services for the safe. boards and agencies of the Government of Canada through the provision of ships. COAST GUARD SERVICES 41. (1) As the Minister responsible for coast guard services. “Minister” means the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans. (iii) ice breaking and ice management services. not assigned by law to any other department. including the regulation of the construction. and (e) the support of departments. (ii) marine communications and traffic management services. (d) marine pollution prevention and response. (c) pleasure craft safety. and (iv) channel maintenance. (b) the marine component of the federal search and rescue program. economical and efficient movement of ships in Canadian waters through the provision of (i) aids to navigation systems and services. equipment and operation of pleasure craft. the powers.

“Minister” means. Royal Assent granted 18th December. CHAPTER 1 – PAGE 18 REVISED — MAY 2000 .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 AMENDMENTS TO THE CANADA SHIPPING ACT BY THE OCEANS ACT 95. the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. The definitions “Department” and “Minister” in section 2 of the Canada Shipping Act are replaced by the following: “Department” means. in section 385. in section 385. 1996. the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans.

................................................. 1974 ....................................................... 1979 .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS................................... 1 GENERAL .......................... 7 INTERNATIONAL ............. 3 CUSTOMS AND IMMIGRATION BILATERAL AGREEMENT—SAR AIRCRAFT ...... 3 JOINT AREAS OF SAR RESPONSIBILITY—CANADA/UNITED STATES .................................................................................... 8 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 2 – PAGE 1 ........ 6 ANNEX 2—SAR AGREEMENTS .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7 CANADA/UNITED STATES ...............................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CHAPTER 2—SAR AGREEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 2—SAR AGREEMENTS ............... 4 INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA............................................................................ 3 VISITS BETWEEN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES.............................................................................................................................................. 7 DOMESTIC ............................................................. 5 INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE.................

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US SAR forces may be permitted to provide SRUs they consider necessary. This requires a high degree of liaison and the acceptance of mutual agreements. terminology and standards. JOINT AREAS OF SAR RESPONSIBILITY— CANADA/UNITED STATES 2. an itinerary of the proposed trip shall be sent to the Canadian Defence Liaison Staff in Washington. the International Civil Aviation Organization.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL SAR AGREEMENTS GENERAL 2. that close co-operation be maintained between Canadian SAR authorities and those of other nations. Canadian Coast Guard personnel shall travel in accordance with guidelines provided in the Treasury Board Security Policy. and the System of Co-operation Among the American Air Forces (SICOFAA).1 Canadian search and rescue (SAR) procedures should be compatible with those used by nations participating in the International Maritime Organization. 2.2 To ensure smooth co-ordination in cross-border search and rescue (SAR) operations. For Department of National Defence personnel.3 The following paragraphs outline the working arrangements for search and rescue (SAR) operations in Canadian territory where Canadian and United States (US) search and rescue units (SRUs) are operating together. but the appropriate Canadian rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) will be responsible for the search. the Canadian Defence Liaison Staff in Washington and the Department of Movements. therefore. the Air Standardization and Coordination Committee. the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. involving a US aircraft other than military. Details including reports of such visits shall be passed to the appropriate headquarters.4 When a SAR incident occurs in Canadian territory. It is essential. October 95). a visit clearance from Canadian Defence Liaison Staff in Washington is not required (Telephone conversation between the Staff Officer Search and Rescue 2. Visits by personnel of Canadian search and rescue units (SRUs) to adjacent United States Coast Guard and United States Air Force installations may be made on the approval of the commander responsible for the particular SRU concerned. VISITS BETWEEN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES 2. periodic liaison visits are required between SAR personnel from Canada and the United States. United States Air Force (USAF) or US Coast Guard SAR forces will inform the Canadian RCC of action ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 2 – PAGE 3 .

CUSTOMS AND IMMIGRATION BILATERAL AGREEMENT— SAR AIRCRAFT 2.1 full information on flight plan. USAF forces may be permitted to take any action that is necessary. in his opinion. Under such conditions. a USAF Searchmaster (SM) will be designated as well as a Canadian Assistant SM to act as liaison between US and local Canadian authorities. The US SM will report details to the appropriate Canadian RCC and the RCC will be kept informed of developments. and . Copies of these agreements are held at NDHQ/Directorate of Air Force Employment 3. along with the additional information of the territory to be searched and the possible duration of the stay of the US CHAPTER 2 – PAGE 4 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . 2. 2.6 Canadian and US SRUs will provide mutual assistance when such assistance is requested and is available. ratification by the Canadian RCC.7 Customs and Immigration authorities in Canada and the United States (US) have approved the following procedures to be employed between rescue co-ordination centres (RCCs) and Customs and Immigration officers in dealing with search and rescue (SAR) aircraft of either Canada or the US crossing the international boundary while engaged in SAR operations: . consulting with the appropriate Canadian RCC as soon as possible. the CF are better qualified to conduct the search.4 future plans. However.2 action taken or being taken. This information. but all decisions and activity shall be under the control of.3 safety and environment risk assessment. the search and rescue region commander may assume control of any search that arises in his area.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 taken or proposed. When a USAF SRU gains knowledge of an incident involving a US military aircraft in Canadian territory.5 When an emergency incident occurs involving a US military aircraft in Canadian territory (for which search participation may become necessary). A listing of Canadian/US SAR agreements is provided at Annex 2. . the RCC in charge of the search shall obtain from US authorities the number of aircraft participating and the identification markings of the aircraft. This power normally will only be exercised when Canadian Forces (CF) search aircraft are participating or when. .1 when US aircraft are to be employed on a SAR operation in Canada. immediate notification will be given to the appropriate Canadian RCC giving: . and subject to.

3 the identification markings of each aircraft.1 the territory to be searched. it will be subject to customs treatment normally accorded to import merchandise.4 at Canadian locations where there is no immigration service available. Each contracting government also undertakes to ensure that necessary arrangements are made for ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 2 – PAGE 5 .2 when Canadian aircraft are to be employed on a SAR operation in the US. from the point of view of safety of life. INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR THE SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA. and . and . . NOTE: Should any merchandise.4 the number of persons comprising the crew of each aircraft.2 the possible duration of the stay of the aircraft.8 The 1974 International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) has the objective of promoting safety of life at sea by the contracting governments. the local customs official shall be notified and requested to inform the appropriate immigration official. remain in the latter country on conclusion of an operation. that a ship is fit for the service for which it is intended. . . 1974 2. shall inform the appropriate Canadian Collector of Customs and the immigration official of the intended operations giving the following details: . . and in addition.3 the duration of the stay if known.1 the name of the airport at which the aircraft landed. carried in the aircraft in question from one country to the other in the course of SAR operations. the particular Canadian RCC that is dispatching the aircraft shall pass all pertinent details to the US RCC in charge of the search. the RCC in charge of the operation shall notify the appropriate Collector of Customs and the immigration officials of: .3 should an unscheduled landing be made by US aircraft while employed on a SAR mission in Canada. . . through adoption and pursuance of common laws and regulations and all other steps which may be necessary to ensure.2 the identification of the aircraft.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL aircraft shall be relayed to the Collector of Customs and the appropriate immigration official for the area involved.

9 The main purpose of the International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue. The International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue. 1979. along its coasts and off-shore areas for which it has accepted the responsibility. Canada is a signatory to the 1974 SOLAS Convention and has accepted the obligation to establish the facilities required for coast watching and rescuing persons in distress at sea. CHAPTER 2 – PAGE 6 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . is to facilitate co-operation between governments and to facilitate co-operation between those participating in search and rescue (SAR) operations at sea. has been in effect since June 22. INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 coast watching and for the rescue of the persons in distress at sea and around its coasts. 1979 2. In this regard the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has established an International SAR Plan and published the IMO Search and Rescue Manual (IMOSAR Manual) to assist governments. 1985. 1979.

Provide for mutual assistance. or member of.09.49 AUTHORITIES Canada/United States AGREEMENT Search and rescue (SAR) operations along the common boundary outlining customs procedures.73 Authority for agreements between MARPAC and 13th and 17th Districts USCG. delineating responsibility and control.02. 27.04.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 2—SAR AGREEMENTS Canada is a signatory to. the following agreements or organizations: INTERNATIONAL • • • • • • • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Air Standardization Co-ordinating Committee (ASCC) International Maritime Organization (IMO) Convention on International Civil Aviation International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) CANADA/UNITED STATES DATE 31.72 Maritime Forces Pacific (MARPAC)/ 17th District United States Coast Guard (USCG) MARPAC/USCG Pacific 02. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 2 – PAGE 7 .

delineating responsibility and control.87 AUTHORITIES Department of National Defence (DND)/Transport Canada DND/Transport Canada AGREEMENT Search and rescue training.04. NOTE: Each search and rescue region will have regional agreements between local agencies and authorities as necessary to facilitate the co-ordination and conduct of regional SAR operations.73 MARPAC/13th District USCG Provide for mutual assistance.03.94 Joint sponsorship and cost-sharing of the Civil Air Search and Rescue Association (CASARA). Memorandum of Understanding defining the respective operational and administrative responsibilities of the respective agencies in conducting SAR activities. Canadian Coast Guard. 24. 30. USCG and United States Air Force DOMESTIC DATE 27.05.95 Department of National Defence. Each rescue co-ordination centre and maritime rescue subcentre will maintain copies of their relevent agreements.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 18.04. CHAPTER 2 – PAGE 8 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

.................................... 3 TERMS OF REFERENCE—NATIONAL DEFENCE SAR STAFF ........................................................................... 5 TERMS OF REFERENCE—SEARCH AND RESCUE REGION ...... 1 TABLE OF FIGURES ........................................................................... 23 ANNEX 3A—SEARCH AND RESCUE REGION BOUNDARIES ....................................................................................................................................... 9 TERMS OF REFERENCE—RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRE ...................................... 26 HALIFAX SRR.................... 21 TERMS OF REFERENCE—ON-SCENE COMMANDER/ CO-ORDINATOR SURFACE SEARCH/ CO-ORDINATOR AERONAUTICAL SEARCH . 25 VICTORIA SRR ........ 29 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 1 ....................................... 9 TERMS OF REFERENCE—MARITIME RESCUE SUB-CENTRE............. 27 ANNEX 3C—RCC/MRSC SAR STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES ................. 21 TERMS OF REFERENCE—SEARCHMASTER/ SAR MISSION CO-ORDINATOR...................................................................................................................................... 2 CO-ORDINATION OF SAR ........... 18 TERMS OF REFERENCE—ALERTING POST................................... 15 TERMS OF REFERENCE—CANADIAN MISSION CONTROL CENTRE ...........B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CHAPTER 3— TERMS OF REFERENCE—CANADIAN SAR SYSTEM TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 3—TERMS OF REFERENCE—CANADIAN SAR SYSTEM ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 TERMS OF REFERENCE—COAST GUARD SAR STAFF ............................................................................. 26 ANNEX 3B—MARITIME RESCUE SUB-CENTRE OPERATIONAL BOUNDARIES ................................................................. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS.................. 26 TRENTON SRR................................................................................................. 3 SEARCH AND RESCUE REGIONS........................................................................

................27 FIGURE 3B–2 MRSC ST..............................................28 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 2 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 ......................................................25 FIGURE 3B–1 MRSC QUÉBEC OPERATIONAL BOUNDARIES ...................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE 3A–1 SEARCH AND RESCUE REGIONS .......................................... JOHN’S OPERATIONAL BOUNDARIES...............................................

The statutory authority for the co-ordination of maritime SAR response is assigned to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans by the Oceans Act. the Department of National Defense (DND) has overall responsibility for the efficient operation of the co-ordinated aeronautical and maritime search and rescue (SAR) system.4 Directorate Air Requirements—The Directorate Air Requirements staff is responsible to the Chief of the Air Staff for the: REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 3 . SEARCH AND RESCUE REGIONS 3. MRSC areas of responsibility are outlined in Annex 3B. the country has been divided into three search and rescue regions (SRRs) for maritime and aeronautical SAR co-ordination. TERMS OF REFERENCE—NATIONAL DEFENCE SAR STAFF 3. Under this authority the military search and rescue region (SRR) commanders have been designated as rescue co-ordinators. the co-ordination and control of aeronautical and maritime rescue operations are conducted by both DND and Coast Guard personnel respectively. conducting and controlling response to maritime SAR incidents within local areas of the SRR. RCC personnel function together as a team to ensure that response to distress incidents is co-ordinated effectively.3 Rescue co-ordination centres at Victoria. John’s (Newfoundland). MRSCs keep parent RCCs fully informed of their activity and transfer control of an incident to the parent RCC in accordance with established criteria.1 As summarized in Cabinet Directives. 3. and St.2 In accordance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) agreements to provide search and rescue (SAR) services in Canada and adjacent ocean areas. Within the rescue co-ordination centres (RCCs). Trenton and Halifax co-ordinate aeronautical and maritime SAR operations.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL TERMS OF REFERENCE—CANADIAN SAR SYSTEM CO-ORDINATION OF SAR 3. The international boundaries are in accordance with ICAO and IMO agreements (SRR boundaries are outlined in Annex 3A). Maritime rescue sub-centres (MRSCs) are established at Québec City (Québec). Maritime rescue sub-centres (MRSCs) are established for the purpose of co-ordinating. maximizing the use of local knowledge and resources in providing an effective response.

standardization and determination of readiness levels of DND SAR formations.1 development and promulgation of Department of National Defence (DND) search and rescue (SAR) policy in accordance with ministerial direction. 3.4 provision of information to other National Defence Headquarters staffs on matters concerning SAR. . . and . 1 Canadian Air Division.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 .6 co-ordination of DND participation in the COSPAS–SARSAT program.2 administration.8 monitoring of major SAR operations and submitting the recommendations for their reduction. .2 co-ordination of all DND inputs to the New SAR Initiatives Fund (NIF).2 processing of ministerial or other inquiries regarding DND aspects of the Canadian SAR program. CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 4 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 . . 3.3 liaison with the Canadian Coast Guard. for the: . the National Search and Rescue Secretariat and other agencies involved in the National SAR Program.7 provision of Canadian representation for SAR policy matters at SICOFAA and the International Civil Aviation Organization. .3 monitoring of research and development for potential improvements in DND SAR equipment. . . and . .5 provision of staff support to the DND Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue representative.1 co-ordination of equipment procurement and other requirements of the Department of National Defence (DND) search and rescue (SAR) system.1 preparation and publishing of the Department of National Defence (DND) search and rescue (SAR) operational procedures in accordance with current policy.5 D Air FE 3—The Directorate of Air Force Employment 3 staff is responsible to the Chief of the Air Staff for the: .6 A3 TSR—The A3 Transport and SAR Readiness staff is responsible to the Commander.

resource allocation.1 CCG SAR policy.3 ensuring of operational readiness and the performing of regular evaluation of DND SAR formations.4 the liaison with the National Search and Rescue Secretariat. procedures. 3.7 processing of ministerial or other inquiries related to operational SAR matters. through the Director General.4 Civil Air Search and Rescue Association (CASARA) liaison and co-ordination of CASARA activities. Safety and Environmental Response. Search and Rescue (SAR). . levels of service. on behalf of the Commissioner. is designated. . .6 provision of operational support to the rescue co-ordination centres. Rescue.2 the provision of support to the Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue concerning maritime SAR policy. standards.7 Director SAR—The Director.8 liaison with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Air Standardization Coordinating Committee. and . and .5 provision of staff support to the Trenton Search and Rescue Region Commander.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . planning. as the senior officer responsible for the exercise of functional authority and direction in relation to maritime SAR program activities in the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG). . . operating and performance standards.3 the interface with and co-ordination of the Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary—commonly called the Auxiliary—and management of all aspects of the partnership. . The authority and direction noted includes the following: . The Director SAR is the national spokesperson for the maritime SAR Program. TERMS OF REFERENCE—COAST GUARD SAR STAFF 3.9 Office of Primary Interest duties regarding the Major Aeronautical Disaster Operation Plan. resources and program effectiveness.8 CCG HQ—The Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) Headquarters search and rescue (SAR) staff shall be responsible to the Director SAR for the: ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 5 . .

10 ensure the development and maintenance of training criteria and plans for personnel involved in maritime SAR.1 OBS policy and resource allocation. . .12 co-ordination of all CCG inputs to the New SAR Initiatives Fund. . . under the Limited Fleet Type Structure. through the Director General.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 . Rescue. approval by appropriate authority. . .7 liaison with the Department of National Defence and other agencies involved in the NSP. . Office of Boating Safety (OBS). 3.3 co-ordination of equipment procurement and other requirements of the maritime SAR system. . The authority and direction noted includes the following: . is designated on behalf of the Commissioner as the senior officer responsible for the exercise of functional authority and direction in relation to recreational boating safety and search and rescue (SAR) Loss-Of-Life prevention activities.6 provision of staff assistance to the Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue on maritime SAR interests.11 liaison with and administration of the Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary and its activities. .4 provision of information to other CCG HQ staff on matters concerning maritime SAR. . and promulgation of CCG SAR policy. . Safety and Environmental Response.2 processing of ministerial or other inquiries regarding CCG aspects of the National Search and Rescue Program (NSP). and .13 provision of technical and maritime expertise. CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 6 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 .9 maintenance of international maritime SAR liaison through the International Maritime Organization and other international bodies.9 Director OBS—The Director.1 development.5 office of primary interest duties regarding primary maritime SAR craft types. levels of service and performance and operating standards.8 conducting and monitoring of research and development for potential improvements in CCG SAR equipment and procedures.

Safety and Environmental Response (RSER). Marine Communications and Traffic Services. Department of Fisheries and Oceans to ensure. . . 3.12 Superintendent RSER—The Superintendent. and . implementation of those CCG policies.1 courtesy examinations. Rescue.3 selecting and appointing a qualified RSMS. in collaboration with the search and rescue region commander.2 ensuring that qualified maritime SAR controllers are selected and appointed in collaboration with the Regional Supervisor.1 SRR commander through the Regional Director (RD) CCG for: . ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 7 . .10 Director MCTS—The Director.3 awareness campaigns.2 demonstrations and lectures. the adequate provision and disposition of resources within their respective regions in support of SAR operations. and the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the appropriate rescue co-ordination centre (RCC). standards and objectives designed to provide an effective search and rescue (SAR) service to the maritime community. Maritime SAR (RSMS).3 SAR Loss-Of-Life . and managing and co-ordinating the activities of the Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary for the assigned geographical area of responsibility. The Superintendent RSER shall be responsible to the: . notably personal flotation devices. are designated. Canadian Coast Guard (CCG). RDs CCG are functionally responsible to the Commissioner and line responsible to the regional directors general. on a regional basis. is responsible to the Commissioner. and directing the activities of the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) Program. Canadian Coast Guard for the provision of adequate telecommunications and electronic facilities to support the detection of search and rescue incidents and co-ordination of distress communications in the Canadian area of responsibility. 3. on behalf of the Commissioner. organizing.11 RDs CCG—The Regional Directors (RDs).B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL .1 providing expert maritime advice in matters of CCG policy and procedures concerning maritime SAR. shall be responsible for planning. and . 3. as the senior officers responsible to effect.2 regulatory authority for all recreational boating safety on all Canadian waters and safety equipment specific to recreational boats. on a daily basis.

.9 ensuring that operationally ready maritime SRUs are available for tasking by the RCC/MRSC. performance and operating standards are met. .5 maintaining liaison with the appropriate branches of CCG to ensure the best possible level of support to the SAR program.4 ensuring provision of the RCC/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) equipment for which CCG is responsible.11 delivering the Regional component of the CCG SAR Loss-Of-Life Prevention Program. and determining the resource requirements. . involved in maritime SAR and safety. . . in conjunction with Operations.8 establishing and maintaining liaison with relevant departments of federal and provincial governments and other groups.6 evaluating effectiveness of SAR programs through training exercises. .10 developing and maintaining liaison at an operational level with neighbouring foreign maritime SAR related agencies engaged in maritime SAR co-ordination. .1 implementing CCG SAR policy and ensuring that CCG SAR procedures are followed. the CG maritime SAR coverage. .5 ensuring adequate deployment of CCG search and rescue units against current levels of SAR activity and trends.3 planning and conducting the SAR program.2 developing regional plans to ensure that CCG SAR levels of service. . . public or private.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 .2 RD CCG for: . . CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 8 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 .7 developing and maintaining public information and relations programs. and .4 planning and monitoring.

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL TERMS OF REFERENCE—SEARCH AND RESCUE REGION 3. . TERMS OF REFERENCE—RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRE 3.2 recommending the reduction of major SAR operations. and . and authorizing the reduction of minor SAR operations (those operations not classed as major SAR operations under Chapter 5). .3 specific plans to meet the SAR demands of the region. 3.13 SRR Commander—Rescue Co-ordinator—The Search and Rescue Region (SRR) Commander shall be responsible to the Chief of the Defense Staff for: . capable of controlling. . and conducting aeronautical and maritime search and rescue (SAR) operations. controlling. . . The Manager SAR/CCG must be consulted for exceptions to Maritime Controllers qualifications. RCCs will coordinate search and rescue units response for humanitarian incidents in accordance with national policy and regional directives.4 formally appointing searchmasters as required.2 a detailed plan formulating the basis of SAR operations as outlined in Annex 3C.5 approving the use of search and rescue units for humanitarian incidents.3 carrying out the duties of rescue co-ordinator pursuant to section 385 (2) of the Canada Shipping Act. co-ordinating and conducting operations. REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 9 . .6 establishing channels of communication to allow the expeditious flow of information between the SRR Commander and the Officer in Charge of the rescue co-ordination centre. In addition.14 Senior Military Officer—The Senior Military Officer is a senior military officer assigned specific duties and responsibilities by the Search and Rescue Region Commander in respect to the co-ordinated search and rescue system.15 General—A rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) is an agency established within each search and rescue region for the purpose of co-ordinating. . For this it requires: Note: Any exceptions to the controller qualification requirements stated in this chapter must be approved by 1CAD/A3 SAR and the appropriate SRR Commander.1 trained staff.1 initiating and co-ordinating search and rescue (SAR) operations.

.9 establishing and maintaining liaison with relevant departments of federal and provincial governments and other groups.5 facilities and equipment for the efficient co-ordination and control of operations.4 communications equipment which will ensure a timely alerting procedure and provide an efficient network for monitoring and working SAR traffic. .2 ensuring the effective operation of the co-ordinated SAR system.10 co-ordination of SAR training exercises which involve more than one agency (when appropriate). Qualifications shall include the successful completion of the Searchmaster course and applicable unit on-job-training.4 advising on the adequacy and deployment of search and rescue units (SRUs) to meet operational requirements. . and .5 recommending search reduction. Qualifications should also include the successful completion of the RCC/Maritime Rescue SubCentre (MRSC) Controller course.7 liaison with the RSMS on the day-to-day operation and deployment of SRUs and on the participation and performance of the staff in the operation of the RCC/MRSC.6 certifying senior controllers in collaboration with the RCC Regional Supervisor. concerning SAR matters. . . Maritime Search and Rescue (RSMS) and collaborating with RSMS (RCC/MRSC) on the certification of maritime controllers.8 liaison with the Superintendent. control and conduct of SAR operations within the RCC’s area of responsibility.1 Search and Rescue Region (SRR) Commander for: . The OIC RCC is responsible to the: . Safety and Environmental Response or his delegate on the operations interface between RCCs and MRSCs.16 OIC RCC—The Officer in Charge (OIC) of a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) shall be a qualified aeronautical search and rescue (SAR) pilot or navigator. 3. . .3 the operational status of RCC communications and other equipment and ensuring that appropriate authorities are notified of any deficiencies. . and on the deployment of Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) SRUs.1 the co-ordination. public or private. CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 10 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 . . Rescue.

2 all DND administrative matters pertaining to the RCC.14 the collection of SAR incident statistical information.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL .23).12 approving all public information releases on aeronautical SAR services and all RCC/MRSC co-ordinated SAR incidents (see Chapter 4.3 preparation of reports. NOTE: When deemed necessary. returns and records. 3. .2 Commander 1 Canadian Air Division. .4 reporting the status of DND SRUs and SAR operations.11 co-ordinating the RCC input to SAR educational programs. Press Releases).17 Deputy OIC RCC—The deputy Officer in Charge (OIC) of a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) shall be a qualified search and rescue Air Operations officer.1 act as OIC RCC in his/her absence. Maritime Search and Rescue (RSMS). when so employed. .13 providing staff assistance in SAR matters. .2 fulfilment of duties as duty aeronautical controller.18 RSMS RCC (for RSMS MRSC. through the A3 Transport and SAR Readiness for: . NOTE: Administrative procedures which affect or concern both DND and CCG should be published under the joint authority of the OIC RCC and the RSMS. displays and visits within the SRR. The RSMS RCC shall be responsible to the: ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 11 . . is the senior Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) officer assigned to a rescue coordination centre (RCC) to ensure the continuing effectiveness of the maritime search and rescue (SAR) system within the SRR except for those areas assigned to maritime rescue sub-centres (MRSCs) (see 3. and . the OIC RCC may assume control of any incident. . The duties of the Deputy OIC RCC shall include: . see 3. 3.1 supervising Department of National Defence (DND) RCC personnel and ensuring they are adequately trained to standard and kept informed of current policy and procedures. .24)—The Regional Supervisor.

2 Superintendent. . . the recommendation for search reduction of maritime SAR operations. for the following: .7 liaison with the OIC RCC on the day-to-day operation and deployment of SRUs and on the participation and performance of staff in the operations of the RCC.1 the co-ordination. . in concert with the OIC RCC.1 supervising RCC CCG personnel and ensuring they are adequately trained to standard and kept informed of current policy and procedures.8 ensuring that all relevant information pertaining to CCG SAR co-ordination and control activities in the RCC are duly recorded in the official log books and files designated. . . .2 monitoring the operations of maritime search and rescue units (SRUs) and prosecution of maritime SAR incidents within all areas of the SRR except those CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 12 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 . Safety and Environmental Response. .5 the operational status of CCG communications and other equipment within the RCC and ensuring that appropriate CCG authorities are notified of any deficiencies or breakdowns of CCG equipment and communications networks.9 in collaboration with the OIC RCC. for the following: . .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 . . Rescue.6 making recommendations to the OIC RCC on the selection and appointment of Senior Controllers. ensuring that all relevant SAR statistical data are recorded.1 Search And Rescue Region (SRR) Commander through the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the RCC. .3 providing expert advice on maritime SAR operations and their co-ordination for appropriate areas of the SRR.2 ensuring the effectiveness of SAR co-ordination and control duties performed by the CCG component of the RCC.4 providing the maritime expertise necessary to evaluate the adequacy and deployment of search and rescue units (SRUs) to meet maritime SAR requirements.10 prepare. . control and conduct of maritime SAR operations within the RSMS RCC’s area of responsibility.

REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 13 .1 assigning of priorities pertaining to the allocation of search and rescue units in response to search and rescue (SAR) incidents. 3.6 co-ordinating the RCC maritime SAR input into SAR education programs. Maritime Search and Rescue. . Reports on Searches). RCC—The Senior Controller of a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) is an experienced and qualified controller appointed by the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the RCC. .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL specifically assigned to the MRSC. supervision. NOTE: Administrative procedures which affect or concern both Department of National Defence (DND) and CCG should be published under the joint authority of the OIC RCC and the RSMS.19 Senior Controller. Searchmaster course. and any unit upgrade on-job-training programmes which are applicable. . administration. taking into account the cyclical nature of certain maritime activities. NOTE: Assuming or transferring control of an incident is to be considered a formal action and is to be completed in conjunction with formal communications procedures (see Chapter 9.5 all CCG administrative matters pertaining to the RCC including the collection of maritime SAR incident statistical information and program management information. displays and visits within the CCG Region. . (RSMS) for all incidents for the following.7 reporting on the general effectiveness of CCG participation in RCC activities and on purely CCG matters.3 making recommendations on the optimum deployment of maritime SRUs for SAR purposes. .3 ensuring that the MRSC is kept informed of the progress of incidents initially controlled by an MRSC. making recommendations designed to achieve improved effectiveness and efficiency. Fundamental Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR) course (or applicable United States Coast Guard Maritime SAR course). transferring or assuming control of a particular SAR incident.2 when deemed necessary. and . training and effective performance of the CCG component of the RCC. . Senior Controllers shall be responsible to the OIC RCC/Regional Supervisor.4 the efficient management. . Qualifications will include successful completion of RCC/Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre (MRSC) Controller course.

and . Fundamental CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 14 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 . The Aeronautical Controller is responsible to the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the RCC through the Senior Controller for the following: . 3.8 performing other duties as may be assigned by the Senior Controller and by the OIC RCC. as appropriate.6 monitoring incidents handled by the MRSCs and advising the OIC of significant developments.2 tasking primary aeronautical search and rescue units (SRUs) and initiating requests for secondary aeronautical and other SRUs. Qualifications shall include successful completion of the RCC/Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre (MRSC) Controller course. .3 appointing an on-scene commander and/or a co-ordinator aeronautical search when appropriate and. . particularly in relation to the tasking and employment of aeronautical SRUs in a maritime incident. . 3. RCC—The duty maritime controller of a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) shall be a qualified ships’ navigation officer. Searchmaster course.4 tasking and co-ordinating aircraft in support of maritime incidents.5 approving requests from MRSC to charter civilian resources if the accounting base of the RCC will be held responsible for payment.4 advising the OIC and/or RSMS of significant incidents in accordance with local procedure.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 . recommending the appointment of a searchmaster (SM).5 assisting the maritime controller or SM as necessary. . RCC—The duty Aeronautical Controller of a rescue coordination centre (RCC) shall be a qualified Aeronautical search and rescue (SAR) pilot or navigator. co-ordinating.6 ensuring that all releases to the press or other public agencies are approved by the OIC in accordance with Chapter 4 (Press Releases) and standard operating procedures. Qualifications shall include successful completion of RCC/Maritime Rescue SubCentre (MRSC) Controller course. . and .7 recommending search reduction. controlling and directing the response to aeronautical SAR incidents. and applicable unit on-job-training.21 Maritime Controller.20 Aeronautical Controller. and . .1 planning. where necessary.

where necessary. and accurate manner. maritime rescue sub-centres (MRSCs) are established to enhance maritime search and rescue (SAR) co-ordination through improved communications and local knowledge.7 performing other duties as may be assigned by the Senior Controller and by the RSMS.3 other duties as may be assigned.2 ensuring that the duty controllers are kept aware of any actions taken by him in conjunction with SAR operations. controlling and directing the response to maritime search and rescue incidents. and .1 planning. co-ordinating. as required.1 assisting the duty controllers in search and rescue (SAR) operations.3 appointing an on-scene commander or co-ordinator surface search when appropriate and.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Maritime Search and Rescue course and applicable unit on-job-training. MRSCs thus expedite the initiation of appropriate action and allow a timely response ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 15 . The Maritime Controller is responsible to the Office in charge (OIC) of the RCC through the Senior Controller and to the Regional Supervisor.4 tasking and co-ordinating maritime SRUs in support of aeronautical incidents. timely. .22 Assistant Aeronautical Controller. . recommending the appointment of a searchmaster. .2 tasking primary and secondary maritime search and rescue units (SRUs) and initiating requests for other units. 3.5 recommending search reduction.4 ensuring the daily log is updated with pertinent data in a neat. RCC—The assistant Aeronautical Controller of a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) shall be responsible to the Officer in Charge of the RCC through the Aeronautical Controller for the following: . . . . .6 ensuring that all releases to the press or other public agencies are approved by the OIC in accordance with Chapter 4 (Press Releases) and standard operating procedures. and . Maritime Search and Rescue (RSMS) of the RCC when applicable for the following. TERMS OF REFERENCE—MARITIME RESCUE SUB-CENTRE 3.23 General—In Canada. .

MRSCs must also keep informed their Regional Director. The responsibilities of an MRSC are similar to those of a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC). MRSCs normally control maritime SAR incidents which occur within their area of responsibility. 3.5 the operational status of CCG communications and other equipment within the MRSC. including co-ordinating responses to humanitarian incidents in accordance with national and regional policies. . NOTE: The tasking and co-ordination of Department of National Defence aircraft must be performed by the RCC Aeronautical Controller. . MRSCs carry out SAR co-ordination functions under the authority of the Search and Rescue Region Commanders through the RCC.6 liaison with the OIC of the parent RCC on the day-to-day operations interface between the MRSC and RCC.3 providing expert advice on maritime SAR operations and their co-ordination for the appropriate areas of the SRR. .24 RSMS MRSC—The Regional Supervisor. The RSMS shall be responsible to the: . CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 16 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 to SAR incidents within their areas of responsibility. . . and ensuring that appropriate CCG authorities are notified of any deficiencies or breakdowns of CCG equipment and communications networks. control and conduct of maritime SAR operations within the RSMS MRSC’s area of responsibility.4 providing the maritime expertise necessary to evaluate the adequacy and deployment of search and rescue units (SRUs) to meet maritime SAR requirements. Canadian Coast Guard.1 the co-ordination.7 liaison with the OIC of the parent RCC on the day-to-day operation and deployment of Department of National Defence SRUs. Maritime Search and Rescue (RSMS).2 ensuring the effectiveness of SAR co-ordination and control duties performed by MRSC personnel. of a Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre (MRSC) is the senior Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) officer assigned to an MRSC to ensure the continuing effectiveness of the maritime search and rescue (SAR) system within the area assigned to an MRSC. but on a smaller scale.1 Search and Rescue Region (SRR) Commander through the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the parent rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) for the following: . .

9 in collaboration with the OIC RCC. administration. . taking into account the cyclical nature of certain maritime activities. .8 ensuring that all relevant information pertaining to CCG SAR co-ordination and control activities in the MRSC are duly recorded in official log books and files designated.11 during SAR operations.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . . displays and visits within the CCG Region. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 17 . .2 monitoring the operations of SRUs and prosecution of maritime SAR incidents within the MRSC’s area of responsibility and making recommendations designed to achieve improved effectiveness and efficiency. ensuring that all relevant SAR statistical data are recorded.10 ensuring that all releases to the press or other public agencies are approved by the OIC RCC in accordance with Chapter 4 (press releases) and standard operating procedures. . .4 the efficient management.1 supervising MRSC personnel and ensuring they are adequately trained to standard and kept informed of current policy and procedures.2 Superintendent. and . Safety and Environmental Response for: . prepare in concert with the OIC RCC the recommendation for search reduction.6 co-ordinating the MRSC maritime SAR input into SAR education programs.3 making recommendations on the optimum deployment of maritime SRUs for SAR purposes within the MRSC’s area of responsibility. Rescue. . ensuring that all relevant SAR statistical data are recorded.7 reporting on the general effectiveness of MRSC activities and on purely CCG matters.8 in collaboration with the parent RCC. . training and effective performance of the MRSC.5 all CCG administrative matters pertaining to the MRSC including program management information. supervision. . .

3 appointing an on-scene commander or co-ordinator surface search as necessary.6 providing local expertise and assistance to the parent RCC or the SM.4 tasking and co-ordinating maritime SRUs in support of aeronautical incidents. as required. when any of these have taken over control of the response to a particular SAR incident. co-ordinating.5 ensuring the RCC is kept fully informed of all MRSC SAR activities and recommending that the RCC assume control of particular incidents (see note).9 performing other duties as may be assigned by the Senior Controller and by the RSMS. and .2 tasking primary and secondary search and rescue units (SRUs) maritime resources and initiating requests for other units. This data is then redistributed using procedures as required in accordance with the above documents.25 Maritime Controller. . . Reports on Searches). For this it requires: CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 18 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 .26 General—The Canadian Mission Control Centre (CMCC) is co-located with the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) in Trenton and is the focal point for the receipt of distress beacon messages from national and international sources in accordance with procedures prescribed in national agreements and the COSPAS–SARSAT documentation.1 planning. . . . .7 recommending search reduction.8 ensuring that all releases to the press or other public agencies are approved by the OIC RCC in accordance with Chapter 4 (Press releases) and standard operating procedures. NOTE: Assuming or transferring control of an incident is to be considered a formal action and is to be completed in conjunction with formal communications procedures (see Chapter 8.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 3. TERMS OF REFERENCE—CANADIAN MISSION CONTROL CENTRE 3. Maritime Search and Rescue (RSMS) of the MRSC when applicable for the following: . and recommending the appointment of a searchmaster (SM). . controlling and directing the response to maritime search and rescue (SAR) incidents. MRSC—The maritime controller of a maritime rescue subcentre (MRSC) shall be responsible to the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) through the senior controller and through the Regional Supervisor.

ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 19 . .6 distributing operational search and rescue (SAR) data to Canadian RCCs. the CMCC and the related communications interfaces.10 identifying problems in the space segment and relaying the information to appropriate technical authorities. capable of controlling.2 detailed procedures and computer software for the collection and dissemination of distress data.2 advising on policy and operational matters which may affect the Canadian SARSAT ground segment.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . . 1 Canadian Air Division through A3 Transport and SAR Readiness for: .3 communications equipment which will ensure a timely alerting procedure to RCCs and foreign Mission Control Centres. co-ordinating and conducting operations.4 acting as the point of contact for Canada with regard to operational level matters pursuant to the COSPAS–SARSAT system. .27 OIC CMCC—The Officer in Charge (OIC) of the Canadian Mission Control Centre (CMCC) is also the OIC of the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) in Trenton and shall be responsible to the Commander. . .8 serving as a member of the Canadian delegation to COSPAS–SARSAT international meetings.1 ensuring the effective operation of the Canadian SARSAT ground segment. .5 provision of trained staff and material supplies to support operations 24 hours a day.1 trained staff. and . . including local user terminals (LUTs). . 7 days a week. and .7 providing data analysis to support Canadian RCCs on specific cases.3 establishing and maintaining liaison with relevant departments of federal and provincial governments and other groups public or private concerning COSPAS–SARSAT matters.9 monitoring the performance of the LUTs and initiating corrective action as required. . 3. provincial points of contact for SAR and other Mission Control Centres in accordance with national and international agreements.

3 managing a database to record any problems. and .1 the general operations of the CMCC. deficiencies.1 ensuring all software/hardware systems within the Canadian SARSAT ground segment are in operational order. .2 documentation of operational procedures for the CMCC and associated systems. CMCC—The duty operator of the Canadian Mission Control Centre (CMCC) shall be an Air Operations Officer appointed by the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/CMCC in Trenton. and . .29 Duty Operator. and responsible to the Officer in Charge of the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/CMCC for various duties including: .28 Operations Officer CMCC—The operations officer of the Canadian Mission Control Centre (CMCC) is an experienced and highly qualified CMCC duty controller appointed by. or proposed changes to the Canadian ground segment.2 ensuring operational distress beacon information is distributed to the RCCs. CMCC communications and satellite tracking schedule and taking corrective actions as applicable.2 recording and reporting any unscheduled downtime of the Canadian ground segment.30 Systems Officer. 3.3 ensuring operational records are properly maintained. CMCC—The systems officer of the Canadian Mission Control Centre (CMCC) is an experienced and qualified Air Force Communications and Electronics Engineer officer and shall be responsible to the Officer in Charge of the rescue co-ordination centre/CMCC for various duties including: . after successful completion of the CMCC Duty Operator course and applicable unit on-job-training. . provincial points of contact for search and rescue and other Mission Control Centres in accordance with established national and international procedures. and CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 20 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 .4 ensuring the timely distribution of distress data to Canadian RCCs. .1 monitoring the status of the local user terminals. provincial points of contact for search and rescue and other Mission Control Centres in a timely manner. The CMCC duty operator shall be responsible to the OIC RCC/CMCC Trenton through the CMCC operations officer for the routine operation of the CMCC and for other duties to include: .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 3. 3.

ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 21 .3 simplifies SAR reporting procedures for Newfoundland and Labrador MCTS Centres.31 General—In Canada. John’s MRSC to be aware of SAR demands and activity in the Search and Rescue Region waters adjacent to the MRSC’s area of responsibility boundaries. initiating appropriate action and passing the information to RCC Halifax.e. RCC or MRSC.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . the opportunity to initiate response action immediately. TERMS OF REFERENCE—ALERTING POST 3. which will normally report all initial SAR alerts to the MRSC only. or if the incident is outside the MRSC’s area of responsibility.32 As an alerting post.4 co-ordinating research and development projects for upgrading the equipment in the CMCC. together with any input from the MRSC relative local knowledge of maritime activity taking place adjacent to the MRSC area. This procedure: . . 3.1 eliminates the need of Canadian Coast Guard Maritime Communications and Traffic Services (MCTS) Centres determining the relative location of an incident in relation to area of responsibility boundaries. John’s is to receive initial SAR incident reports and forward them verbatim with comments or additional information to the parent rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) for action.4 allows the St. the responsibilities of a Searchmaster are the same as those established for a search and rescue mission co-ordinator under the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization. and . John’s Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre (MRSC) has been designated as an alerting post for notification of maritime search and rescue (SAR) incidents originating seaward of the MRSC’s area of responsibility adjacent to the Newfoundland and Labrador coasts. .2 allows the MRSC the opportunity of determining whether an incident is in its area of responsibility and if so. the responsibility of MRSC St. which would otherwise be required to facilitate determining the address for SAR alerts. TERMS OF REFERENCE— SEARCHMASTER/SAR MISSION CO-ORDINATOR 3.33 In the Canadian context. St. i. prior to alerting RCC.

recommending search reduction through the OIC RCC to the Search and Rescue Region Commander. one or more qualified assistant SMs may also be appointed. co-ordination. and . .36 Assistant SM—On operations requiring the appointment of a searchmaster (SM). CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 22 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 . .4 liaise with meteorological services at the advanced base. .7 advising appropriate authorities when the search object is found. a qualified searchmaster (SM)/search and rescue mission co-ordinator (SMC) shall be formally appointed by and be responsible to the search and rescue region commander through the Officer in Charge of the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) for the efficient conduct of a specific search and rescue (SAR) operation (this may include aeronautical or maritime controllers). 3. Normally a Maritime Controller should be included as one of the assistant SMs during an aeronautical search where a portion of the aircraft’s route occurs over water and normally an Aeronautical Controller/qualified aircrew should be included as one of the assistant SMs on any maritime search that involves aircraft.35 The SM/SMC is responsible for: . Upon being recommended by a SM and with the concurrence of the unit Commanding Officer.6 ensuring that all releases to the press or other public agencies are approved by the Officer in Charge (OIC) in accordance with Chapter 4 (press releases) and standard operating procedures.1 the planning. . .5 where appropriate ensuring that a properly equipped ground search party is available. as required to support the search.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 3.2 when required.3 tasking primary aeronautical and/or maritime search and rescue units (SRUs) and requesting secondary and/or other SRUs as necessary. .34 SM/SMC—When considered necessary. as directed by the SM. control and conduct of SAR operations. Qualifications shall include successful completion of the Searchmaster course and satisfactory performance in the position of Assistant SM during an actual search or a squadron SAR exercise. They shall assist in the conduct of the search operation. an Assistant SM may be upgraded to SM status. completing the necessary arrangements to establish search headquarters at a location other than the RCC. The requirement to perform as an Assistant SM does not apply to maritime controllers appointed to act as SM within an RCC for a maritime case. 3.8 if the search object is not found.

track spacing used. If primary SRUs. .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 3. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 23 . Since the crews of SRUs will be experienced and trained in SAR operations. are not available and only secondary maritime SRUs are engaged. .4 maintain communications with the RCC/MRSC/SM and the SRUs on scene.5 maintain a detailed record of the operation. then one of these should assume the duty of CSS. The Detachment Commander is responsible to the Searchmaster for all administrative and disciplinary matters. 3. either vessels or aircraft.37 Detachment Commander—The Detachment Commander is normally a senior military officer assigned from the primary unit tasked. The SRUs engaged may be either aeronautical or maritime or a combination of both.40 It will be the responsibility of the OSC or CSS to: . sightings and leads reported. 3. one SRU should be designated to co-ordinate the operation at the scene. one of these will normally be designated as OSC. areas searched.38 The resolution of a search and rescue (SAR) incident (aeronautical or maritime) commences with the receipt of the initial alert and continues with the effective co-ordination of search and rescue unit (SRU) activity. The rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) may designate an on-scene commander (OSC) or a co-ordinator surface search (CSS) to enhance co-ordination.2 recommend modifications to the search plan to the RCC/MRSC/SM as facilities and onscene conditions dictate and if unable to communicate with the RCC/MRSC/SM. . carry out those modifications notifying RCC as soon as able.39 Whenever there is more than one SRU (primary or secondary) engaged in an operation. actions taken and results obtained. TERMS OF REFERENCE— ON-SCENE COMMANDER/ CO-ORDINATOR SURFACE SEARCH/ CO-ORDINATOR AERONAUTICAL SEARCH 3. including on-scene arrival and departure times of SRUs.1 carry out the plan for the conduct of the operation as directed by the RCC/MRSC/searchmaster (SM).3 monitor weather and sea conditions and report on these at regular intervals to the RCC/MRSC/SM. .

and . any actions taken. update RCC/SM on changing weather or search information. CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 24 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 .6 issue regular situation reports to the RCC/MRSC/SM which should include. The designated aircraft should co-ordinate aircraft hourly check-ins. RCC and the aircraft on scene.41 Co-ordinator Aeronautical Search—Whenever more than one aircraft is engaged in a search where a vessel is on-scene commander (OSC)/co-ordinator surface search (CSS). but not be limited to. and provide updated navigational data to other aircraft as required. then one of these aircraft should be designated to co-ordinate the aeronautical portion of the search as directed by the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/searchmaster (SM) and maintain communication/liaison as the primary point of contact between the OSC/CSS. the results of search to date. weather and sea conditions. The designated aircraft will also be responsible for co-ordinating OSC/CSS and RCC requests for aircraft support within the search area.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 . and any future plans or recommendations. give updated search information as it is relayed from RCC or OSC/CSS.7 advise the RCC/MRSC/SM to release units when their assistance is no longer required. 3.

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 3A— SEARCH AND RESCUE REGION BOUNDARIES Halifax SRR Victoria SRR Trenton SRR FIGURE 3A–1 SEARCH AND RESCUE REGIONS ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 25 .

westerly along the Canada – United States border to the Alberta – British Columbia border.45’N 132°41’W and 54°42. 48°20’N 128°00’W. westerly to 60°00’N 124°00’W. 58°30’N 030°00’W. 73°00’N 067°00’W. 70°00’N 063°00’W. 45°00’N 030°00’W. south to 82°00’N 060°00’W.5’W.5’W. 78°00’N 075°00’W. along the Alaska – Canada border to the Beaufort Sea. east along the shoreline to the Yukon – North West Territory border. 74°00’N 068°18’W. 48°20’N 145°00’W. north along the 70th meridian to 62°00’N 070°00’W and north west to 64°00’N 080°00’W.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 VICTORIA SRR 54°42. TRENTON SRR 70°00’N 080°00’W. 54°39. north along the Alberta – British Columbia border to 60°00’N 120°00’W.5’N 130°36. south along the British Columbia – Alberta border to the Canada – United States border. 46°42’N 070°00’W. 58°30’N 050°00’W. 64°00’N 080°00’W. 65°30’N 058°39’W. 48°30’N 125°00’W. westerly along the coast to the Canada – Alaska border. north along the Yukon – North West Territory border to the Beaufort Sea. 5440’N 136°00’W. 44°30’N 067°00’W. 45°00’N 053°00’W. 62°00’N 070°00’W. 54°13’N 134°57’W. 43°36’N 060°00’W. 54°00’N 136°00’W. westerly along the Canada – United States border to the 70th meridian. east along 60°00’N to the British Columbia – Alberta border. 41°52’N 067°00’W. south along the Yukon – North West Territory border to 60°00’N. 70°00’N 080°00’W. north to the Canada – United States border. 5440’N 140°00’W. 76°00’N 076°00’W. CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 26 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 .5’N 130°36. north along 141°00’W to the North Pole. west along the Canada – United States border to 48°30’N 124°45’W. 70°00’N 063°00’W and west to 70°00’N 080°00’W. HALIFAX SRR 64°00’N 080°00’W.

0'N 56°52.0'N 49°30.0'W 47°50.0'N 51°27.0'N 48°10.0'W 64°30.0'N 48°10.0'N 49°30.0'N 60°00.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 3B— MARITIME RESCUE SUB-CENTRE OPERATIONAL BOUNDARIES 51°27.0'N 48°10.0'W 65°25.0'W Richelieu Richelieu Richelieu Richelieu Richelieu Richelieu Ottawa Ottawa Ottawa Ottawa Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 Õ Õ Õ Õ FIGURE 3B–1 MRSC QUÉBEC OPERATIONAL BOUNDARIES CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 27 .0'W 65°25.0'W 56°52.0'W 66°23.0'N 65°25.0'N 48°05.0'N 49°30.0'W 60°00.0'W Saguenay Saguenay Saguenay Saguenay 48°05.0'W 56°52.0'N 47°50.0'N 49°30.0'N 48°05.0'N 51°27.0'N 47°50.0'W 60°00.0'W 66°23.0'N 48°05.0'W 64°30.0'W 60°00.0'N 47°50.0'N 51°27.0'W Québec Québec Québec Québec Québec Québec 48°10.0'N 66°23.0'N 48°05.0'N 51°27.0'W 64°30.0'N 47°50.0'N 48°10.0'W 56°52.0'N 51°27.0'N 47°50.0'W 65°25.0'N 48°10.0'N 64°30.0'W 64°30.0'N 49°30.0'W 64°30.0'W 56°52.0'W 60°00.0'W 60°00.0'W 49°30.0'N 48°05.0'W 56°52.0'W 66°23.

0'N 52°00.0'W 55°55.0'W 60°00.0'N 60°00.0'N 47°20.0'W 60°00.0'N 47°50.0'W 53°04.0'W 55°55.0'N 52°30.0'W 60°00.0'W 47°20.0'W Cape Bonavista 47°50.0'N 46°39.0'N 49°30.0'W 60°00.0'N 46°39.0'N 54°45.0'N 52°00.0'W 55°55.0'W 59°25.0'N 52°30.0'W 60°00.0'N 51°38.0'W 54°45.0'W 55°26.0'W 59°25.0'W 55°26.0'N 64°10.0'N 51°27.0'N 47°34.0'W 55°26.0'N 52°00.0'N 51°27.0'W 51°00.0'W 53°04.0'N 51°38.0'N 55°55.0'N 47°34.0'W 54°45.0'W 54°45.0'W 46°44.0'W 59°07.0'W 59°07.0'N 59°25.0'N 49°30.0'W 56°52.0'N 51°38.0'N 59°07.0'N 53°04.0'W 49°30.0'W Õ 51°38.0'W 52°00.0'W 60°00.0'N 51°27.0'W 55°26.0'N 51°38.0'N 49°30.0'N 52°00.0'N 46°39. JOHN’S OPERATIONAL BOUNDARIES CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 28 Õ 46°39.0'N 49°30.0'N 47°20.0'N 51°27.0'W 52.0'W 55°55.0'N 50°20.0'W 56°52.0'N 51°27.0'W 59°25.0'N 47°34.0'W 55°26.0'N 46°39.0'W 60°00.0'W 55°55.0'W 59°07.0'W 54°45.0'W 60°00.0'W 59°25.0'W 59°25.0'N 47°20.0'N 47°50.0'N 47°34.0'W 54°15.0'N 51°38.0'W 59°07.0'N 47°50.0'N 48°15.0'N 46°39.0'W 59°07.0'W 53°04.0'W 53°04.0'W 56°52.0'N 55°26.0'N 47°20.0'W 51°27.0'N 56°40.0'N 47°50.0'W 47°34.38.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 60°00.0'N 53°04.0'N 52°00.0'N 47°25.0'N 52°30.0'W 46°39.0'N 52°57.0'W 45°00.0'W 60°00.0'W 56°31.0'W 54°45.0'N 48°30.0'N 49°30.0'N 47°50.0'N 47°34.0'W 52°30.0'W ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 .0'N 47°25.0'N 56°52.0'N 47°20.0'N 60°00.0'W 53°04.0'W FIGURE 3B–2 MRSC ST.

including: • • • notification of emergencies between RCCs. (2) any special provisions for redeployment of equipment and resources to expedite access to the area of the operation or to avoid or overcome difficulties caused by meteorological disturbances. and the methods of communicating with them. General information— (1) conduct of joint operations with adjacent rescue co-ordination centres (RCCs)/maritime rescue sub-centres (MRSCs). joint use of facilities and resources. The SOPs should be published regionally and the information therein should be made available to any interested parties. Local amplification of national policy and procedures must be included where necessary. major disaster (both aeronautical and maritime). 3. approved by RCC(s). 4. any of these facilities can be requested to participate in an operation. communication failures. and co-ordination of search and rescue (SAR) operations. Maritime rescue sub-centres must also have SOPs for the conduct of operations in their area.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 3C— RCC/MRSC SAR STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES 1.. and to what extent. etc. 2. It should state precisely which agencies are responsible for activating the facilities. The standard operating procedures (SOPs) must be brought up to date whenever a change in conditions or experience in actual operations and exercises makes this necessary or advisable. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 29 . so that no party will be in doubt as to its authority. Each rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) is responsible for preparing a comprehensive document detailing the standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the conduct of search and rescue in its search and rescue region. It should also indicate by whom. The standard operating procedures must set out the details for the conduct of search and rescue at the operational levels. The following are examples of what could be included in standard operating procedures . a.

. herring roe. crash/casualty investigations. local. oil and gas. Personnel—The responsibilities. Department of National Defence and Canadian Coast Guard).NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 (3) methods of alerting mobile units (e. including broadcast information. (6) procedures for underwater SAR relating to offshore exploration activities including contacts. duties. CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 30 ORIGINAL — MAY 1997 . (5) procedures for assisting aircraft which must ditch and to arrange rendez-vous with suitable and available surface craft. aircraft. Civil Air Search and Rescue Association (CASARA).e. sealing. such as: • • • • • • • • • Police forces. medical facilities.g. (4) methods of obtaining ship and aircraft position information from various sources. of agencies having suitable equipment. ground search parties). (7) details of agreements of mutual assistance with various other organizations and agencies.. phone numbers. authority and limitations of personnel assigned to SAR operations and involved in the SRR command structure (i. Marine Communications and Traffic Services. aquaculture). b. organizations involved in operations peculiar to the search and rescue region (SRR) (e. private industry aircraft and vessel operations. provincial emergency planning departments. and (8) procedures for assisting disoriented vessels. Provincial Emergency Program. etc. other federal government departments and agencies.g. Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary (CCGA). vessels at sea.

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL c. f. d. and (6) CASARA. practices and procedures that it is felt would improve the conduct of search and rescue operations within the search and rescue region should be included by the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre. e. communications problems. Information—Methods of obtaining essential information and accessing data bases. (2) arrangements for SAR personnel liaison/familiarization visits to other SAR authorities and agencies. Training and Standards— (1) establishment of unit training program. (2) alerting posts. etc. (3) primary search and rescue units (SRUs).. 5. including • Inshore Rescue Boats. Communications—Contingency plans such as to address relocation in the event of emergency evacuation. including but not limited to: (1) MRSCs. (4) secondary SRUs. Resources—The description of the available resources. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 3 – PAGE 31 . (5) CCGA. The above lists are by no means exclusive and any additional information. and (3) records of the periodic reviews of case files to ensure that established procedures are followed.

.................................................................... 12 SEARCH FOR SURVIVORS .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 MILITARY SUBMARINE/SUBMERSIBLE ................................ 10 CLASSIFICATION OF SAR INCIDENTS................................................................................................................................ 14 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 1 .......................................... 13 MAJOR AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME DISASTERS.................................................. 9 TASKING OF SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS ON NON-SAR INCIDENTS ................. 5 CANADIAN FORCES GROUND SEARCH PARTIES ........................................................................................... 5 CANADIAN FORCES SAR TECHNICIANS.......................................... 5 SECONDARY SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS ............................................................................................................. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS.................. 9 DISTRESS BEACONS........................................................................................................................................... 6 USE OF CIVILIAN ASSOCIATIONS....................................................................................................................... 9 SALVAGE OF CIVILIAN PROPERTY ....................................................................................................................................... 10 HUMANITARIAN INCIDENTS ............................................................................................ 3 SAR CO-ORDINATION .......................................................................................... 11 PRESS RELEASES................................................................................................................................................ 3 SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS ........................................................................... 11 NOTIFICATION OF NEXT-OF-KIN......................................................................................................... 4 STATE OF READINESS— AERONAUTICAL SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS......................... 12 ACCESS TO INFORMATION/PRIVACY ACT LEGISLATION .......... 7 USE OF CIVILIAN VOLUNTEERS ............................................................................... 1 GENERAL ........................ 14 NUCLEAR EMERGENCY RESPONSE ................................. 4 STATE OF READINESS— MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS ......................................... 11 MISSING DIVERS/SWIMMERS....................................................................................... 8 HIRING OF CIVILIAN PERSONNEL AND SERVICES ...................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CHAPTER 4— POLICY AND OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVES TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 4—POLICY AND OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVES ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 COSPAS–SARSAT ..........................

................................19 ANNEX 4C—CLASSIFICATION OF SAR INCIDENTS....................................................................................................................27 EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES ..................................................................................................25 ANNEX 4E—GROUND SEARCH PARTIES .................................................................................................................................................................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE OF VESSELS OR AIRCRAFT (HIJACKING/PIRACY) .........................................................................................33 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 2 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 ..........................................................................................................................................................................29 CO-OPERATION BETWEEN AIRCRAFT AND GROUND SEARCH PARTIES...............................................................23 UNKNOWN INCIDENTS ....22 HUMANITARIAN INCIDENTS ....................................................................................................................................................................................28 MANDATORY EQUIPMENT AND RESCUE OPERATION PROCEDURES ...................................................................28 GROUND SEARCH BRIEFING................................17 ANNEX 4B—CANADIAN FORCES GROUND SEARCH PARTIES LOCATIONS ....................................................................................................................................................................................24 ANNEX 4D—RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC...............21 MARITIME INCIDENTS...........15 HOAXES.............................31 ANNEX 4F—CASARA EXPENSE CLAIM ...................................................................................16 LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES .....................................................27 SEARCH CONTROL AND INCIDENT PROXIMITY SIGNS ........................................................................................................................................16 ANNEX 4A—STATE OF READINESS FOR PRIMARY SAR AIRCRAFT....................................................................................................15 DUCKBUTT.........................................................................15 METEOROLOGY .................15 ROYAL FAMILY/GOVERNOR GENERAL/PRIME MINISTER FLIGHTS ................................................21 AERONAUTICAL INCIDENTS ..................

.3 In addition to primary search and rescue units (SRUs).3 CCG units not assigned to SAR.2 As per chapter 1.1 The following policy directives amplify the broad policy set forth in Cabinet Directives.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL POLICY AND OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVES GENERAL 4.5 maritime or aeronautical units which may be tasked under the Canada Shipping Act by the RCC controller. In instances where a commander’s SRUs are considered to be inadequate for a specific task.2 DND secondary SRUs. 4. SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS 4.4 other federal government departments units. CCG provides CCG units multitasked to the search and rescue (SAR) program. which may be tasked through the appropriate CCG responsibility manager. . the Department of National Defence (DND) and the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) are required to provide primary search and rescue units (SRUs). these units are subject to the same standards of operation and procedures that apply to primary CCG SRUs including state of readiness and pre-positioning deployment in anticipation of SAR related demand. and . These may include: . acting for the SRR commander. . When tasked to SAR. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 3 .1 the primary SRUs of neighbouring SRRs which may be available and are requested through the appropriate rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC). he may request assistance from any suitable source. which may be tasked through 1 Canadian Air Division/Air Operations Centre or National Defence Headquarters/National Defence Operations Centre.4 Search and rescue region (SRR) commanders may utilize all primary and secondary SRUs available in providing SAR services. Other policy directives which amplify and pertain to the conduct of search and rescue operations may be found within departmental publications. 4.

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NOTE: RCCs/MRSCs may charter required units in accordance with 4.24 through 4.28. Any MRSC arranged charter which will be costed against the RCC’s accounting base must be approved by the Senior Controller.

SAR CO-ORDINATION
4.5 The Department of National Defence (DND) provides rescue co-ordination centres (RCCs) staffed by both DND and Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) personnel on a 24 hours a day, 7 days a week basis. In addition, CCG provides two maritime rescue sub-centres (MRSCs) manned by CCG personnel also on a 24 hours a day, 7 days a week basis. The RCCs and MRSCs will respond to all incidents until such time as the incident is resolved or until the incident can be passed to the appropriate authority.

STATE OF READINESS— AERONAUTICAL SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS
4.6 The state of readiness requirement for primary aeronautical search and rescue units (SRUs) is shown in Annex 4A. 4.7 When the standby search and rescue (SAR) aircraft is deployed on a SAR operation the minimum state of readiness for that type of aircraft as described in Annex 4A is waived for the applicable squadron until the aircraft returns to home base. However, should another incident occur which requires the urgent deployment of additional SRUs, the commanding officer of the squadron concerned shall make every effort to provide the necessary aircraft and crews. Approval from the search and rescue region (SRR) commander must be obtained for any other planned degradation of the minimum state of readiness. 4.8 Commanders of SRRs may realign SAR standby periods so that they coincide with periods of greatest SAR activity, particularly during summer months. When this occurs, units must continue to provide 30 minute SAR standby on each aircraft type for a minimum of 40 hours per week. Standby posture beyond 40 hours per week will require 1 Canadian Air Division approval.

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STATE OF READINESS— MARITIME SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS
4.9 The state of readiness requirement for maritime search and rescue units (SRUs) is as follows: .1 Primary SRUs and CCG Units Multi-Tasked to SAR—Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) primary SRUs and CCG units multi-tasked to the Search And Rescue (SAR) Program, when fully operational, shall be capable of responding to SAR tasking immediately or shall otherwise maintain a 30 minute standby posture; .2 Other SRUs—Chartered vessels shall be on similar standby unless specified otherwise in their charter-party agreements; and .3 the commanding officer of the SRU referred to in .1 and .2 above shall inform the appropriate rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre of any change in the unit’s state of readiness as may be caused by a reduction in its efficiency or capability. In order to preserve the availability of SAR capability as much as possible, the affected SRU may continue SAR activities upon initial approval by the Superintendent, Rescue, Safety and Environmental Response. However, if the unit is expected to remain affected over a prolonged period, the retention of the unit on SAR duties shall be subject to approval by the Director SAR, CCG.

SECONDARY SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS
4.10 Secondary search and rescue units (SRUs) are all units of the Federal government that are not specifically dedicated to search and rescue (SAR). While secondary SRUs do not maintain a SAR standby posture, they may be tasked to aid in the resolution of a SAR incident.

CANADIAN FORCES SAR TECHNICIANS
4.11 The role of search and rescue technicians (SAR Techs) in search and rescue (SAR) and non-SAR operations is to save lives and reduce human suffering. This is accomplished by: .1 accessing the site to determine the situation; .2 initiating and maintaining medical treatment; .3 sustaining the survivors by the provision of food, water and shelter; and

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NATIONAL SAR MANUAL .4 evacuating survivors.

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NOTE: SAR Techs shall not dive for salvage or body recovery operations. 4.12 The method of accessing the distress site rests with the aircraft commander and the SAR Tech team leader. It may be achieved by one of the following: .1 parachute; .2 hoist; .3 Lock Rope Descent device; .4 free entry; .5 Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus; .6 over land; or .7 over water. 4.13 Operational deployment of the SAR Tech team for SAR or non-SAR incidents shall normally be preceded by authorization from the searchmaster or the rescue co-ordination centre to ensure that it is the most effective method of resolving the situation. 4.14 With regard to safety, the SAR Tech team shall not be deployed without the complete concurrence of the SAR Tech team leader and of the aircraft commander. 4.15 Procedures pertaining to operational deployment of SAR Techs are detailed in CFACM 60-2605.

CANADIAN FORCES GROUND SEARCH PARTIES
4.16 Ground search parties are primary search and rescue units. They can be used to search small high probability areas which cannot be effectively covered by other means. They may also be used to aid in the rescue of survivors which have been located but cannot be evacuated by other means. The parties are made up of a minimum of ten volunteer service personnel who have experience in bush lore and outdoor activities. The locations of Canadian Forces (CF) ground search parties are shown in Annex 4B.

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4.17 The organization of ground search parties is the responsibility of the Base, Wing or Squadron Commander. They are responsible to the regional rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) through the normal chain of command and during operational functions, are at the disposal of the RCC or of the searchmaster. Under normal circumstances ground search parties shall be equipped and ready to leave their unit within two hours of being alerted by the RCC. When CF ground search parties are tasked by other agencies they shall obtain approval from the parent RCC. 4.18 Equipment requirements and operating procedures for ground search parties are detailed in Annex 4E. NOTE: Civilian ground search teams may be available through the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, through provincial police forces or through provincial emergency response organizations.

USE OF CIVILIAN ASSOCIATIONS
4.19 When tasking a civilian association the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue subcentre must ensure that it is clearly understood by the civilians that the tasking is in fact a request and that the civilians are not obligated to comply with this request. 4.20 CCGA—The Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary (CCGA) associations have contractual agreements to provide members/vessels to augment existing Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) search and rescue units in search and rescue (SAR) operations and to assist the CCG in SAR Loss-OfLife prevention activities. Tasking of Auxiliary units is to be considered in the absence of more appropriate SAR facilities or when it is perceived that by utilizing Auxiliary units the SAR objectives can be achieved more quickly. 4.21 CASARA—The Canadian Forces assists in the training of Civil Air Search and Rescue Association (CASARA) volunteers and the operational evaluation of certified members on a regular basis. CASARA members may be tasked for distress beacon homing missions, as spotters on military flights, or to provide fully manned civilian search aircraft as considered appropriate by the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/Searchmaster (SM). Under the CASARA agreement, Transport Canada remains responsible for training sessions relating to safe flying practices. NOTE: CASARA invoices (Annex 4F) shall be certified and paid by the SM/SM staff at search headquarters prior to CASARA members leaving the search. Other invoices shall be certified by the RCC and submitted to the section of the base associated with the RCC for

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payment. Where possible, invoices shall be reimbursed with minimum delay owing to the personal expenses incurred by CASARA members.

USE OF CIVILIAN VOLUNTEERS
4.22 Other Volunteers—When civilian aircraft, vehicle, or maritime vessel operators volunteer to assist in a search, but their assistance is considered not essential to the search, the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) or searchmaster may permit them to participate under his direction on the understanding that no reimbursement of expenses will be made. When tasking a civilian volunteer, the RCC/MRSC or searchmaster must ensure that it is clearly understood by these civilians that the tasking is in fact a request and that these civilians are not obligated to comply with this request. 4.23 Spotters —Trained Civil Air Search and Rescue Association or Canadian Forces spotters shall be used when required. When trained spotters are unavailable, other civilians may be used if they are essential to the conduct of the search. Civilians volunteering their services in this capacity shall be advised that there will be no remuneration for their services. However, the searchmaster is authorized to provide in-flight lunches for volunteer civilian spotters and to reimburse them for out-of-pocket expenses incurred due to their volunteer services (i.e. lodging and meals necessitated by an overnight stay as the result of an aircraft diversion). Invoices shall be utilized.

HIRING OF CIVILIAN PERSONNEL AND SERVICES
4.24 When the the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) or the searchmaster considers that the assistance of civilian services is required, these services may be employed, at pay/charter rates, on the authority of the search and rescue region commander or his delegated representative. These services include the hiring of civilian aircraft, boats, vehicles and personnel (guides, trackers, etc.) that are essential to the successful completion of a search and rescue (SAR) distress operation. 4.25 Before recommending the hiring of civilian personnel services, the RCC/MRSCor the searchmaster shall determine that the rates quoted are fair and reasonable and include charges for all services rendered. 4.26 Invoices charged to the Department of National Defence shall be certified by the RCC/MRSC or the searchmaster in accordance with 4.25, and submitted to the accounting section of the base serving the RCC for certification and payment action.

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4.27 When necessary, SAR personnel may be carried by chartered civilian units. This carriage will normally be limited to the transport of personnel to and from the scene of the incident. 4.28 Once hired, the responsibility to adhere to normal safe operating procedures remains with the operator.

COSPAS–SARSAT
4.29 Canada participates in the COSPAS–SARSAT system which employs satellites to detect and locate emergency radio signals on 121.5 Megahertz (MHz), 243 MHz and 406 MHz. The satellites receive the distress signals and relay the information to local user terminals located at Edmonton, Churchill and Goose Bay. The signal data is then automatically sent to the Canadian Mission Control Centre, at 8 Wing Trenton, where computer analysis is used to determine the approximate location of the emitted signal. The rescue co-ordination centre responsible receives the information and dispatches search and rescue units as required.

DISTRESS BEACONS
4.30 The response to Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) signals falls within the Department of National Defence/Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) mandate. The resolution of Personal Locator Beacons (PLB) does not fall within this mandate and the appropriate authority will be sought to resolve the incident. Normally, the Canadian Mission Control Centre will disseminate PLB data for resolution to a provincial/territorial point of contact for search and rescue. Since November 1997, the National Search and Rescue Secretariat maintains the national beacon registry. All types of distress beacons reside on this new database.

TASKING OF SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS ON NON-SAR INCIDENTS
4.31 Search and rescue (SAR) controllers do not have the authority to task search and rescue units (SRUs) for non-SAR incidents. 4.32 Requests made to the SAR controller for tasking of primary SRUs to other than SAR functions shall be referred to the appropriate authority within the Department of National Defence (DND) or the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) as appropriate. Normally, formal tasking approval of DND SRUs for non-SAR incidents shall be in accordance with the procedures outlined in B-

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38 In non-life threatening situations.34 Salvage operations will not be performed if they jeopardize operations. 4. and if requested.36 SRUs shall comply with the Policy For Provision Of Towing Assistance By Vessels Engaged In Search And Rescue Operations (Annex 7A). will decide whether to undertake the mission. CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 10 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .33 Search and rescue units (SRUs) may be utilized to salvage civilian property providing no commercial means are available and appropriate approval has been obtained by the requesting persons or agencies.37 When a request is made to use Canadian Coast Guard SRUs for maritime salvage. 4. it is important that all rescue co-ordination centres/maritime rescue sub-centres use the same guidelines for reporting. 4. Tasking of CCG SRUs in this instance shall be in accordance with Regional procedures. search and rescue (SAR) incidents are to be classified in accordance with Annex 4C. For the SAR data to reflect accurate information. 4. full details of the commitment will be obtained and its feasibility assessed by the 1 Canadian Air Division. Provision of Services to Non Defence Agencies. Based on this.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 GS-055-000/AG001.35 When a request is made to use Canadian Forces SAR aircraft for the salvage of civilian aircraft. in consultation with the RCC/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC). 4. the RCC/MRSC will aid in arranging assistance from the private sector. full details of the commitment shall be obtained.40 Records of SAR incidents are kept and these are an important instrument in the management of the Canadian SAR System. the Superintendent. CLASSIFICATION OF SAR INCIDENTS 4. or unduly hazard search and rescue (SAR) personnel or equipment. Safety and Environmental Response. Rescue. disrupt training.39 For the purpose of reporting and statistical data. as stated in Annex 7A. not the perceived level of distress during the incident. Classification of incidents is based on a postincident dispassionate assessment of what actually occurred. 4. in conjunction with the applicable rescue co-ordination centre (RCC). SALVAGE OF CIVILIAN PROPERTY 4.

3 for casualties resulting from a SAR incident involving a commercial aircraft or maritime craft. Safety and Environmental Response. the RCC/MRSC shall request that the operating company notify NOK. . NOTIFICATION OF NEXT-OF-KIN 4. and the RCC/MRSC will assist when requested. or municipal police. . Provincial and/or local authorities are to be advised by the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) of a diving incident. Rescue.41 Department of National Defence and Canadian Coast Guard search and rescue units may be tasked for humanitarian incidents when properly requested and approved by the Officer in Charge of the rescue co-ordination centre or the superintendent.1 for Department of National Defence personnel.4 for casualties resulting from a SAR incident involving a privately owned aircraft or maritime craft.43 A rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) or Searchmaster (SM) must ensure that the immediate next-of-kin (NOK) of persons involved in a search and rescue (SAR) incident have been notified prior to the release of names to the press. provincial. the RCC shall notify the Commanding Officer of the casualties’ parent unit. and when not employed in an aeronautical or maritime search and rescue incident. contact the Superintendent. Notification of NOK shall be accomplished as follows: . Rescue. as applicable. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 11 .2 for Canadian Coast Guard personnel.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL HUMANITARIAN INCIDENTS 4. until civil control is assumed. the RCC/MRSC shall request the federal.42 In incidents where the search object is a diver or swimmer. notify NOK. Diving Accidents. the vehicle or platform from which the diver entered the water should be recorded but the vehicle or platform does not determine the incident classification. . Safety and Environmental Response as appropriate. Procedures pertaining to such tasking are detailed in Chapter 5. All such cases are to be classified as humanitarian incidents. If for any reason the proper civil authorities cannot be advised. the RCC/MRSC controller is to take appropriate action as detailed in Chapter 5. MISSING DIVERS/SWIMMERS 4.

47 The RSMS of a maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) may develop press releases for incidents which are solely controlled by the MRSC.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 .44 Whenever possible all public information releases to the news media concerning search and rescue (SAR) operations should be made through the Department of National Defense (DND) Public Affairs.45 Squadron Commanders. or designated Public Affairs officer. Information requested to DND will forwarded to the Maritime Forces Pacific. ACCESS TO INFORMATION/PRIVACY ACT LEGISLATION 4. 4. a copy of the contents shall be forwarded to the MRSC for near-simultaneous transmittal to news media. logs and report created during the resolution of an incident are accessible to the public and are controlled by the Department of National Defense (DND). the Maritime Forces Atlantic or the 1 Canadian Air Division Privacy and Access to Information section. approval of the OIC RCC must be obtained prior to actual release. PRESS RELEASES 4.6 In instances where foreign nationals are involved. approval of the OIC RCC must be obtained prior to actual release of the information. If such clearance is obtained. All releases from RCCs shall be in accordance with current DND directives. the RCC shall inform the National Defense Operations Centre to advise the appropriate embassy if required. However. Prior to issuance of a press release in these cases. and . however. Unless otherwise directed by the search and rescue region commander. Press releases on incidents for which the RCC has assumed control from an MRSC shall originate through the OIC RCC. 4.46 The Regional Supervisor. notification of the NOK concerning casualties may be made by the SM if he considers it the most appropriate method of conveying the news. Annex 4D should be consulted for guidance as to content of press/media releases. Maritime Search and Rescue (RSMS) of an RCC may develop press releases for maritime incidents. if applicable. senior controller. If the information request is CHAPTER 4 – PAGE12 REVISED — MAY 2000 . vessel/aircraft captains. searchmaster (SM).5 In instances where the SM has established regular contact with the NOK to keep them informed of search development.48 All records. or other Canadian Coast Guard/DND personnel participating in or questioned regarding a SAR operation shall not make public releases or grant public interviews without first obtaining clearance to do so from the RCC. the SM. releases will be authorized by the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) or his representative. 4. or. for onward transmission to the appropriate rescue co-ordination centre (RCC).

52 The Department of National Defense is responsible for preparing the response to a major aeronautical disaster (MAJAID) within Canada’s area of responsibility. SEARCH FOR SURVIVORS 4. that every reasonable effort has been expended and that all leads have been exhausted. the rescue coordination centre will contact the Air Operations Centre (AOC) and request that the MAJAID plan be implemented. Consult the local Access to Information experts if in doubt as to what portion should be severed. Canadian Coast Guard. If the documents to be released contain any information that is contrary to the tenants of the Access to Information Act of the Privacy Act.49 To expedite investigations by Coroner Boards of Inquiry. NOTE: Tapes or original documents are not to be released to other than DND. A search will continue until the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre/searchmaster is convinced that there is no longer any hope of finding survivors in the search area. or TSB personnel unless ordered by the National Defense Headquarters or a court of law. or other appropriate agencies should be sought if required. the OIC RCC is authorized to release copies of pertinent documents and tape transcripts to these authorities. Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) members or local police. The search and rescue region commander concerned is to retain his responsibility to conduct search operations.B – GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL of a factual nature and does not impinge on the privacy of other individuals then the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the RCC may authorize the release of that information. MAJOR AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME DISASTERS 4. The decision to implement the MAJAID plan shall be made on the authority REVISED – MAY 2000 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 13 . provincial police. this information must be severed in accordance with the applicable section of the aforementioned Act.50 The Canadian search and rescue (SAR) system is responsible to search for survivors of SAR incidents and the fact that a survivor is not located at the scene when an aircraft or vessel is found does not alter this obligation. Once the scope of the distress is determined.51 Reduction/re-opening of searches is covered in chapter 5. The specific details of the response are found in AOC 210. 4. but co-operation by Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 4.

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 of the Commander. AOC will initiate the MAJAID Implementation Order to alert all key Headquarters and Operations personnel. 4. Major Maritime Disaster SAR Contingency Plan.54 The response to a major maritime disaster shall be in accordance with contingency plans published by each SRR commander. The Commander 1 CAD then assumes responsibility as Mission Commander and a MAJAID command post is activated. The formulation of plans and the control of SAR operations in a Submiss-Subsunk operation is the function of the Commander. MILITARY SUBMARINE/SUBMERSIBLE 4. 4. MARLANT and the Commander.56 Detailed instructions covering submarine disaster SAR operations are contained in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization publication ATP-10(D) and operational orders issued by the Commander. CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 14 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .53 8 Wing Trenton shall prepare a CC130 with a MAJAID kit for response to the incident regardless of search and rescue region (SRR).55 The overall responsibility for search and rescue (SAR) in the event of a lost Canadian submarine remains with the search and rescue region commander.58 A nuclear emergency response may range from incidents involving military nuclear weapons or civilian reactors to incidents involving civilian aircraft or vessels carrying industrial or medical isotopes. Response to a MAJAID shall be limited to contingency planning until a MAJAID has been declared. In the event of a lost United States Navy submarine. 4.57 Rescue co-ordination centres will action nuclear emergency responses in accordance with the instructions contained in B-GS-138-001/FP-001—CF Nuclear Emergency Response directives. 4. the responsibility for overall co-ordination of SAR activities rests with the United States Navy Submarine Operating Authority. MARPAC. Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT)/Maritime Forces Pacific (MARPAC). 1 Canadian Air Division (1 CAD). NUCLEAR EMERGENCY RESPONSE 4. These plans are to be developed in accordance with Annex 7B.

the Superintendent. ROYAL FAMILY/GOVERNOR GENERAL/PRIME MINISTER FLIGHTS 4. METEOROLOGY 4.62 The provision of meteorological support to search and rescue operations is the responsibility of the Canadian Forces Weather Service.60 When a RCC/MRSC is notified by any source of an actual or suspected act of piracy. Governor General and Prime Minister flights. The RCC shall maintain communications with the alerting agency and AOC and provide the latter with expert advice and recommendations pertaining to the SAR response. Safety and Environmental Response.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE OF VESSELS OR AIRCRAFT (HIJACKING/PIRACY) 4. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 15 . HOAXES 4. and . the Air Traffic Control. Maritime Search and Rescue. 4.63 For Royal family.59 When a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) is notified by any source of an actual or suspected hijacking. they shall immediately notify the Air Operations Centre (AOC). the appropriate search and rescue (SAR) authorities shall be notified by the National Defence Operations Centre and the following posture shall be maintained by SAR aircraft: .61 Hoaxes and unnecessary search and rescue alerts (UNSARs) are a serious drain on search and rescue units and shall be reported to local authorities. the other RCCs and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) as appropriate.1 Domestic and Oceanic—normal standby posture (30 minutes during working hours and other times 2 hours). they shall immediately notify the Regional Supervisor. The RCC within whose boundaries the incident exists shall declare an alert phase as detailed in Chapter 6.2 North of 60°N—Winnipeg CC130 to maintain 30 minutes standby while the VIP aircraft is airborne and north of 60 N. and the RCMP The RCC/MRSC within whose boundaries the incident exists shall declare an alert phase as detailed in Chapter 7. Rescue.

arrangements will be made to provide for separate representation of the employee by an outside lawyer. in recognition of the Department of National Defence (DND) overall responsibility in SAR co-ordination.67 If an employee is summoned to give evidence at a Coroner’s Inquest. LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES 4. member of the Department of National Defence or other servant of the Crown. This airborne escort service is called “Duckbutt”. rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre personnel and the servants of the Crown if they were acting within the scope of their employment and not acting maliciously or dishonestly. he should request legal advice through his immediate supervisor. according to Treasury Board policy. 4. Board of Inquiry or other body engaged in the investigation of a search and rescue related misadventure.68 Where Canadian Coast Guard personnel are subpoenaed to testify during formal search and rescue (SAR) investigations. 4. 4.55. the appropriate Canadian Coast Guard search and rescue expert shall also be in attendance to give advice. a DND SAR expert will be tasked to provide advice. 4. they may apply through the chain of command for legal representation at public expense. Canadian Forces Members should comply with Queen’s Regulations & Orders 19. Depending on the nature of the inquiry there may also be a requirement for a DND legal representative to be present.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 DUCKBUTT 4. Where the Department of Justice is notified that there is a divergence of interest as between the employee and the Crown as employer.65 The Crown will indemnify.69 In the case of investigations into incidents having maritime implications. CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 16 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .66 If legal action is commenced against an employee.64 The Canadian Forces have periodic requirements for search and rescue aircraft to orbit certain positions or fly along specified routes in support of military operations.

Winnipeg.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 4A— STATE OF READINESS FOR PRIMARY SAR AIRCRAFT 1. REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 17 . The minimum state of readiness for each rescue squadron shall be one search and rescue (SAR) aircraft of each type.8. Greenwood. on 30 minutes standby during work hours and on 2 hours standby during quiet hours and statutory holidays as follows: 103 Search and Rescue Squadron. Comox. British Columbia LABRADOR Helicopter HERCULES Aircraft LABRADOR Helicopter HERCULES Aircraft LABRADOR Helicopter HERCULES Aircraft BUFFALO Aircraft LABRADOR Helicopter NOTE: Work hours are as defined by the search and rescue region (SRR) commander. Manitoba 442 Transport and Rescue Squadron. the normal state of readiness for a ramp or strip alert will be one dedicated SAR aircraft and crew capable of becoming airborne within 30 minutes. in accordance with 4. Newfoundland 413 Transport and Rescue Squadron. 2. Canadian Forces aircraft not on standby are subject to recall to meet SAR requirements. Gander. 3. Unless otherwise directed. Nova Scotia 424 Transport and Rescue Squadron. Ontario 435 Transport and Rescue Squadron. The SRR commander has operational control of primary SAR standby aircraft and is the approving authority for states of readiness. Trenton.

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Labrador CFB Moosejaw. Newfoundland CFB Goose Bay. Yellowknife Personnel (Minimum/Maximum) 10/30 10/30 10/20 10/20 10/30 10/30 10/15 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 19 .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 4B— CANADIAN FORCES GROUND SEARCH PARTIES LOCATIONS Location Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Bagotville. Alberta CFB Gander. Saskatchewan CFB Winnipeg. Manitoba Canadian Forces Northern Area. Québec CFB Cold Lake.

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A1P A2 A3 A4 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 21 . an immediate response is required to stabilize a situation in order to prevent distress.. Previously unreported A1 incident—An aeronautical incident that has been resolved but would have required a response had the SAR system been alerted at the time of the incident. i. Potential Distress—The potential exists for an A1 incident if timely action is not taken.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 4C—CLASSIFICATION OF SAR INCIDENTS AERONAUTICAL INCIDENTS An aeronautical incident is a search and rescue (SAR) incident involving an aircraft. Known Aeronautical Related False Alarm or Hoax—such as: • a false or inadvertent emergency locator transmitter activation. Situation Resolved In The Uncertainty Phase.e. Category A1 Definition Distress—A person or persons (in relation to an aircraft) are threatened by grave and imminent danger and require immediate assistance.

or • an emergency position-indicating radio beacon false alarm (accidental or otherwise).. Category M1 Definition Distress—A vessel or a person is threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance. immediate response is required to stabilize a situation in order to prevent distress. Situation Resolved In The Uncertainty Phase—such as: • a disabled vessel in no immediate danger. CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 22 REVISED – MAY 2000 . M1P M2 M3 Known Maritime Related False Alarm or Hoax—such as: • a located overdue vessel that is in no difficulty but that had failed to advise of a change of plans or had failed to report. • the investigation of a maritime related sighting that proved false (does not include unlocated flares).e. i. or • a disoriented or lost vessel in no immediate danger. including the medical evacuation (medevac) of person(s) from a vessel. but would have required a response had the SAR system been alerted at the time of the incident. Potential Distress—The potential exists for an M1 incident if timely action is not taken. NOTE: Maritime medivacs should normally be classified in categories 1 or 2. • M4 other related incident involving a vessel with no person on board. Previously Unreported M1 Incident—A maritime incident that has been resolved.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 MARITIME INCIDENTS A maritime incident is a search and rescue (SAR) incident involving a vessel or a person.

.e. such as: • • • • • • a critical medical evacuation on land. however no distress exists—such as: • • on scene evaluation indicates no distress or potential. Situation where assistance is required. Category H1 Definition Distress—A person or persons are threatened by grave or imminent danger (not maritime or aeronautical related) and require immediate assistance. a missing diver from a vessel or from land. a situation such as in an H1 incident but with a lesser degree of urgency and where timely action must be taken to ensure that the situation does not become critical. or body recovery. i. H3 H4 False Alarm or Hoax. or the response to a natural disaster. a missing person. NOTE 1: Normally. a suicide or suicide attempt. REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 23 . a swimmer in difficulty. NOTE 2: Humanitarian incidents now encompass the incidents formally classified as civil assistance. an incident number will only by assigned to a humanitarian incident when federal SAR system units are used. H2 Potential Distress—The potential exists for an H1 incident if timely action is not taken.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL HUMANITARIAN INCIDENTS A humanitarian incident is a search and rescue (SAR) incident (not aeronautical or maritime) which requires a response by the SAR system.

CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 24 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . Category U4 Definition Unknown—such as : • • • a false alarm for an unlocated emergency locator transmitter or emergency position-indicating radio beacon. a false alarm for a flare of unlocated origin.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 UNKNOWN INCIDENTS An unknown incident is an incident which commences as a search and rescue incident of an unknown type and the source of which is untraced. or a hoax.

In conducting search and rescue operations. SM. number of crew aboard the search unit. Personal opinions on the conduct of a particular search and rescue operation or on departmental policy should not be offered. or other headquarters (HQ)] is geographically distant from the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC). occasions arise when Canadian Coast Guard and Department of National Defence personnel are subjected to requests for information from the media/public.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 4D— RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC 1. Once clearance is obtained from the RCC. Questions regarding topics other than those in paragraph 1 above shall be referred to the rescue co-ordination centre. 2. It is prudent to respond to these requests rather than give the impression of being unaware or unresponsive. maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) or Searchmaster (SM) HQ. etc. and search results of the individual search unit. the area searched. readiness to carry on with the search. f. c. number of hours the unit has been engaged in the search. search unit’s capabilities. d. This is especially true when a search and rescue unit [aircraft. or designated Public Affairs Officer the facts given in an interview should be limited to the following: a. e. Searchmaster or Department of National Defence Public Affairs Officer. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 25 . b. items of general interest. number of units engaged in the search. vessel. and g. weather conditions.

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The base commander of each unit shall ensure that adequate space is made available for the storage of ground search equipment. and ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 27 . 4. Other equipment shall be held in the ground search section and shall be the responsibility of the search and rescue officer or party leader. Everyone must be able to see everything between themselves and the persons on each side. the number one flanker usually tries to follow a natural boundary of some type or a predetermined compass course. This method is continued until the search area is completely covered. The distance between them will vary depending on the terrain and the object of the search. The number two flanker should blaze or mark a trail so that when the party comes to the end of the first leg they can pivot about the number two flanker and proceed in the opposite direction on the second leg. and unit entitlements for vehicles. It is normally accomplished by forming up a number of people in a straight line evenly spaced apart. This equipment shall be maintained and stored on a constant alert status. The party will now move on the number two flanker who is searching along his blazed trail.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 4E—GROUND SEARCH PARTIES EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES 1. Ground Search Patterns—Normally search patterns will conform to either the parallel sweep or contour type of search. Parallel Sweep—This is the most common type of ground search pattern. Each member of the party is responsible for the maintenance of his equipment. During the first leg of the search. The two most common patterns are: a. B13-040 and B41-002. Variations and modifications of these basic patterns may be required because of local terrain factors. Ground Search Procedures—Ground search parties are normally utilized either to conduct a search covering a small area of ground or to aid in the evacuation of personnel and equipment from crashes or during emergency incidents. General—The equipment and procedures to be used by ground search parties are set forth in the following paragraphs. The number one flanker will now be blazing a trail to follow on the third leg. The persons on each end of the line are known as flankers and they are responsible for the guidance and control of the search line. items B22096. advancing in the abreast formation. communications. Canadian Forces Scale of Issue. the party moves on the number one flanker. In commencing to search an area. Equipment—Equipment specified in CFS-2. and photographic equipment shall be issued and utilized to equip personnel of authorized ground search parties. 3. 2.

g. unusual sounds. To keep control and ensure full coverage of an area. d. 6. CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 28 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . pieces of clothing or wreckage. full details of the missing aircraft or persons. The most experienced personnel should be assigned as flankers with other experienced personnel strategically placed along the line of search to assist in party control. The party must proceed slowly and all members must maintain their correct spacing. presence of scavengers. broken or disturbed trees or underbush. presence of smoke. 7. It is a common fault for most to try to proceed too fast and as a result. Continuous contact is essential. c. Each person should maintain their distance from the person on their directing flank and also try to remain in line. the control of the search party is lost and full coverage is not ensured. Contour Search—This type of search is a modification of the parallel sweep and is conducted in hilly or mountainous terrain. SEARCH CONTROL AND INCIDENT PROXIMITY SIGNS 5. odour caused by decomposition. drops of oil or fuel. parties should not consist of more than ten people. f. e. GROUND SEARCH BRIEFING 8. and h. The control of a search party is difficult to maintain.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 b. unusually disturbed areas. The following points shall be included during the briefing of a ground search party before it sets out on a search operation or rescue mission: a. The search party commences searching at the highest point and a parallel sweep is carried out encircling the hill or terrain. b. All members of the search party should be instructed to watch for the object of the search and any sign which may indicate the proximity of the object of the search: a.

and name of each member of the party. at least one competent guide who is familiar with the area. 10. d. and e. signalling panels. if available. aerial support which will be provided. large scale maps of the area. The leader of the ground search party shall ensure that each member of the ground party is adequately equipped for the operation and that the following items are carried: a. rank. The searchmaster or rescue co-ordination centre shall arrange the rate of remuneration with the guide prior to the departure of the party. search parties shall include. photographs of the surrounding terrain if available. the type of terrain the party will encounter if known. flashlight. communications procedures and use of ground-air signals. a copy of the ground/air visual code. b. c.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL b. Unless personnel are themselves familiar with the terrain in which an operation is being conducted. 11. e. g. d. map references of the area and routes to be followed to the search area of the crash site. and a compass. a package of matches. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 29 . Each member shall carry a knife. MANDATORY EQUIPMENT AND RESCUE OPERATION PROCEDURES 9. a list giving the number. action to be taken on locating the missing object or on arrival at the crash site. and h. and signal flares if the party is to remain out overnight. special equipment that is to be carried. equipment that will be supply dropped. a whistle. They shall carry sleeping bags. c. rations. f. Each member of the ground search party shall be completely equipped with proper clothing and footgear. at least one transmitter and receiver with spare batteries capable of operating on 5 717 kilohertz (kHz) or at least one of the on-scene working frequencies listed in Chapter 8.

he shall not be sent back alone. the distress signal should be given by whistle or three loud sounds by any valuable means. Search parties shall not travel at night unless the nature of the emergency warrants such action. The recognized acknowledgement is one shot. a minimum of six persons shall be provided for each stretcher case. Normally. If a member of a party is unable to continue. The leader of a ground search party shall ensure that no person. 13. 19. CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 30 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . Identification of deceased personnel is usually made from wallets. If a party or any member of it becomes lost. When stretcher cases are to be transported any distance overland. removes or interferes with an aircraft or wreckage. continuous contact shall be maintained between all members of the party. etc. "NUMBER". 18. 16. the searchmaster or the police. When available. If no firearms are carried. Ground search personnel operating watercraft shall observe all water safety regulations. When possible. single file is the best method of advancing through bush. and a receipt obtained. If the party must spread out in order to find a trail or crash site. watches. the search shall continue in the event that someone has left the crash site or parachuted. whether military or civilian. 17. each section shall be in the charge of a competent leader. the ground search party shall determine the number of survivors and deceased persons and inform the covering aircraft or search centre. the international distress signal of firing three shots should be used. identification tags. an additional six persons shall be provided to spell off the original group and assist in clearing a trail. 15. On locating a crash site. If all persons who were aboard the missing aircraft are not immediately accounted for. or disturbs or removes corpses until authorized by the searchmaster or the rescue co-ordination centre. 14. two persons should be present when these are being gathered. One effective method is to number the members consecutively and then the leader can give command. to verify all are present. Should it be necessary to divide the party. The greatest care shall be taken that the party remains together.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 12. Valuables and money shall be inventoried and turned over to the rescue co-ordination centre. Suitable life preservers shall be worn by all personnel using any type of maritime craft or raft.

b. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 31 . This briefing shall include a planned communication schedule and an alternative schedule in the event of poor weather or aircraft unserviceability.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CO-OPERATION BETWEEN AIRCRAFT AND GROUND SEARCH PARTIES 20. A narrative report covering all aspects and phases of the ground search and rescue operation. c. Ground parties shall ensure that the following information is communicated to the supporting aircraft: a. the progress made. including comments on equipment and recommendations for the approval of techniques. In many instances. and d. the number of days’ food supplies on hand. 21. aircraft can be of great assistance to ground search parties in locating the scene of a crash. Leaders of search parties and aircraft crews shall be briefed on the method of communication and the operation plan to be used. shall be submitted by the ground search party leader to the rescue co-ordination centre or searchmaster for inclusion in the search operation final report. the estimated time of reaching the next objective. the requirement for food or other equipment. 22.

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B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 4F—CASARA EXPENSE CLAIM ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 4 – PAGE 33 .

...................... 27 RESTRICTING ACCESS TO A RESCUE SITE ...................................................................... 23 METEOROLOGICAL SUPPORT . 7 SAR INCIDENT LOCATION .............................................................................................................. 5 SEARCH PLANNING............................................................. 1 TABLE OF FIGURES .......................................................................................... AERIAL AND INFRA-RED PHOTOGRAPHY........... 5 DESIGNATION OF THE RCC/MRSC RESPONSIBLE FOR SAR ACTION......................................................................................................................................... 28 CRASH SITE ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 BASIC SEARCH PLAN ...... 25 LOCATION OF SEARCH OBJECT—SAR CREW PROCEDURES ............. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS.............................................................................. 3 JURISDICTION OF RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRES/ MARITIME RESCUE SUB-CENTRES............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 SEARCH PATTERNS.............................................. 19 SAR BRIEFINGS/TASKINGS ...................... 10 DRIFT FORCES............................................................................................................................... 24 DIVING AND UNDERWATER SEARCH OPERATIONS ...................... 12 AREA COVERAGE..................................... 8 DATUM.................... 27 RELEASE OF PHOTOGRAPHS .......................................................................................................................... AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND MARINE COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAFFIC SERVICES SUPPORT.................................................... 6 SEARCH PLANNING SEQUENCE.................... 11 PLOTTING DRIFT FORCES ...................................................................................... 28 TRANSPORT OF BODIES/CORONER/ TRANSPORT SAFETY BOARD REPRESENTATIVES ................ 6 SEARCH PLANNING METHODS ................ 24 SATELLITE........B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CHAPTER 5— SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES—GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 5—SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES—GENERAL ........................................ 27 PHOTOGRAPHY OF THE SEARCH OBJECT............................................................................................................... 26 NOTICE OF CRASH/CASUALTY LOCATION................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 22 AIR DEFENCE................................................. 28 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 1 ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................45 ANNEX 5D—NOTICE OF CRASH/CASUALTY LOCATION MESSAGE ...................................................................................................................................32 DIVING ACCIDENTS .................................................41 UTILIZATION OF ELT RECEPTION REPORTS................................................................................................................................51 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 2 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .................................................................................................................................................43 EXAMPLE C.........................................................................................................35 ANNEX 5B—EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER REPORT— PROBABILITY AREAS ..............................44 ANNEX 5C—SEARCH AREA PLANNING NOMOGRAPHS ................................................................................................................................................................................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 REDUCTION OF MAJOR SAR OPERATIONS..............................................................29 REOPENING OF SEARCHES ...............................................................................................41 EXAMPLE A .....................31 HUMANITARIAN INCIDENTS— MEDICAL EVACUATIONS AND GROUND SAR ....42 EXAMPLE B............................................................................................................................................33 ANNEX 5A—VISUAL SEARCH PATTERNS..................................49 ANNEX 5E—REQUEST FOR SEARCH REDUCTION................................31 MARKING OF WRECKAGE.................................................................41 VHF/UHF THEORETICAL RECEPTION RANGES .............

............................................................................. 47 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 3 ........... 45 FIGURE 5C–2 SECTOR SEARCH AREA NOMOGRAPH................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14 FIGURE 5–4 COVERAGE FACTOR ......... 36 FIGURE 5A–3 SINGLE UNIT PARALLEL TRACK..................................... 13 FIGURE 5–3 COVERAGE FACTOR VS PROBABILITY OF DETECTION....................................................... 38 FIGURE 5A–6 CONTOUR SEARCH ................................................ 15 FIGURE 5–5 ELT DETECTION DISTANCE........... 19 FIGURE 5–7 SEARCH SEQUENCE ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 36 FIGURE 5A–4 EXPANDING SQUARE ................................................................. 44 FIGURE 5C–1 SEARCH AREA PLANNING NOMOGRAPH........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 42 FIGURE 5B–2 ELT SEARCHING EXAMPLE B..........................................................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE 5–1 DATUM LINE................................... 21 FIGURE 5A–1 TRACK CRAWL PATTERN.............................................................................................................................................. 37 FIGURE 5A–5 SECTOR SEARCH............................................................................................................................................................................................... 43 FIGURE 5B–3 ELT SEARCHING EXAMPLE C........................................................................... 18 FIGURE 5–6 ELT SEARCH PATTERNS ............................................. 46 FIGURE 5C–3 SECTOR SEARCH TIME NOMOGRAPH.............................................................................. 35 FIGURE 5A–2 CREEPING LINE PATTERN .................................................................. 39 FIGURE 5B–1 ELT SEARCHING EXAMPLE A ....... 10 FIGURE 5–2 PROBABILITY OF DETECTION..........................................................................................................................................................

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action shall be taken to designate one of them responsible for the overall conduct of the search. . ship or other craft is located. and pass on all information. When more than one RCC/MRSC become involved in a case. If the incident is outside the boundaries of that RCC/MRSC. alert the RCCs associated with the planned or intended route of the aircraft.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES—GENERAL JURISDICTION OF RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRES/ MARITIME RESCUE SUB-CENTRES 5.1 The position of the aircraft or vessel is known— . the appropriate RCC shall be advised as soon as possible.2 Any rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) which is notified of the existence of a search and rescue (SAR) emergency and is not aware of the involvement of another RCC/MRSC shall initiate suitable action.2 When the RCC or MRSC recognizes that the aircraft or vessel is continuing its flight or voyage and may leave the search and rescue region (SRR) for which it is responsible. 5. ship or other craft. while appropriate action is continued.1 When the position of the aircraft or vessel in distress is known. If the emergency has arisen as a result of an aeronautical or maritime incident then the RCC/MRSC responsible for initiating action shall be designated as described in the following sections. the following applies: . DESIGNATION OF THE RCC/MRSC RESPONSIBLE FOR SAR ACTION 5. it should: a. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 5 .3 Unless otherwise decided by common agreement of those concerned. the responsibility for initiation of a SAR operation will be that of the RCC or MRSC in whose area the aircraft. If the emergency is not related to an aeronautical or maritime incident the appropriate authority shall be advised as soon as possible.1 Any rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) which is notified of the existence of an emergency and is not aware of the involvement of any other competent authority shall initiate suitable action.

SEARCH PLANNING SEQUENCE 5. to which the aircraft or vessel was destined if it was not equipped with suitable two-way radio communication or not under obligation to maintain radio communication.1 estimating the datum—determining the position of the emergency and in maritime cases determining the effect of wind and current on the survivors. specific Canadian search procedures such as the Canadian Search Area Definition and Mountain Visual Flight Rules methods of search planning are included.1 When the position of the aircraft or vessel in distress is unknown. in which the aircraft or vessel was. They are: . and c. the Canadian Coast Guard has developed Canadian inshore search planning procedures and a computer assisted method of calculating drift. the Canadian Search and Rescue Planning Program CANSARP.5 There are normally five sequential events in the development of a search plan. . b. to which the aircraft or vessel was proceeding if the last reported position was at the boundary of two SRRs. SEARCH PLANNING 5. the RCC or MRSC shall assume responsibility for the SAR operation and consult adjacent RCCs along the route of the aircraft. In addition. continue co-ordination of the SAR operation until it has been notified by an adjacent RCC or MRSC that the aircraft. according to its last reported position.4 The information contained in this chapter is based on accepted International Civil Aviation Organization/International Maritime Organization procedures. and c. ship or other craft as to which centre will assume primary responsibility.2 The position of the aircraft or vessel not known— .2 Unless otherwise decided by common agreement of the RCCs or MRSCs concerned. the RCC or MRSC to assume responsibility should be the centre responsible for the region: a. .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 b. ship or other craft has entered its SRR and that it is assuming responsibility. remain ready to assist until informed that this is no longer required. As well. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 6 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

.3 selecting appropriate search patterns—considering size of area.6 The search planning sequence may be carried out completely by the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre controller or may be initiated by the controller and continued by the searchmaster (SM).2 determining the size of the search area—allowing for errors in position estimates. and . 5. track spacing and number of sweeps. and the Canadian developed Canadian Search Area Definition (CSAD) and Mountain Visual Flight Rules (MVFR) methods (Chapter 6) for aeronautical searches. 5. The search planner may have to deal with more than one method regardless of whether the search is happening in the maritime or inland environment.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . a record shall be kept of all assumptions and factors which affected the development of the plan. It is important that throughout the process all participating agencies are included in the communications net and kept advised of the search action plan.7 The degree of search planning can range from the simple tasking of a search and rescue unit on an electronic search to the complicated co-ordination of a week-long search using many aeronautical and/or maritime units.9 Each rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) and maritime rescue sub-centre has the Canadian Search and Rescue Planning Program CANSARP for calculating drift plots and conducting search ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 7 .4 determining the desired area coverage—considering factors affecting the probability of detection. Each method is thoroughly discussed at the indicated section of this manual. navigation errors of search units and drift variables.5 developing an optimum and attainable search plan—considering the number of search units available and other limiting factors and circumstances.8 The manual methods include the Minimax computation for maritime search areas (Chapter 7). On-scene commanders also have search planning responsibilities (Chapter 3). primarily from the United States National Search and Rescue Manual. . SEARCH PLANNING METHODS 5. This record of assumptions and factors is especially critical on extended searches where new information may cause the controller or SM to re-evaluate the assumptions made during the initial planning phase. The planning can be carried out manually or by one of the several computer programs available. 5. type of terrain and capabilities of search units. Since more than one person may be involved in the planning process. The record is also critical for legal purposes where the conduct of a search may be called into question.

called Computer Assisted Search Planning (CASP). For Canadian users.13 In the computation of the search and rescue incident location the planner must collect. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 8 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . the result is a datum which will remain stationary throughout the search. This knowledge is used to determine the object’s most probable position. . weigh and review information from all practical sources. is also available through United States Coast Guard (USCG) RCCs in Norfolk and Seattle.12 At the initiation of search planning. The CASP uses simulation methods and is most efficient in cases where information concerning the incident position is vague. 5. .5 Marine Communications and Traffic Services. 5. which is then corrected for drift if necessary. the proposed track or only the general area of the search object. the Terminal Radar and Control System (TRACS) or the Joint Enroute/Terminal System (JETS).e.1 airfields where an aircraft might have attempted to land. i.11 Maritime Search Planning Forms—Forms and worksheets for several of the search planning steps have been devised by various search and rescue co-ordinators to aid in the planning process when it must be done manually. the planner may know a reported position.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 planning and effort allocation. In both cases the object is to determine an area which has the greatest chance of including the most probable position of the search object. These might include: . Examples of these are provided in Annex 7C and their use may be considered to avoid overlooking pertinent data and to establish a logical sequence for the planning computations. SAR INCIDENT LOCATION 5. . access to CASP is achieved by having RCC contact a USCG RCC. In all maritime searches CANSARP should be used as the primary means for search planning.2 possible vessel docking areas.3 military or civil radar services. the result is a moving datum from which continually moving search areas may be derived.4 aviation or maritime authorities along the route. For an object in the water.10 Another computerized search planning program. When searching for an aircraft on land. 5. .

7 owner/operator/next-of-kin to: .2 assess the ability of the crew to survive and the type of assistance likely from survivors. it will be impractical to search this wide area. relating these to the enroute weather and terrain.17 Adjustment of the probability area may be necessary for a variety of reasons.1 obtain information on the crew and the aircraft/vessel operating characteristics. 5. it may be assumed that the most probable area within which a missing aircraft will be found is that along the intended track from the last known position to intended destination and within a reasonable distance either side of track. The study of Canadian data which led to the Canadian Search Area Definition and Mountain Visual Flight Rules methods confirmed this assumption for aircraft cases.15 Probability Area (Aeronautical)—In the absence of information to the contrary. This might include: . but it should be determined so that the planner will be aware of all possibilities. 5. 5.1 the initial search of a determined probability area has proven unsuccessful. The basic methodology may be applied to both aeronautical and maritime cases. 5.14 Possible Area—This area is the region bounded by the object’s limit of endurance in all possible directions from the last known position (LKP) of the search object. It approximates a circle centred on the LKP with the radius being expressed in terms of distance.1 adverse weather differing from that expected by the crew. The area is determined using the offshore or inshore search area methods described in the following paragraphs. . ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 9 . Normally.2 information becomes available which suggests a deviation from the intended route may have occurred. .8 Atmospheric Environment Services offices for weather information which may have influenced the intended voyage.6 Department of National Defence high frequency (HF) and Canadian Coast Guard very high frequency (VHF) direction finder nets. including: . It also determined that definitive area sizes could be established in relation to probability of whereabouts values of an incident location for various track length groupings. . .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL .16 Probability Area (Maritime)—In maritime cases the probability area consists of an increasing area about a periodically repositioned datum.

DATUM 5. that is. it may be necessary to use a datum line. For maritime cases the most probable position must then be corrected with computed drift forces to obtain datum for a specific time. 5. . an intended track. . that is.3 the effect of drift in the case of maritime incidents. or even a datum area. FIGURE 5–1 DATUM LINE CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 10 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . In general.2 unserviceable or unreliable navigation aids en route.3 advice on preferred routes from qualified witnesses.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . In an aeronautical case this is simply establishing the last known position. B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 Methods for adjusting the probability area are discussed in the following paragraphs.19 If a datum point cannot be determined. the last position for which there is indisputable evidence of the search object’s location.18 The first step in either maritime or inland search planning is to determine a starting reference point or datum. the planner should attempt to limit the size of datum lines and areas as much as possible by using communications checks and whatever other evidence may be available. Examples of the latter would be an aircraft which intended to operate in a known training area or a fishing boat which may have gone to particular fishing grounds. .4 reliable sighting reports.

The forces that must be considered may include: . and drift forces. In such cases. and along track as required (usually one for each 24 hours along track).22 In all searches where the search object is believed to be in the water it will be necessary to re-compute datum periodically to account for drift or new information by determining the various forces that cause the search object to move in and with the water.11 long shore current (LSC) (Chapter 7).aircraft only. for example the mid-search time.8 lake current (LC). normal cruising speed. (Chapter 7) . (Annex 6) . (Chapter 7) .4 leeway (LW). (Chapter 7) . Using the vessel endurance.5 wind driven current (WC).10 bottom current (BC). (Chapter 7) . (Annex 6) .9 river current (RC).3 sinking drift (ds). This area will normally be much too large to search effectively.aircraft only.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 5. (Chapter 7) . for example a particular fishing grounds. the search planner will therefore be required to do extensive detective work to determine a reasonable search area.21 Datum Area—If the last known position is actually a vicinity rather than a position. dead reckoning (DR) positions should be established at the beginning and end of track. (Chapter 7) and .7 tidal current (TC). it will be necessary to determine a datum area. Each DR is used to develop a datum point for a common time.6 sea current (SC). These are analysed for possible errors and the resultant search radii are tangentially joined to construct a search area along the intended track (Figure 5–1). . ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 11 .20 Datum Line—In some cases the intended track of a vessel may be known. DRIFT FORCES 5. In some aeronautical cases it may also be necessary to compute drift to determine the impact point. 5.2 parachute drift (dp) . (Chapter 7) . The periods at which datum must be re-computed will vary according to this expected drift in specific cases.1 aerospace trajectory (da) . an area of possibility is determined.

The many factors that influence detection capability during a search can be reduced to four mathematical expressions. however. 5. . These expressions are measurements. It should be apparent that the smaller S is.4 Coverage factor (C). The object of the search planner will be to achieve an optimum value for S. that decreasing S increases the time for any given search unit to cover the search area. the higher will be the likelihood of detecting any object which is within the area searched.23 In each case where more than one drift force is present. the forces must be added vectorially to determine the total drift (D). PLOTTING DRIFT FORCES 5. is known as track spacing (S). some are rarely used.24 Search area coverage involves the systematic search of defined areas to ensure the optimum probability of detection of the search object. and none for ground incidents. and .25 Track Spacing—The distance between adjacent search tracks. AREA COVERAGE 5. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 12 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . or alternatively requires more units to complete the search in the same time. W being a measure of detection capability and C being a measure of search quality. S being a measure of search effort. Typically one drift force might be used for aircraft incidents over land. whether desired or attained. POD being a measure of search effect. and how to compute a D estimate are explained in Chapters 6 (aeronautical) and 7 (maritime). three for surface water incidents. these being: .1 track Spacing (S). one that will permit expecting target detection to be within the constraints of time and unit availability. whether these are by simultaneous sweeps of several units or successive sweeps of a single unit.3 sweep Width (W).NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 The method required to plot each of the drift forces mentioned above is the subject of their respective chapters. While the list may seem overwhelming. It must be remembered. The methods of calculating each of the drift forces which can effect search objects. .2 Probability of Detection (POD).

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL FIGURE 5–2 PROBABILITY OF DETECTION ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 13 .

An observer can be expected. 5. While this is not strictly accurate.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 5–3 COVERAGE FACTOR VS PROBABILITY OF DETECTION 5. It has been shown in field experiments that the curve is not a straight line. it is sufficiently so for manual calculations given the basic level of accuracy of the graphs. the POD is determined by entering the Figure 5–3 with the average C for all those searches.27 As track spacing (S) and sweep width (W) control the coverage factor (C). When repeated searches of the same area are completed. using the appropriate curve. Figure 5–3 cannot be used for determining the POD of inland searches. and for up to four repeated searches in the same area. To make optimum use of this concept. A typical curve for search craft spotters is depicted in Figure 5–2. to sight most of the targets in close range. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 14 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . there is not a constant rate of decrease as the range increases. that is. under normal conditions. The curves on this graph provide POD when C is given. for a single search of an area.26 Probability of Detection—Usually expressed as a percentage. so C controls the POD. sweep widths have been developed to achieve particular PODs. Due to the lack of Canadian W tables. The POD is determined using the graph shown in Figure 5–3. fewer targets at greater range and no targets at all beyond the maximum detection range. the probability of detection (POD) refers to the odds of detecting the target.

. 5.30 through 5. Tables have been developed to provide W for various types of searches and are discussed in paragraphs 5. weather and other variables.40. W will always be less than the maximum detection range. The W concept is applicable for any type of search. which are further discussed in Chapters 6 and 7: . Thus. This concept is expressed graphically in Figure 5–2. and .1 visual search. FIGURE 5–4 COVERAGE FACTOR ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 15 . W is obtained by choosing a value less than the maximum detection range so that scattered targets that may be detected beyond W are equal in number to those which may be missed within W.29 The computation of sweep width depends on the search methods being used by search units.28 Sweep Width—Sweep width (W) is a mathematically expressed measure of detection capability based on target characteristics.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 5.2 electronic search.3 miscellaneous search methods. including electronic or aural searches. These can be divided into the following general headings.

6 contour. In the case of inland searches.30 Coverage Factor—Coverage factor (C) is a measure of search effectiveness or quality. A description of these common search patterns is found in Annex 5A. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 16 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . The following general procedures are used to precisely locate the distress beacon.5 sector. personal locator beacons (PLBs) or emergency position indicating radio beacons (EPIRBs).0 MHz. SEARCH PATTERNS 5. United States search and rescue authorities often further differentiate these search patterns by whether individual or multiple units are used or whether there is co-ordination between aeronautical and surface units.3 creeping line. Canadian visual W tables have not been developed for inland searches and therefore C for these searches cannot be determined. These patterns are used during the initial search phase and apply to emergency locator transmitters (ELTs). . Of note.5.0 and one of 0.4 expanding square.31 Visual Search Pattern Types—There are six main groups of visual search patterns: . ejectable crash position indicators (CPIs).1 track crawl.2 parallel track. C depends on the relation between sweep width (W) and track spacing (S). most military ELTs operate on 243.32 Electronic Search Patterns for Distress Beacons—Normally. operate simultaneously on both frequencies and 406 MHz ELTs are also manufactured. and is expressed: C= W S Figure 5−4 demonstrates the difference between a C of 1.5 MHz.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 5. however. . and . The procedures for locating all of these beacons are the same. . the probability of detection varies according to the changing terrain and vegetation within a given search area. Some ELTs. search and rescue units will have a rough position of where a distress beacon is located as a consequence of the COSPAS–SARSAT system. and civil ELTs operate on 121. . 5.

relays a position to the Canadian Mission Control Centre. and . followed by a further sweep stepped over one-half the S (Figure 5–6). Several methods of working out the solution are described at Annex 5B. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 17 .35 The standard visual search patterns are applicable to electronic searches with the following modifications: . An electronic search should be conducted during the first 24 hours after a search object is missing. .2 track spacing (S) should be 60 nautical miles (M) at 20. In Canada. the search should be arranged to cut the ridge lines at right angles if at all possible. 5.5 MHz. transmitter strength and receiver sensitivity. 5. Maximum S should be used for the initial rapid sweep of the area.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL NOTE: Some PLBs and most EPIRBs transmit a 406 MHz signal which is received by the COSPAS–SARSAT system which.36 Often distress beacon reports are received from pilots of other than search and rescue aircraft.3 the beacon’s location and orientation on the ground can cause erroneous “on top” indications—caution should be used on all homing with a second procedure carried out if doubt exists.000 feet and 30 M at 10. Normally. EPIRBs which meet Canadian regulatory specifications emit a homing signal on 121. in turn. 5. 5. anyone hearing a distress beacon signal is required to advise the nearest Air Traffic Control Unit. With this information the search planner can arrive at a rough estimate of the most appropriate search area.1 effective electronic search can be carried out under all weather conditions at normal cruise speed. Figure 5–5 shows the ranges that may be expected under various conditions.34 Because of the limited operating life of most distress beacon batteries. it is essential that search planning be premised on saturating the high probability areas as soon as possible. a listening watch on the appropriate frequencies shall be maintained.000 feet with the spacing reduced by one half over mountainous terrain.33 While in theory distress beacon signals should extend to line of sight range. Flight Service Station or rescue co-ordination centre. stating the position where the signal was first and last heard and the strength of the signal. EPIRBs and PLBs capable of transmitting only on 406 MHz can be located by using 406 MHz capable homing equipment. For the remainder of the search. they may be affected by a number of factors such as terrain shielding. followed by a further sweep of the area at right angles to the first. a parallel track or creeping line should be employed for distress beacon searches. In mountainous areas.

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 5–5 ELT DETECTION DISTANCE CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 18 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

and . four things are of vital importance to its commander: .69.3 optimum search pattern. or very complex for a large number of units. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 19 .37 Night Search Patterns—Patterns to be used for flare assisted night searches depend on the sort of equipment being used.4 optimum track spacing.1 an adequate briefing on the search object.38 General—A search outline is required in almost every mission. many lives may depend on its careful development by the search planner.2 description of search area. refer to 7. When a search unit is tasked. While it may be very abbreviated for a single search unit. . For searches involving night vision goggles.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL FIGURE 5–6 ELT SEARCH PATTERNS 5. . BASIC SEARCH PLAN 5. and are described in the particular search and rescue unit’s standard operating procedures.

40 The search planner develops his optimum search plan on the assumption that an adequate number of suitable search units will be available to conduct the search.0). terrain. and the particular probability of detection desired under the circumstances.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 This information should be considered the minimum. 5.42 Search Concentration—The likelihood of survivors decreases with time.1 define an area large enough to encompass the survivors.5 dispatch sufficient search units to complete one search of the area within the allotted time. making it imperative that the search planner complete a maximum search effort at the outset of the search. he should make every effort to obtain the required units. 5. size and location of search area. search object detectability. .41 Time is of paramount importance. safety factors.39 When developing a search plan the planner must carefully weigh the limitations of time. but other information may be added when applicable or available.4 determine the number of aircraft and/or vessel hours needed to complete the search in the allotted time. . compounding the problem. . then compromises or alternative units must be considered to enable development of an attainable plan. Usually. and . Adherence to the following principles has proven successful in the past: .3 select a time frame to complete the search.6 if unsuccessful. While thorough search planning and good search conditions are the optimum. a large area will be involved. If all the desired units are not available. since the survivors of an incident may be ill-equipped to deal with their new environment. Once these requirements are known. 5. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 20 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . search unit staging locations.7 avoid re-orienting the search or reassigning search units unnecessarily. 5. weather. the searchmaster should exercise his judgment in initiating a search with the information and search units immediately at hand. . available search units and their capabilities. . increasing the effort when more information and units become available.2 use a track spacing equal to the sweep width (coverage factor equal to 1. expand and repeat the search.

helo 300/600 150/300 130/190 100/180 75/130 50 20 10 3. torch. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 21 . flares. based on the type of target or signalling device expected and the environmental conditions encountered.000 10 000– 40 000 1500– 3000 1500– 2000 300–1500 200–500 electronic visual (aids) visual (aids) visual (rafts) visual (wreckage) jet turbo-prop prop prop.43 Search Sequence—There is no single sequence of search types or patterns which will be suitable for all searches. FIGURE 5–7 SEARCH SEQUENCE 5. 5. search planners will be expected to use their judgment and the available units to establish a sensible and attainable search sequence. Rather.44 In all cases. electronic beacons electronic beacons fires. a series of nomographs and tables have been developed and are attached in Annex 5C. mirrors. NOTE: Initial. electronic and visual (aids) searches could take place simultaneously at night and visual (aids)/(rafts)/(wreckage) searches could take place during the ensuing daylight hours. helo prop. etc. re-orientation of the search area once a particular search has commenced is both difficult and wasteful. additional units should be dispatched to check out such possibilities. six searches being completed by the end of a 24 or 36 hour period. Night searches should be considered when terrain is suitable and when there is a likelihood that survivors might have night or electronic signalling capability. in this case where a large area is to be searched and search units are limited. The temptation to reassign units for every new lead or sighting report should be resisted. dye rafts wreckage Preferred Aircraft jet Track/ Speed 300/600 Spacing 50 Altitude 10 000– 40.1 0.45 Search Area and Time—To aid in the computation of the area and time involved in sequential coverage of various search areas. Search 1 and initial 2 3 4 5 6 Type trackline Period day/ night day/ night night day day day Target communication wreckage. Figure 5–7 shows a representative search sequence. 5. planning should be thorough and then adhered to.3 All aircraft to keep radar search. Thus.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL In any search.

47 When possible. communications). The SAR controller should also not hesitate to task a primary fixed wing SRU to provide top cover for a secondary helicopter SRU if the controller feels the secondary SRU may require assistance (i. The appropriate SAR Briefing/Tasking Form shall be filled out by the SM and made available to each search unit commander prior to each mission. search and rescue (SAR) controllers shall provide each commander with a detailed briefing covering all the items of the SAR Briefing/Tasking Form for Aircraft—Secondary Search and Rescue Units shown in Annex 9I.46 Aircrew—The initial briefing to the first crews participating in a search operation shall normally be given by the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) via telephone/fax.50 Secondary SRUs will be tasked through normal tasking procedures. in the commander’s judgement.48 The SRU commander shall only accept the proposed mission if. the briefing shall commence with a comprehensive description of the weather situation and forecast given by a meteorologist or qualified meteorological technician. 5.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 SAR BRIEFINGS/TASKINGS 5. the SRU’s equipment and crew capability will permit completion of the task with safety. as soon as possible. To ensure secondary aeronautical SRU commanders fully understand the scope of the mission.e. then the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue subcentre (MRSC) or the SM shall provide as detailed a weather picture as is possible. the request for assistance may be made directly to the SRU commander. If such personnel are not available. however. 5. it is the responsibility of the SM to ensure that all search crews are adequately briefed prior to each sortie. The briefing shall cover all the items detailed in either of the SAR Briefing/Tasking Form for Aircraft shown in Annexes 9G to 9I. SAR controllers shall employ all means to verify the status of the SRU if a communications check-in is missed. 5. take steps to report through regular channels the action being taken and the circumstances which made a direct approach necessary. In these cases. SRUs should also be instructed to contact the RCC/MRSC before departure and upon arrival.. This could include the dispatch of another SRU if consecutive check-ins are missed. and any additional information items considered pertinent to the case. in emergency situations where this procedure would not be practicable. 5. When search headquarters have been set up and a searchmaster (SM) appointed. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 22 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . the SRU commander or the requesting SAR official shall.49 SRUs are obligated to maintain regular communications with the RCC/MRSC/SM and this should be emphasized to secondary SRUs.

A good rapport with these groups is important.52 Other Agencies—The RCC/MRSC is responsible to ensure that all other organizations participating in the search operations have all of the necessary details for the briefing of their crews. some air traffic control radar facilities have the capability to direct search and rescue (SAR) aircraft to the scene of a suspected aeronautical distress. When it is believed that ATC information can assist in SAR operations. Rescue co-ordination centres (RCCs)/searchmasters can be provided specific recorded radar information from NORAD sites by contacting appropriate military authorities. AIR DEFENCE. In addition.51 Maritime Crew—Briefing for commanding officers of maritime SRUs should cover all details concerning the SAR object and other relevant information as described in the SAR Briefing/Tasking Form for Vessels (Annex 9J) 5. or the Transport Canada regional manager of Air Traffic Services.57 In addition. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 23 . RCCs shall maintain a current list of contacts within NORAD to ensure timely provision of such information when required. Air Traffic Control should be requested to issue notices to airmen (NOTAM) about the search areas in order to provide added safety for search crews.54 Numerous radar sites located across Canada are used to record the progress of aircraft and vessel movements. 5. should be contacted as soon as possible. 5.56 Recorded radar or voice information from civilian and military Air Traffic Control (ATC) installations may also be used to assist in responding to an aeronautical distress incident. the Wing’s Operations Officer of Canadian Forces bases. 5. 5.53 Press/NOK—The RCC/MRSC or SM or his representative must ensure the press and next-of-kin are kept informed of the situation.55 Military radar sites of the North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD) may provide valuable information which could help locate distressed aircraft which transit through the area coverage of the defence radar.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 5. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND MARINE COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAFFIC SERVICES SUPPORT 5. These modern radar systems have a capability to assist in locating aircraft or vessels in distress and search planners should make full use of this capability.

62 Space-based. 5. multi-spectrum detection systems may be capable of assisting in detecting the search object. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 24 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . SATELLITE.60 In the initial planning of a search and rescue (SAR) operation. a request for its use shall be forwarded by priority message to the National Defence Operations Centre (NDOC). Meteorology. 5.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 5. and forecast meteorological information directly from their established points of contact with Atmospheric Environment Services. For subsequent operations.61 If the use of air or infra-red photography may aid the conduct of a search. the required meteorological information shall be obtained in accordance with the arrangements made by the Senior Staff Officer. AERIAL AND INFRA-RED PHOTOGRAPHY 5. forecast and prevailing ice conditions should also be obtained. This information shall be obtained from the Canadian Forces Weather Office/Canadian Forces Forecast Centre/Canadian Forces Meteorological and Oceanographic Centre designated by the Senior Staff Officer. prevailing. A request for this service may be forwarded by priority message to the North American Air Defence (NORAD).59 SAR Operations—The provision of meteorological support to search and rescue (SAR) operations is the responsibility of the Canadian Forces Weather Service. In the case of maritime SAR. prevailing. the RCC/marine rescue sub-centre(MRSC)/SM shall have available comprehensive information on the past. MRSCs and CANSARP will normally obtain past. and forecast meteorological conditions in the search area. Most of the Canadian Forces Weather Offices are equipped to receive satellite photos via fax. METEOROLOGICAL SUPPORT 5. and the prevailing and forecast conditions en route from and returning to the base from which the search is being conducted. These pictures are available for the visual and infra-red frequencies and may be of assistance to search planners. through NDOC. The rescue coordination centre (RCC)/searchmaster (SM) will co-ordinate with the Canadian Forces Weather Service to arrange for the meteorological services to be provided at a deployed search base. Meteorology or his delegate.58 Marine Communications and Traffic Services Centres within the search and rescue region may also be able to provide RCCs/maritime rescue sub-centres with real-time radar information concerning incidents and/or traffic within the limits of a traffic zone.

68 Despite the above considerations. nothing in this article should be construed as committing the SAR system to undertake or to continue underwater search when such action is considered by the search and rescue region (SRR) commander to be impractical. and underwater investigation is deemed necessary to the expeditious conduct of the search. the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.64 Suspension or continuation of a search may depend on underwater detection and recovery measures to locate a missing aircraft or maritime craft to establish the fate of its occupants.67 The decision to continue an underwater search will be as a result of consultation between the RCC/maritime rescue sub-centre/searchmaster and the appropriate diving advisor.63 SAR Technician diving procedures are contained in CFACM. depth of water. as appropriate. a request should be made in compliance with Coast Guard Fleet Order (CGFO) 203.66 When required. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 25 . type of bottom. any participation in recovery must be with the cognizance and consent of the provincial authorities concerned. 5.2605. 5. visibility of water. Commercial facilities may be engaged on authority of the SRR commander if suitable government facilities are not available. However. The message of request should state the situation. 5. Therefore. the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) may co-ordinate diving operations using units of the Department of National Defence (DND).B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL DIVING AND UNDERWATER SEARCH OPERATIONS 5. direct communications should be effected with the Maritime Forces Atlantic or the Maritime Forces Pacific Headquarters. or any provincial or federal agency that is prepared to assist and can provide suitable equipment and qualified personnel. 5. tide or current. Should the use of DND units and capability be required.00.65 Assistance may be rendered when requested by a competent provincial or federal authority. the Department of Fisheries and Oceans/Canadian Coast Guard (CCG). then there is no responsibility for the SAR system to co-ordinate or participate in underwater detection or recovery action. In the case of CCG units being required. and other pertinent details. 5. however. it is provincial authorities that have jurisdiction in the matter of drowned persons. if identification of floating wreckage or an accumulation of evidence which clearly established the fate of the aircraft or vessel and its occupants is possible without recourse to underwater search.

73 Crews of search aircraft finding survivors in obvious need of food. and any information which may assist in rescue operations shall be reported. If the aircraft locating the object of the search is not carrying the special supply drop equipment designed for dropping to survivors of a distress incident. Any such signal noted shall be relayed immediately to the RCC/MRSC or SM. or first aid equipment. In normal circumstances. 5. 5. several photographs of the scene and surrounding area shall be taken.71 If unable to do the rescue. at the captain’s discretion. or any lakes or rivers on which an aircraft could land. it shall be inspected carefully to verify that it is the object sought and the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) or the searchmaster (SM) shall be advised immediately. If possible. sea markers.75 Search crews shall watch for signal messages from survivors. If positive identification cannot be made. shall be dispatched to the RCC/MRSC or the SM. it should attempt to indicate to the search object. drop the necessary supplies and equipment carried on the search aircraft for that purpose. 5. or until prudent limit of fuel endurance. the SRU should remain visible to the search object in order to contribute to the survivors’ mental well-being. shall. Any open stretches of land on which aircraft could conceivably be landed or SAR Technicians dropped. or datum marker buoys.70 When a search and rescue unit (SRU) has located the search object. by any means.74 Kits containing narcotics shall not be provided to survivors of a distress incident unless accompanied by personnel trained in the administration of narcotics. water. If possible. A report of the sighting shall be passed to search headquarters without delay. The position of the object of search shall be carefully plotted and a notice of crash/casualty location (NOCL) message. the location shall be marked by smoke floats. If possible. 5.69 When a missing aircraft or vessel is located. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 26 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . the search crew shall scrutinize the area carefully with a view to assisting those who will be required to effect rescue or conduct investigations. 5.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 LOCATION OF SEARCH OBJECT—SAR CREW PROCEDURES 5. should be examined. a statement to this effect shall be included in the report. search aircraft should remain in the vicinity of the raft until relieved. that it has been sighted. then the captain shall immediately notify the RCC/MRSC or SM of his position and request that a unit carrying the necessary equipment be dispatched or diverted to the scene. 5.72 Crews locating survivors in a liferaft shall be particularly careful not to lose sight of the raft.

80 When possible. Photographs so taken shall also form a photographic library at search and rescue units and shall be used in training crews and spotters and briefing them during future searches.77 The purpose of the notice of crash/casualty location (NOCL) message is to advise the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre or the searchmaster of the location of an aircraft crash or maritime casualty and to provide pertinent details to enable appropriate rescue decisions. NOTICE OF CRASH/CASUALTY LOCATION 5. and any other pertinent details that would assist authorities in conducting an investigation of the incident. Search and Rescue. The format is designed to ensure an orderly and complete transfer of information and to provide some protection for sensitive information.78 In the event that press or private aircraft are interfering with rescue operations or jeopardizing flight safety. The contents of the NOCL are listed in Annex 5D.79 When the search object has been located.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 5. at (613) 992-6853. the rescue area can be immediately restricted to search and rescue operations by advising the Transport Canada Air Operations Centre in Ottawa. RESTRICTING ACCESS TO A RESCUE SITE 5. etc. 5. hydrazine. It is imperative that responding units and personnel are adequately protected in these circumstances and that the RCC contact the 1 Canadian Air Division Chief Health Services for directions in handling dangerous materials at a crash site.). as applicable.76 Many newer generation aircraft include components which when damaged in an accident may release hazardous material into the environment (carbon fibres. photographs shall be taken at incident sites showing the crash/wreckage location. These photographs will normally be taken by search ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 27 . PHOTOGRAPHY OF THE SEARCH OBJECT 5. equipment in use. The rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC)/searchmaster shall be notified immediately that photographs have been taken. Either negatives or developed photos shall be forwarded to RCC/MRSC by the most expeditious means for a possible press release. Copies of photographs considered useful for briefing and training purposes shall be forwarded to the National Defence Headquarters/J3 Operations and to the Director. Canadian Coast Guard. it shall be photographed if possible from the height and distance at which it was first spotted and at the various heights and distances normally used in search.

authority to transport representatives of the Transport Safety Board (TSB) for any situation must be obtained from NDHQ/J3 Ops. Every bit of wreckage which would appear worthwhile to the investigators should be photographed. Requests from media sources for the release of photographs should be directed to Department of National Defence Public Affairs. but if it is necessary to take a picture of an area with a body in it. After the suspension of the search. The aircraft wreckage should not be disturbed except to assist in the recovery of survivors. CRASH SITE 5. The RCC or searchmaster shall ensure that.83 When the subject of the aeronautical search has been found.81 Photos for Casualty Investigation—Search and rescue incident photographs may be provided to the Transport Safety Board. Similarly.82 During a search operation.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 and rescue personnel. Hoisting of coroner. guards are mounted to prevent the disturbance of wreckage or any marks made by the aircraft in landing and the guard is maintained until relieved by the civil authorities. only National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ)/J3 Operations (J3 Ops) holds that authority. authority to transport the coroner. the Coroner and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. who shall request these through the rescue co-ordination centre when it appears that an investigation will take place. the coroner’s representatives. Bodies should not be photographed. when necessary. RELEASE OF PHOTOGRAPHS 5. The location and position at which the photographs were taken should be marked on a grid or chart and this information retained. the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) shall inform the appropriate Transport Safety Board Regional Office and confirm the requirements for guarding the wreckage pending the arrival of the accident investigation team. TRANSPORT OF BODIES/CORONER/ TRANSPORT SAFETY BOARD REPRESENTATIVES 5. local authorities or representatives of the TSB is not authorized. Bodies can be removed once approved by the coroner. the body should be covered if possible. the coroner’s representatives or local authorities to a crash site is vested in the searchmaster or the rescue coordination centre Duty Aeronautical Controller. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 28 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

authority to withdraw units in unsuccessful major SAR operations has been vested in the National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ). Because of the potential for public reaction when a search object cannot be found. Searchmasters (SMs) shall ensure that the situation reports (SITREPs) are completed in enough detail to enable NDHQ staff to process reduction requests. however. In the case of maritime incidents. the OIC RCC should advise NDHQ by telephone.84 While numerous search and rescue (SAR) incidents occur daily. The request for a maritime SAR reduction at NDHQ shall be evaluated by NDHQ in consultation with Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) Headquarters (HQ) SAR staff. require the employment of considerable federal units.3 special cases. 5. Immediately after the SRR Commander decides to request reduction.86 When the object of a major SAR operation has not been located after the search area has been adequately covered. Minor searches may be reduced by the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) on the authority of the search and rescue region (SRR) commander. NDHQ approval shall be obtained by submitting a priority message in the format of Annex 5E. as such. as directed by NDHQ.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL REDUCTION OF MAJOR SAR OPERATIONS 5.1 aeronautical and maritime SAR incidents where primary maritime and/or primary aeronautical search and rescue units (SRUs) are tasked on an incident for more than four calendar days. . ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 29 . and the SM considers there is no likelihood that survivors will be recovered. or . many are of a minor nature. Next-of-kin (NOK) should be made aware that search reduction is being sought. some incidents which develop into major SAR operations and.2 incidents which the SRR commander assesses as being potentially sensitive. are those which meet the following criteria: . such recommendation shall be made under the advice of the regional supervisor. If the SRR commander agrees with the search reduction. To ensure adequate time to action the request. for the purpose of this section.85 Major SAR operations. and are resolved in a relatively short period of time. maritime SAR (RSMS). The format for SAR reduction requests is provided in Annex 5E. and the RSMS shall similarly advise CCG HQ in case of maritime incidents. NOTE: Minor searches are those which do not meet the following criteria. a search reduction should be recommended. the reduction request message must reach NDHQ at least one working day prior to the proposed reduction date. There are. 5.

NOK shall not be left with any perception that search activity might resume because of climatological changes such as melting snow. 5. the request message must summarize search activities. should a change in circumstances so demand. if known. shall also be advised at the CCG HQ. 5. that every reasonable effort has been expended and that all leads have been exhausted.90 After notification of NOK. while it may be possible to hold a SAR exercise in the search area at some future date. there will be no further formal search activity. It is therefore important that NDHQ staff officers are armed with full and accurate supporting data prior to presenting the request for approval. shall be advised immediately and the circumstances explained fully. The reduction request should be based on the completion of a specified search plan as detailed in the message. the National Defence Operations Centre shall be advised as soon as it is practicable. members of the public: . The NOK shall be informed that although the incident will remain open. This shall include a frank explanation that the RCC/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC)/SM is convinced that there is no longer any hope of finding survivors in the search area. The RCC/MRSC/SM shall state that aircraft/vessels in the area will be asked to keep a lookout. In particular. .1 the full scale search for the (type aircraft/vessel) missing in (area) since (date) has been reduced. further search activity is not planned unless new evidence indicates a strong likelihood of locating survivors. and CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 30 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . outline the reasons for recommending reductions. . .89 When approval of a search reduction has been obtained. In this case. For cases involving maritime units. Aboard were (names and hometowns of persons on board). To this end.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 5. the Director SAR. NDHQ must also be advised of any local factors which might provoke controversy.2 a total of (number) government and civilian aircraft/vessels have flown/steamed (number) hours and covered (number) square kilometres.3 the aircraft/vessel was owned by (name) and was (describe mission) at the time of its loss. but that. the NOK. 5.87 A delay in reduction after all reasonable steps have been taken would likely result in a needless waste of SRUs. and resolve any apparent anomalies.88 An authorization for reduction shall not prevent the SM from prolonging the search.4 the aircraft/vessel was/was not equipped with an electronic locating device and survival gear (if applicable). changes in foliage or changes in sea-ice conditions. the following information may be passed to news media and as required.

Changes in climatic conditions which might make wreckage more visible at a later date would not constitute grounds for reopening a general search since. MARKING OF WRECKAGE 5. normal daily situation reports (SITREPs) shall recommence. 5.93 When searches are reopened. if there was any hope of discovering survivors. 5. Priority should be given to marking wreckage likely to be encountered by hunters or prospectors.91 Searches may be reopened on the authority of the search and rescue region commander without reference to the National Defence Headquarters when new evidence indicates a strong likelihood of locating survivors. the plaques may be placed during ground party or SAR Technicians jump training exercises. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 31 . 5.94 The CF will be responsible for the marking of the wreckage of military aircraft that have not been removed from the crash site.96 If the wreckage was not marked during either the search or investigation phases.92 Requests for reopening searches which do not meet the criteria of the previous paragraph are to be referred to the National Defence Operations Centre for the Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff decision.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . The plaques will bear the words: THIS CRASH HAS BEEN REPORTED CET ÉCRASEMENT A ÉTÉ SIGNALÉ They are to be screwed or bolted firmly to the wreckage or a nearby tree. REOPENING OF SEARCHES 5. 5.5 further search activity is not planned unless new evidence indicates a strong likelihood of locating survivors. the search would not have been reduced. Transport Canada will be responsible for marking the wreckage of civil aircraft that have not been removed.95 Military wreckage will be marked by metal plaques manufactured locally by the search and rescue squadrons.

Hence. The OIC of RCCs will be responsible for co-ordinating Canadian Forces (CF) aeronautical and civilian aeronautical resource participation in humanitarian and ground search and rescue missions. The OIC RCC shall determine if tasking of Canadian Forces SAR resources falls within the guidelines of the National Search and Rescue Program an inform the appropriate LFA when SAR resources are tasked. 5. the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) shall consider requests from non-defence agencies and decide what units are best suited for the mission. in accordance with the CF Provision of Services Manual. REVISED – MAY 2000 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 32 . provincial or territorial health or emergency planning authorities in the approved format (as detailed in local procedures) shall. forward the request to the regional supervisor.100 DFO—Canadian Coast Guard search and rescue units (SRUs) and facilities may also be tasked for ground search and rescue (SAR) and humanitarian incidents.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL DFO 5449 B–GA–209–001/FP–001 HUMANITARIAN INCIDENTS— MEDICAL EVACUATIONS AND GROUND SAR 5. Nonetheless. Controllers receiving requests for such assistance from federal.1 medevac (critical)—the critical evacuation of injured or stranded persons from isolated areas or the recovery of sick or critically injured persons from vessels at sea. if satisfied that certain specific conditions have been met. Cost recovery actions for CF aeronautical search resources are the responsibility of the Commander of the 1 Canadian Air Division.98 Ground SAR—Ground search and rescue (SAR) is an integral part of the National Search and Rescue Program.101 CCG SRUs are neither equipped nor intended for use in some types of ground SAR and humanitarian incidents. Department of National Defence primary search and rescue units may be tasked. as soon as practicable. maritime SAR (RSMS).99 DND—On behalf of the search and rescue region commander.1 other appropriate units are not readily available. when available. These conditions are : . the RSMS shall advise the appropriate CCG regional authority of the request. for ground SAR and humanitarian missions such as a search for missing persons. These types are: . and . 5. 5. 5.97 Medevacs—There are two types of humanitarian assistance that fall under the heading of medical evacuations (medevacs).2 medevac (routine)—the routine medevac of patients or vital medical resources from one medical facility to another (aeronautical or maritime ambulance service).

for a controller to ensure that appropriate action is taken until the responsible authority can take charge of the incident. and . CCG. In the latter instance RCC/MRSC shall also be advised when the mission is complete or CCG SRUs are no longer involved. and when in doubt.2 CCG units are suitable and available for the mission at hand. specialized medical assistance must be arranged without delay. It may be necessary. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 33 . The RCC/MRSC shall be informed as soon as is practicable by the RSMS if the request is not approved or if secondary SRUs are to be used. the approval and unit requirements shall be transmitted to the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) originating the request. Therapeutic recompression can best be conducted in a compression chamber capable of holding two or more people and fitted with an inner and outer compartment. the use of the CCG primary SRUs may be denied or deferred.105 In all serious diving accidents. 5. however. A one-man chamber can be used for emergency treatment of decompression sickness but. In all cases. NOTE: For purposes of the National SAR Manual (NSM). 5.106 Preferably. Rescue.3 the request is from and approved by a recognized federal or provincial authority.103 The Director SAR. 5.104 Diving accidents are normally the responsibility of local authorities (see Chapter 4. Any such denial or deferral shall be immediately forwarded to the appropriate regional authority/manager or his delegate in order that other arrangements may be made. on such occasions. RCCs/MRSCs shall consider the Superintendent. If the Officer in Charge of the RCC or RSMS is of the opinion that the tasking of the required units would hamper the maritime response capability in the Region. a diving casualty should be accompanied by a person adequately trained in the medical aspects of diving accidents.102 Should the request be approved and CCG SRUs be selected as the appropriate vehicle for reacting to the request. DIVING ACCIDENTS 5. shall be kept informed of any ground SAR or humanitarian incident involving CCG primary SRUs. Safety and Environmental Response to be the final authority respecting the utilization of primary CCG SRUs for ground SAR and humanitarian incidents. detailed written information concerning patient and accident must travel with the casualty. Missing divers/swimmers). 5.personnel chamber by the quickest means after therapeutic treatment has started.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . this chamber must be conveyed to the site of a multi.

3 distance to be covered.4 condition of the casualty.2 weather conditions and sea state. 5.112 Helicopters evacuating a diving casualty not being treated in a recompression chamber. and . Assistance by a surface vessel equipped for therapeutic recompression or with medical facilities is also possible.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 5. . 5.107 Diving accidents occurring in coastal waters and remote areas usually require medical assistance on short notice. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 34 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . 5. 5.1 helicopter capability.109 A helicopter landing will only be attempted on a platform equipped for this purpose. should preferably fly at altitudes not exceeding 300 feet above ground level.111 During the flight. . A special stretcher will normally be lowered by the helicopter for the evacuation of a diving casualty not being treated in a recompression chamber. therefore. rescue of the casualty by helicopter or transportation of medical assistance will be asked for in most cases.108 The choice between helicopter and surface vessel depends on various factors such as: .110 Evacuation by helicopter of a patient being treated in a recompression chamber should only be attempted if the helicopter is capable of accommodating the recompression chamber. Therefore. in most cases a helicopter rescue hoist has to be used. Where suitable helicopters or surface vessels are not available. 5. the recompression chamber is to be attended constantly and sufficient breathing gas must be available for adequate ventilation of the chamber. the requirement may be to get the casualty ashore by boat and transport him to medical assistance or recompression facilities by road.

ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 35 .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 5A—VISUAL SEARCH PATTERNS 1. Track Crawl Pattern—The track crawl pattern is usually employed as the initial search action. Track crawl patterns can be used on electronic or visual searches. Creeping Line and Parallel Track Patterns—There are two types of patterns which require successive search legs advancing across a search area. Some common track crawl patterns are shown in Figure 5A–1. or that there will be survivors capable of signalling when they hear or see the search unit. Such patterns are called Creeping Line when the legs are parallel to the shortest side of the search area. Both are employed to provide uniform coverage over areas where only the approximate position of the target can be estimated. and is based on the assumption that the search object will be close to its intended track. FIGURE 5A–1 TRACK CRAWL PATTERN 2. They are Creeping Line or Parallel Track patterns.

A Parallel Track differs from a Creeping Line in that the legs are parallel to the longest side of the search area. FIGURE 5A–3 SINGLE UNIT PARALLEL TRACK CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 36 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 5A–2 CREEPING LINE PATTERN Creeping Line patterns are suitable for rapid advancement along a given track or drift line. 3.

The chief advantage of a sector search is that track spacing at the centre of the search is very small. the square pattern may be adjusted to a rectangular one. It is a pattern which requires precise navigation to avoid gaps in coverage. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 37 . Expanding Square Pattern—An expanding square search pattern is used when the location of the search object is known with reasonable accuracy. FIGURE 5A–4 EXPANDING SQUARE 5. resulting in a greater probability of detection in the area of greatest probability of whereabouts. 4. with the longer legs parallel to the suspected track line. the search area is not extensive and the search object is difficult to detect. A navigation aid such as a datum marker buoy or a smoke marker can be used at the centre of the pattern to achieve very accurate navigation. Figure 5A–4 shows an example of a square search pattern. the tracks should be angled at 45 degrees to the first coverage. usually within an area of about 100 square miles. If the search object is believed to be moving. Sector Pattern—This pattern is used when datum is established with a high degree of confidence. 6.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Parallel track patterns are more suitable for large areas since there are fewer turns and navigation is normally more accurate. If second coverage of an area is desired. This would normally only be considered for very slow moving objects.

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 7. Figure 5A–5 shows an example of a sector search. low speed and small turning radius with adequate power reserve. sector search patterns should not have a radius greater than 10 nautical miles (M) for aircraft or 5 M for vessels. it is commenced 30 degrees off the first. It is also a hazardous search procedure. b. Contour Search—In much of the terrain in Canada this is the only suitable search pattern. Normally. the aircraft used must be suitable. If a second pattern is required. i. the crew must be experienced in mountainous terrain.e. simplifying the navigation in that each turn is 120 degrees to the right. well briefed and in possession of suitable maps. including the orientation of the second search. another type of pattern should be used for search areas any larger than 300 square miles. and can only be assigned when the following conditions are met: a. Usually a six sector pattern is used.: highly manoeuvrable. and CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 38 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . FIGURE 5A–5 SECTOR SEARCH 8.

only one aircraft may be assigned to an area for contour search. FIGURE 5A–6 CONTOUR SEARCH ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 39 . multi-unit contour searches being conducted only by ground search teams. 9.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL c. An example of a contour search pattern is shown in Figure 5A–6.

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000 feet 20.000 feet 5. Actual reception range will depend on terrain. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 41 .000 feet Range 30 nautical miles 45 nautical miles 55 nautical miles 67 nautical miles 85 nautical miles 100 nautical miles 127 nautical miles 150 nautical miles 200 nautical miles NOTE—The ranges in this table are for an electronic locator transmitter (ELT) operating at full power. the theoretical reception range for very high frequencies (VHF) and ultra high frequencies (UHF) signals can be used to arrive at a rough estimate of the search probability area. VHF/UHF THEORETICAL RECEPTION RANGES Altitude above ground level 1.000 feet 3.000 feet 4.000 feet 2.000 feet 30.000 feet 10.000 feet 15. signal strength and other factors. The following examples show how ELT tone information received from overflying aircraft can be used to locate the source of the signal.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 5B— EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER REPORT— PROBABILITY AREAS UTILIZATION OF ELT RECEPTION REPORTS With the information received from emergency locator transmitter reports.

Thirty minutes later at point Y. The probability area would then be the relatively small shaded area. At that time. He continues his flight and keeps monitoring 121. he receives a loud and clear steady electronic locator transmitter (ELT) signal.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 EXAMPLE A The pilot of a Beaver is flying from point A to point B. the Beaver was probably within 20 nautical miles (M) of his position. after covering approximately 60 miles.5 MHz. judging from the way that the signal was first received (loud and clear) that the downed pilot did not turn the ELT on until he saw or heard the Beaver. we can use the VHF/UHF theoretical reception range for 2000 feet of 45 M and draw an arc cutting the 20 M circle drawn around point X. the signal fades out. CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 42 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . He notes the time and his location but because of fuel considerations does not attempt an aural homing. FIGURE 5B–1 ELT SEARCHING EXAMPLE A SOLUTION It is most likely. Over point X at 2000 feet above ground level. Since the Beaver pilot continued to hear the beacon until it faded at point y.

FIGURE 5B–2 ELT SEARCHING EXAMPLE B SOLUTION By using the theoretical reception range of 100 nautical miles (M) for aircraft at 10. we can draw two arcs and arrive at a relatively small probability area. each receiving electronic locator transmitter signals.000 feet AGL.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL EXAMPLE B Two different aircraft on two different routes. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 43 .000 feet and 200 M for aircraft at 30.000 feet above ground level (AGL) and the other at 30.000 feet. one flying at 10.

flying at 5000 feet above ground level (AGL). CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 44 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . picks up a weak signal at point X and tracks it until it fades at point Y.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 EXAMPLE C One aircraft. one on either side of the track. we can draw two arcs from each of the X and Y points and arrive at two most likely areas. FIGURE 5B–3 ELT SEARCHING EXAMPLE C SOLUTION By using the theoretical reception range of 67 nautical miles for 5000 feet.

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 5C— SEARCH AREA PLANNING NOMOGRAPHS FIGURE 5C–1 SEARCH AREA PLANNING NOMOGRAPH ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 45 .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 5C–2 SECTOR SEARCH AREA NOMOGRAPH CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 46 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL FIGURE 5C–3 SECTOR SEARCH TIME NOMOGRAPH ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 47 .

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Positive identification that the object sighted is the search object. Uninjured. SEARCHMASTER THIS IS RESCUE 000 NOVEMBER OSCAR CHARLIE LIMA ALPHA • AFFIRMATIVE • NEGATIVE BRAVO • An eight or nine digit group denoting position without North or West being used. Deferred treatment and evacuation (Priority 4). followed by (and repeated as necessary) • UNDETERMINED • RED • YELLOW • GREEN • BLUE • WHITE • GREY • BLACK No survivors or casualties can be seen. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 49 . CHARLIE • NEGATIVE • Any number. The status of the survivors or casualties cannot be determined. Missing. Immediate treatment and evacuation (Priority 1). the meaning is shown on the right. Unable to positively determine that the object sighted is the search object. Routine treatment and evacuation (Priority 3). Dead.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 5D— NOTICE OF CRASH/CASUALTY LOCATION MESSAGE The originator should transmit only the words on the left. Indicates number of victims actually seen. NOTE—This information on the medical conditions of victims should only be transmitted after investigation by SAR Technicians or other medically trained personnel. Early treatment and evacuation (Priority 2).

CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 50 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . bearing in mind that the transmission is not secure. A helicopter will be required A ground party could reach the location in good time. Heavily wooded area (can be used in conjunction with ONE.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 DELTA • ONE • TWO • THREE • FOUR • FIVE • ALPHA • BRAVO ECHO • ONE • TWO • THREE • FOUR • FIVE FOXTROT • REMARKS Briefly provide any detail which allows the rescue coordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre to initiate appropriate action. A rescue boat will be required. In level country. or west side of floor. east. In water: – Near shore. Request authorization to deploy the SAR Technicians team. Coroner required. or west slope. TWO or THREE). south. In valley plus indicate north. Side of hill plus indicate north. – Well off shore. south east.

DISTRESS BEACON—(yes/no and type) D. TOTAL SEARCH HOURS—(at time of search reduction request) P.... SQUARE MILES (total coverage.. SEARCH HEADQUARTERS—(location) J. TOTAL CIVILIAN FLYING HOURS—(at time of search reduction request) M.... SEARCH COMMENCED—(time RCC notified) H.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 5E—REQUEST FOR SEARCH REDUCTION Message to be sent PRIORITY and classified CONFIDENTIAL TO: NDHQ OTTAWA//NDCC// INFO: NDHQ OTTAWA//D AIR FE 3// 1 CAD HQ WINNIPEG//A3 SAR// CCG HQ OTTAWA//DIRECTOR SAR// (when appropriate) SUBJ: SAR (name)—REQUEST FOR REDUCTION A. explaining reasons for recommending reduction.. a 30 miles by 60 miles area covered three times is 5400 square miles) Q.. LAST KNOWN POSITION—(as reported) F. i. AREA COVERED . resolving any apparent anomalies. REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 5 – PAGE 51 . DATE/TIME—(of last known position) G.e. ROUTE—(intended route or flight plan/notification) E. Narrative summating search activities. TOTAL VESSEL STEAMING HOURS—(at time of search reduction request) N. TOTAL MILITARY FLYING HOURS—(at time of search reduction request) L. and advising of any factors that might provoke controversy.. PERSONS ON BOARD—(names of POBs and names and addresses of next-of-kin) C. SEARCH OBJECT—(aircraft or vessel—brief description) B. SEARCHMASTER—(identification) K.

...................... 10 CANADIAN SEARCH AREA DEFINITION METHOD............................................................................................. 20 SEARCH AREA EXPANSION .......................................................................................... 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................................................................................................................... 8 SEARCH PLANNING................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 14 MOUNTAIN VISUAL FLIGHT RULES METHOD ............................................................................................ 21 DESCRIBING SEARCH AREAS.......................................... 22 ANNEX 6—AERIAL DRIFT FORCES ............................................................................................................... 14 MVFR SEARCH STRATEGY AND SEQUENCE ............................................. 18 SEARCH AREA COVERAGE . 5 INTERCEPT AND ESCORT OF DISTRESSED AIRCRAFT...... 10 CSAD SEARCH STRATEGY AND SEQUENCE .................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CHAPTER 6— SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES— AERONAUTICAL INCIDENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 6—SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES— AERONAUTICAL INCIDENTS ............................................ 25 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 1 ......................................... 3 SAR INCIDENT PROGRESSION. 17 SWEEP WIDTH COMPUTATION ................................................................... 4 RCC ACTION DURING DEGREES OF AERONAUTICAL EMERGENCY ........................................................... 9 DETERMINING THE LAST KNOWN POSITION................................................. 3 DEGREES OF AERONAUTICAL EMERGENCY........................... 9 SEARCH AREAS........................... 1 TABLE OF FIGURES ................................................................................................... 2 EVALUATION OF DEGREE OF REQUIRED RESPONSE........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................12 FIGURE 6–3 CSAD SQUARE MILEAGE GRAPH......................................................................................... HORIZON RANGE...............................................................................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE 6–1 CSAD AREAS .......................................15 FIGURE 6–5 COMPARISON OF CSAD & MVFR SEARCH AREAS ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................16 FIGURE 6–6 HEIGHT OF EYE VS.............................................................25 FIGURE 6A–2 PARACHUTE DRIFT DISTANCE................................................................................................11 FIGURE 6–2 CSAD TURNING POINT ..................20 FIGURE 6–7 GEOREF GRID...............................................................................................................................................................................................23 FIGURE 6A–1 AIRCRAFT GLIDE AREA...............................................................27 FIGURE 6A–3 AVERAGE WINDS ALOFT EXAMPLE ........................................27 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 2 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 ..................................................................................13 FIGURE 6–4 MFVR SEARCH AREA..........

The decision to declare this change of phase should be taken without delay and based on past experience with similar situations. and of his judgment and experience. In emergency situations requiring immediate assistance action must be taken quickly and positively.5 When during search operations it has been determined that further search would be to no avail because the area has been adequately searched and all probability areas investigated. given the circumstances and information available. 6.: the communication search was successful and no problem exists or the object and/or the survivors have been located and rescued. Later.1 In the following sections an attempt has been made to provide guidelines to assist the controller in determining the degree of emergency in a search and rescue incident. Initially.g. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 3 . e. service or facility that has been alerted or activated. 6. The procedures for obtaining authority to reduce a search are detailed in Chapter 5. The ability to take appropriate action is a function of the information available to the controller. SAR INCIDENT PROGRESSION 6.3 When search efforts indicate that danger no longer exists. the current emergency phase should be increased to a higher degree of emergency phase. as appropriate. or because there is no longer any probability of survival of the persons on board. it should be recommended the search be reduced. the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre shall close the incident and immediately inform the operating agency and any centre. and all search and rescue units are accounted for.4 If apprehension as to the safety of the search object and its occupants continues to exist. the controller should not hesitate to classify an incident at the highest degree of emergency that the available information supports. or for other pertinent reasons.2 Nothing in the following paragraphs is meant to prevent the controller from assigning the highest degree of emergency. or if new evidence implies the persons on board are in grave and imminent danger.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES— AERONAUTICAL INCIDENTS EVALUATION OF DEGREE OF REQUIRED RESPONSE 6. the degree of emergency can be lowered if the situation warrants it. 6.

5 is still being reported and cannot be isolated or otherwise accounted for.4 a situation exists wherein there is uncertainty as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants. a ground station or the SARSAT system (event) but there is no reason to suspect that an actual distress situation exists.9 A DISTRESS phase exists when: CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 4 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . or from the time an unsuccessful attempt to establish communication with such aircraft was first made.3 a flight itinerary has been filed and no arrival report has been received by the ACC within 24 hours of the time that the pilot indicated on the flight itinerary.5 an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) signal has been reported by an aircraft.1 no communication has been received from an aircraft within a period of 30 minutes after the time communications should have been received. 6. whichever is later. . or . 6. ALERT and DISTRESS. and .2 an aircraft has been cleared to land and fails to land within five minutes of the estimated time of landing and communication has not been re-established with the aircraft.7.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 DEGREES OF AERONAUTICAL EMERGENCY 6.4 a SARSAT merge position or the ELT signal reported in 6. . e. 6. .3 information has been received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft has been impaired.g. . a responsible person has declared an aircraft overdue which was not on a flight plan but whose tardiness is of sufficient concern.8 An ALERT phase exists when: .7 An UNCERTAINTY phase exists in any one of the following circumstances: .1 following the uncertainty phase. but not to the extent that a forced landing is likely. the communication search procedure has failed to reveal any new information on the aircraft. .6 There are three degrees of emergency used in the conduct of aeronautical search and rescue incidents: UNCERTAINTY.2 a flight plan has been filed and no arrival report has been received by the Area Control Centre (ACC) within 60 minutes of when the arrival time was last estimated by the aircraft or by an ACC.

2 confirm that all airports or possible alighting areas along the route of flight and within the possible flight range of the aircraft concerned are checked. . ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 5 . as they may be requested to verify alighting areas.1 obtain the data contained on the flight plan or notification.7.3 information is received that the aircraft is about to make or has made a forced landing or requires immediate assistance. North Bay.5 notify the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.1 has been linked to an overdue aircraft.10 During the UNCERTAINTY phase of an aircraft emergency.3 has continued for two hours and the source has not been located. .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . Direction finding assistance to SAR) to attempt establishment of the aircraft’s position. or .8. and/or the Civil Air Search and Rescue Association (CASARA) along the route of flight. request coast radio stations to alert the vessels in the area. .5 and 6.4 notify Region Operational Control Centre at the North American Air Defence (NORAD) headquarters.3 notify position fixing agencies (see Chapter 8. . . RCC ACTION DURING DEGREES OF AERONAUTICAL EMERGENCY 6. . the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) shall. and request air surveillance. informing them of all known frequencies.2 confirmed by the SARSAT system (case or combination of event and ELT report). . when applicable: .1 the fuel on board is considered to be exhausted or to be insufficient to enable the aircraft to reach safety. the provincial police. .5 the ELT transmission referred to in 6.2 information is received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the aircraft has been impaired to the extent that a forced landing is likely. or .4 .4 a downed aircraft is located. .6 if the flight is over water. or obtain information on the aircraft and its occupants.

. normally the last name of the aircraft pilot with the prefix "SAR". including private strips. CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 6 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .7 if the flight originated in. which may be required to assist.6 obtain additional details on aircraft. when applicable: .11 select a name for the incident. . notify the appropriate search and rescue (SAR) facility in that country. in order to establish availability.11 During the ALERT phase of an aircraft emergency. a country other than Canada. . .10 advise the Canadian Mission Control Centre (CMCC) of the details of the possible emergency and request a query of the SARSAT system. NOTE: Normally.4 alert CASARA to prepare aircraft and personnel.2 alert the rescue squadronto prepare aircraft equipment and personnel.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 . . ACC. the pilot and the passengers. and .7 obtain weather along the aircraft’s route and assess its effect on the tasking of search and rescue units (SRUs). .5 ensure that the appropriate ACCs have alerted air traffic flying through the area involved so that a watch will be maintained. then a name appropriate to and descriptive of the incident shall be selected. or intended entering. especially in circumstances that may require more than the standard configuration. If the name of the aircraft pilot is not known. the RCC shall.5 or 243. vessels. 6. . Flight Service Stations.1 expand the communication search area as the case warrants.8 notify the appropriate Area Control Centres (ACCs) for air surveillance (radar/transponder) and request all ground stations in the area to monitor the primary frequency of the missing aircraft as well as distress frequencies. the communication search should not be pursued for more than one hour in the uncertainty phase without upgrading to the alert phase.3 alert secondary and other facilities. towers. . including ships at sea. ..9 in the case of an emergency locator transmitter (ELT) signal.0 MHz) in an attempt to verify and isolate the ELT. equipment on board. for example "SAR Jones". to monitor the appropriate frequency (121. request all ground stations. etc.

when applicable: . issue a Missing Aircraft Notice (MANOT) and a situation report (SITREP). ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 7 .8 plan initial briefing of search crews.10 in the case of an ELT signal. there would be no adverse effect on the responding SRR.5 in conjunction with the SAR squadron. b. such as the National Defence Operations Centre (NDOC) when deemed appropriate. . the communication search should not be pursued for more than one hour in the Alert Phase without upgrading to the Distress Phase. .11 advise CMCC of the details of the emergency and request a query of the SARSAT system. arrange for the appointment of a searchmaster and assess and determine the most suitable location for the search headquarters. the RCC shall. significant improvement in on-scene time would be realized. and appoint an on-scene commander as required. the circumstances and the historical weather.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . task individuals. 6. and . airport managers.9 action all incoming reports and consolidate them into the initial briefing plan. if its general location has been determined and its general location indicates that a distress is unlikely.1 initiate action with the appropriate search and rescue (SAR) units and services: this action will normally be to task the standby crew to immediately take off on an initial search.3 develop a search plan by ascertaining the position of the aircraft.4 task additional search units as deemed suitable to meet the requirements of the search plan. and on the basis of this information. Industry Canada or CASARA ground personnel to isolate the source of the signal. . . NOTE 2: Normally. determine the extent of the search area. NOTE 1: Tasking of aeronautical SRUs from other search and rescue regions (SRRs) should be considered when: a. . estimating the degree of uncertainty of this position.12 During the DISTRESS phase of an aircraft emergency. .2 notify appropriate ACC and other agencies concerned.

7 notify the operating agency and keep it informed on SAR developments. CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 8 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . and should establish the most expeditious means and method of rescue. . NOTE 3: The operating agency shall be requested to inform and update the next-of-kin (NOK) of all occupants. Hiring of Civilian Personnel and Services.13 Intercept and escort services will be provided for aircraft in distress. and . the RCC shall inform NDOC to advise the appropriate embassy if required. notify the Transport Safety Board with the pertinent details.9 when an aircraft accident has been confirmed. .6 assess and co-ordinate the requirements for telecommunication facilities. providing it possesses the necessary capability.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 . RCC will deal directly with the NOK. Failing this option. as required. The plan should have provisions for the notification of medical facilities and police/coroner. If primary SAR aircraft are unable to provide this service owing to unavailability or limitations in operational capability—lack of necessary range or speed—the search and rescue region commander is empowered to direct any Canadian Forces aircraft operating within his area to perform the task. in areas of Canadian search and rescue (SAR) responsibility. the experience of the captain. .8 advise CMCC of the details of the emergency and request a query of the SARSAT system. NOTE 1: The operating agency shall be requested to provide all known information regarding the aircraft. its occupants.11 develop a rescue plan in the event casualties require assistance.10 when the incident involves an aircraft of foreign registry. and any special equipment carried. NOTE 2: The operating agency shall be afforded the opportunity to appoint liaison personnel and participate in the search subject to Chapter 4. weather services and equipment and ensure that appropriate telecommunication personnel are available and briefed. INTERCEPT AND ESCORT OF DISTRESSED AIRCRAFT 6. .

etc.4 its altitude and whether or not the aircraft is descending or climbing. datum and a search area. . developing a plan that maximizes effort allocation. . consideration must also be given to the aerial drift associated with the search object just prior to the accident. 6. This may involve drift associated with a gliding aircraft. Each one of these determinations has its own inherent potential error which must be considered by the controller. DETERMINING THE LAST KNOWN POSITION 6. Airlift Operations. . . 6. transmitting the search plan to the search units and periodically reviewing and updating the search plan. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 9 . Doppler.14 When an aircraft is required to provide intercept and escort service. planning on-scene co-ordination.15 The operational procedures for airborne intercept are set out in CFACM 60–2605. parachute drift when an ejection is involved or the drift associated with the aircraft being off course.7 true air speed.3 time of the LKP. Celestial.e. selecting search patterns and track spacing to achieve a suitable area coverage.6 ground speed.5 true course. VOR. and .1 the distressed aircraft’s identification. . LORAN.8 a brief description of the emergency. on a confirmed sighting report. . TACAN. on a radar image or on a SARSAT position.17 The last known position (LKP) can be based on the last reported position. SEARCH PLANNING 6.2 its last known position (LKP) with amplification as to the type of navigation aids used. or estimated.18 When calculating the LKP.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 6. Search and Rescue.16 The search planning task includes the determination of the last known position. INERTIAL. i. Annex 6A provides detailed calculations for aerospace trajectory and parachute drift. the captain will be provided with as much of the following information as possible: .

The method takes into account the variations in known crash positions along track and across track. They are: . 6. This method is based on empirical data collected on Canadian inland incidents involving Visual Flight Rules flights in mountainous regions.2 the Mountain Visual Flight Rules (MVFR) method—for utilization in mountainous regions in which visual flight routes are accepted. subject to the concurrence of the search and rescue region commander through the officer in charge of the rescue co-ordination centre. giving rectangular areas within which the crash position is likely to be found.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 SEARCH AREAS 6. CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 10 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . and flown. If the Searchmaster (SM) has evidence to suggest that these methods are not applicable.19 Two predefined methods of determining and plotting inland search areas have been developed for use in Canada. excluding the data used for the Mountain Visual Flight Rules study. The MVFR method applies in cases where the intended route of the missing aircraft involves navigation by following such things as valley floors. two definitive probability areas have been established and are categorized according to the priority with which they should be searched.1 the last known position (LKP).22 The use of the Canadian Search Area Definition (CSAD) requires the following information: .2 the intended route. rivers and roads (in mountainous terrain) as opposed to point-to-point navigation. and . CANADIAN SEARCH AREA DEFINITION METHOD 6. and .3 the intended destination. Details of the modification to the search area and SM reasoning for the modification are to be included in the situation report (SITREP). Those variations are combined.1 the Canadian Search Area Definition (CSAD) method—based on empirical data collected on Canadian inland search and rescue incidents from 1981 to 1986. The CSAD method applies in point-to-point cases.21 Based on historical data. then they should be modified. 6. published. .20 These methods were developed for cases where there is little information to go on besides a last known position and a destination.

6. and . Such adjustment would have to be considered.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 6.1 Area One—A rectangle 10 miles each side of track beginning 10 miles before LKP and extending 10 miles beyond destination.2 Area Two—A rectangle 15 miles each side of track beginning at the LKP and extending 15 miles beyond destination. if any of the three basic factors listed in 6.25 Normally there is no requirement to adjust the search areas in an inland search. FIGURE 6–1 CSAD AREAS 6. The two areas are (see Figure 6–1): .22 should change during the search.24 Where an enroute turning point includes a track direction change of greater than 20 degrees the outside boundary of each area shall be an arc using the turning point as centre and a radius equal to 10 miles for Area One and 15 miles for Area Two. Area Two includes that portion of Area One where overlapping occurs. as per figure 6–2. however. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 11 .23 The CSAD method applies to all intended track lengths.

26 Probability of containment—The probability of containment (POC) or density of crash positions based on the data varies in the along-track and off-track directions.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 6–2 CSAD TURNING POINT 6. Generally. There are concentrations of cases in the first tenth and last tenth of track but very few cases in the underfly and overfly areas. CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 12 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . cases tend to cluster close to intended track with the density dropping off sharply as offset increases. There also tends to be more cases in the second half of track than in the first half. NOTE: A graph providing ready reference for determining the square mileage of search areas is included in Figure 6–3.

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 250 200 AREA TWO Formula: (D + 15) x 30 150 Square Miles (hundreds) 100 AREA ONE Formula: (D + 20) x 20 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Track Length (D) FIGURE 6–3 CSAD SQUARE MILEAGE GRAPH ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 13 .

.28 Canadian search and rescue data involving Visual Flight Rules flight plans has revealed distinct differences in the probability of containment (POC) between the mountainous regions and other regions of the country. .2 the third quarter from the intended track outwards with equal priority along track. . . covering 15 miles either side of the missing aircraft’s intended track.1 Phase I— . unless circumstances dictate otherwise: .3 Carry out a co-operating target/survivor search over the high probability areas.1 Carry out track crawls along the missing aircraft’s intended track and thoroughly check in the vicinity of the last known position (LKP) and destination.3 Phase III—expand the search to Area Two and use the same sequence as in Phase II. a substantial portion occur along the other areas of the track.4 the second quarter from the intended track outwards with equal priority along track. the following search sequence is suggested.1 although there tend to be more crash sites between one-half and three-quarters of the way along the intended track. MOUNTAIN VISUAL FLIGHT RULES METHOD 6.2 Phase II—search Area One in the following sequence. . . . .1 the last quarter of track from the intended track outwards with equal priority along track. For searches where the Canadian Search Area Definition (CSAD) method is used.5 the overfly area followed by the underfly area commencing at the destination and LKP respectively. for all track lengths: .27 There is no single sequence of search types or patterns which will be suitable for all searches.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 CSAD SEARCH STRATEGY AND SEQUENCE 6.3 the first quarter from the intended track outwards commencing at LKP.2 Carry out electronic searches. CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 14 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . In particular: .

and . this area ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 15 .2 very few crash sites are found before the last known position (LKP) or beyond the intended destination. FIGURE 6–4 MFVR SEARCH AREA 6.1 Area A—This is an area which stretches along the entire track of the missing aircraft. and extends 5 miles either side of the intended track.29 Two probability areas are defined for cases involving Visual Flight Rules flight plans in mountainous regions (see Figure 6–4). . . from the LKP to the intended destination.3 crash sites tend to cluster close to the intended track with the POC decaying sharply as you move away from the track.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL .4 the minimum search area for a given POC always stretches along the entire length of the track. Based on previous data and assuming the intended track is known.

2 Area B—This is an area which stretches along the entire intended track of the missing aircraft from the LKP to the destination and extends 10 miles either side of the track.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 should include a large portion of crash sites. FIGURE 6–5 COMPARISON OF CSAD & MVFR SEARCH AREAS CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 16 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . this area is extended 5 miles before the LKP and 5 miles beyond the destination. Note that Area B also includes all of Area A. It also extends 10 miles before the LKP and 10 miles beyond the destination. . Note that if the missing aircraft’s intended route is not known with any certainty. In order to include cases where the crash occurs shortly after takeoff or on approach for landing. all likely routes must be covered (see Figure 6–5) or another search planning method used.

30 Given that an aircraft is missing on a Visual Flight Rules (VFR) flight in the mountainous regions of Canada and all the preliminary checks have been completed without success. that may have been taken accidentally by the missing aircraft should also be covered.. for all track lengths. etc. . all likely routes must be covered: . . covering 10 miles either side of the missing aircraft’s intended track.2 Carry out an electronic search to detect any distress beacon signals. passes. .3 Carry out a co-operative target/survivor search over the high probability area.1 Carry out track crawls along the missing aircraft’s intended VFR route and thoroughly check last known position (LKP) and destination for near takeoff/landing incidents. and use the same sequence as given in Phase II. Any valleys. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 17 .2 Phase II—Thoroughly search Area A in the following sequence. dead-end canyons.5 overfly and underfly areas expanding from the destination and the LKP. BC. .2 fourth quarter from the track outwards. the following procedure is recommended: . . . . Once again.4 first quarter from the track outwards. The practicality of the MVFR system is demonstrated by the fact that the CSAD method covers only about one-third of the possible VFR routes.3 Phase III—Expand the search to Area B. if the missing aircraft’s intended track is not known with any certainty. where more than one common VFR route is possible.31 Figure 6–5 shows a comparison between the Canadian Search Area Definition (CSAD) and the Mountain Visual Flight Rules (MVFR) methods for a case involving a flight from Abbotsford to Revelstoke. .3 second quarter from the track outwards.1 Phase I— .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL MVFR SEARCH STRATEGY AND SEQUENCE 6. 6.1 third quarter from the track outwards. This should include all likely routes if the intended track is unknown.

must be considered as objectively as possible when determining the POD using visual search methods. although research may someday provide better guidance for planners. track spacing (S) is usually 2 miles or more. particularly in hazy conditions and when the sun is low on the horizon.32 Visual Search—For inland searches.5 Spotter Effectiveness—Fatigue.33 Since inland searches will normally be in areas of varying terrain. In mountainous areas. sweep width (W) tables have not been computed.34 There are many factors which may modify visual Ws. . S is less than 2 miles with 1 mile being the norm (thereby giving the normal 1/2 mile spotting distance). the coverage factor will be based on the subjective judgment of the search crew and the search planner. While the effects of some of these factors may be variable or indefinite. Track spacing or orientation may have to be adjusted. physical and mental condition.2 Terrain Conditions—Effects due to the difficulty of sighting objects through dense brush or tall timber. . or in any type of search vehicle if turbulence is being encountered.1 Search Object—Detectability is significantly related to its size. the search planner must take them into consideration when developing a search plan. For initial coverage. the distractions of vegetation and other surface irregularities. All of these. This value can then be used to assess the effectiveness of the initial coverage and the requirement of repeated searches of an area.3 Search Craft Speed—High speed can reduce effectiveness in aircraft. .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 SWEEP WIDTH COMPUTATION 6. and any other factors which come to the search planner’s attention. valley floors may only be visible at certain times of the day. again depending on terrain. depending on terrain. suitability and comfort of spotter positions will all have a bearing on the effectiveness of spotters. 6. For intensive coverage. and its colour contrast relative to its environment. . CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 18 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . 6. type of training. Most of these factors tend to affect the probability of detection (POD) and are discussed below in their approximate order of influence.4 Position of Sun—Effectiveness is reduced when looking into the sun. . particularly at low altitude. In general two types of inland search are conducted: initial coverage and intensive coverage.

W = 0. W should be further reduced by half.1 when minimum detection range is known. and . and .6 COSPAS–SARSAT orbital mechanics. W = 1.5 times average detection range.4 when no detection range is known. W = maximum detection range. The determination of an appropriate value for sweep widths in these searches is just as important as in visual searches.1 the search objects’ output. . the sweep width (W) is equal to 1. 6. . .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 6. magnetic.2 when average detection range is known. The detection range of distress beacons varies and the search planner should attempt to determine the specific range of the equipment in question. the following guidelines are recommended in order of preference: .2 the search units’ capability.3 when maximum detection range is known. average and maximum of such series.3 environmental attenuation level. .5 times horizon range. The same may be true of the search unit capability. Examples of these are shown in Figure 5–5. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 19 . When such data is available. The classification would be based on a series of ranges at which targets have been first detected. radioactive and other electromagnetic band searches. subdivided into the minimum. A horizon range chart is provided at Figure 6–6.4 environmental ambient noise.5 terrain attenuation. radar. radio. If the search is in a mountainous or heavily wooded area. .37 The detection range data available to the search planner may be reported as minimum. Dedicated search units will normally have published standard operating procedures regarding electronic track spacing and detection ranges to which the search planner may refer.7 times minimum detection range.36 Electronic sweep widths may be affected by: .35 Electronic Search—Electronic searching includes SARSAT queries. . 6. average or maximum detection ranges.

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 6–6 HEIGHT OF EYE VS. HORIZON RANGE CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 20 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

in densely forested areas.42 Currently available data does not allow for more than a subjective estimate of the effectiveness of aerial search. 6. it may be one-half mile. a minimum search altitude of approximately 1000 feet should be considered where terrain and/or vegetation are factors. Rather. SEARCH AREA COVERAGE 6. For searches involving night vision goggles. This same route may involve a dead-end canyon that could have been taken accidentally by the pilot. a subjective estimate of the probability of detection will be the only option. the weather.. i. . weather. the available light ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 21 . forward-looking infra-red (FLIR). route flown. Factors such as the type of terrain. The key is common sense and flexibility. etc. lateral coverage may only be a few hundred feet whereas in open ground. This canyon should be searched even if it extends more than 10 miles from the intended track. should be used to modify or re-define search areas. However the following guidelines are suggested: . Both of these values are subjective.39 The number of times an area should be searched depends on the probability of containment (POC) and on the probability of detection (POD). inland searches do not normally require an expansion of the search area. if possible..3 adequate coverage of a forested.e. For example.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 6. There are also advantages in varying the search direction. 6.41 Inland Searches—Unlike maritime searches. repeated coverage of the same areas will usually be required until the conclusion of the search.40 Any pre-defined search areas like those of the Canadian Search Area Definition and Mountain Visual Flight Rules methods are intended as guides when there is little else to go on. Therefore. SEARCH AREA EXPANSION 6. pilot.38 Miscellaneous Methods—Some methods of searches.2 since lateral coverage varies with terrain and vegetation. have sweep widths that are so variable. refer to 7. high probability area may require multiple intensive searches with the narrow track spacings. Any valid information on the missing aircraft. spotters must adjust their searching accordingly.69. and .1 lateral coverage from the airplane is improved to some extent with increasing altitude without degrading the POD appreciably.

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and the capability of the searchers all affect the efficiency of the search units. It will be the responsibility of the search planner to evaluate each coverage of the individual sections of the search area to reach a rational search conclusion in unsuccessful searches.

DESCRIBING SEARCH AREAS
6.43 When the search area has been determined it will be necessary to define it to search units and others who may require the information. The total area will need to be divided in sub-areas for allocation to search units. The accurate definition of these areas is of the utmost importance to the search planner, since the information will have to be recorded and may be referred to over a period of days or even weeks. 6.44 In Canada, the preferred method is the latitude and longitude system of squares. It is especially suitable for large-scale searches where a wide area can be covered without complication. This system is used with the National Topographical Series, Aeronautical Edition, scale 1:500,000. These maps are printed with each GEOREF grid square (1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude) labelled with a two letter code. Thirty-minute grid lines are also provided, subdividing each 1 degree by 1 degree area into four sub-areas. These are identified numerically from 1 to 4, with 1 being the Northwest corner, 2 the Northeast corner, 3 the Southwest corner and 4 the Southeast corner. These 30 minute by 30 minute squares are referred to as "primary squares" and can be further divided into "secondary squares". These secondary squares are labelled alphabetically from A to D in the same fashion as the primary squares. An example of an assigned area might read as Map 42 NW, square CG4A (see Figure 6–7). 6.45 An added advantage of this system is that the GEOREF overlay is printed not only on the 1:500,000 maps but on the 1:1,000,000 as well. Also, the legend on the 1:250,000 maps indicates a GEOREF grid that can be easily extrapolated onto the map. 6.46 Other possible methods, described in the United States National Search and Rescue Manual, include the following: .1 boundary method; .2 corner method; .3 centre point method; .4 track line method; and .5 grid method.

CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 22

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FIGURE 6–7 GEOREF GRID

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The GEOREF latitude and longitude system of squares is the preferred method used on inland searches for missing aircraft in Canada, both for tasking and for reporting, and should be used during the intensive search phase. The use of other methods may be more practical during the initial co-operative target/survivor searches, when it is important to follow a priority sequence along the track. It should always be remembered that the method used should be simple, effective and easy to work with, not only for the rescue co-ordination centre/searchmaster, but for the other agencies involved with the operation. Maritime search and rescue units will simply use latitude and longitude.

CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 24

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ANNEX 6—AERIAL DRIFT FORCES
1. This Annex amplifies Chapter 5 and provides for the detailed calculation of aerial drift.

2. Aerospace Trajectory—This drift force is the result of the momentum due to aircraft movement at the moment of bailout and acts on the airman in the direction of flight between the moment of ejection and the moment of parachute opening. If this direction is known, and the bailout location precise, the planner may apply an aerospace trajectory (da) of 0.5 miles for turboprop and medium performance jets or 0.8 miles for high performance jet aircraft. Information is seldom precise enough to make use of the da. 3. Aircraft gliding distance may also be considered part of aerospace trajectory when the position and altitude of bailout are known. The maximum no-wind glide distance should be requested from the operator. Using the average winds aloft a displacement vector is computed, this point becoming the centre of a circle the radius of which is the maximum glide distance. This force is seldom used since the parachute is the object of the immediate search.

FIGURE 6A–1 AIRCRAFT GLIDE AREA
ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 25

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4. In all cases of bailout, maximum use must be made of radar when available, since most ejection seats automatically dispense chaff during the ejection sequence which can be identified on radar. 5. Parachute Drift—If the position and altitude of bailout are known, it will be possible for the planner to apply the parachute drift (dp). There are four factors to consider: a. b. c. d. opening altitude; parachute type; average winds aloft; and terrain height.

To determine the opening altitude and parachute type check with the operator, since requirements differ with aircraft type and geographical location. The exact altitude may be available from a witness such as a wingman. 6. The normal emergency parachute in use in Canada is a 28 foot diameter chute, designed to descend vertically in no wind conditions. If a different type of parachute has been used, the operator should provide details on glide ratio and operating procedures. The table at Figure 6A– 2 is based on a rate of descent of 16 feet per second, and should be adequate for all types of emergency parachutes. 7. The average winds aloft for the bailout area should be requested from a Canadian Forces Weather Office or Atmospheric Environment Services. The applicable winds, from bailout altitude to the local terrain height, are applied to achieve an average wind vector (see example at Figure 6A–3). Using the wind speed from this vector, enter Figure 6A–2 to determine the parachute drift distance. Interpolation may be required for the average windspeed and opening height, and will be necessary if the terrain height is not at sea level.

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FIGURE 6A–2 PARACHUTE DRIFT DISTANCE

FIGURE 6A–3 AVERAGE WINDS ALOFT EXAMPLE

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CHAPTER 6 – PAGE 27

............................................................................... 7 ASSISTANCE TO DISORIENTED VESSELS..................... 6 RCC/MRSC ACTION DURING DEGREES OF MARITIME EMERGENCY ......................... 10 CIVILIAN SUBMARINES/SUBMERSIBLES........................................................................................................................................................................... 5 SAR INCIDENT PROGRESSION...... 10 ASSISTANCE TO OTHER CCG PROGRAMS................................................................................................................... 13 DATUM......................................................................................................................... 21 OFFSHORE SEARCH AREAS .................................................................................................. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................ 9 ASSISTANCE TO DISABLED/ABANDONED VESSELS ............................................ 24 INSHORE SEARCH AREAS .................................................................................................................. 5 DEGREES OF MARITIME EMERGENCY ........................................... 11 MANUAL SEARCH PLANNING ....................................... 3 EVALUATION OF DEGREE OF EMERGENCY........................................................................ 10 SEARCH PLANNING............................ 25 MAJOR MARITIME DISASTERS........................................................................................ 13 MINIMAX .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25 SWEEP WIDTH COMPUTATION ............................................................................................................................... 28 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 1 .......................................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CHAPTER 7— SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES— MARITIME INCIDENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 7—SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES—MARITIME INCIDENTS.............................................................................................. 20 DATUM AND SEARCH UNIT ERRORS ................................................ 1 TABLE OF FIGURES .................................................................................................... 11 METHODS OF SEARCH PLANNING.............................

...............................................39 ANNEX 7D—SWEEP WIDTH TABLES ..................33 SITUATION......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................51 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 2 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .................................................................................................................................................................38 ANNEX 7C—SIMPLIFIED MINIMAX SEARCH PLANNING WORKSHEETS.........................................................33 FOREWORD.............................34 EXECUTION .............................31 CCG HELP IN OBTAINING THIRD PARTY ASSISTANCE ..................................................................................................................................................33 MISSION ..............................36 COMMAND.....................................34 SUPPORT........31 ANNEX 7B—MAJOR MARITIME DISASTER SAR CONTINGENCY PLAN.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 ANNEX 7A—POLICY FOR THE PROVISION OF TOWING ASSISTANCE BY VESSELS ENGAGED IN SAR OPERATIONS..........................................

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL TABLE OF FIGURES FIGURE 7–1 SEARCH PLANNING DECISION MATRIX ................................................ 39 FIGURE 7C–2 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 2.... 21 FIGURE 7–4 POSITION ERRORS ....... 55 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— HELICOPTERS—ALTITUDES 750 AND 1000 FEET ................................................................................................................................................................................. HORIZON RANGE .................................................... 29 FIGURE 7C–1 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 1—DATUM ................ 47 FIGURE 7C–10 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 10—WIND CURRENT COEFFICIENT TABLE............... 42 FIGURE 7C–5 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 5—EFFORT ALLOCATION...... 41 FIGURE 7C–4 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 4................................................................................. 53 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT—ALTITUDES 2500 AND 3000 FEET ........................... 45 FIGURE 7C–8 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 8....................................................... 17 FIGURE 7–3 MINIMAX PLOT .......................... 48 FIGURE 7C–11 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 11—AVERAGE SURFACE WINDS AND LEEWAY............................................... 50 FIGURE 7D–1 FIGURE 7D–2 FIGURE 7D–3 FIGURE 7D–4 FIGURE 7D–5 FIGURE 7D–6 FIGURE 7D–7 FIGURE 7D–8 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT—ALTITUDES 300 AND 500 FEET ...................................................... 23 FIGURE 7–5 SAFETY FACTOR AND SEARCH RADIUS................. 46 FIGURE 7C–9 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 9—WIND CURRENT CALCULATION . 40 FIGURE 7C–3 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 3—SEARCH AREA............................................................................................................... 52 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT—ALTITUDES 1500 AND 2000 FEET ........... 16 FIGURE 7–2 LEEWAY RATES TABLE................................................................................................ 57 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— HELICOPTERS—ALTITUDES 2500 AND 3000 FEET..................................................................................................................................................... 49 FIGURE 7C–12 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 12 .......................................................... 56 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— HELICOPTERS—ALTITUDES 1500 AND 2000 FEET..................... 51 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT—ALTITUDES 750 AND 1000 FEET ............................................. 43 FIGURE 7C–6 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 6...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 3 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25 FIGURE 7–6 HEIGHT OF EYE VS................ 44 FIGURE 7C–7 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 7—DRIFT COMPENSATED SEARCH PATTERNS ...................................................................................................................................................... 54 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— HELICOPTERS—ALTITUDES 300 AND 500 FEET ............................................................

.....................................................61 FIGURE 7D–13 FATIGUE CORRECTION FACTOR..................................................................................60 FIGURE 7D–12 SEARCH AIRCRAFT SPEED CORRECTION TABLE...................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 7D–9 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— VESSELS AND SMALL BOATS .............................................60 FIGURE 7D–11 WEATHER CONDITION FACTOR..................................................59 FIGURE 7D–10 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— NIGHT VISION GOGGLES ....................................................61 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 4 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 ..................................................................................................................................

Initially. the current emergency phase should be advanced to a higher degree of emergency phase. and of his judgment and experience.3 When search efforts indicate that danger no longer exists. given the circumstances and information available. it should be recommended that the search be reduced. Later. The procedures for obtaining authority to reduce a search are detailed in Chapter 5. 7.1 In the following sections an attempt has been made to provide guidelines to assist the controller in determining the degree of emergency in a search and rescue incident. the controller should not hesitate to classify an incident at the highest degree of emergency that the available information supports. or if new evidence implies that the persons on board are in grave and imminent danger. the communication search was successful and no problem exists or the object and/or the survivors have been located and rescued. or because there is no longer any probability of survival of the persons on board.5 When during search operations. e. and all search and rescue units are accounted for.g. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 5 . it has been determined that further search would be to no avail because the area has been adequately searched and all probability areas investigated.2 Nothing in the following paragraphs is meant to prevent the controller from assigning the highest degree of emergency. service or facility that has been alerted or activated. the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre shall close the incident and immediately inform the operating agency and any centre. In emergency situations requiring immediate assistance positive action must be taken quickly. The ability to take appropriate action is a function of the information available to the controller. SAR INCIDENT PROGRESSION 7. The decision to declare this change of phase should be taken without undue delay and based on past experiences with similar situations. as appropriate. or for other pertinent reasons.4 If apprehension as to the safety of the search object and its occupants continues to exist. 7. the degree of emergency can be lowered if the situation warrants it. 7.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL SAR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES— MARITIME INCIDENTS EVALUATION OF DEGREE OF EMERGENCY 7.

or .9 A DISTRESS phase exists when: . 7. attempts to establish contact with the vessel have failed and inquiries addressed to other appropriate sources have been unsuccessful. or .1 there is apprehension regarding the safety of a vessel or the persons on board.2 a vessel has been reported overdue at destination.3 information is received which indicates that the operating efficiency of the vessel has been impaired to the extent that a distress situation is likely. or .3 confers the authority to declare distress on behalf of a vessel whether or not the vessel has declared a distress. ALERT.2 following the uncertainty phase.1 positive information is received that a vessel or a person on board is in grave and imminent danger and in need of immediate assistance. . is to be considered as a sign of distress and shall be investigated immediately.7 An UNCERTAINTY phase exists when: . and DISTRESS.1 there is doubt regarding the safety of a vessel or the persons on board.8 An ALERT phase exists when: .2 following the alert phase. . further unsuccessful attempts to establish contact with the vessel and more widespread unsuccessful inquiries point to the probability that the vessel is in distress.3 a vessel has failed to make an expected position report. NOTE 1: In the absence of other information. 7.6 There are three degrees of emergency used in the conduct of maritime SAR incidents: UNCERTAINTY. on its own. a signal from a distress beacon.3 information has been received indicating that the operational efficiency of a vessel is impaired but not to the extent that a distress situation is likely. Whenever a distress is declared under these circumstances the rationale is to be recorded in the case file log.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 DEGREES OF MARITIME EMERGENCY 7. NOTE 2: Paragraph 7.9. . CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 6 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . 7.

weather. utilizing appropriate resources. to locate vessels able to render assistance. .11 During the ALERT phase of a maritime emergency.7 select a name for the operation.1 verify the information received and if it is suspected that the vessel is in danger. the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) shall. . this will normally be the name of the vessel and will be used throughout the operation when reference to such is made. possible communications delays. last known position (LKP) and last radio communication. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 7 . .2 alert personnel and SAR facilities. when applicable: . intended entering. and . 7.4 endeavour to obtain information concerning the vessel from sources not previously contacted. notify the appropriate RCC. ensure that the Marine Communication and Traffic Services (MCTS) centre issues an “All stations” broadcast and allow up to 15 minutes for vessels in the area to respond. . If a response is received. refer to Annex 7A.5 thoroughly evaluate information on the vessel’s intended route.4 conduct a communication search.2 attempt to obtain information on the route.3 verify the information received. and plan initial briefing of SAR crews.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL RCC/MRSC ACTION DURING DEGREES OF MARITIME EMERGENCY 7.10 During the UNCERTAINTY phase of a maritime emergency.5 issue an “All stations” broadcast for information on the vessel’s whereabouts. (The controller should use the replies to prioritize the search and rescue (SAR) response.1 issue an “All stations” broadcast under the urgency (PAN PAN) prefix for information on the vessel or. . . when applicable: . points and times of departure and arrival of the vessel. .3 start a plot of the situation based on the information obtained. the RCC/MRSC shall.) . its master should be asked the following question: “Are you in immediate danger?” If the reply is negative and the RCC/MRSC judges it appropriate. if the vessel is disabled.6 if the voyage originated in. . or may have entered other than Canadian waters.

.5 notify the owner or agent.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 .9 if so indicated by the situation appraisal.10 whenever possible. initiate appropriate search action and notify the associated MCTS centres of any action taken. significant improvement in on-scene time would be realized.6 consider the possibility of fuel exhaustion and the estimated performance of the vessel under adverse conditions.8 plot relevant details obtained through the actions described above to determine the probable position of the vessel and its maximum range of action from its LKP.1 initiate action in accordance with the detailed plans or instructions for conduct of SAR operations in its area. . . . if possible. the RCC/MRSC shall. Also plot the positions of any vessel known to be operating in the vicinity. and b.3 develop a search plan.2 issue an “All stations” broadcast for vessels to render immediate assistance. and determine the extent of search area. . . as appropriate. . 7. . there would be no adverse affect on the responding SRR. and . communicate to the owner or agent all information received and action taken.4 advise appropriate authorities. and keep them informed of developments.7 maintain close liaison with associated MCTS centres so that information from ships at sea can be evaluated. NOTE: this action may already have been taken by an MCTS centre in the form of a MAYDAY or a MAYDAY RELAY. when applicable: .6 notify adjacent RCCs or MRSCs which may be able to render assistance or which may be involved in the operation. NOTE: The use of search and rescue units (SRUs) from a neighbouring search and rescue region (SRR) should be considered when: a. CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 8 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .12 During the DISTRESS phase of a maritime emergency.

as deemed appropriate under the circumstances. a copy (for information) should be forwarded to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Correspondence with any consular authority shall be through the Officer in Charge of the RCC. etc. if possible. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 9 .1 and 7. ASSISTANCE TO DISORIENTED VESSELS 7.2 task available search and rescue units to locate the disoriented vessel and either escort the vessel to safety or provide guidance so that he can proceed safely. NOTE: See Annex 8A for information regarding the assistance MCTS centres can provide to disoriented vessels. of SAR actions taken.1 attempt to locate the disorientated vessel by using any available communication network or information source. for action as soon as possible.10 assess and determine the most suitable location for the search headquarters and arrange for the appointment of a searchmaster. and . inform the vessel in distress.2 refer) and take such action. to the Director SAR. police. .e. Canadian Coast Guard Headquarters. When a foreign ship is involved or if any report about the incident is produced.7 when applicable.13 When a disoriented vessel requests assistance from a rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre. . notify the consular authorities concerned.9 assess and determine the most suitable SRU for assuming the duties of on-scene commander/co-ordinator surface search.8 when the incident involves a vessel of foreign registry. the duty maritime controller shall evaluate the degree of emergency (paragraphs 7. such as marine communications and traffic services (MCTS) centres. Safety and Environmental Response. i. maritime search and rescue. and forwarded through the Superintendent.11 develop a rescue plan in the event casualties require assistance—consider using the Emergency Measure Organization for their contacts with local hospitals. NOTE: Formal requests for information received from a consulate are to be acknowledged by the regional supervisor. as appropriate. . Rescue. and .: . Legal Advisory Division.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL .

However. Examples of the types of assistance provided typically include the provision of aid such as towing.18 Each RCC/MRSC shall maintain a contact list which will enable appropriate response to be carried out immediately upon receiving information of a submersible in distress.15. and assign an appropriate incident classification to the activity.15 SAR activity taken under the above paragraph shall be in accordance with the Canadian Coast Guard Towing Policy (Annex 7A). rescue co-ordination centres/maritime rescue sub-centres should facilitate the participation of SRUs in these types of operations. 7.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 ASSISTANCE TO DISABLED/ABANDONED VESSELS 7. The rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) shall co-ordinate such action. and in any event shall not be performed in competition with commercial salvage interests. dewatering.17 A rescue operation where the vehicle in distress is a submersible will require specialized equipment and personnel who are familiar with the lay out and operation of submersibles and rescue equipment. and/or might result in undue hardship to the interests involved. CIVILIAN SUBMARINES/SUBMERSIBLES 7. 7. The role of the search and rescue organization will be to assist the rescue efforts to save the lives of persons involved. firefighting or escort assistance. ASSISTANCE TO OTHER CCG PROGRAMS 7. NOTE: Vessels or other craft abandoned during the course of a SAR incident may require assistance from SRUs until the owner or other responsible agency assumes control. maritime search and rescue shall facilitate the use of CanadianCoast Guard (CCG) units to support other CCG programs within their patrol areas.16 Subject to search and rescue priorities. it is recognized that many areas of each search and rescue region are remote and isolated and that there are no commercial salvage firms operating within these areas which can or will respond to the incidents. Subject to SAR priorities and paragraph 7. which if not carried out might result in a definable potential endangerment to life. when applicable.14 Search and rescue units (SRUs) often provide assistance in operations not directly related to a search and rescue (SAR) incident. regional supervisors. CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 10 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

the effort required to resolve the incident.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL SEARCH PLANNING 7. 7. Less complex incidents may be resolved by the application of manual planning methods. 7. 7.2 a significant period of time has passed since the search object’s position was last known. normally require the use of automated planning tools.24 CANSARP—The Canadian Search and Rescue Planning System (CANSARP) is an automated search planning tool that is available in the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre.21 The method used to determine the search plan will depend on the complexity of the incident and the resources available for its prosecution. The search planning methods are based on the assumed drift errors of these individual drift forces. it is recommended that search planning be commenced early in the incident. The computations require a knowledge of vectors and algebra.22 All maritime search planning methods use the same types of information. involving more than one uncertainty or a number of search and rescue units. METHODS OF SEARCH PLANNING 7. to minimize the search area. it drifts due to the effect of the various water currents and surface winds.20 The search planning task includes the determination of datum and a search area.25 CANSARP advantages are that the program: ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 11 .19 Search planning is necessary when: . transmitting the search plan to the on-scene commander/SRUs. As these drift errors increase proportionally with the passage of time. selecting search patterns and track spacing to achieve a suitable area coverage. 7. and therefore. This chapter will detail the manual method of search planning. and periodically reviewing and updating the search plan. planning on-scene co-ordination. developing an attainable plan of search and rescue units (SRU) effort allocation. A scientific-function electronic calculator is helpful. It is recommended that CANSARP be used in search planning and it is most useful in cases too complex for the manual method. or .1 the location of the distress is not known. 7.23 The search object in the maritime environment is rarely static. Complex incidents.

along with all other information relevant to the CANSARP predictions should be sent to: Director.2 uses computer simulation to graphically depict the range of possible target locations. . Copies of incident files and situation reports. The arc of probability defines the area where the search object is most likely to be found.5 CANSARP also calculates the minimax probability area derived by the manual method. targets. When more than one search is necessary. . Search and Rescue Canadian Coast Guard Centennial Towers 200 Kent Street. such as a tidal zone. a measure of search effectiveness. and environmental factors. The manual method averages data to estimate target location. it still defines the best areas to search.4 CANSARP divides the divergence angle (see 7. and the search planner can concentrate the search effort in this area (see 5. However.31) of the assigned targets by a factor of ten. The search planner can evaluate many possible scenarios with a range of incident times. this area may still be covered.42.3 calculates the probability of detection (POD). the arc of probability may be less regular in shape. allowing the search planner to more effectively evaluate the search effort.1 accepts more available incident data than is possible in the manual solution. the results of successful and unsuccessful SAR incidents should be compared with CANSARP predictions. and areas most likely to contain the target.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 . for individual search and rescue unit (SRU). or “arc of probability”. especially in large incidents when a number of searches or SRUs are required.6 to monitor and improve CANSARP. and . . The amount of calculations required to make similar predictions manually is prohibitive. In a less uniform current field. situations. In a uniform wind and current field. positions. and drifts each individual set of vectors over the desired time interval. . CANSARP can use previous search results in estimating the probable target location for the next search. If adequate search units are available to the search planner. 5th Floor Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0E6 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 12 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . Search Concentration). with resulting drift error. This results in eleven drift tracks per target. this results in a series of overlapping probability circles. CANSARP maintains a record of the POD for each SRU.

29 One of four possible datums usually exists.2 calculate a search area surrounding the datum(s) considering the probable drift and navigation errors. wind. methodical approach to preparing the search plan has been developed using the following steps: .. Four possible situations usually exist: . when calculating a particular datum. As the search object continues to be acted upon by these forces during the search. Datum 2.4 allocate sub-areas to the search and rescue units in a manner that will maximize their effort. However. depending on the initial position information received by the search planner. sea and tidal current.27 The search planner is usually confronted with a complex variety of uncertainties and possible scenarios when he begins to develop his search plan. as with all planning tools. Unless the search object is immobilized. a single datum. Datum 1. However. such as a vessel aground. an organized. Datum 3). the actual position of the target of the search may be substantially different from the initial or last known position (LKP).26 Other search planning models such as DRIFTCALC and CASP are available for determining the search area. with the calculation time. corrected for drift at any specific time.1 determine a datum for an appropriate commence search time. Datums are usually labelled sequentially (e. 7. a datum line or a datum area. or the position is computed by the ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 13 .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 7. etc. the user should be aware of their limitations and proper application. considering the location.3 determine the coverage of the area. . many forces act on the search object. . and . To compute a datum. multiple datums. datum should be periodically recalculated. called the LKP. the search planner must first consider the time and location of the search object’s last reliable position. or is witnessed by another vessel or on-shore observer. using appropriate search patterns and track spacings in order to achieve an acceptable probability of detection of the search object. DATUM 7. In the maritime environment. the search planner should include all the appropriate forces. Therefore.g. MANUAL SEARCH PLANNING 7.28 Datum is defined as the most probable position of the search object.1 Single Position Known—The incident reported by the distressed vessel itself.

If the position is known. In this case. Datum area calculations depend on many factors. such as a lake.4 General Area Known—Neither the position nor the intended track is known. a datum line (the track corrected for drift) can be established. and at least every 24 hours on the track of vessels at sea. but the general area the target was probably in. . such as fuel endurance. natural boundaries. the reported position may be vague.1 The intended track is first plotted. and this matrix should be used as a guideline only. The following steps describe the use of the matrix: CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 14 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . or an offshore fishing ground. . . and ultimately a search area. A series of dead reckoning (DR) positions are then computed for estimated progress along the track. All datum points are then sequentially connected by straight lines to form a datum line. a datum area is developed.3 Each DR position is considered as a known position and drift is computed for each position up to a common single time.2 Multiple Positions Known—A variation of the unique datum is the “position uncertainty” situation. intermediate positions should be computed. Other factors may occur that will warrant the planner determining the datum via some other method. 7. a series of datum points is developed. drift is applied to the search object for the appropriate time interval. is obtained.3 Track Known—The vessel’s intended track is known. and a unique. a military exercise area. or described in such a manner that the planner must drift two or more possible locations (this should not be confused with the trackline described below). or a single line of position. and known or suspected areas of occupancy.30 Search Planning Decision Matrix—The search planning decision matrix (Figure 7−1) − illustrates the four possible paths described above that a planner may use to determine a datum. including the DR position at the end of the track and the turning points along the track. . or single datum is computed. Thus. If the track legs are long. In this case.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 planner from a previously reliable position. but its position along the track is unknown. If the intended track is known. Datum area calculations may range from reasonably exact to a best guess. such as a direction finder bearing. is known. . .2 A DR position is recommended for every 5° of latitude or longitude for aircraft over water.

. compute the search radius without considering the total drift error (De). or if the total drift time is four hours or less (See 7. tidal current. considering one of the following: single position. if the drift period is equal to or less than six hours.5 Compute Total Water Current—Consider all the water current acting on the search object (sea current.31. compute the search radius using the total probable error (E). the planner must consider the location of the incident. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 15 . use oceanic methodology. he will determine DATUMminimax. then he will determine DATUM (one position per LKP). This is normally the time interval between the actual occurrence of the incident and the time chosen by the planner for datum calculation.30. .3 Determine Total Drift Time—Estimate how long the search object has been adrift.9). .4 Determine LKP Type—Establish the LKP type. .1 First Search/Subsequent Searches—If planning a first search. determine the last known position (LKP) type. etc. a 6 M radius around DATUM(s) will normally create the desired search area(s). If he uses the LW uncertainty. Leeway).1 For coastal waters. for subsequent searches. If these radii are drawn about a series of positions.9 Search Area(s)— .2 In oceanic evironment. .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL .2 Determine Location—Establish whether the search object is in coastal waters or in the oceanic environment. . if the drift period is less than four hours. multiple position.). . If the drift period is more than four hours. area or trackline. then the circles are grouped together in a simple geometric shape to form the search area. use a 6 nautical mile (M) radius (See 7. LW uncertainly is applied in situations where the LKP is a single position or multiple position and the total drift time is greater than four hours. as a trackline DATUMs.6 Compute LW—Leeway (LW) is applied downwind in coastal waters. and in cases in the oceanic environment where the LKP is determined to be an area or trackline. .7 Determine DATUM(s) or DATUMminimax—If the planner uses the downwind LW.1 In coastal waters. .8 Determine the Search Radius— . If the drift period is more than 6 hours. wind driven current.

In other cases.2 For the oceanic environment. the search area is determined by the search radius when using the minimax solution.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 . the search area will be determined by drawing search radii about the DATUM positions as in the coastal solution. Oceanic Environment Location ? Yes First Search ? Coastal W aters Incident Drift > 4 hours ? No LKP Information? Yes Line Area No Yes Single Position Multiple Positions Drift > 6 hours ? No LKP LKP Type ? Total W ater Current (TWC) Total W ater Current (TWC) National SAR Manual Downwind Leeway Total W ater Current (TWC) Total W ater Current (TWC) Downwind Leeway Leeway Uncertainty Downwind Leeway Datum(s) Datum(s) Datum MiniMax Datum(s) Radius = E Radius = E Radius = E Radius = 6 M SearchArea SearchArea SearchArea SearchArea Task Resources FIGURE 7–1 SEARCH PLANNING DECISION MATRIX CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 16 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

040 U 0.070 U 0.120 –0.040 +0.060 –0.037 U 0. 7.120 nil nil –0. NOTE: The experimental data used to produce the table at figure 7–2 used wind speeds measured at the 10 metre wave height (U10). caused by the action of the wind on the exposed surfaces of the object.120 nil nil nil 0.040 U 0. experiments have shown that objects tend to diverge either side of the downwind direction.013 U 0. Search planners should be aware that winds measured at a higher height may be significantly greater than the U10 winds.050 U 0. Also. size and orientation of the search object cause LW to vary to the point where it is extremely difficult to determine a precise value for LW direction and magnitude for any given object.030 U 0.028 U 0.050 U 0.031 U 0. Object Person in Water Surfboard Raft (any size) – capsized or swamped Raft ≤ 10 persons Raft > 10 persons Powerboat < 25 feet Powerboat 25–65 feet Powerboat 65–90 feet Sailboat < 25 feet Sailboat 25–40 feet Sailboat 50-90 feet Ship > 90 feet With drogue or ballast system Without drogue Leeway Coefficient Correction Coefficient Correction Divergence 0.000 U 0.040 U 0.013 U 0.040 nil nil nil 00° ±60° ±35° ±35° ±35° ±35° ±45° ±45° ±35° ±45° ±45° ±45° FIGURE 7–2 LEEWAY RATES TABLE ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 17 .037 U 0.31 Leeway—Leeway (LW) is the movement of the search object through water. The table at Figure 7–2 provides values to calculate LW speed and divergence for various objects at windspeeds of 5 to 40 knots.020 U 0. do not apply the correction factor.030 U nil nil –0.050 U 0.070 U 0.040 nil nil +0.000 U 0.020 U 0. NOTE: U=wind speed in knots.120 –0.030 U 0.050 U 0. keeping in mind that high waves may reduce the wind speed effect on the search object. The table should be used with caution for winds of more than 40 knots.040 U 0.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Annex 7C contains search planning worksheets that may be used as guides for these calculations.040 –0.030 U nil nil –0.060 –0. The shape. for windspeeds of less than 5 knots.

2 the tidal flow will cause changes in the probable position of the search object for different search times. unless local knowledge suggests differently. 0000 UTC. 7.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 7. 7. lake. Period one should be selected so that it begins and ends on the synoptic times bracketing the time for which the current is to be calculated. WC are virtually ignored in coastal. Examples of the worksheets required to complete the calculations are contained in Annex 7C. Whenever possible. While several sources for obtaining SC information are available. The instructions for deriving SC from these and other publications are included in the publications. It must be remembered that SC publications are based on recorded climatological data and should be verified whenever possible with more recent on-scene information. For the purposes of computation the most accurate windspeed possible should be obtained for the 48 hour period prior to the incident. large-scale flow of ocean waters. .35 Sea Current—Sea current (SC) is the permanent. 0600 UTC.32 Wind Current—Also called wind driven current or wind drift current. not caused by local winds or tides.33 The wind record for WC calculation should be 48 hours long. or from weather maps. and CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 18 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .1 when tides reverse. 7. While a 48 hour wind record is preferred. period eight the earliest. 7. river and harbour areas due to the many variable effects of the water/land interface. While the ebb and flow of tides may tend to nullify the cumulative effect. Period one represents the most recent period. the current effect in one direction may be greater than in the other. the wind current (WC) is the result of wind acting on the surface of the water for a long period. A rule of thumb is to calculate WC when water depths are greater than 100 feet and at distances of 20 nautical miles or more from shore. tide must be considered since: . Wind speed and direction for each period are considered to be those which were valid at the end of the period. a shorter period could be used with some loss of accuracy.34 WC Computation—The United States Coast Guard Oceanographic Unit developed a procedure to calculate the wind current by determining the wind effect for each six-hour time period and vectorially adding these effects.36 Tidal Current—The effect of tide on current in any given area may be determined by consulting tide tables or current charts which will include the effects of coastal geography. 1200 UTC and 1800 UTC. SC is normally only significant in oceanic areas. local knowledge should be sought to verify tidal computations. and is divided into eight six-hour periods. Winds are usually available for the normal synoptic hours. the most recent and preferred sources are the appropriate Canadian Hydrographic Publications. and is generally not calculated in depths of less than 300 feet.

It should be remembered that.5 Ferry operators. 7. Each rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre will normally have established reliable contacts who can provide such data.3 the cumulative effect may be such as to thrust the search object into areas where sea current may take effect. 7. and . where large rivers empty into the sea. it may be necessary for the search and rescue planner to obtain information on bottom current for military or commercial divers.4 Marina operators.42 Total Water Current—The vectorial sum of all applicable current in a particular drift plot may be referred to as the total water current. 7. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 19 . This should be considered when computing the off-shore or long-shore current. These might include: . This data can be obtained from the Canadian Hydrographic regional facility. . potential sources oflocal knowledge are boat or marina operators who are familiar with the lake.39 Bottom Current—Although Canadian search and rescue units are seldom involved in underwater incidents.6 Local area marine pilots.1 Coast Guard or Naval experts. 7. it will be advisable to seek local knowledge. . If charts do not exist.2 Oceanographic Institutes. such as the St. have data published on their current. Information on current may be found in regional Canadian Hydrographic publications. 7. Lawrence. the long-shore current is only considered within one mile of the shoreline and must be obtained from direct observation or local knowledge.3 Professional fishermen or tug operators. etc.40 Long-Shore Current—Caused by incoming swells striking the shoreline at an angle. .37 Lake Current—Any large lake will likely have a water current which can vary due to changes in season. when planning any kind of inshore search. their current may have an effect some distance from the river mouth. weather. and the only reliable source of information will usually be local knowledge. .38 River Current—Some large rivers.41 In general.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . 7.

carried by some oceanographic research vessels and should be deployed if available. the maximum distance dmax and datum point is labelled Datumminimax. The datum point is established midway. carried by search and rescue aircraft and vessels and by some naval aircraft and vessels. .5 if no other marker is available the planner might consider the use of a “drifter”. and may thus have a different leeway speed and direction.3 expendable surface current probes (ESCP). The search planner must realize that the object used may have a different draft and plane area from the search object. This procedure is called minimax (minimum/maximum) plotting.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 7.43 On-Scene Observations—Since almost all information available for computing the various drifts is based on historical record. . This is accomplished by deciding on the least and greatest practical values of all unknown or uncertain factors.45 It will be apparent that when minimum and maximum values of all uncertainties such as time. the least practical values are added vectorially to provide the minimum distance an object should be from the last known position. These factors include the earliest and latest times the incident may have occurred.2 datum marker buoys (DMBs).1 information on winds or current from vessels operating in the area of the incident. the various positions where the incident may have occurred and the many drift forces that may affect the object. and . and some examples are shown in Figure 7–3. that the DMB will only provide information on the current existing at the time and place it is used. Some of the methods which may be used are: . such as a boat. The minimum distance is labelled dmin. 7. a raft or a large float. however. The DMB vector can then be added to the leeway vector for a more reliable datum. Then. Thus. if a CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 20 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . MINIMAX 7. and so only one uncertainty is normally considered. just as the greatest practical values are added to provide the maximum distance. position and drift are incorporated into one minimax computation the result will be an extremely complex computation.44 Often the information available about a maritime incident is so uncertain that the planner must make several assumptions to determine a datum.4 visual markers such as smoke floats or dye markers can be used but must be continually replaced to ensure continuous marking. every effort should be made to verify or update it with recent observeddata. A DMB should be employed at the earliest opportunity in a maritime search. . The same constraints exist with ESCP as with DMB. It must be remembered.

and the navigational inaccuracies of search units. If drift rate (and therefore. FIGURE 7–3 MINIMAX PLOT DATUM AND SEARCH UNIT ERRORS 7. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 21 . time and position uncertainty will not be included in the computation.47 Three basic errors which must be considered are: . errors in reporting the last known position. The total probable error (E) can be estimated using a basic statistical method which holds that the sum of the squares of all possible errors will equal the square of the total error ( E 2 = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + etc) . This calculation is of great importance since the size of the search area which will be developed depends directly on E.46 Once datum has been determined the planner must consider the effect of possible errors in the computations and later planning. a single position will be used and leeway (LW) will be considered as downwind. 7. These errors include errors in drift estimation. LW) uncertainty is imposed.1 total drift error.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL time uncertainty is imposed.

The more sophisticated the reporting agency. if confidence is low. Again. 7. and .. and so on.52 This method is appropriate for all cases except when minimax plotting is used to account for directional uncertainty.49 The individual drift errors are the errors which develop during computation and are possible when computing any kind of drift. the smaller the error that may be expected. whether it was the search object. in the early hours (up to four) of a search. or an electronic direction finding source such as radar or HF DF. When using minimax plotting to account for directional uncertainty. B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 7. De must be determined for the final datum position only. 7. These errors are due to the assumptions and generalizations which must be made to keep the computations practical and simple. at three-tenths (0..51 The precise definition of total drift error is the arithmetic sum of all the individual drift errors accumulated during the mission. from the time the search object was first exposed to drift to the time of the latest computed datum.125) of the determined drift. and de max is one-eighth dmax (or three-tenths. or. De will equal de1 + de2 .50 The minimax drift error is determined using the formula: d e minimax = Distance + d e min + d e max 2 where Distance is the distance between dmin and dmax.53 Initial Position Error (X)—This error is based on the position fixing accuracy of the reporting agency. In the calculation of the first datum on a mission. depending on the confidence). For search planning. CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 22 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . 7. De is used in determining the total probable error (E). drift error can be disregarded.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . de will usually equal De but. de is established as one-eighth (0.2 initial position error. In such cases the addition of drift errors from a series of minimax calculations causes an unwarranted enlargement of the total drift error. It should be noted that. 7. drift error is ignored if it is less than 1 nautical mile and needs only to be considered when calculating surface drift.48 Total drift error (De)—Total drift error is either the combination of all individual drift errors (de) or the minimax drift error (de minimax). a passing vessel or aircraft. for practicality.3 search unit error. 7.3) of the drift. as the mission progresses and another datum is calculated. depending on confidence). de min is one-eighth dmin (or three-tenths.

5 M radius. 7. X is the same as the fix error. The search planner should keep in mind that these are guidelines only.25 nautical mile (M) 0. submersible or single engine aircraft DR Errors — DRe 5 % of the DR distance 10 % of the DR distance 15 % of the DR distance Fix Errors — Fixe 5M 10 M 15 M Fix Errors — Fixe 0.55 When the initial position is reported as a fix. military submarine or aircraft with more than 2 engines Twin-engine aircraft Boat< 65 feet. whichever is greater. military submarine or aircraft with more than 2 engines Twin-engine aircraft Boat < 65 feet.5 M per flight hour without position update 1M 1M 1M 2M 4M ±3° arc and 3 % of distance. X is the sum of the fix error and the DR error: X = Fixe + DRe Position Errors with Navigation Systems Means of Navigation Global Positioning System (GPS) Inertial Navigation System (INS) Radar Loran C Visual Fix (3 lines) Celestial Fix (3 lines) Marine Radio Beacon (3 beacon fix) VOR (VHF Omni-directional Range) and TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation) If the means of navigation is unknown: Type of Aircraft or Vessel Ship. and should alter them should he have information indicating that the accuracy is substantially different from that suggested.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 7. or 0. When the initial position is reported as a dead reaconing (DR) position. FIGURE 7–4 POSITION ERRORS ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 23 .54 Figure 7−4 lists the position errors which may be assumed for various types of reporting agencies. submersible or single engine aircraft Dead Reckoning Errors Type of Aircraft or Vessel Ship.

the search area is redefined by the same process.2 search unit changes. for example to account for: . Figure 7–5 shows the fs which must be applied to E to determine search radius. CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 24 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .1 drift changes. 7.56 Search Craft Error (Y)—Similar errors may be anticipated for search units. as datum is redefined. there are usually limitations.57 The total probable error may therefore be found using the formula: E = De 2 + X 2 + Y 2 7. 7. including the number of search units available.3 initial position revision. As the datum point moves. For maritime searches this can be described as a circle with the datum point as centre and having a radius equal to the product of the total probable error (E) multiplied by a safety factor. .58 It will be necessary for the search planner to recompute the total probable error (E) periodically. However. The objective of the search planner in all cases will be to define an area which will ensure a better than 50 per cent chance that the search object is in the area. called the optimal search factor (fs). using the new search radius to enlarge the search area. (While it would obviously be desirable to increase the radius to achieve the highest possible probability. the planner describes a circle about the datum point usually squaring it off with tangential lines parallel to the direction of drift. or .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 7. In this way.60 Using the search radius. only fix errors need be considered for search units since they will normally do little or no dead reaconing: Y = Fixe The values shown in Figure 7–4 also apply to the search units. OFFSHORE SEARCH AREAS 7. depending on their individual capabilities to navigate.59 One of the most important phases of the search planning process is the delineation of the area to be searched. the time available and the track spacing required). the search keeps recovering the water surface area within which the search object is most likely to be.

6 E 2.3 E 2. While the table provided expands the search area to a radius 2.64 Visual Search—Tables of uncorrected sweep widths (Wu) for visual search have been developed for various types of targets (see Annex 7D). the area will continue to grow larger on successive searches by virtue of the fact that the total probable error (E) will continue to increase. The basic factors included in the tables are: type of target.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 7. The datums will be developed by using minimax plotting. the search areas will be increased using the method of computing the total probable error (E) and the safety factor (fs) as shown in Figure 7–5. meteorological visibility and search altitude. crew fatigue (ff) and search aircraft speed (fv).5 times the total probable area by the fifth search.0 2.1 1.3 2. The values from these tables are applied to Wu as follows: W = Wu × f w × f f × f v ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 25 . 7. Search 1 2 st fs 1. Correction tables are included to account for the effect of weather (fw).5 R 1.1 E 1.0 E 2. SWEEP WIDTH COMPUTATION 7.6 2. Wu is expressed in nautical miles.62 Inshore search planning differs from offshore planning in that sea current and wind current are not usually included in the total water current and that the initial search radius is set at 6 nautical miles.63 Search area expansion—After the first search in an inshore case.61 Search area expansion—The procedures described above result in repeated expansion of the search area as the search continues.5 E nd rd th th 3 4 5 FIGURE 7–5 SAFETY FACTOR AND SEARCH RADIUS INSHORE SEARCH AREAS 7.

Previous misconceptions concerning fatigue have falsely limited the perceived importance of fatigue factor. Fatigue is commonly caused by circadian (daily) rhythms. Most of these factors tend to affect the corresponding probability of detection (POD) and are discussed below in their approximate order of influence. There is no physical or chemical test. type of training. or in any type of search vehicle if turbulence is being encountered. . Track spacing or orientation may have to be adjusted. physical and mental condition.3 Search Craft Speed—High speed can reduce effectiveness in aircraft. . These tables are for daylight use only.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL DFO 5449 It will be noted that in some cases f w is less than 1 in calm winds. which can tell us that a person is impaired with fatigue. . the search planner must take them into consideration when developing a search plan.65 Tables in Annex 7D give sweep width value for a person in water. flotsam. Although fatigue can be both physical and mental. A search aircraft speed correction (fv) table is included at Figure 7D-12. 7.2 Sea Conditions—Effects due to the difficulty of sighting objects with the distractions of whitecaps. and wind-blown spray. glassy water. Mental fatigue is most critical in SAR operations.4 Position of Sun—Effectiveness is reduced when looking into the sun.5 Spotter Effectiveness—Fatigue. its colour contrast or fluorescence. Some of these values are too small to be flown or sailed but provide the search planner with an indication of search effectiveness and a guide for deciding how long to continue the search effort. . . lack a adequate sleep. While the effects of some of these factors may be variable or indefinite. particularly at low altitude. The weather condition factors (fw) are included at Figure 7D-11. and intense work activity. suitability and comfort of spotter positions will all have a bearing on the effectiveness of spotters. This is due to the detrimental effect glassy water conditions have on sighting small objects. Fatigue affects motivation as much as individual and team task performance. Mental fatigue exhibits the following symptoms: CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 26 REVISED — MAY 2000 . and its motion relative to its environment.66 There are many factors which may modify visual sweep widths.1 Search Object—Delectability is significantly related to its size and amount of freeboard. The crew fatigue factor (ff) is explained at Figure 7D-13.6 Fatigue—Fatigue has been recognized around the world as a major contributor to many transportation incident and accidents. . particularly in hazy conditions and when the sun is low on the horizon. and other surface irregularities. 7.

instrument panels.2 .5 Electronic sweep widths may be affected by: the search objects’ output. shore lights).4 . magnetic. The same may be true of the search unit capability.3 . Reduced alertness . and Increased irritability.3 Figure 7D–10 shows the available sweep width information for night vision goggles searches.failure to remember recently completed tasks poorer task performance .e. and target illumination (canopy lights.1 .less capable of responding to demands of the job. terrain attenuation. Impaired memory . shorter attention span. Dedicated search units will REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 27 . radio. deck lights. etc. .67 NVG search—Night vision goggles (NVG) search performance is significantly influenced by the following factors: background lighting (i. These values should be viewed as rough estimates.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 − − − − − − Increased drowsiness-difficulty staying awake. environmental ambient noise. The detection range of distress beacons varies and the search planner should attempt to determine the specific range of the equipment in question.69 . moonlight. environmental attenuation level. The determination of an appropriate value for sweep widths in these searches is just as important as in visual searches.e. the search units’ capability.reduced ability to complete a task as fast and accurately as usual.6 COSPAS–SARSAT orbital mechanics. Reduced ability to concentrate . 7.68 Electronic Search—Electronic searching includes SARSAT queries.. 7. etc. 7.. and any other factors which come to the search planner’s attention must be considered as objectively as possible when determining the POD using visual search. the accuracy of which has to be assessed by the search planner on a case by case basis.). radio-active and other electromagnetic band searches. active illumination by the SRU.more difficulty with decision-making and reasoning. and . search and rescue unit (SRU) illumination (i.2 .). All of these.1 . radar.

The search methods include: . The classification would be based on a series of ranges at which targets have been first detected.5 times horizon range. . and sonar.4 MAJOR MARITIME DISASTERS 7.1 .5 times average detection range.7 times the minimum detection range. W = maximum detection range.54.4 audible (not aural homing). and when no detection range is known. 7. when maximum detection range is known. a major maritime disaster search and rescue contingency plan must be published by each search and rescue region commander. Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR). average or maximum detection ranges. when average detection range is known.2 .2 . When such data is available.1 when minimum detection range is known. A horizon range chart is provided at Figure 7-6. This plan is to be developed in accordance with Annex 7B. the following guidelines are recommended in order of preference: . magnetic anomaly detector. Examples of these are shown in Figure 5–5.70 The detection range data available to the search planner may be reported as minimum.72 As stated in paragraph 4. W = 0.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL DFO 5449 normally have published standard operating procedures regarding electronic track spacing and detection ranges to which the search planner may refer. the sweep width (W) is equal to 1.3 .3 . W = 1.71 Miscellaneous Methods—The following are methods for which sweep widths are so variable that a subjective estimate of the probability of detection will be the only option. 7. CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 28 REVISED — MAY 2000 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL FIGURE 7–6 HEIGHT OF EYE VS. HORIZON RANGE ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 29 .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 30 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

in obtaining assistance from the private sector. Search and rescue units (SRUs) may provide towing assistance in accordance with the National Search and Rescue Objective as stated in Chapter 1 and in accordance with the applicable Coast Guard Fleet Order. then the provision of tow by an SRU unit will be denied. make clear that it is for his account. CCG HELP IN OBTAINING THIRD PARTY ASSISTANCE 3. (3) and a hard copy of the understanding cannot be obtained. (2) the CCG will. rather than through the CCG. It must be made clear to each party at the outset who will pay for the assistance. and if suitable commercial assistance is readily available. therefore the following procedure is to be used: a. the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) helps end users. and b. on receipt of the request from the end user. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 31 . the end user and the supplier should be recorded and/or witnessed. then all conversations between the CCG. and that a signed hard copy reflecting this understanding will be required as soon as possible. In certain situations. and that a signed hard copy reflecting this understanding will be required as soon as possible. on contracting the supplier.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 7A— POLICY FOR THE PROVISION OF TOWING ASSISTANCE BY VESSELS ENGAGED IN SAR OPERATIONS 1. such as a casualty. 2. make clear that the assistance is being obtained for the end user’s account. its agent. If possible. provided it can be done without imperilling the assisting vessel or tow or persons on board. or another party. If in the judgment of the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre/on-scene commander or the commanding officer of the vessel on scene. the conditions for a distress or potential distress are not present. If the CCG must relay the request: (1) the CCG will. the CCG will have the end user make a direct request to the supplier.

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 (4) both the verbal and hard copy formats should include language that covers the following four points: (a) the supplier agrees to supply the following assistance (list) to the end user for the end user’s account. and (d) the document must be signed and dated by the end user and/or supplier as appropriate. CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 32 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . (c) the supplier and the end user accept that the CCG has no contractual or other obligation in this arrangement. (b) the end user confirms to the CCG that it will be responsible to pay the supplier for the assistance supplied.

Examples of such an event are the mass evacuation of an oil rig or the rescue of survivors of a large passenger vessel in difficulty. as much organization as possible must be pre-planned and possible available resources identified beforehand. and in the scope of the response that is required. b. c. For the purposes of this plan. control and respond to all aspects of the search for and recovery of survivors. formal agreements must be established with outside ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 33 . The purpose of this contingency plan is to provide a framework for the expeditious and effective resolution of a major maritime disaster by means of using all available resources to their full advantage.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 7B— MAJOR MARITIME DISASTER SAR CONTINGENCY PLAN FOREWORD 1. 3. There is no fundamental distinction between a major maritime disaster and other maritime distress incidents except in scale. the term “major maritime disaster” means a maritime distress incident or other distress incident occurring on the waters of the search and rescue region for which the rescue co-ordination centre is responsible. The SAR system is capable of providing adequate response to most incidents. As part of its responsibility for conducting search and rescue (SAR) services. or used by. Because of the necessity for fast reaction when a maritime incident occurs. but at some point a maritime distress could escalate to such a degree that vital support from other agencies is required. 2. the federal government may be required to respond under extremely unfavourable weather and sea conditions to a maritime disaster of such magnitude that augmentation of the normal SAR system may become necessary. and/or the preservation of life. and of such scale that the federal search and rescue (SAR) system alone can no longer co-ordinate. the SAR system is required. To accomplish this. SITUATION 4. Normally in a major maritime disaster the number of persons in distress is unusually large and vital support from other agencies not normally party to. a.

general in nature. CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 34 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . Depending on the nature and magnitude of the incident. and may provide on scene co-ordination and control. e. each SRR must develop its own more specific regional contingency plans.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 agencies which include matters such as single point of contact and on-scene communication frequencies. a. This plan is therefore. Contingency plans. it is not possible to prepare a single. (b) Speed and flexibility of response are essential. all available steps must be taken to sustain life until evacuation can be accomplished. Because of the very diverse nature of maritime activity in the various search and rescue regions (SRRs) of Canada. (c) The main objective is to remove survivors from the distress situation to appropriate medical or other facilities in the shortest possible time. agreed upon tasking/communications procedures. EXECUTION 6. detailed national plan for response to major maritime disasters. MISSION 5. Concept of Operation— (1) General— (a) Factors to be considered include the number of persons involved and their needs. d. augmentation of these unitss from other sources may be required. particularly those involving outside agencies. must be regularly subjected to formal exercises. Primary search and rescue units (SRUs) and vessels of opportunity can be expected to provide the initial response. Such response must be pre-planned and be included in the plan in the form of single points of contact. If evacuation to such facilities is not possible. and capabilities. To ensure the expeditious and effective use of all available resources in the event of a major maritime disaster in the Canadian search and rescue area of responsibility. the resources available and the survivor handling facilities. the environment. the location of the incident.

(b) A major maritime disaster will likely require the assistance of agencies not normally part of the search and rescue (SAR) system. on duty personnel must be authorized to call in additional personnel to meet the requirements of the search mission co-ordinator (SMC) organization until an SM is appointed. The SM along with an appropriate staff. (c) Should the augmentation of units be required. The SRR commander shall appoint a searchmaster (SM) who shall be responsible for the co-ordination of the incident until its termination. in the form of aeromedical evacuation. the availability of evacuation units and the availability of suitable medical facilities. the number and condition of the casualties. as there will be many variables such as the weather. however.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL (d) If the major maritime disaster involves a large number of survivors the requirement to establish one or more casualty staging areas may arise. RCC standard operating procedures are to establish appropriate procedures. (3) Rescue— (a) Depending upon the number of persons involved in a major maritime disaster it may be necessary for the SM to formulate a detailed plan to allow the appropriate disposition of survivors. (d) When it becomes apparent that a major maritime incident is in progress. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 35 . further SAR support. From this point casualties will normally be turned over to the appropriate medical authorities. the recue co-ordination centre (RCC) shall use all available means to locate and task suitable vessels or aircraft. (2) Response— (a) The initial response to any maritime incident shall be consistent with international conventions and constitute an appropriate first level of response regardless of the subsequent escalation of an incident into a major disaster. may be required beyond the casualty staging areas. and to ensure that adequate medical and other post-rescue care will be available at the proper time and in the correct locations. The plan shall identify such agencies in the search and rescue region (SRR) and reflect the development of liaison and agreements with them through the proper authorities to ensure that necessary assistance will be available and effective when required. It will be important to maintain a high degree of flexibility in this respect. may be detached from the RCC to a more suitable location from which to co-ordinate the extraordinary response that may be called for by the major maritime disaster.

together with the names and locations of key personnel. (c) A successful response to a major maritime disaster will probably result in the recovery of a large number of survivors. that system will be supported by all available and suitable agencies and resources. (4) Readiness—The Readiness status for primary SRUs applies to major maritime disasters. Concept of Support — (1) General—The response to major maritime disasters will be supported initially by the normal search and rescue (SAR) system. should be readily available to RCC controllers. SRR Commanders will of course make use of all primary or any other units when and if they become needed and available. SRR commanders shall ensure the establishment and maintenance of communication lines between RCC and the outside agencies specified in the plan. a.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 (b) To this end. SRR commanders shall ensure that the advice of authorities such as medical and emergency measures will be readily available to the staff. to the casualty staging area. SUPPORT 7. so that these units may be tasked when necessary. the SM shall canvass all appropriate authorities who may be able to make suitable units available. (2) DND/CCG—As in other SAR incidents. CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 36 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . Further transportation may be required to deliver the casualties to suitable medical facilities. Prior consultation in this area ensures quick and effective response in situations where the identification of the responsible agency might otherwise not be clear cut. commands or regions may be requested to provide additional primary or secondary search and rescue units in the event of a major maritime disaster. These will require evacuation from the scene. possibly through an intermediate location which may not be particularly well suited for handling survivors. and the possible difficulty in assigning responsibility for survivors at different stages of the events. (d) Because of the number of agencies which may become involved in the rescue and disposition of survivors in a major maritime disaster. Agreed procedures. The location and availability of all such units shall be monitored and updated throughout the incident. This includes the regular exercising of the plan. and should be exercised regularly. As soon as it is apparent that a large number of persons are involved. As requirements become known.

Reports and Returns — (1) In the case of major maritime incidents. (5) Foreign Support—Resources of other nations. through the appropriate channels. Lists of key (single point of contact) personnel shall be available in the plan. the nature and location of the incident and the response required. by government direction. may be available to assist in a major maritime disaster. b. d. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 37 . if possible through the appropriate Department of National Defence Public Affairs Officer. are committed to respond to maritime SAR incidents when available and capable. SRR commanders shall ensure that these are identified to the extent possible. This report is to be forwarded to the National Defence Headquarters and to the Director SAR. In general SAR communications procedures must remain flexible and will depend on the capabilities of the resources involved. in particular the United States Coast Guard.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL (3) Other Departments—All federal departments. situation reports (SITREPs) shall be issued at least daily throughout the rescue phase. and that adequate liaison is maintained to facilitate their effective participation in an emergency. The search and rescue region (SRR) commander shall ensure that current lists of key personnel in the appropriate federal and provincial departments are available to the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) controllers. the RCC shall submit a Major SAR Operation Report within 30 days after the conclusion of a major maritime disaster. The plan must indicate all agreed upon on-scene frequencies. (2) In addition to the Final SITREP Operation Report. Communications—Communication procedures shall be in accordance with regional communications plans. Public Information—The initial announcement of a potential or actual major maritime disaster should be issued by the officer in charge of the RCC. The use of these resources shall be in accordance with current SAR agreements. (4) Civilian Resources—There are in Canada extensive resources available through civilian authorities or private companies and individuals for possible use in responding to a major maritime disaster. Canadian Coast Guard Headquarters. c.

The search and rescue region (SRR) commander shall command a major maritime disaster search and rescue response: he will normally appoint a searchmaster (SM). b. c.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 COMMAND 8. CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 38 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . The SM shall normally report to the SRR commander through the officer in charge of the rescue co-ordination centre. a. Where tasking is directed by telephone or other verbal means. it is to be confirmed by message or in other written form. Because of the urgency associated with a major disaster. tasking is to be accomplished by the most expeditious means available.

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 7C— SIMPLIFIED MINIMAX SEARCH PLANNING WORKSHEETS FIGURE 7C–1 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 1—DATUM ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 39 .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 7C–2 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 2 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 40 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL FIGURE 7C–3 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 3—SEARCH AREA ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 41 .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 7C–4 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 4 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 42 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL FIGURE 7C–5 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 5—EFFORT ALLOCATION ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 43 .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 7C–6 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 6 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 44 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL FIGURE 7C–7 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 7—DRIFT COMPENSATED SEARCH PATTERNS ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 45 .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 7C–8 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 8 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 46 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL x = x = x = FIGURE 7C–9 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 9—WIND CURRENT CALCULATION ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 47 .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 7C–10 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 10—WIND CURRENT COEFFICIENT TABLE CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 48 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL FIGURE 7C–11 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 11—AVERAGE SURFACE WINDS AND LEEWAY ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 49 .

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 FIGURE 7C–12 MINIMAX WORKSHEET 12 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 50 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .

2 3.6 0.4 3.4 0.6 2.3 13.3 6.4 2.2 2.4 2.9 13.1 2.6 0.1 1.2 1.0 8.2 1.3 2.3 2.6 27.0 11.0 13.8 4.9 12.2 4.6 3.6 17.7 3.5 0.4 0.5 0.8 13.9 41.4 13.7 3 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.1 10.9 22. FIGURE 7D–1 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT—ALTITUDES 300 AND 500 FEET ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 51 .7 3.6 0.8 11.5 0.6 1.4 0.6 4.7 4.7 15.4 5.6 4.3 1.5 4.8 2.9 2.8 2.5 5.4 11.5 2.8 2.5 13.7 3.5 3.1 26.2 1.6 20 0.5 0.9 1.6 0.7 4.9 10.7 1.9 41.3 2.2 4.8 1.2 1.8 4.2 20.1 0.6 0.5 0.4 9.6 0.1 3.8 4.5 0.0 4.9 20.7 2.9 3.1 5.0 3.7 0.5 20.7 2.9 3.9 3.3 5.0 4.6 4.2 2.1 5.4 2.1 1.3 8.3 0.0 2.4 0.5 20.3 1.6 0.2 3.9 15 0.8 24.4 2.0 Altitude 500 feet Visibility (M) 5 0.9 5.8 9.2 4.3 12.9 14.7 2.8 5.5 2.8 4.7 2.2 1.1 2.2 1.0 2.3 2.2 2.1 0.0 1.1 0.6 4.9 24.2 4.2 3.0 Visibility (M) 5 0.9 12.4 1.9 3.9 1.5 0.9 20.8 7.0 2.8 10 0.3 8.1 1.2 2.6 0.1 7.8 2.1 3.9 13.1 1.9 6.6 0.0 2.6 4.8 1.7 3 0.1 4.6 4.6 8.3 2.2 1.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 7D—SWEEP WIDTH TABLES Altitude 300 feet Search object 1 Person in water * Raft 1 person Raft 4 persons Raft 6 persons Raft 8 persons Raft 10 persons Raft 15 persons Raft 20 persons Raft 25 persons Power boat < 15 ft Power boat 15–25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat 15 feet Sailboat 20 feet Sailboat 25 feet Sailboat 30 feet Sailboat 40 feet Sailboat 50 feet Sailboat 65–75 feet Sailboat 75–90 feet Ship 90–150 feet Ship 150–300 feet Ship > 300 feet 0.5 5.6 1.9 3.6 27.7 5.3 2.8 13.0 2.5 0.7 5.1 2.6 1.4 0.6 0.3 4.6 0.5 18.6 0.6 4.0 22.2 2.1 16.1 9.6 0.1 15.7 17.5 1.9 8.1 10.4 1.8 10 0.7 3.9 2.2 20.1 1.6 0.9 5.4 0.6 0.0 7.6 1.5 2.0 11.4 5.2 2. the values given for sweep width for a person in water may be increased by a factor of four if it is known that the person is wearing a personal flottation device.5 4.3 5.9 15 0.6 0.8 5.5 1.9 1.9 7.8 2.2 2.4 0.1 1.1 1.7 16.9 3.1 2.3 4.8 4.1 1.6 2.6 10.8 4.0 10.8 2.9 5.4 0.3 5.9 5.6 2.2 2.6 2.1 11.0 26.5 18.7 15.3 0.6 7.5 16.0 6.6 0.4 3.6 7.0 13.4 1.5 0.3 6.7 4.8 2.7 4.7 34.6 6.3 1.6 0.2 1.1 9.3 5.9 14.8 2.3 12.6 0.6 2.7 2.5 8.0 0.7 1.6 0.7 17.6 30 0.4 0.0 2.2 4.7 20 0.4 * For search altitudes up to 500 feet only.3 9.1 0.3 1.3 1.3 3.7 34.5 16.6 0.7 30 0.7 3.3 2.5 5.3 4.1 3.2 3.7 1.1 15.6 1.9 7.5 1.3 4.3 1.3 9.8 2.3 13.6 0.9 3.7 2.7 2.6 21.9 3.8 9.1 0.8 7.7 2.6 5.5 1.1 1.8 1.6 10.6 0.1 16.8 11.0 4.1 2.9 1.6 3.1 1.4 9.6 0.0 3.1 1 0.5 0.7 21.8 5.4 3.1 2.1 1.8 3.6 6.1 1.2 4.

5 2.1 2.6 2.8 2.1 4.9 3.2 1.4 13.3 4.9 4.0 3.5 16.5 9.1 16.4 2.4 0.1 1.9 4.7 17.6 0.6 0.8 3.1 2.2 20.7 4.7 2.5 1.9 12.0 1.5 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.7 5.0 6.2 20.8 3.7 7.0 6.0 3.5 3.0 6.9 2.3 2.3 1.6 1.1 2.0 7.0 13.6 1.6 0.9 7.7 34.2 4.4 2.0 3.8 3.6 0.7 34.8 1.4 0.4 3.2 10.4 0.0 5.6 2.4 5.9 13.5 0.3 1.7 7.2 1.2 2.5 0.1 1.6 0.6 4.4 0.5 9.3 2.4 1.0 3.0 9.4 2.6 3 0.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 Altitude 750 feet Search object 1 Person in water Raft 1 person Raft 4 persons Raft 6 persons Raft 8 persons Raft 10 persons Raft 15 persons Raft 20 persons Raft 25 persons Power boat < 15 ft Power boat 15–25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat 15 feet Sailboat 20 feet Sailboat 25 feet Sailboat 30 feet Sailboat 40 feet Sailboat 50 feet Sailboat 65–75 feet Sailboat 75–90 feet Ship 90–150 feet Ship 150–300 feet Ship > 300 feet 0.2 2.1 15.3 2.0 3.4 0.1 2.6 0.7 30 0.3 10.9 41.7 3.9 5.9 5.9 4.3 0.8 20 0.4 0.9 4.7 20 0.7 21.6 0.8 10 0.0 10.1 1.4 0.1 6.6 0.8 2.7 3 0.6 4.3 2.6 0.1 2.4 2.0 7.7 3.1 0.9 15 0.7 4.6 1.1 1.5 0.4 0.7 2.6 0.7 2.0 12.2 7.8 2.7 1.0 3.3 4.4 2.5 1.7 7.0 1.7 4.3 4.1 0.2 2.9 13.3 0.6 2.7 1.1 1.8 3.0 5.2 11.1 1.7 3.4 FIGURE 7D–2 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT—ALTITUDES 750 AND 1000 FEET CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 52 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .5 0.3 2.0 7.6 0.7 17.8 3.2 1 0.3 4.4 0.2 2.4 2.4 5.0 Visibility (M) 5 0.3 3.9 14.4 8.7 2.6 1.4 12.1 0.2 2.8 2.3 9.3 0.8 2.1 5.6 4.3 4.8 2.1 15.6 0.7 1.6 8.0 Altitude 1000 feet Visibility (M) 5 0.6 0.7 2.9 9.5 1.4 5.2 2.0 3.4 0.4 2.1 10.5 18.0 12.6 4.6 20.0 0.6 2.7 10.4 5.9 11.9 4.9 1.3 9.1 0.4 4.0 22.0 22.4 0.2 1.6 16.6 0.8 30 0.6 20.0 5.6 27.5 5.3 1.8 3.0 2.6 0.5 18.8 1.8 2.8 10 0.9 20.8 2.6 4.9 1.0 1.6 4.7 2.4 6.2 2.4 2.7 2.1 1.6 0.7 10.9 11.6 27.5 0.5 1.4 0.8 17.3 3.3 1.0 8.3 2.8 3.9 15 0.9 24.6 0.1 27.0 14.5 0.6 0.1 5.7 5.7 1.0 2.9 24.3 4.4 6.5 13.0 3.7 5.7 1.2 1.1 13.1 1.9 5.6 13.3 1.2 3.7 21.3 8.5 5.8 2.1 2.3 4.3 3.6 2.5 0.3 2.3 1.7 15.9 20.9 1.7 7.4 5.3 2.9 13.8 4.7 3.4 13.4 12.8 1.0 0.0 11.6 0.1 27.4 1.1 1.9 3.1 3.8 15.2 3.3 4.2 1.6 5.1 5.6 0.4 3.3 4.8 17.1 1.6 3.2 1.2 9.2 3.7 3.8 4.2 7.4 5.6 8.9 13.9 5.1 8.4 11.4 1.2 5.1 16.5 0.2 2.2 9.8 3.9 41.8 4.6 1.8 3.9 5.

8 15.9 3.0 20.2 10.6 16.7 4.1 16.4 2.7 2.1 27.6 1.4 4.1 3.3 7.4 0.7 1.7 20.7 5.9 2.7 2.6 5.5 5.7 34.5 4.2 0.5 3 0.6 9.5 9.3 2.4 13.6 0.6 1.1 4.2 2.3 10.5 5.5 18.6 4.3 4.2 3.6 8.3 0.2 0.4 0.7 3.1 5.0 4.4 5.2 1.9 15.1 5.8 21.4 4.5 3.3 0.4 2.3 2.2 10.2 2.8 17.6 6.7 5.5 5.1 27.8 3.3 3.3 11.1 5.1 8.9 5.0 0.4 1.0 Altitude 2000 feet Visibility (M) 5 0.9 17.0 1.9 41.8 10 0.1 22.0 14.3 0.8 20 0.9 41.1 9.4 0.0 1.7 2.9 20 0.8 10 0.4 1.3 16.3 0.9 7.8 7.1 16.7 13.2 1.4 1 0.2 2.2 9.3 4.1 3.6 1.7 21.2 5.5 4.5 0.0 1.8 2.0 30 0.8 4.1 9.7 5.8 3.0 3.2 3.3 2.4 7.0 13.4 1.0 0.9 17.8 1.5 8.0 1.6 1.7 27.1 5.8 2.1 0.5 18.1 7.8 3.1 2.9 13.8 3.1 1.2 2.0 1.1 5.7 34.7 4.3 0.7 4.0 1.3 3.0 4.8 4.4 15 0.0 20.1 1.1 2.4 2.6 4.1 12.9 2.5 8.3 0.5 11.0 0.7 8.5 0.5 5.1 1.5 1.0 11.8 2.4 10.4 1.2 2.5 FIGURE 7D–3 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT—ALTITUDES 1500 AND 2000 FEET ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 53 .0 4.9 3.3 0.1 6.9 3.6 1.6 3 0.9 24.4 2.9 7.0 13.1 15.8 2.3 0.2 20.6 2.2 6.8 2.5 2.7 1.4 4.8 4.4 5.5 0.0 4.5 3.4 3.6 5.0 0.0 3.5 0.2 10.9 1.2 5.0 Visibility (M) 5 0.3 2.0 0.9 13.5 1.3 0.2 5.2 6.8 1.7 2.2 20.5 0.3 1.1 12.4 0.4 0.6 1.3 0.1 7.0 1.2 3.4 2.1 5.6 1.8 2.3 2.0 1.5 0.3 2.7 2.3 0.9 2.7 1.8 11.0 4.1 3.9 3.7 20.4 5.4 4.4 2.3 11.3 5.3 1.6 2.1 2.1 1.2 6.5 2.8 4.3 5.5 13.4 0.1 12.0 13.3 9.4 0.1 3.5 0.7 2.2 0.6 2.4 2.4 0.3 2.5 0.8 2.6 1.8 5.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Altitude 1500 feet Search object 1 Person in water Raft 1 person Raft 4 persons Raft 6 persons Raft 8 persons Raft 10 persons Raft 15 persons Raft 20 persons Raft 25 persons Power boat < 15 ft Power boat 15–25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat 15 feet Sailboat 20 feet Sailboat 25 feet Sailboat 30 feet Sailboat 40 feet Sailboat 50 feet Sailboat 65–75 feet Sailboat 75–90 feet Ship 90–150 feet Ship 150–300 feet Ship > 300 feet 0.2 0.3 1.8 7.5 4.4 0.8 3.6 13.9 1.1 5.1 2.4 0.8 2.3 9.6 2.4 0.2 0.8 3.9 3.5 3.4 0.9 24.3 2.4 2.9 4.0 13.2 12 1.3 2.1 1.2 0.5 0.5 12.1 7.0 2.4 4.4 15 0.5 0.3 2.9 10.3 0.3 2.3 2.9 3.4 4.4 3.6 2.9 3.3 0.3 2.5 0.6 2.0 2.2 9.5 6.2 0.4 0.9 2.9 5.7 2.6 16.0 0.5 4.0 2.9 3.3 1.5 12.7 27.8 17.1 22.9 1.0 12.7 3.1 5.9 30 0.3 0.9 11.2 16.

5 5.3 1.0 7.1 0.5 1.2 0.3 10.1 12.5 5.0 2.2 1.5 18.1 2.2 5.9 41.5 13.2 6.7 1.3 1.6 4.4 4.3 3.8 1.2 0.5 1.4 15 0.7 1.3 4.3 6.5 9.5 4.2 3.2 0.5 18.8 3.9 4.2 3.7 2.8 1.3 2.1 15.1 0.1 0.8 2.6 2.2 0.6 8.0 3.4 2. FIGURE 7D–4 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT—ALTITUDES 2500 AND 3000 FEET CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 54 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .7 2.0 20.3 2.3 3 0.3 0.5 10.9 1.9 2.6 1.6 4.0 2.8 2.5 * Visual searches are seldom conducted from altitudes above 3000 feet.2 12.3 5.3 5.8 20.7 11.1 1.8 3.2 0.8 35.0 20 0.3 10.5 2.1 0.9 3.0 0.7 2.3 0.7 8.2 4.0 17.0 1.5 0.0 13.8 3.9 3.3 6.0 0.6 2.4 5.4 1.7 6.5 1.5 5.2 0.7 1.2 0.1 2.4 1.5 1.3 2.7 2.5 11.2 0.2 1.7 3.7 27.1 0.9 17.9 5.5 11.3 2.1 16.2 27.5 0.7 1.3 0.0 1.6 5.8 35.2 1.0 1.7 13.0 1.3 2.7 1.0 4.4 5.5 2. for altitudes up to 5000 feet where visibility exceeds 3 M and target size exceeds 25 feet.2 9. however.2 3.2 27.3 0.0 14.8 2.3 9.0 1.1 0.1 0.9 Visibility (M) 5 0.8 2.9 15.2 3.0 7.1 0.3 6.4 16.5 11.2 8.1 2.8 13.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 Altitude 2500 feet Search object 1 Person in water Raft 1 person Raft 4 persons Raft 6 persons Raft 8 persons Raft 10 persons Raft 15 persons Raft 20 persons Raft 25 persons Power boat < 15 ft Power boat 15–25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat 15 feet Sailboat 20 feet Sailboat 25 feet Sailboat 30 feet Sailboat 40 feet Sailboat 50 feet Sailboat 65–75 feet Sailboat 75–90 feet Ship 90–150 feet Ship 150–300 feet Ship > 300 feet 0.2 3.6 7.2 22.1 11.5 5.9 17.1 1.3 9.0 1.2 1.6 8.5 4.9 3.0 2.0 0.1 16.0 2.9 3.8 2.8 20.4 11. the sweep widths given for 3000 feet remain applicable.9 24.1 15.3 0.6 12.5 4.4 15 0.8 1.3 2.4 2.8 2.7 6.1 5.3 13.4 2.6 9.2 0.0 17.2 0.9 4.5 4.1 0.0 15.8 2.3 5.3 16.1 30 0.3 8.2 3.7 10 0.2 2.1 10.7 0.7 2.1 0.9 3.5 2.3 5.9 5.1 11.8 2.0 1.3 2.1 2.5 2.7 16.5 2.0 1.5 3.1 4.5 7.6 14.1 0.1 4.2 2.1 0.8 5.2 0.0 20.8 2.1 1.6 16.6 4.4 3.2 12.2 5.1 0.1 0.7 7.9 41.2 5.0 13.9 24.9 3.6 5.4 2.2 0.5 4.0 0.2 2.6 9.3 4.3 0.0 7.2 2.2 0.6 5.0 0.2 0.4 4.2 7.8 2.7 4.7 6.3 2.9 4.6 2.0 0.8 3.1 4.3 2.3 5.2 0.1 20 0.7 8.9 Altitude 3000 feet * Visibility (M) 5 0.5 2.2 20.5 9.6 2.6 5.4 3.1 7.0 3.0 1.7 13.4 2.2 22.3 2.2 3 0.1 0.4 1.2 20.8 21.1 4.7 27.4 1.9 1.0 13.3 9.7 4.1 2.0 2.3 0.2 0.2 0.8 3.7 6.2 0.2 5.6 7.8 4.8 1.1 5.0 2.7 3.8 21.3 5.1 13.1 4.1 30 0.3 3.2 2.5 4.7 10 0.4 2.9 3.6 4.3 0.2 0.6 1 0.6 2.7 2.5 0.0 7.0 4.9 5.1 0.1 12.6 2.2 0.5 0.0 1.5 3.0 11.1 0.2 2.2 0.

7 6.8 0.4 5.6 8.0 4.0 2.4 3.8 3.6 2.5 2.3 2.4 16.8 10.5 2.7 2.2 7.4 3.6 0.3 14.7 20 0.7 4.6 0.8 10.1 3.6 9.0 2.3 22.1 9.0 2.9 29.8 1.1 2.2 2.1 0.8 0.2 4.8 0.1 1.6 3.3 2.3 12.8 0.7 1.8 3 0.8 1.6 3.5 3.8 5.3 22.4 3.7 18.8 4.3 3.7 6.4 1.9 7.0 0.9 2.1 12.2 5.1 17.1 12.2 7.5 0.1 5.8 0.7 8.1 1.3 3.6 1.6 4.1 17.4 21.3 3.1 0.8 0.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Altitude 300 feet Search object 1 Person in water * Raft 1 person Raft 4 persons Raft 6 persons Raft 8 persons Raft 10 persons Raft 15 persons Raft 20 persons Raft 25 persons Power boat < 15 ft Power boat 15–25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat 15 feet Sailboat 20 feet Sailboat 25 feet Sailboat 30 feet Sailboat 40 feet Sailboat 50 feet Sailboat 65–75 feet Sailboat 75–90 feet Ship 90–150 feet Ship 150–300 feet Ship > 300 feet 0.2 18.2 22.1 1.7 3.4 23.1 5.9 3.5 3.6 0.2 11.4 10 0.6 0.2 4.4 1.1 8.2 3.1 1.9 4.9 5.8 0.2 5.4 1.9 4.2 2.8 5.6 2.6 0.8 0.1 1.5 0.1 0.9 4.3 13.2 6.8 0.7 12.5 4.1 1.8 0.5 2.7 24.4 26.3 6.2 3.6 37.8 4.4 3.7 0.6 0.7 2.6 8.7 18.2 1. FIGURE 7D–5 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— HELICOPTERS—ALTITUDES 300 AND 500 FEET ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 55 .9 2.0 3.2 18.4 2.8 0.2 6.2 3.1 3.9 4.8 15.3 1.9 10.4 2.6 0.2 5.3 14.8 8.5 15 0.6 0.1 1.8 0.8 * For search altitudes up to 500 feet only.8 8.8 5.9 10.7 0.1 3.9 5.7 5.9 1.3 14.1 8.7 2.5 4.8 2.8 2.6 1.8 9.2 10.3 19.2 1.4 0.6 20.2 2.8 0.3 11.4 3.8 3.3 5.0 15.1 1.5 3.1 3.3 19.5 0.7 3.8 0.1 1.6 0.7 3.7 24.5 16.9 2.8 20 0.2 6.1 1.3 3.3 11.7 4.4 21.8 10. the values given for sweep width for a person in water may be increased by a factor of four if it is known that the person is wearing a personal flottation device.5 5.3 1.2 3.9 8.5 4.8 0.5 3.2 5.3 3.5 1.7 0.7 6.0 18.4 3.6 1.2 17.9 7.7 0.8 0.7 4.8 6.9 1.2 12.1 29.3 5.3 6.1 2.8 0.1 5.3 6.8 0.3 13.9 5.7 2.2 6.9 4.5 Visibility (M) 5 0.7 15.6 1.9 2.3 13.8 0.6 5.8 0.6 5.9 29.9 4.0 18.4 10 0.5 0.0 5.0 6.5 1.7 0.3 14.3 5.7 3.9 1.8 12.8 15.2 5.7 2.8 3.7 6.6 3.0 15.3 22.9 30 0.2 10.1 29.8 3 0.0 4.4 26.7 12.0 2.2 5.3 13.4 10.6 9.7 3.2 1.1 1.7 2.8 0.5 3.7 1.5 5.6 3.7 1.0 2.7 8.0 5.2 2.9 4.7 5.5 0.6 4.2 3.2 2.9 5.9 6.7 2.7 0.4 14.1 3.0 3.9 1.1 5.2 3.8 3.5 15 0.0 30 0.9 3.3 2.8 43.6 0.8 0.1 3.0 3.4 0.1 1.0 6.2 1.3 3.3 6.4 23.1 11.1 5.6 2.6 2.5 0.1 5.7 3.4 2.5 Altitude 500 feet Visibility (M) 5 0.8 43.2 2.4 2.8 2.7 15.2 14.6 37.9 2.2 17.2 3.6 20.2 9.4 12.7 5.6 1 0.

9 4.9 8.4 2.9 4.7 6.8 1.3 5.5 2.3 18.9 8.8 5.3 13.0 2.4 11.5 4.8 3.2 2.3 6.2 11.7 1 0.7 1.4 3.2 9.4 12.1 0.8 6.8 3.0 15.8 0.3 13.9 1.6 0.7 0.0 30 0.8 3.9 3.8 1.5 0.0 7.3 5.2 1.0 3.8 0.8 0.5 5.4 21.4 5.7 3.3 22.0 6.9 3.9 3.0 3.4 14.3 12.5 1.3 5.7 4.7 0.9 1.6 2.8 15.5 16.5 3.1 1.9 2.9 29.6 1.7 6.2 17.2 1.2 4.9 5.8 0.7 0.6 3.2 5.3 1.8 6.1 3.9 1.8 0.1 3.4 26.5 5.1 5.1 1.9 10.8 43.2 11.5 16.5 1.2 3.9 3.9 1.5 5.1 1.3 22.8 0.0 5.3 8.3 14.8 0.5 0.0 4.1 1.4 11.7 0.4 3.3 6.7 2.5 3.0 4.1 1.2 1.9 10.1 30 0.2 4.2 4.4 23.7 4.2 3.4 3.3 6.0 0.0 2.6 5.2 5.7 1.3 2.7 0.3 3.9 10.8 0.5 0.9 20 0.5 5.7 2.0 18.1 4.2 18.5 5.2 3.7 4.3 7.5 2.2 17.4 1.8 43.1 6.4 2.5 0.8 2.4 6.2 2.0 2.4 6.8 6.2 2.6 0.8 10.8 1.2 1.3 6.3 5.6 0.8 0.1 2.3 14.8 8.4 26.5 15 0.6 37.5 15 0.9 FIGURE 7D–6 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— HELICOPTERS—ALTITUDES 750 AND 1000 FEET CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 56 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .4 10 0.8 12.4 0.7 15.4 19.4 3.0 0.4 19.6 0.8 2.1 4.6 9.1 5.6 2.2 2.0 7.1 4.5 10.5 2.2 4.7 0.7 8.6 9.0 6.6 37.4 0.2 12.6 5.7 2.8 0.9 5.8 12.6 2.6 20.3 22.8 2.7 18.7 2.0 2.7 2.0 6.5 0.1 2.9 10.8 0.1 2.6 2.2 29.1 1.7 2.4 10 0.9 29.8 4.8 3 0.9 15.4 5.2 17.0 4.6 0.7 0.8 2.5 3.5 Visibility (M) 5 0.2 3.3 14.2 2.2 17.1 1.7 4.3 13.2 5.9 6.6 3.7 5.6 0.6 2.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 1.3 14.1 2.9 5.5 23.3 5.8 1.6 0.3 22.8 12.3 1.3 5.7 0.9 5.8 5.8 6.9 15.9 2.5 Altitude 1000 feet Visibility (M) 5 0.4 3.7 4.8 0.5 3.8 24.9 9.4 3.3 3.7 0.2 3.5 3.2 3.0 4..8 0.3 2.8 3 0.7 3.0 3.8 0.8 8.7 0.2 3.0 18.7 0.2 2.6 4.7 0.8 2.6 3.3 9.3 7.7 0.8 24.7 8.9 5.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 Altitude 750 feet Search object 1 Person in water Raft 1 person Raft 4 persons Raft 6 persons Raft 8 persons Raft 10 persons Raft 15 persons Raft 20 persons Raft 25 persons Power boat < 15 ft Power boat 15–25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat 15 feet Sailboat 20 feet Sailboat 25 feet Sailboat 30 feet Sailboat 40 feet Sailboat 50 feet Sailboat 65–75 feet Sailboat 75–90 feet Ship 90–150 feet Ship 150–300 feet Ship > 300 feet 0.0 4.1 1.1 1.0 15.7 3.4 12.1 3.6 20.9 9.4 13.4 1.4 3.4 14.1 1.2 29.7 4.7 2.4 6.5 3.5 0.0 5.4 21.8 4.3 10.2 2.8 2.8 2.8 20 0.9 5.4 6.2 8.5 0.5 2.1 0.2 2.1 3.9 3.6 3.8 18.1 3.3 10.3 12.

1 1.9 4.0 3.6 5.9 10.5 24.6 37.0 0.8 4.0 12.8 43.2 5.7 5.0 8.4 14.3 4.8 2.7 3.4 Altitude 2000 feet Visibility (M) 5 0.7 0.6 3.7 3.6 5.4 0.1 2.4 0.5 2.9 5.4 22.1 2.7 2.7 0.9 4.3 3.0 5.5 0.7 2.5 0.1 5.2 6.0 10.3 2.4 7.4 13.9 3.7 2.6 2.7 3.4 0.0 6.6 0.3 17.7 1.1 15.8 2.5 19.5 1.9 1.0 7.4 13.0 4.0 0.0 0.8 2.9 8.4 11.5 1.9 2.1 0.1 7.7 6.8 3.0 8.3 4.1 2.5 0.7 9.6 0.4 26.1 9.6 3.3 4.8 43.5 4.9 20 0.5 0.3 3.9 3.0 3.7 3.1 3.1 1.8 1.7 9.4 1.4 2.4 8.5 22.2 1.0 2.6 15 0.6 17.4 0.6 1.5 0.6 3.5 11.4 0.5 3.0 4.4 1.0 29.7 2.5 5.0 20 0.9 FIGURE 7D–7 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— HELICOPTERS—ALTITUDES 1500 AND 2000 FEET ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 57 .3 30 0.2 5.6 20.5 0.9 15.7 3.4 12.8 1.3 5.0 5.2 3.2 1.6 2.5 9.3 2.6 3.1 1.0 5.8 4.8 2.6 4.9 5.2 5.9 5.6 7.0 0.2 29.8 24.3 6.0 1.2 4.1 10.3 3.6 5.3 2.2 3.7 0.9 1.3 22.4 0.2 3.4 14.4 5.3 0.5 0.3 17.2 17.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Altitude 1500 feet Search object 1 Person in water Raft 1 person Raft 4 persons Raft 6 persons Raft 8 persons Raft 10 persons Raft 15 persons Raft 20 persons Raft 25 persons Power boat < 15 ft Power boat 15–25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat 15 feet Sailboat 20 feet Sailboat 25 feet Sailboat 30 feet Sailboat 40 feet Sailboat 50 feet Sailboat 65–75 feet Sailboat 75–90 feet Ship 90–150 feet Ship 150–300 feet Ship > 300 feet 0.6 16.4 0.1 1.6 3.6 0.8 5.8 2.6 3 0.0 8.4 26.4 18.8 3.8 3.4 9.6 15 0.0 10.9 5.7 2.0 3.9 4.5 12.0 3.7 5.5 8.7 6.9 15.6 37.5 6.9 4.4 12.2 2.6 6.7 6.3 0.1 2.3 4.6 10.2 4.1 9.5 0.4 13.9 6.8 2.2 0.6 0.6 0.3 2.3 14.7 2.3 9.4 0.0 4.6 20.3 6.3 3.9 1 0.3 0.5 24.4 10 0.9 7.5 0.9 15.0 6.7 0.4 10 0.5 0.0 2.2 5.2 4.1 1.2 7.3 3.6 11.6 6.6 7.3 4.2 2.8 18.3 0.9 4.6 0.4 13.9 2.6 0.3 2.5 6.2 4.6 5.6 1.9 2.0 1.3 3.0 6.3 6.8 3.7 0.9 12.3 5.5 22.5 0.0 1.4 22.0 12.5 19.1 11.2 6.0 3.9 24.5 0.2 4.3 11.3 2.9 18.0 1.7 0.3 3.5 10.0 8.6 4.5 2.0 3.6 5.1 6.3 22.1 18.4 14.9 8.1 3.2 2.9 1.4 3.4 5.2 29.3 0.4 14.1 3.5 0.3 18.8 3.2 17.7 6.7 1.2 1.2 2.5 14.7 2.3 3.3 12.2 1.1 6.5 0.4 3.8 15.2 5.4 0.2 2.5 6.7 3.3 0.1 18.3 2.6 3.0 29.6 12.0 4.0 3.1 15.7 0.8 4.2 3.3 2.8 3.3 0.2 30 0.5 2.3 5.0 2.5 6.9 1.0 1.6 10.0 5.4 Visibility (M) 5 0.5 0.6 3.2 1.7 3 0.

5 11.1 1.3 5.0 4.3 11.3 0.3 0.2 0.9 10.5 9.6 20.6 6.4 1.2 11.8 5.2 17.9 1.5 9.6 24.2 2.9 6.6 12.2 29.4 2.0 2.1 1.2 0.3 1.5 3.4 2.2 2.5 6.7 2.0 3.7 11.1 10.7 9.1 8.9 15.0 4.2 0.3 0.0 1.7 3.3 0.3 22.1 8.2 5.1 6.0 1.9 5.2 5.0 0.0 5.4 2.3 3.4 0.3 0.4 10 0.7 1.3 3.3 4.9 15.2 17.5 13.8 6.0 29.0 24.6 7.6 5.2 29.3 4.9 2.2 0.0 3. the sweep widths given for 3000 feet remain applicable.8 43.3 5.3 0.3 6.5 13.3 0.0 4.8 3.0 3.4 26.3 0.7 12.1 18.2 0.3 1.0 15.4 19.3 4.2 0.2 0.1 0.6 6.0 1.6 37.7 4.7 5.9 1.0 2.1 1.3 3.4 2.3 3.5 14.7 4.0 1.9 1.6 37.2 0.5 3 0.6 1.6 5.9 15.3 5.0 0.8 1.1 1.5 2.4 0.3 6.5 2.0 0.3 4.9 * Visual searches are seldom conducted from altitudes above 3000 feet.0 1.1 3.3 4.1 18.7 9.5 8.7 3.5 2.1 8.6 1.6 9.3 4.9 5.2 0.1 0.7 2.7 12.1 4.7 6.4 0.7 2.5 22.2 9.9 3.2 5.3 4.2 1.1 0.7 2.2 6.4 6.9 4.4 14.0 18.0 4.0 29.0 3.0 2.4 0.4 0.4 1.2 0.3 6.7 2.7 1.1 0.0 12.3 4.2 0.1 8.6 15 0.7 7.8 3.1 2.8 1.2 20 0.4 18.0 3.3 2.6 3.4 5.3 6.3 0.6 1.7 9.9 5.8 3.3 9.1 8.7 6.0 1.1 3.4 0.6 5.3 3.1 15.1 20 0.3 7.6 3.7 11.0 5.3 0.8 5. FIGURE 7D–8 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— HELICOPTERS—ALTITUDES 2500 AND 3000 FEET CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 58 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .6 10.3 3 0.8 10.7 4.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 2.0 0.3 0.6 4.4 0.5 15.3 3. for altitudes up to 5000 feet where visibility exceeds 3 M and target size exceeds 25 feet.1 5.2 0.8 3.1 6.1 1 0.5 14.3 4.4 14.5 12.8 5.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 Altitude 2500 feet Search object 1 Person in water Raft 1 person Raft 4 persons Raft 6 persons Raft 8 persons Raft 10 persons Raft 15 persons Raft 20 persons Raft 25 persons Power boat < 15 ft Power boat 15–25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat 15 feet Sailboat 20 feet Sailboat 25 feet Sailboat 30 feet Sailboat 40 feet Sailboat 50 feet Sailboat 65–75 feet Sailboat 75–90 feet Ship 90–150 feet Ship 150–300 feet Ship > 300 feet 0.0 1.6 24.1 13.1 3.9 4.9 2.1 7.5 22.0 6.3 22.7 17.2 3.7 15 0.0 5.3 3.9 4.9 1.9 2.4 17.1 0.1 4.0 6.6 7.1 2.0 4.8 3.0 1.8 3.8 6.1 0.8 43.9 2.4 0.0 3.8 2.4 0.9 5.7 5.3 0.5 3.1 7.7 17.3 7.1 0.9 18.2 3.0 1.9 2.0 5.2 1.8 3.1 15.4 11.6 19.9 2.8 4.7 3. however.3 2.5 6.2 12.3 5.1 2.5 13.6 6.4 0.3 30 0.7 10.5 22.7 3.4 30 0.9 24.9 6.2 0.1 2.1 8.4 2.7 1.3 3.9 3.1 3.6 8.7 7.0 1.0 3.3 5.5 1.5 22.3 Altitude 3000 feet * Visibility (M) 5 0.8 2.2 2.2 0.3 17.8 5.6 2.0 1.7 4.1 3.4 26.1 10.2 2.6 20.4 13.1 3.0 4.7 4.4 Visibility (M) 5 0.6 12.6 19.1 6.0 2.3 3.8 3.6 2.4 10 0.4 14.

5 7.4 6.3 3.3 2.2 2.9 0.8 14.7 7.3 1.9 3.6 11.1 15 0.6 9.0 4.2 3.1 8.9 0.0 8.1 3.3 6.9 10 0.1 5.0 17.2 15.5 1.2 1.8 6.1 14.0 8.1 4.8 1.6 13.7 3.8 12.5 2.4 21.5 2.3 3.9 1.2 1 0.4 3.8 0.3 0.8 20 0.6 4.5 2.4 2.0 1.0 1.7 10.4 4.3 7.8 4.4 2.5 5.4 Boats — ex.5 6.4 2.2 2.7 10.2 5.8 0.7 3.1 14.7 4.2 2.1 5.1 1.3 10.1 6.0 13.7 3.1 2.3 5.7 6.5 3.8 4.8 0.3 2.0 3.4 1.3 2.6 13.0 3.6 7.9 0.5 7.8 FIGURE 7D–9 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— VESSELS AND SMALL BOATS ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 59 .9 5.5 9.8 5.1 2.6 4.6 2.2 4.0 2.9 5.0 1.3 6.7 0.0 4.4 5 0.8 5.6 5.8 20 0.9 0.3 10.4 10.2 1.2 8.1 1.3 3.8 11.4 2.7 3.1 20.1 2.2 2. type 300 (41' Utility Boat UTB) Visibility (M) 3 0.2 7.5 2.0 6.5 Person in water Raft 1 person Raft 4 persons Raft 6 persons Raft 8 persons Raft 10 persons Raft 15 persons Raft 20 persons Raft 25 persons Power boat < 15 ft Power boat 15–25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat 15 feet Sailboat 20 feet Sailboat 25 feet Sailboat 30 feet Sailboat 40 feet Sailboat 50 feet Sailboat 65–75 feet Sailboat 75–90 feet Ship 90–150 feet Ship 150–300 feet Ship > 300 feet 0.3 1.0 13.2 1.5 3.3 3.6 8.4 3.9 0.8 2.2 1.5 16.1 10.9 4.1 29.4 18.4 0.3 15.7 1.7 7.1 6.8 1.3 11.1 3.0 3.2 1.9 5.2 1.1 5.0 2.5 1.8 3.9 2.9 15 0.4 3.2 12.6 3.6 3.2 8.9 7.4 0.7 5.4 4.3 11.9 3.5 3.5 2.9 2.9 2.2 0.5 6.1 2.1 1.0 4.6 2.7 4.7 4.5 3.5 1.9 1.7 2.2 3.3 3.1 1.8 2.7 6.1 1.0 6.6 2.8 0.4 1.7 5.3 6.2 10.2 0.0 2.9 2.8 0.2 1. type 500 (90' All Weather Patrol Boat WPB) Visibility (M) 1 3 0.8 0.0 4.6 4.1 1.1 6.3 5.7 0.8 5.9 0.3 1.7 2.2 16.1 4.9 15.5 1.4 1.2 1.7 4.3 9.5 3.1 9.9 8.1 5.9 4.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Search object Ships — ex.2 3.4 1.1 3.3 2.0 1.0 5.3 1.7 6.0 3.9 4.5 4.3 7.6 5.1 1.7 1.8 3.4 5.2 22.7 12.1 5.3 2.2 2.8 5.9 0.3 3.5 26.0 16.4 4.2 6.9 18.5 1.3 4.8 8.6 8.8 4.0 3.6 20.3 4.0 6.2 1.4 14.9 0.6 3.7 6.3 7.8 4.8 3.9 0.2 1.1 1.3 2.5 2.1 21.3 4.6 5 0.6 4.1 10.7 2.9 4.5 2.6 2.5 5.1 4.1 14.8 8.9 4.8 1.5 3.0 1.9 9.8 0.7 11.5 13.0 5.4 10 0.9 0.

9 Winds> 25 knots Seas > 4 feet 0. Target Type Person in water Boat < 30 feet Other targets Winds > 15 knots Seas 2–3 feet 0.2 feet 0.7 M Unlighted Liferaft Canopy Targets Significant Wave Height Lateral Range 3 to 5 feet 1.5 0.0 M Average Conditions 18 knots 5.25 0.3 M 5.5 0.0 M Above Average Conditions 14 knots 5.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 Liferaft Canopy Lights Variables Wind Speed Sweep Width Below Average Conditions 24 knots 4.6 M FIGURE 7D–10 UNCORRECTED VISUAL SWEEP WIDTH TABLE— NIGHT VISION GOGGLES The following table gives the weather condition factor (fw). When two conditions are present.25 0. use the values from the right hand column.9 FIGURE 7D–11 WEATHER CONDITION FACTOR CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 60 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .6 to 7.

0 1.1 1.1 Helicopter (speed in knots) 90 1.9 0. FIGURE 7D–12 SEARCH AIRCRAFT SPEED CORRECTION TABLE If feedback from on-scene search and rescue units indicates search crews are excessively fatigued.1 1.9 1.0 60 1.1 1.0 1.9 0.0 1.9 0.1 1.1 1.1 1. This value is the speed correction.8 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.9 1.0 1.9 Correcting for Search Aircraft Speed Correction (fv)—Enter the speed correction table with aircraft type and the speed flown.0 210 0.9 0.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.1 1.0 1. There is no speed correction for surface SRUs.0 1. reduce the sweep width values by 10 %: ff = 0.2 1.9 0.0 1.2 1.2 1.9 0.9 0.3 1.0 1.1 1.9 0.0 180 1.0 1.9 1.0 1.0 1.8 FIGURE 7D–13 FATIGUE CORRECTION FACTOR REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 7 – PAGE 61 .0 1.1 1.8 0.1 1.9 0.9 0.0 140 0.9 0.0 1.1 1.8 0.0 1.5 1.0 1.9 0.0 0.9 1. Read down the column to the search object.0 1.0 1.0 120 0.1 1.9 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.2 1. Interpolate as required.0 1.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Search object Person in water Raft 1 to 4 persons Raft 6 to 25 persons Power boat < 25 ft Power boat 25–40 ft Power boat 40–65 ft Power boat 65–90 ft Sailboat < 26 ft Sailboat 30-52 ft Sailboat 65-90 ft Ship > 90 ft Fixed-wing aircraft (speed in knots) < 150 1.1 1.0 1.

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Use the fatigue correction factor when the crew on the SRU is likely fatigued. Crew will be fatigued if they have been involved in a search for an extended period, and they may exhibit signs of fatigue which include: missed communications; problems with memory; irritability; and increased time to complete tasks or make decisions.

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CHAPTER 8—COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURES
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................ 1
Chapter 8 – COMMUNICATIONS PROCEDURES Introduction ............................................................................................................. 3 Minimum RCC/MRSC Communications Systems Requirements.......................... 3 Recording of RCC/MRSC Communications .......................................................... 4 Forwarding Aeronautical & Maritime Alerts to an RCC/MRSC ........................... 4 Reception of Aeronautical & Maritime Alerts at an RCC/MRSC .......................... 5 Vital Incident Data ................................................................................................. 5 Distress Beacon Alerts-General .............................................................................. 6 Cospas-Sarsat Beacon Alerts .................................................................................. 6 Inmarsat-E EPIRB Alerts ........................................................................................ 8 VHF-DSC EPIRB Alerts......................................................................................... 8 Maritime Mobile & Maritime Mobile-Satellite Services – General ....................... 8 Maritime Mobile Service-Radio Telephone Alerts................................................. 9 Maritime Mobile Service-Digital Selective Calling (DSC) Alerts ......................... 9 Maritime Mobile Service-SAR Transponder (SART) Alerts ............................... 11 Maritime Mobile-Satellite Service-Inmarsat Alerts.............................................. 11 Mobile Phone (Terrestrial & Satellite) Alerts ....................................................... 12 Communications Searches .................................................................................... 13 CCG VHF Direction Finding Assistance .............................................................. 14 CF HF Direction Finding Assistance .................................................................... 14 Broadcast-General................................................................................................. 16 Maritime Safety Information (MSI) Broadcast-General....................................... 16 MSI-DSC Broadcast.............................................................................................. 17 MSI -RT Broadcast ............................................................................................... 17 MSI -NAVTEX Broadcast .................................................................................... 17 MSI -SafetyNet Enhanced Group Call (EGC) Broadcast ..................................... 17 MSI-NOTSHIP & NAVAREA Warnings ............................................................ 18 SARNET ............................................................................................................... 18 Mission Co-ordination Communications .............................................................. 18 AMVER ................................................................................................................ 19 Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) & Reporting Systems........................................... 20 SAR Vessels in VTS Zones .................................................................................. 20 On-Scene Communications................................................................................... 20 Annex 8A – LIST OF SAR RELATED RADIO FREQUENCIES AND CHANNELS..... 21 Distress, safety and calling.................................................................................... 21 Mission Co-ordination .......................................................................................... 22 On-scene ground search parties working frequencies........................................... 23 Frequencies used by MCTS centres ...................................................................... 24 Annex 8B – MSI BROADCAST MESSAGE......................................................................... 25

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Annex 8C - MSI BROADCAST CANCELLATION MESSAGE.................................. 26 Annex 8D - CF SUPPLEMENTARY RADIO SYSTEM HF DF SAR MESSAGE ....... 27 Annex 8E – AMVER .................................................................................................. 28 Vessels reporting ................................................................................................ 28 Information......................................................................................................... 28 SURPIC.............................................................................................................. 29 Procedures .......................................................................................................... 29

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INTRODUCTION
8.1 Efficient operational communications systems, policies and procedures are vital to the overall delivery of SAR services and to the success of every SAR mission. Communications support; distress alerting, co-ordination, and locating functions by allowing: .1 those in distress to alert the SAR system; .2 the SAR system to respond and conduct its mission; and .3 survivors to help SAR units respond and conduct a rescue.1 8.2 This chapter details communications system, policies and procedures to be used in the Canadian SRR in addition to procedures found in other publications such as the IAMSAR Manual. MINIMUM RCC/MRSC COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 8.3 RCC/ MRSC’s are the “hub” of Canada’s SAR System and shall effectively co-ordinate multi-agency responses to aeronautical or maritime SAR incidents. To support co-ordination, the following communications systems shall be provided in each RCC/MRSC: .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 Telephone links (includes toll-free and regular emergency lines that are widely published, sufficient non-emergency lines and lines for the press); Fax links; Telex links (for A3 sea area and international communications); SARCOM links (dedicated CCG regional link between RCC/MRSC, MCTS Centres and ROCs); ADIS links (Automated Data Interchange System (ADIS) which is the Canadian ATC communications network forming the international AFTN (Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Network) - RCCs only); Military Messaging System links (RCCs only); Internet links; E-Mail links; Dedicated data links (as required); Dedicated voice links (as required);

.6 .7 .8 .9 .10
1

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.11 Inmarsat-C terminals (for A3 sea area SafetyNet monitoring); .12 .13 Wireless contingency back-up communications links (terrestrial and satellite); Contact list of facilities available to support SAR.

RECORDING OF RCC/MRSC COMMUNICATIONS 8.4 Operational communications links at RCC/MRSCs are to be equipped with recording equipment. The policy applied to the custody and operations of the recording equipment is as follows: .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 all conversations on RCC/MRSC operational communication lines shall be recorded; tapes/disks shall be changed as required; recorded tapes/disks shall be numbered and dated; all recorded tapes/disks shall be kept for a minimum of 30 days; tapes/disks shall be impounded by the OIC RCC or RSMS MRSC whenever an investigation, judicial inquiry, etc., has been ordered or is anticipated and the OIC RCC or RSMS MRSC shall be responsible for providing continuity of possession ensuring that tapes/disks are not recycled until released by higher authority; requests for recordings and transcripts should be directed to the OIC RCC or RSMS MRSC in writing; tapes/disks or transcripts are not to be released to other than DFO/Canadian Coast Guard, DND/Canadian Forces and TSB personnel unless ordered by the National Defence Headquarters or a court of law; and instantaneous playback of all operational telephone lines shall be provided.

.6 .7

.8

FORWARDING AERONAUTICAL & MARITIME ALERTS TO AN RCC/MRSC 8.5 The need for the earliest possible alerting of the RCC/MRSC SAR Co-ordinator to actual or potential aeronautical and maritime incidents cannot be overemphasised. Any facility, either mobile or fixed, that detects an alert of an actual or potential incident, as described below, shall forward, as soon as possible, all related information, including information on any actions taken, to an RCC/MRSC: .1 all maritime or aeronautical SAR incidents;

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.2 .3

any situation which may develop into a SAR incident; and any incident, which may involve or lead to danger to life, the environment or to property which may require action from the SAR services and/or other authorities.

RECEPTION OF AERONAUTICAL AND MARITIME ALERTS AT AN RCC/MRSC 8.6 The RCC/MRSC is alerted of aeronautical or maritime distress or other incidents, which require a co-ordinated response from the SAR System, via numerous means. These means include but are not limited to; .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .10 Radiotelephone (monitored by ATC, MCTS or others), Radio digital selective calling (monitored by MCTS), Distress beacons (monitored by Cospas-Sarsat, Inmarsat or MCTS-for VHF-DSC beacons), Inmarsat, SARTs, Reports of official visual or audible distress signals or other indications of distress, Reports of overdue or missing aircraft , Reports of overdue or missing vessels and persons at sea, Reports of overdue or missing aircraft or vessels participating in an ATC, VTS or offshore reporting system, Requests for assistance via mobile phone aboard an aircraft or vessel or on behalf of an aircraft or vessel,

Regardless of the means and method, whether regulated by aeronautical or maritime regulations or not, by which a RCC/MRSC SAR Co-ordinator has been alerted of an actual or potential aeronautical or maritime incident, the SAR Co-ordinator shall take action to resolve the incident.

VITAL INCIDENT DATA 8.7 Regardless of the means by which an alert is transmitted to an RCC/MRSC, the SAR Coordinator shall, as a minimum, obtain data vital to co-ordinating the effective resolution of

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In the absence of. Alerts are then forwarded to the associated mission control centre (MCC) for processing and determination of position.9 The response to ELT and EPIRB alerts falls within the DND/CCG mandate. At no time shall the SAR Co-ordinator delay the response to a life-threatening incident. or in corroboration with. The RCC or MRSC SAR Co-ordinator shall then action the alert to resolve the incident. The resolution of PLB alerts does not fall within this mandate and the appropriate authority will be sought to resolve the incident. A list of this data is found in IAMSAR Vol 2 Appendix C.3 VHF-DSC EPIRB 8.2 Inmarsat-E EPIRB .1 Cospas-Sarsat 121. AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. The Canadian MCC (CMCC) at RCC Trenton shall forward all ELT and EPIRB alerts to the RCC responsible for the SRR in which the beacon is detected. COSPAS-SARSAT BEACON ALERTS 8.5/243/406 MHz ELT/EPIRB/PLB . DISTRESS BEACON ALERTS . Normally. if all vital data is not readily available.5/243 MHz and 406 MHz distress beacons (ELT/EPIRB/PLB) are received by the Cospas-Sarsat constellation of geostationary (GOES) and low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellites and relayed to ground stations called local users terminals (LUTs).GENERAL 8. other information.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL the incident.8 There are three types of distress beacons regulated for use: .10 Alerts from 121. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 6 . the Canadian Mission Control Centre (CMCC) will disseminate Cospas-Sarsat PLB alerts for resolution to a provincial/territorial SAR point of contact (SPOC). a distress beacon alert is to be considered as a sign of distress and shall be actioned immediately by the responsible RCC/MRSC until resolved.

an alert is normally considered to be received at the RCC when CMCC “merges” two unique “hits” to form a CMCC ‘case”.5/243 MHz beacons – These are uncoded and thus have no associated registration database. AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. identify the aircraft or vessel and give contact information.1 Call sign.13 Coded Cospas-Sarsat beacons transmit a bit-code that contains vital information. Also included is a “beacon ID” which is coded using one of three protocols: . Some also transmit a low-power 121. which is used to cross-reference against the distress beacon registry for each country.5 MHz homing signal.2 MMSI. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 7 . and when properly registered. the position is transmitted within the bit-code. 8. 8. The Canadian 406 MHz beacon registry is maintained by the National Search and Rescue Secretariat (NSS) (toll-free in Canada 1-800-727-9414 or 1-613-996-1504) and accessed by CMCC on a 24/7 basis. or . Some beacons may have a GPS position fixing option. In the absence of other corroborating information. . SAR Coordinators who encounter improperly registered beacons shall advise CMCC.3 Serial number not related to any other registry. in which case.11 121.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 8. including the 15-digit hexidecimal code. which the SAR Co-ordinator shall use in resolving incidents.12 406 MHz beacons – These are coded.

16 When an Inmarsat Land Earth Station (LES) receives a beacon distress alert. until a probable position of the beacon can be ascertained. If the position is outside that RCC’s SRR. These beacons are registered in the Inmarsat registry. survival craft stations and emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations may also participate in this service”. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 8 . cannot ascertain the beacon’s position because there is no Doppler shift.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL This ID may be useful to cross-reference against other registries. “A mobile-satellite (communications) service in which mobile earth stations are located on board ships: survival craft stations and emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations may also participate in this service”. Once received at the responsible Canadian RCC/MRSC. with the accompanying registry information. An unlocated signal is initially passed to the MCC of the country that holds the database for that beacon. The RCC/MRSC SAR Co-ordinator shall then action the alert to resolve the incident similarly to VHF-DSC distress alerts. These beacons provide ship-to-shore distress alerting for ships operating within the Inmarsat satellite coverage footprint. use VHF-DSC EPIRBs transmitting on channel 70. in lieu of satellite EPIRBs. These beacons do not have a homing signal due to the accuracy of the on-board GPS positioning. it can be obtained from an Inmarsat Operator. In Canada.GENERAL 8. which contains vital information on the vessel carrying the beacon. These services interface with carriage requirements and other shore-side services.14 406 MHz Cospas-Sarsat beacon alerts are instantaneously detected by the GOES satellites which. it is forwarded. the RCC shall pass the alert to the responsible RCC for resolution. A position cannot be calculated until a LEO satellite detects the signal. held at the LES. VHF-DSC EPIRB ALERTS 8. the SAR Co-ordinator shall then action the alert to resolve the incident.18 The Maritime Mobile Service is defined by the ITU as. If it is a Canadian registered beacon. or between ship stations. These EPIRBs transmit an MMSI. They are registered in the national MMSI database for each country. 8. The MCTS Officer shall then forward all alert information to the appropriate RCC/MRSC as soon as possible. INMARSAT-E EPIRB ALERTS 8. “A mobile (communications) service between coast stations and ship stations.15 Inmarsat-E is the system that supports the operation of L-band EPIRBs. distress alerts from these beacons are detected by CCG MCTS Centres. The Maritime Mobile-Satellite Service is defined by the ITU as. GPS position and other vital information. required under SOLAS and the International AMENDMENT – OCTOBER.17 Ships operating exclusively in an “A1 sea area” may. If the vessel data is not provided with the alert. for action by the RCC associated with that LES. MARITIME MOBILE AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE SERVICES . however. A SART may be built into the beacon for homing but is not a requirement. 8. CMCC shall forward the alert to the RCC responsible for the SRR in which the aircraft or vessel normally operates. or between associated on-board communications stations.

22 MCTS actions upon receipt of a VHF-DSC distress alert – If the distress co-ordinates are within an MCTS Centre’s area of responsibility.19 In the Canadian SRR. to form the overall “GLOBAL MARITIME DISTRESS & SAFETY SYSTEM” (GMDSS). foreign coast radio stations.21 DSC distress and other alerts are detected by: CCG MCTS Centres equipped with DSC. (default is “no position information” or 99999 99999). the MCTS Officer will immediately transmit a VHF-DSC distress alert acknowledgement. If no co-ordinates are transmitted or if the AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. The MCTS Officer will obtain relevant vital data from the source. 8. MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE – DIGITAL SELECTIVE CALLING (DSC) ALERTS 8. Distress co-ordinates. and vessels within propagation range of the alert broadcast (refer to Annex 1 for DSC frequencies).B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Convention on Maritime SAR. MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE – RADIOTELEPHONE ALERTS 8. 9-digit Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI): • Ship station: MIDXXXXXX. The MCTS Officer shall then forward. as soon as possible. 8. . Nature of the distress (default setting is “undesignated”). the MCTS Officer shall broadcast. Further. Further. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 9 . all information related to alerts and any actions taken to the RCC/MRSC SAR Co-ordinator via voice and follow-up with a hardcopy message. • Safety. • Urgency. a “Mayday Relay” if it is clear that there are persons in distress and more assistance is required. Time UTC: hhmm (default is “no time information” or 8888). these Centres provide the follow-on broadcast and mobile communications services required during the resolution of a SAR incident.20 Upon receipt of a VHF/MF/HF RT transmitted alert at an MCTS Centre.1 DSC alert message composition: Format specifier: • Distress. CCG Marine Communications and Traffic Services (MCTS) Centres provide 24/7 “coast watching” services required for the detection of all distress alerts issued within the maritime mobile service. the duty MCTS Officer (MCTSO) will take action in accordance with (IAW) the MCTS National Standards Manual. . The RCC/ MRSC SAR Co-ordinator shall then action the alert to resolve the incident (refer to Annex 1 for frequencies). • Coast station: 00MIDXXXX.2 where MID is Maritime Identification Digits or country code and X is any figure from 0 to 9. Mode of subsequent communication (default is “radiotelephony”). on behalf of the Master of the distressed vessel.

4 If the position is outside the RCC’s SRR or MRSC’s SRS.The SAR Co-ordinator shall: . obtain the receiving station’s name.25 If the MCTS Centre or other station that received the alert is unable to communicate with the vessel that sent the alert. or no position is transmitted. assume SAR Mission Coordinator (SMC) and continue to resolve the incident. a Mayday Relay may be broadcast. . the MCTS Officer will acknowledge. 8. and/or . If this is not possible.1 Identifying the distressed vessel and obtaining registry information from a MMSI registry and attempting to establish communications using all available means such as Inmarsat. RCC/MRSC shall establish communications directly with the vessel or shore-side contact for the vessel by: .23 MCTS actions upon receipt of a MF/HF DSC distress alert . The MCTS Officer will then advise the RCC/MRSC as soon as possible. and other vital data. frequency alert received on. The MCTS Officer will then advise the RCC/MRSC.2 If not received directly by an MCTS Centre.3 If the position is within the RCC’s SRR or MRSC’s SRS.6. a Mayday Relay may be broadcast. section 3. chapter 3. 8. continue to action the incident IAW the policy of “First RCC” detailed in the IAMSAR Manual Vol 2.24 RCC/MRSC actions upon notification of a DSC distress alert . advise the Flag State for that particular vessel.1 Obtain distressed vessel’s MMSI. After acknowledgement. If the distress co-ordinates are outside the Canadian SRR or no co-ordinates were included in the transmission a DSC distress alert acknowledgement will not be sent without consultation with the RCC/MRSC SAR Co-ordinator. the most appropriate MCTS Centre will immediately transmit a MF/HF DSC distress alert acknowledgement on the same frequency.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL co-ordinates are outside VHF range and it is not being acknowledged. and request they attempt to contact the distressed vessel. and/or .3 Contacting other RCCs and requesting any further information they may have on the distressed vessel. attempt to pass responsibility to the appropriate RCC/MRSC. After acknowledgement.If the distress coordinates are within the Canadian SRR. and/or AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. position.2 Identifying other vessels in the area of the distressed vessel using MSI broadcasts and AMVER. communications will be established on RT or NBDP using the associated frequency in order to obtain vital information. Further. 8. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 10 . and any actions taken. RT communications will be established on VHF CH 16 in order to obtain vital data. If required. . . If required. time of receipt. MMSI.

2 If the position is outside their SRR or SRS. Quebec. section 3. They transmit a signal in the X-band (3 cm) radio frequency used by common aeronautical and maritime radar.27 Search and Rescue (radar) Transponders (SARTs) are used for locating survivors by SAR units and are also to be considered as a distress alert. Appendix B. for Inmarsat B/C services. A vessel in distress in Canada’s SRR using an LES other than Laurentides will have its automatic distress alert sent to the RCC associated with the LES which that vessel has chosen. 8. MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE SERVICE – INMARSAT ALERTS 8. for the forwarding of distress alerts between RCCs. MARITIME MOBILE SERVICE – SAR TRANSPONDER (SART) ALERTS 8. fax. AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. If this is not possible.3 Use the services of the Inmarsat LES or Network Operations Centre (NOC) operator to help establish direct follow-on communications. They are detected at various distances depending on scanner height.26 The Canadian MMSI Registry is maintained by Industry Canada and is available via the Internet. RCC Halifax is associated with the LES at Laurentides. if required. . 8. The ITU also maintains an international MMSI registry available via the Internet. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 11 . .30 RCC/MRSC actions upon receipt or notification of an Inmarsat alert – The SAR Coordinator shall: . the SAR Co-ordinator shall continue to action the incident IAW the policy of “First RCC” detailed in the IAMSAR Vol 2. Vessels may also contact any RCC/MRSC directly by telephone. acknowledge reception of the alert by establishing contact with the vessel via any means and resolve the incident. RCC Halifax is designated the 24/7 emergency “SAR Data Provider” for the Canadian MMSI registry. or telex using Inmarsat A/B/C. The SART should normally be taken to the survival craft when abandoning the vessel. SAR Co-ordinators shall use the format for “RCC-RCC Distress Alert Information” provided in IAMSAR Vol 2.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL .4 Contacting the 24/7 SAR data provider for the national MMSI or Distress Beacon registries. tuning and band-width of the radar.1 If the distress position is within their SRR or SRS. acknowledge reception of the alert and attempt to pass responsibility to the appropriate RCC/MRSC.6.29 Inmarsat A/B/C distress and urgency alerts transmitted from a vessel are first detected by an Inmarsat LES and forwarded directly to its associated RCC. 8.28 Any RCC/MRSC SAR Co-ordinator that is advised of the detection of a SART shall action the alert to resolve the incident. chapter 3.

telex. The ship will still be able to send a distress alert to an RCC via a LES even when normal access is barred. as opposed to a terminal ID. This Internet-based service gives the shore-to-ship message the same priority for immediate delivery as a distress message originating from a ship.32 Follow-on Inmarsat communications – Each Inmarsat system provides different services and can be recognised by the first digit of the Inmarsat Mobile Number (IMN): Type Inmarsat-A Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-C Inmarsat-M First Digit 1 3 4 6 Service telephone.33 To call a vessel on Inmarsat. Inmarsat equipment manufacturers have records to match return IDs with serial numbers and should be able to identify the dealer to whom the terminal was sold.35 Barred Inmarsat terminals – Inmarsat may bar a ship’s terminal from accessing the system due to non-payment of invoices or improper use. 8. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 12 . fax. Since reception of MSI Broadcasts is a requirement in the GMDSS. fax. Occasionally alerts are received from terminals that have been installed on a ship but have not yet been commissioned on the Inmarsat system. which means the LES will send a positive delivery notification (PDN) to the originator when the message is delivered to the vessel. telex. the SAR Co-ordinator can request that the Operator at the LES that received the alert.36 Mobile (Cellular) Telephones – Although a cellular phone is not an approved nor suitable substitute for radiotelephone distress communications. *16 to be connected directly to an MCTS Centre. all barred terminals will still receive all priorities of EGC broadcasts. 911 to be connected AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. fax.31 Inmarsat Terminal Return ID – The return ID is a “hidden” Inmarsat ID assigned to a ship earth station used by the system for security purposes . data telephone. cellular users can call. 8. An Inmarsat-C DMSG can be sent from the RCC/MRSC or an MCTS Centre with access to the service. MOBILE PHONE (TERRESTRIAL AND SATELLITE) ALERTS 8. which is assigned by Inmarsat when the SES is commissioned. data telex. In Canada. The return ID is programmed into the terminal at the manufacturing stage. RCC/MRSC SAR Co-ordinators must be capable of co-ordinating the response to incidents alerted via this method. data 8. follow the instructions in the Inmarsat Users’ Manual or use the assistance of the LES or NOC Operator. 8.34 Inmarsat-C shore-to-ship distress priority message (DMSG) – An RCC/MRSC may initiate an Inmarsat-C DMSG message for follow-on communications. In the event that RCC/MRSC receives a distress alert from a barred terminal. An acknowledgement request can be attached to the message. data telephone. It can be obtained from the Inmarsat NOC or the LES Operator that received the distress alert.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 8. send fax. In these cases there will be no terminal ID to identify the vessel. activate the terminal for distress communications. thus ensuring that the message has been delivered on-board the vessel.

2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 13 .1 . Which cell site a particular call was received through.39 Satellite Communications Services – Although many mobile satellite communications services are not regulated for the provision of aeronautical or maritime distress alerting.1 . If an alert is transmitted via one of these services. the SAR Co-ordinator shall. COMMUNICATIONS SEARCHES 8. 8.3 . the caller should attempt to make a distress alert on standard distress radiotelephone frequencies. RCC/MRSCs must be capable of coordinating the response to incidents alerted via this method. Cellular service provider.2 . Roam number if needed to recall caller.5 Caller’s complete cellular telephone number. Appendix D. and Locating services. e-mail.38 RCC/MRSCs should make arrangements with the cellular service providers’ regional Network Operation Centres (NOCs) to provide SAR assistance such as: . if required. and data communications.3 .B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL directly with a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). if possible.40 Most satellite service providers maintain a Network Operations Centre (NOC) that is staffed 24/7. 8. There are numerous international services (systems) used aboard aircraft and vessels for the provision of: voice. In addition to the vital data. When last and next call is made from a particular cellular number. then an appropriate communication schedule should be arranged. Quite often these services automatically interface with public communications networks. where available. or the RCC/MRSC directly.2 .4 . AMENDMENT – OCTOBER.4 Directory assistance. Further.41 In the uncertainty or alert phases of an incident. nor are suitable substitutes for approved distress communications. 8. initiate a communications search for overdue or missing aircraft and vessels. either directly to an RCC/MRSC or relayed to an RCC/MRSC via another source. the following information should also be initially obtained: . as per IAMSAR Vol 2.37 The caller should be advised to keep the cellular phone on and ensure any call forwarding or messaging is disabled. RCC/MRSCs should maintain contact information for these NOCs to assist in establishing follow-on communications and obtaining vital data in the event of an alert being transmitted via one of these services. fax. 8. If the cellular telephone has insufficient battery charge to be left on. and Remaining battery power. the SAR Coordinator shall then action the alert to resolve the incident. An alternative point of contact.

alert.45 One of the primary services of the nets is support to SAR. one operated by the Canadian Forces Supplementary Radio System and the other by Industry Canada. that may be used by the SAR System to pinpoint the source of an HF transmission from distressed vessels or aircraft.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CCG VHF DIRECTION FINDING ASSISTANCE 8. and . The Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Leitrim has established formal procedures with RCCs in their immediate area to ensure timely and workable interaction during periods of actual or potential distress. 8. 8. 8. uncertainty).1 emergency phase (distress.5 nature of emergency.3 name or call sign of distressed craft.42 Some MCTS Centres have the capability to DF on selected VHF aeronautical and maritime frequencies.47 CFSRS—For assistance in locating an aircraft or vessel in distress which has the ability to transmit in the 2 – 30 MHz range.2 SAR incident name. at the CFSRS Headquarters.4 frequency distressed craft is using or expected to use. Contact telephone numbers for the CFSRS are: AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. This support should be maintained and procedures should be updated periodically. they should therefore be contacted if their assistance is likely to contribute to the success of the SAR effort. 8.46 The following information should be provided when the stations are contacted: . SAR Co-ordinators should familiarise themselves as to which MCTS Centres provide which type of DF services. Any changes in procedures between RCCs and the CFSRS are to be forwarded to the Senior Staff Officer of Operations. rescue co-ordination centres (RCCs) are authorised to contact the Canadian Forces Supplementary Radio System (CFSRS) by telephone. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 14 . CF HF DIRECTION FINDING ASSISTANCE 8.6 length of watch requested. .43 Under regulation. all primary SAR vessels have a VHF–FM DF capability which should be used to the maximum extent. .44 There are two HF DF nets in Canada. . These centres should be contacted if their assistance is likely to contribute to the resolution of the SAR incident. .

the applicable RCC will include in its missing aircraft notice (MANOT) the following action addressees: Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert and CFS Leitrim.1 telegraphy—continuous keying for ten seconds followed by radio callsign. this service has been phased out). 48 hours.1 on notification that a target with an ability to transmit in the 2 – 30 MHz range is in distress. with follow-up reports numbered in sequence.2 HF voice—long count from zero to ten or longer and reverse followed by the distressed unit’s identification. in accordance with the format described in Annex 8D. The Senior Staff Officer of Operations (SSO Ops) at the CFSRS Headquarters (HQ) will be included as an information addressee. Positive reports shall be submitted as they occur. When available. contributing stations shall submit their final report as “FOLLOW-UP NR __ AND FINAL”. an easily identified signal such as one of the following: .4 netted HF DF stations may initiate tip-offs to the appropriate net for SAR support as required. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 15 . at maximum power.48 MANOT—Additionally.2 CFSRS stations shall respond to all MANOTs using dedicated HF DF facilities. 24 hours. Unless requested to extend surveillance. 8. . e. are to be employed by the rescue co-ordination centres (RCCs) and CFSRS stations: . it shall address its request to the CFSRS addresses.3 negative reports shall be submitted every 8 hours or at shift turnover.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL HF DF service requests 1 888 CAL–HFDF CFS Leitrim 613-945-5380 General Purpose Canadian Switched Network : 627-5380 8. If the RCC wishes to extend the surveillance beyond the initial 48 hour period. the SAR authority should attempt to have the distressed unit transmit. All reports will be submitted as immediate precedence to the initiating RCC. . repeated frequently (note.g. treating requests for CF assistance to actual or potential distress cases as an emergency. and . info CFSRS HQ/SSO OPS. the following procedures. aimed at enhancing the Canadian Forces Supplementary Radio System (CFSRS) HF DF support to search and rescue (SAR) activity involving missing aircraft. . repeated frequently.49 To facilitate maximum opportunity for HF DF net prosecution. and AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. specifying the period of extended cover requested. netted results will be reported in section G of the SAR support message (Annex 8D).

provided in Annex 8B. that requires and initiates a response by all fixed or mobile stations (aircraft and vessels) in the vicinity.52 Broadcasts of SAR related information. • Urgency Priority transmitted as “Pan Pan”. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 16 . Finally.GENERAL 8.1 Priority • Distress Priority transmitted as “Mayday Relay”. the SAR Co-ordinator shall always cancel or downgrade the priority of MSI broadcasts as soon as practicable. The broadcasts are issued via various systems. provided in Annex 8C. This will help ensure the best resolution of the incident while not impacting more stations than necessary.2 All stations (3X) . a broadcast of SAR related Aeronautical or Maritime Safety Information shall consist of: .6 Contact instructions for follow-on communications.5 Action required by all stations . by transmitting the completing message.4 Details of situation . MARITIME SAFETY INFORMATION (MSI) BROADCASTS . AMENDMENT – OCTOBER.3 This is (name of transmitting station) . SAR Coordinators and MCTS Officers should consult and reach a mutual agreement to ensure that the broadcast is properly prioritised. • Safety Priority transmitted as “Securite” • Or no specific priority (general broadcast) .GENERAL 8. to an MCTS Centre(s) for broadcast.53 The RCC/MRSC SAR Co-ordinator shall initiate the broadcast appropriate to the type of SAR incident and degree of emergency (unless already done so by an MCTS Officer). may aid in resolving the incident. 8.51 In general. the SAR Co-ordinator will exercise ultimate authority and accept responsibility for actions taken to resolve the incident. Should a conflict occur that cannot be immediately resolved.50 After an alert of an actual or potential aeronautical or maritime incident has been detected. BROADCASTS .B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . to an MCTS Centre(s). 8. be retransmitted or initiated by a station that learns that a mobile stations (aircraft or vessel) or person is in distress and it is apparent that further assistance is required. sent via the most appropriate media and transmitted over the most effective area. a broadcast of SAR related safety information. are normally initiated by the SAR Co-ordinator at the RCC/MRSC that is SMC for the particular incident. This action may be done verbally and followed-up with a hard copy. A distress broadcast (Mayday Relay) may.3 steady carrier or alarm signal. however. by transmitting the completed “MSI Broadcast” form.

known as a “relay”. AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. One MCTS Centre per CCG Region. Meteorological warnings and SAR messages are broadcast over the Inmarsat-C system using the Enhanced Group Call (EGC) facility. in consultation with the SAR Co-ordinator. place the SAR related MSI broadcast on the centre’s CMB.59 In accordance with the MCTS Standards Manual. 8. 8. MSI – SAFETYNET ENHANCED GROUP CALL (EGC) BROADCAST 8. Navigational warnings. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 17 . MCTS Officers shall make MSI Broadcasts of SAR information via RT in consultation with the SAR Co-ordinator.54 Dependent upon the priority of an MSI RT broadcast and the availability of DSC equipment.55 VHF-DSC Distress Relay Alert Broadcasts – In accordance with the MCTS National Standards Manual . shall act as the sole-provider of the SafetyNet service. Because DSC relays can be addressed to ships within a rectangular area and due to the negative impact that multiple DSC relays can cause within the Maritime Mobile Service.56 MF/HF-DSC Distress Relay Alert Broadcasts – In accordance with the MCTS National Standards Manual MF/HF-DSC Distress Relay Alert Broadcast shall only be broadcast after consultation between the MCTS Officer and the SAR Co-ordinator. The radio autoalarm tone may also precede an RT broadcast.60 SafetyNET is the satellite service for dissemination of Maritime Safety Information (MSI) using Inmarsat-C.57 MSI Broadcast via VHF/MF/HF RT – In accordance with the MCTS National Standards. once the priority of an incident has decreased or for other reasons. 8. MCTS Officers will broadcast a VHF-DSC Distress Relay Alert for vessels or persons in distress who require further assistance. The CCG is licensed as a “SAR SafetyNet Provider” for the purpose of broadcasting SAR related EGCs using this service. the MCTS Officer may. This is required to control the near global impact associated with these broadcasts.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL MSI – DSC BROADCAST 8. the MCTS Officer will normally precede the RT broadcast with the appropriate distress or urgency priority DSC broadcast.58 Continuous Marine Broadcast (CMB) – In accordance with the MCTS Standards Manual. MSI – NAVTEX BROADCAST 8. MSI – RT BROADCAST 8. consultation should occur between the MCTS Officer and SAR Coordinator when relays are used. MCTS Officers shall make MSI Broadcasts of SAR information via NAVTEX in consultation with the SAR Co-ordinator.

63 SARNET is an Inmarsat-C EGC broadcast service maintained by the HMCG that provides international wide-area messaging to RCC/MRSCs. abandoned vessels).e. MSI – NOTSHIP & NAVAREA WARNINGS 8. only one MCTS Centre shall issue SafetyNet broadcasts for each SAR incident. in the resolution of international SAR incidents. which they have initiated by using an Inmarsat-C terminal. . vessels and others) 8. to ensure consistency of information received aboard vessels.61 In accordance with the MCTS National Standards Manual. this can only be done by the IMO approved NAVAREA 4&12 Co-ordinator at the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in Washington. . the SAR Co-ordinator shall prepare and issue messages as required. 1-301-227-3147 1-301-227-3731 (fax) 898334 (telex) 62554950 (Easylink mailbox) SARNET 8.65 Mobile facilities. if there is a requirement to issue a safety notice on the high seas.4 Debriefings.62 In relation to SAR incidents. will prepare and issue: AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. in return. and . MISSION CO-ORDINATION COMMUNICATIONS 8. such as: . It is recommended that RCC/MRSCs make use of this service. Further.1 Briefings.2 Taskings. situations arise where a MSI notice should be transmitted to mariners (i.3 SAR Actions Plans. MCTS Officers shall make MSI broadcasts of SAR information via SafetyNet in consultation with the SAR Co-ordinator in order to ensure that the most effective broadcast parameters are used. SAR Co-ordinators shall monitor SafetyNet broadcasts. If the SAR Co-ordinator becomes aware of such situations. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 18 . to mobile facilities (aircraft. DC. where appropriate.64 In the process of co-ordinating a SAR mission. Further.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 8. he/she shall advise the regional CCG NOTSHIP issuing authority and request a safety notice be issued.

etc. to varying degrees. . 8.) that may be of use in resolving a SAR incident. including all of Hudson Bay and Ungava Bay but excluding those portions of MacKenzie Bay and Kugmallit Bay that are south of 70°N and east of 139°W. in resolving a SAR incident.2 the Arctic Canada Traffic System (NORDREG CANADA). or because the facility is not within radio telephone range.69 MCTS Centres which provide Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) and/or Vessel Traffic Reporting Systems are capable of providing. as required. cargo. choose to communicate directly using point-to-point mobile communications. information about participating vessels (location. .3 Debriefings. and AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. Details are found in Annex 8E.70 Selected MCTS centres are designated to administer the following Canadian offshore Vessel Traffic Reporting Systems: . If not necessary. pass large messages automatically. ATC Unit or CF Radio Station. AMVER 8. these verbal or hardcopy messages shall be transmitted via MCTS Centre. 8.2 NOCLs. which covers all waters north of 60°N. secure communications should be avoided. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 19 . This may be required to: ensure privacy. VESSEL TRAFFIC SERVICES (VTS) AND REPORTING SYSTEMS 8. however.1 Sitreps.66 Normally. including the Gulf of Saint Lawrence but excluding designated VTS zones.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . radio telephone service providers so that all relevant parties are informed and kept up-to-date as to the status of the mission (refer to Annex 8A for frequencies). construction. If these communications are used for co-ordination.1 the Eastern Canada Traffic System (ECAREG).which covers all eastern Canadian waters south of 60°N.68 The Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVER) operated by the USCG shall be used. to the SAR Co-ordinator at the RCC/MRSC that is SMC or a deployed SMC for that incident. and . 8. the SAR Co-ordinator shall attempt to keep necessary parties advised of the mission status.67 The SAR Co-ordinator or mobile facility may.

all reporting procedures to MCTS are maintained during any SAR operations. a scheduled watch may be adopted (see Annex 8A for frequencies). ON-SCENE COMMUNICATIONS 8. 8.77 Commanding officers shall ensure that. The traffic centres in the Seaway Traffic System maintain VHF-FM contact and the reporting procedures are the same as described in Annex 8A. its commanding officer shall so advise the MCTS Centre as soon as practicable.79 Plain language and non-secure communications shall be used whenever practicable to avoid confusion. and Saint Lawrence Seaway Traffic System Centres within their area of responsibility.73 When a CCG or other government vessel has been tasked to a SAR incident. 8. 8. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 20 . The local procedures shall be included in the RCC/MRSC standard operating procedures. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation in the United States. if not already advised. when not tasked to a SAR incident. Subject to the approval of the SMC. participating in a SAR mission within a VTS zone or when transporting sick or injured persons the standard reporting and routing procedures may be waived by the MCTS Officer.78 The SMC. departure or transit of a government vessel engaged on SAR operations. Lake Erie. must comply with the procedures prescribed for other vessels. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation in Canada and by the St.74 The MCTS Centre shall make any special provisions necessary to facilitate the arrival.3 the Cooperative Vessel Traffic Services (CVTS OFFSHORE). 8. SAR facilities shall maintain a continuous watch on the frequencies allotted by the controlling authority during a SAR mission.71 St.75 CCG vessels.76 When CCG or other government vessels are proceeding to the scene of a SAR incident. 8. which cover all western territorial waters of Canada excluding designated VTS zones. OSC or ACO shall designate on-scene aeronautical and maritime frequencies as required.72 Each RCC/MRSC should develop mutually agreed upon procedures with all MCTS. Lawrence Seaway Traffic System—Operated by the St. SAR VESSELS IN VTS ZONES 8. AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. it covers the area from west of 073°30’W in Montréal Harbour to Port Colborne.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL . 8. to the greatest extent possible. 8.

75 MHz ch 15 RT Maritime RT Maritime MODE DSC SERVICE Maritime DESCRIPTION International-DSC distress & calling International-voice distress & calling Canadian-Frequency for old electronic position indicating buoys (EPIBs) which may still be in existence but are not allowed under regulations International-voice distress and distress beacon frequency NATO-combined voice aeronautical distress. international lifeboat and liferaft frequency and distress beacon frequency. SAFETY AND CALLING BAND FREQUENCY/ CHANNEL VHFFM VHFFM VHFFM 156.1 MHz Aeronautical/ Maritime/ Land CW DSC RT NBDP DSC RT NBDP DSC Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime MF MF MF MF HF HF HF HF 500 kHz 2187.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 8A SAR RADIO FREQUENCIES AND CHANNELS DISTRESS. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 21 .8 MHz ch 16 156.5 MHz 243 MHz RT RT Aeronautical Aeronautical/ Maritime UHF 406-406.5 kHz 6312 kHz International-Morse Code distress and calling (discontinued) International-DSC distress and calling International-voice distress International-NBDP distress International-DSC distress and calling International-voice distress International-NBDP distress International-DSC distress and calling AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. International-distress beacon frequency VHFAM UHF 121.5 kHz 2182 kHz 2174.5 kHz 4125 kHz 4177.5 kHz 4207.525 MHz ch 70 156.

B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF HF 6215 kHz 6268 kHz 8414. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 22 .3 MHz Ch 06 156.5 kHz 12 577 kHz 12 290 kHz 12 520 kHz 16 804.5 kHz CB-ch 09 RT NBDP DSC RT NBDP DSC RT NBDP DSC RT NBD0 CW RT Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Maritime Land International-voice distress International-NBDP distress International-DSC distress and calling International-voice distress International-NBDP distress International-DSC distress and calling International-voice distress International-NBDP distress International-DSC distress and calling International-voice distress International-NBDP distress International-CW lifeboat and liferaft frequency (discontinued) International-GRS frequency (citizen’s band-CB) unoffical safety and calling MISSION CO-ORDINATION BAND FREQUENCY/ CHANNEL VHFFM VHFFM VHFFM FHFAM 156.125 MHz Ch 82A 123.95 MHz Ch 19A 157.1 MHz MODE RT RT SERVICE Maritime Maritime DESCRIPTION International-voice SAR on-scene Canadian-Coast Guard general operations (East Coast & Great Lakes) Canadian-Coast Guard general operations (West Coast) International-voice SAR on-scene & ELT training RT RT Maritime Aeronautical AMENDMENT – OCTOBER.5 kHz 8291 kHz 8376.5 kHz 16 420 kHz 16 695 kHz 8364 kHz 27 066.

2 MHz 252. 3280 kHz. 9292 kHz. 4480 kHz. AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. and 18 204 kHz. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 23 .8 MHz 282. 12 115 kHz. 15 733 kHz. Ground search parties involved in crash guard team duties may use any of the following frequencies while so employed: • • • • • • • • 2216 kHz.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL BAND FREQUENCY/ CHANNEL UHF UHF UHF HF HF HF HF 246. 5832 kHz.8 MHz 5717 kHz 8992 kHz 11 187 kHz 4125 kHz MODE RT RT RT RT RT RT RT SERVICE Aeronautical Aeronautical/ Maritime Aeronautical/ Maritime Aeronautical Aeronautical Aeronautical Aeronautical/ Maritime Aeronautical/ Maritime DESCRIPTION Canadian-voice SAR on-scene & DND PLB training NATO-voice combined SAR training NATO-voice combined SAR onscene Canadian-voice SAR air/ground/air Canadian-voice SAR air/ground/air Canadian-voice SAR air/ground/air International-voice SAR on-scene (recommended between commercial aircraft & vessels) International-voice SAR on-scene (to be used between commercial aircraft & vessels if communications not established on 4125 kHz) International-voice SAR on-scene HF 3023 kHz RT HF 5680 kHz RT Aeronautical/ Maritime OTHER ON-SCENE GROUND SEARCH PARTIES WORKING FREQUENCIES 1.

2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 24 . AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. Frequencies Used by MCTS Centres—Working frequencies and frequencies for maritime safety information broadcasts from Marine Communications and Traffic Services centres can be found in the current volume of Radio Aids to Marine Navigation.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 2. Pacific or Atlantic and Great Lakes edition The Admiralty List of Radio Signals—Volume 5 lists those for all international radio stations.

in accordance with MCTS standard procedures. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 25 . Circular geographical area Centre lat/long:______________ Radius:___nm Rectangular geographical area SW corner point lat/long:_____________________ Side length:____degrees Top length:_____degrees Mode (s): NAVTEX SafetyNet TEXT: Contact the nearest Canadian Coast Guard Radio Station or RCC/MRSC Telephone Telefax Telex AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. until cancelled. INSTRUCTIONS: (consult with MCTS Officer to ensure most effective broadcast) (circle) VHF-DSC MF-DSC HF-DSC VHF-RT MF-RT HF-RT VHF-CMB Priority & Prefix: (circle) Distress/Mayday Relay Urgency/PanPan Safety/Securite Routine/Nil DSC Parameters (if required): (circle) No geographical area defined Rectangle geographical area: NW corner point lat/long: ____________________ Side length:____degrees Top length:_____degrees SafetyNet Parameters (if required): (circle) The broadcast shall be sent via all Inmarsat satellites appropriate for the area.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 8B MSI BROADCAST MESSAGE To: MCTS MCTS Date/time UTC From: RCC/MRSC SUBJECT: SAR Incident Number: Message Number The following SAR message is to be issued upon receipt and repeated.

B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 8C MSI BROADCAST CANCELLATION MESSAGE To: MCTS ___________________ MCTS ___________________ ___________________ From: RCC/MRSC _________________ SUBJECT: SAR Incident Number: ___________________ Date/time _________________UTC Message Number _______________ The MSI broadcast message issued at date/time ____________UTC is to be cancelled. REASON FOR CANCELLATION: AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 26 .

D. B. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 27 . F. MANOT 58. G.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 8D CF SUPPLEMENTARY RADIO SYSTEM HF DF SAR MESSAGE Message to be sent IMMEDIATE/ROUTINE FM: Applicable Canadian Forces Communication Station TO: Appropriate RCC INFO: CFSRS HQ OTTAWA//SSO OPS// SUBJ: SAR HF DF SUPPORT MANOT Identification Time of bearing in UTC or negative results True bearing in three digits with validity indicator Latitude and longitude of reporting station Signal type/frequency Amplifying data Netted fix report EXAMPLE A. E. C. SAR BALDWIN FOLLOW-UP NUMBER 10 AND FINAL 1800 UTC 320 TRUE PLUS OR MINUS 10 DEGREES 485704N 0543133W VOICE/5680 N/A N/A AMENDMENT – OCTOBER.

all Canadian ships making an offshore voyage of more than 24 hours which will proceed: 1) 2) beyond the limits of VHF and MF coverage. Sailing and position reports are sent via selected coastal. and outside of the ECAREG and NORDREG zones. INFORMATION 7. Information from these reports is processed by a computer which calculates and maintains dead reckoning plots for the vessels within the plotting area. VESSELS REPORTING 4. 6. the Atlantic and Pacific areas. 2. the Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue (AMVER) System provides information that could aid in the resolution and coordination of search and rescue (SAR) efforts in the ocean areas of the world. Operated by the United States Coast Guard (USCG). All other ships are encouraged to make voluntary reports when they are on offshore voyages of more than 24 hours duration. 3. AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. The characteristics of a vessel that are considered valuable for determining SAR capability are also stored in the computer. 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 28 . in particular. Information concerning the predicted locations and characteristics of ships known to be near the scene of an emergency is made available to recognized search and rescue (SAR) agencies of any country.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 8E AMVER 1. 5. inland and ocean station vessel radio stations to the USCG AMVER centre. This does not apply to fishing vessels or Her Majesty’s ships engaged in law enforcement. or to vessels and persons in distress for use during the emergency. Under Section 64 of the Ship Station Technical Regulations. must make reports to AMVER in accordance with approved procedures. set out in Radio Aids to Marine Navigation.

unless specifically approved by the Commander Eastern Area. The listing of vessels is in the order of increasing distance from the datum. 9. or just those heading east or just those heading west.B-GA-209-001/FP-001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 8. AMENDMENT – OCTOBER. and the doctor and direction specifications in combination. all ships. A SURPIC is a listing of vessels. and The SURPIC can be obtained for a great circle track if requested. This would normally be through the rescue co-ordination centre of the search and rescue region in question. Requests for AMVER information should be made to the AMVER Centre by the most appropriate method. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) PROCEDURES 10. There are three types of SURPIC: (A) RADIUS SURPIC: 1) 2) 3) (B) The geographic area is defined by a datum (latitude and longitude) provided by the requesting agency. Information provided by AMVER is in the form of a SURPIC (surface picture). The radius is given by the requesting agency as a distance around the datum. or just those with doctors aboard. Information provided by AMVER is considered privileged and will not be released for any purpose other than for reasons of maritime safety. Each SURPIC can be further modified according to specific needs. Hi/Lo SURPIC: 1) 2) Two limiting parallels of latitude and two limiting meridians of longitude are provided by the requesting agency. United States Coast Guard. for example by making one of the following requests for listing: all ships. their SAR capabilities and dead reckoning positions within a specified geographical area at a specific time. and The listing is in random order unless listing by latitude or longitude is specified by the requesting agency. (C) TRACKLINE SURPIC: 1) The listing is arranged along the track line (which may be obliquely oriented) from the origin to the destination (the first and second positions provided by the requesting agency). 2000 CHAPTER 8 – PAGE 29 .

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........................ 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS................................... 27 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 1 .......................................... 8 UNNECESSARY SAR ALERT MESSAGE .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 DAILY SAR SUMMARIES .......................................................................)...... 11 ANNEX 9B—INITIAL RCC SAR SITREP ................................................................................................................... ETC. 7 SAR OPERATION REPORTS ..... 21 ANNEX 9G—SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM FOR AIRCRAFT— PRIMARY SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS ....... 25 ANNEX 9I—SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM FOR AIRCRAFT— SECONDARY SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6 SAR SIGHTING REPORT FORM....... 5 SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM—AIRCRAFT ................................................... 3 INITIAL SAR DATA REPORT............................................................. 1 GENERAL .................................................................................................................. 15 ANNEX 9D—FINAL RCC SAR SITREP ........................................................................................................................................................ 6 REPORTS ON SEARCHES ................................................................. 17 ANNEX 9E—INITIAL MANOT .... 23 ANNEX 9H—ABBREVIATED SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM FOR AIRCRAFT.................................................................................. 3 SAR LOG AND CASE FILES......................................... 7 SAR MISSION REPORT—AIRCRAFT .............. 19 ANNEX 9F—FINAL MANOT ................................................................................................................................ 5 SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM—VESSELS..................................................... 4 MISSING AIRCRAFT NOTICE.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 RCC DAILY SITUATION REPORTS.................................................... 9 ANNEX 9A—INITIAL SAR DATA REPORT .............................................................................................. 8 SAR MISSION REPORT—VESSELS........................ 8 GROUND SEARCH PARTY TRAINING REPORT.........................................................................................................................................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL CHAPTER 9—REPORTS AND RETURNS TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 9—REPORTS AND RETURNS................................................................................................... 13 ANNEX 9C—DAILY RCC SAR SITREP—(SITREP TWO...........................................

............................................................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 ANNEX 9J—SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM FOR VESSELS.................................................47 ANNEX 9R—DAILY SAR SUMMARY.............................................................................................45 ANNEX 9Q—UNSAR MESSAGE ..........41 ANNEX 9O—SAR MISSION REPORT—VESSELS ....................................................................................................................................33 ANNEX 9L—SAR SIGHTING REPORT.........................................................................................................43 ANNEX 9P—GROUND SEARCH TRAINING REPORT EXAMPLE.....................................................31 ANNEX 9K—OPERATIONAL SITREP FROM A MARITIME SRU ..........35 ANNEX 9M—SAR OPERATION REPORT.................................49 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 2 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .....................................................37 ANNEX 9N—SAR MISSION REPORT—AIRCRAFT ................................................................................................................................................................................................

SAR LOG AND CASE FILES 9. Logs shall be retained in the RCC/MRSC for three years and then forwarded to the Regional Archives Centre. SMs shall submit logs to the RCC at the termination of a search. If files are retained at the centre. the following procedure will be followed: . such information as coroner’s reports and press clippings. unresolved incidents or other cases of interest may be retained longer at the discretion of the centre.1 Accurate reports and returns are essential for the effective control of search and rescue aircraft.2 A log or case file shall be kept in which all rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC)/searchmaster (SM) actions are recorded. and to facilitate planning. 9. vessels. case files are to be sent to the respective Regional Archives Centre. They are also needed for the compilation of data and statistics required to indicate or support organizational changes and equipment requirements.2 after the RCC/MRSC retention period. where applicable. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 3 . The case file will be the primary record of a case and shall include all pertinent information on the incident. the SAR name. 9.1 RCC/MRSC/CMCC case files shall be retained at the RCC/MRSC for a minimum of two years after the date of the last entry.4 To meet the legal retention period for RCCs/MRSCs/Canadian Mission Control Centre (CMCC) data of seven years (JA Ont: 33385–1 6 NOV 95) and the requirement to store SAR files at the National Archives for historical purposes.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL REPORTS AND RETURNS GENERAL 9. . date and case number of the retained file(s) shall accompany the applicable records box sent to the Archives. records of telephone conversations and. All RCC/MRSC controllers shall sign the log at the beginning and end of each shift. Searchmasters’ case files shall be submitted to the RCC at the termination of a search. including all message traffic. and personnel. with times entered in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).3 Case files shall be kept on individual search and rescue (SAR) incidents. Major SAR Operations.

etc. 9. SITREPs from maritime rescue sub-centres shall be forwarded to the officer in charge of the parent RCC.5 the procedure for storing audio tapes is described in Chapter 8. After this time has past.3 the Regional Centre will retain the case files for a period of time stated in the Records Scheduling and Disposal Manual (for SAR files.1 SITREP ONE AND INITIAL. the Regional Centre will forward a letter to the appropriate RCC/MRSC requesting permission to dispose of the files. Tape Recording—RCC Communications.. they shall advise the Centre to dispose of the files. and .5 Annex 9A lists critical information that should be gathered by the rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre upon notification that an emergency exists or is anticipated. Enough information must be relayed to enable headquarters staff officers to process queries and requests for future reduction. If the legal time period has been met and the RCC/MRSC can see no reason to retain the files further. These shall be sent PRIORITY in the following sequence: .2 SITREP TWO.3 SITREP (NUMBER) AND FINAL. CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 4 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . RCC DAILY SITUATION REPORTS 9.6 In prolonged distress cases and in all cases necessitating a search reduction. Wherever possible plain language shall be used in lieu of terse format phrases. The format shall be as shown at Annex 9C and daily SITREPs shall be numbered consecutively from TWO.8 Subsequent daily SITREPs shall be finalized and transmitted by the RCC. for approval and onward transmission. and . this period is 5 years from the date of receipt). 9. .4 the Regional Centre will then forward all files to the Government Archives Division in Ottawa for permanent storage in accordance with the Records Scheduling and Disposal Manual. INITIAL SAR DATA REPORT 9. situation reports (SITREPs) shall be issued by the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC). .NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 .7 A SITREP shall contain all information and action taken using the format at Annex 9B.

The basic formats are given in Annexes 9G to 9J. 9. commencing each year with the number 1 with a suffix of the last two digits of the calendar year.12 When a search has been reactivated a MANOT is to be issued. and 1/98 REOPENED. and the paragraphs re-labelled appropriately.15 The briefing portion of the combined SAR briefing/tasking form—aircraft.9 When the search and rescue (SAR) operation is successfully completed or search reduction has been authorized. 9. should be completed by the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) or by the searchmaster (SM). paragraphs J and K will be replaced with the information from paragraphs B to E of Annex 9D. and should be passed to each search and rescue unit. SAR Briefings. the RCC shall send a final SITREP in the format at Annex 9D. a designated crew member should be made responsible for updating the form during the sortie to ensure accurate information is entered in a timely fashion. MISSING AIRCRAFT NOTICE 9. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 5 .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 9. 1/98 INITIAL. The search unit commander will pass the pertinent information to each crew member as required. adding the word “REOPENED” after the number. a final MANOT is to be issued using the message format shown in Annex 9F.13 Each RCC will number the MANOTs consecutively.11 On successful completion or reduction of a search. All information blanks should be completed and..14 The requirement for a search briefing/debriefing is discussed in Chapter 5. a missing aircraft notice (MANOT) is to be issued by the RCC and shall contain information using the message format shown in Annex 9E.16 The debriefing portion of the SAR briefing/tasking form—aircraft should be completed by the search unit commander on the completion of each sortie.10 Once a distress phase has been declared by a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) for an aeronautical incident. where possible.e. 9. The final SITREP shall state whether a SAR Operation Report will be prepared on the case. In cases where only one situation report is required (SITREP ONE AND FINAL) a modified Annex 9B format shall be used. i. SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM—AIRCRAFT 9. 1/98 FINAL. 9. 9. using the original number and format.

20 The SAR briefing/tasking form—vessels should be completed by the rescue coordination centre/maritime rescue sub-centre or by the searchmaster. The message should inform them of the time of transfer of control and that all further CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 6 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .23 When the control of a SAR incident is transferred. either by the aircraft captain or the searchmaster. If under control of a rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC). advising them of the change. The briefing/tasking form contains information pertinent to the tasking and will normally be updated as more details concerning the search become available. A hard copy of the form should be subsequently passed to the RCC/MRSC for record purposes. and passed as soon as possible to the commander of each maritime search and rescue unit (SRU) being tasked on a search and rescue mission. REPORTS ON SEARCHES 9. pass the information on the debriefing form to the RCC/MRSC by the quickest available means. the abbreviated briefing/debriefing form shown in Annex 9H may be used at the searchmaster’s discretion.17 On completion of the sortie. In this case the format should be used as a guide. a message shall be passed by the RCC/MRSC or SM which had the original control to all SRUs involved. or to the nearest station for onward transmission to the RCC/MRSC or SM.19 For lengthy searches. 9. 9. These reports should be made at least once per hour for aircraft and once every four hours or less for vessels. 9. The format to be used for the briefing/tasking of maritime SRUs is provided in Annex 9J. as applicable. during briefings. 9.21 All search and rescue units (SRUs) engaged on search and rescue (SAR) missions shall pass reports to the appropriate rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) or searchmaster (SM).18 In some cases it may be necessary to complete the briefing and debriefing by telephone or radio. the search unit commander shall pass the information to the appropriate controlling agency. SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM—VESSELS 9.22 The RCC/MRSC or SM shall specify.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 9. the reporting times of individual search and rescue units. with the completed briefing/debriefing passed by message if required. This will normally consist of an "OPERATIONS NORMAL" for SAR aircraft and an operational situation report (Annex 9K) for SAR vessels.

25 SAR operation reports are compiled for the purpose of recording the pertinent details of an incident for the information of participating search and rescue (SAR) agencies. For maritime incidents.2 indicate on the report those items which will be actioned by the SRR commander and those on which other comment or action is desired. 9. 9. Recommendations that are supported by fact and offer insight into ways of avoiding similar accidents are useful to Transport Safety Board investigators. Copies of these forms may be distributed to local police forces and responsible persons throughout each search and rescue region.28 The RCC/MRSC or SM shall prepare the SAR operation report as soon as possible after completion of the case (normally within 30 days). or a delegated senior officer shall: . The information should include weather and search and rescue unit considerations. maritime SAR shall co-sign the report. the ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 7 . the Officer in Charge (OIC) of the RCC and the regional supervisor. SAR SIGHTING REPORT FORM 9.1 review the report.29 It will be necessary to include in the SAR operation report sufficient information to allow others to infer the rationale for the more important decisions and actions taken during the search. 9. Reduction of Major SAR Operations) or when it is desired to make recommendations or comments on the command. The format for the form is shown in Annex 9L. and .B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL reports are to be passed to the new controlling authority with an information copy to the former controlling authority if necessary.26 This report is required for major SAR operations (see Chapter 5. other agencies. The search and rescue region (SRR) commander. and/or co-ordination aspects of the incident. control.27 This report will be prepared and distributed by the rescue co-ordination centre (RCC)/maritime rescue sub-centre (MRSC) or searchmaster (SM) involved in accordance with Annex 9M. the owners and/or operating agencies of the aircraft or vessel.24 A SAR sighting report form should be filled out when sighting reports are received at Search headquarters. 9. SAR OPERATION REPORTS 9.

9. 9. CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 8 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 . 9. etc. with copies to the 1 Canadian Air Division Headquarters in accordance with Annex 9P.) and/or any new or innovative practices that aided in the mission plus any other comment that might aid the prosecution or prevention of similar incidents in the future.33 The format for this form is shown in Annex 9N.36 Squadrons with authorized ground search parties shall submit monthly Ground Search Training Reports to their regional rescue co-ordination centre. The use of this report by on-scene commanders is encouraged for every incident involving more than one search and rescue unit. The reports should detail any problems involved with the mission (communications.32 This report should include a comprehensive narrative report and photos in accordance with Chapter 5. the effectiveness of search vehicles and patterns.35 The format is shown in Annex 9O. Photography of the Search Object. co-ordination. SAR MISSION REPORT—VESSELS 9. and any other factors that aided or interfered with the progress of the search. 9. SAR MISSION REPORT—AIRCRAFT 9. A description of the equipment or techniques used and/or deficiency in equipment or techniques with corrective action should also be provided. GROUND SEARCH PARTY TRAINING REPORT 9.34 Commanding officers and coxswains of vessels involved in a search and rescue (SAR) incident may provide SAR mission reports to rescue co-ordination centre/maritime rescue subcentre as applicable.31 The aircraft commander and the SAR Technicians’ (SAR Tech) team leader of the operation shall fill out a SAR mission report on completion of each search and rescue mission which involves the use of the SAR Tech equipment or to highlight any problems in procedures or equipment involved with the mission.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 impact of sighting reports.30 SAR operation reports from MRSCs or SMs shall be forwarded to OIC of the parent RCC for approval and onward transmission.

UNNECESSARY SAR ALERT MESSAGE 9. Examples would be unauthorized diversions from or failing to file or close flight/float plans. the extent of their participation will be reported in the SISAR information system and SAR Operation Reports.40 Daily SAR summaries (SARSUMs) are prepared by each rescue co-ordination centre (RCC) and are used extensively at each headquarters in briefings to senior officials and must provide a logical story of the events that occurred for each of the incidents mentioned. or the inadvertent or illegal use of distress beacons.41 RCC.37 When ground search parties have been employed on search and rescue (SAR) operations. 9.38 An unnecessary SAR alert (UNSAR) message is to be sent by the officer in charge of the rescue co-ordination centre when the SAR system is unnecessarily activated in a maritime or aeronautical case. Maritime rescue sub-centres shall only provide the required daily data to their parent ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 9 . DAILY SAR SUMMARIES 9.39 The format for an UNSAR message is shown in Annex 9Q. The reporting format is shown at Annex 9R. 9.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 9.

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............. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 11 ....................................................... (iv) Full description (masts............................................................................................................................................................Length...................................... funnels..................................................................................... (c) Miscellaneous................................... (ii) Type ................................................................................................. (Date – time Group) from ..................................................................................... (Name) of ........................................................ (vi) ELT and type...... (iii) Owner or controlling agency.....................................................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9A—INITIAL SAR DATA REPORT 1..................................................................................................... (b) Aircraft (i) Type ..................................................................................................................)................................................................................................................................................... (ii) Colour and distinctive markings ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ (viii)EPIRB and type ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .......................... 3.......... (vii) Emergency equipment carried........................................................................................................................................................................... deckhouse.................. ... (iii) Colour and distinctive markings ...................................................................................................................................................................................................Name ............................... ....................................................................................................................... (Organization and Address) 2............................................................................................... .................................................................................................. Beam ........................................................................................................................................................................ Position or location......................... (iv) Name of pilot and passengers or crew ............................................................................................................................................................... Assistance requested................. Description of object requiring assistance (if applicable) (a) Surface Vessels (i) Tonnage .................................. (v) Emergency equipment carried......................... ...............................................Registration letters or number .. Report received at...................................................................................................................................................... (v) Number of persons on board ............Name of captain ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................... (vi) Name of owner or controlling agency .................................................................Phone .................... etc............

.............. ....................................................... 6................................................................................................. 15............................... the party calling was informed or instructed as follows ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................... .................... 5............................................. General remarks ..... type and amount likely to be required .......................... ......................................................................................................... Cruising speed ......................... ....... If emergency equipment or rations are to be dropped............................................ ....... ............................... After the information listed above was received.......................................................................................... if applicable..... UTC (Date – time Group) 8................................................ 16............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Estimated time of arrival (place) ................................................................................................................................ as reported by caller............................................................................................ 9...... ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................ 14....................................................................................................................................................................................... 13......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12..................................... at ..................... Weather conditions in area of distress...................................................................................................................................................................................................................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 4..................................................................................................................................... ............................................. (c) Call sign .............................................................................................................................................. B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 Full details as to nature of distress or emergency............................................................................................................... Last known position (LKP) ....... Communications (a) Transmitting frequencies......................................................................... Hours of fuel remaining at LKP ......... ....... (DUTY CONTROLLER) CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 12 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 ....................................................................... ........... Aircraft or surface vessel departed Place........................................................................................................................................................................... (b) Receiving frequencies..... UTC (Date – time Group) Expected route ....... including sea conditions....................................................... 11.................................... ........................................................... at ...................... Alternate destinations or most likely place for surface vessel or aircraft to go................................................................................................................ 10..................................................................................................................... 7............................................................. .................................................................

E. and other units as appropriate. REQUIRED INFORMATION Name of SAR Operation A. NSS OTTAWA. indicate type. Weather at destination or possible alternates. Last known position (LKP) of craft. REVISED— MAY 2000 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 13 . Weather along route including LKP. C. F. Alerting agency or individual and date – time group in UTC (Local time group in brackets) when the rescue co-ordination centre was alerted. MRSCs. Type of distress and reason for declaring distress. G.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9B—INITIAL RCC SAR SITREP DISTRIBUTION TO: NDHQ OTTAWA//NDCC/D AIR FE 3// 1 CAD HQ WINNIPEG//A3 SAR/AOC// RCC AND CMCC TRENTON TRANSPORT CANADA//AAB/AANDO// (for aeronautical cases only) TSB OTTAWA//DIA//FAX 819–997–2239 CCG HQ OTTAWA//DIRECTOR SAR// (for maritime cases only) RD CCG//SUPERINTENDENT RSER// (for maritime cases only) INFO: All other RCCs. Number and type of SITREP. D. • • • • • • call sign and type of aircraft or vessel number of persons on board owner colour electronic equipment carried distress beacon on board? If yes. Commands. Include following information. B. Flight Plan or Float Plan of craft in distress. DND Public Affairs and Regional Operations Centre of applicable region.

Future plans. NOTE : If the requested info is not available at time of origin of initial RCC. SITREP.NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 H. J. SAR. K. it is to be forwarded at the earliest possible date and indicated as an addendum to the initial RCC. CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 14 REVISED— MAY 2000 . Remarks to include action since receiving alert (to include tasking times and SRU departure times). SAR. SITREP. Name of searchmaster and location of Search headquarters.

G. Record for this period of: Squadrons and SRU employed on search. Complete search.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9C— DAILY RCC SAR SITREP—(SITREP TWO. E. effectiveness. and total times this period and totals to date. Proposed operations for the next 24 hours. C. ETC. Search areas covered this period. REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 15 . Total square miles to date. with times for each SRU broken down into search. transit. and total hours. F. REQUIRED INFORMATION Name of SAR Operation A. DND Public Affairs and Regional Operations Centre of applicable region. and other units as appropriate. Total square miles this period. Details of search not indicated above to include major instances and possible leads. B. NSS OTTAWA.) DISTRIBUTION TO: NDHQ OTTAWA//NDCC/D AIR FE 3// 1 CAD HQ WINNIPEG//A3 SAR/AOC// RCC AND CMCC TRENTON TRANSPORT CANADA//AAB/AANDO// (for aeronautical cases only) TSB OTTAWA//DIA//FAX 819–997–2239 CCG HQ OTTAWA//DIRECTOR SAR// (for maritime cases only) RD CCG//SUPERINTENDENT RSER// (for maritime cases only) INFO: All other RCCs. Commands. D. J. Type of search. H. Progress SITREP numbered consecutively starting with TWO. Period covered. transit. Weather condition—search areas and bases. MRSCs.

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General areas covered during entire search indicating specific altitude and visibility distances. C.... what. Remarks: including type of SAR report to be filed. and total hours. (number) AND FINAL.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9D—FINAL RCC SAR SITREP DISTRIBUTION TO: NDHQ OTTAWA//NDCC/D AIR FE 3// 1 CAD HQ WINNIPEG//A3 SAR/AOC// RCC AND CMCC TRENTON TRANSPORT CANADA//AAB/AANDO// (for aeronautical cases only) TSB OTTAWA//DIA//FAX 819–997–2239 CCG HQ OTTAWA//DIRECTOR SAR// (for maritime cases only) RD CCG//SUPERINTENDENT RSER// (for maritime cases only) INFO: All other RCCs. B. Record for the entire search of: Squadrons and SRUs employed on search.. DND Public Affairs and Regional Operations Centre of applicable region. MRSCs. with times for each SRU broken down into search..... NSS OTTAWA. where and how. Authority for termination/reduction (may be the SRR commander or NDHQ Message with date – time group). REQUIRED INFORMATION Name of SAR Operation A. transit. and other units as appropriate.. D. crash location and briefly covering the who. when. SITREP ... REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 17 ... E. Commands.

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. —INITIAL—RCC.. TYPE AND FREQUENCY OF EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER J................ .................. REVIEW VOICE AND RADAR TAPES IN ........B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9E—INITIAL MANOT DISTRIBUTION TO: RCC AND CMCC TRENTON All FSSs and ACCs as appropriate... REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 19 ............. B.............................................................. AREA FOR PERIOD.............. INFO: NDHQ OTTAWA//NDCC/D AIR FE 3// 1 CAD HQ WINNIPEG//A3 SAR/AOC// RCC VICTORIA RCC HALIFAX CFSRS HQ//SSO OPS// (if aircraft has HF) TRANSPORT CANADA//AAB/AANDO// TSB OTTAWA//DIA//FAX 819–997–2239 REQUIRED INFORMATION A........ LKP AND DATE – TIME LOCAL G....................................... REGISTRATION—TYPE OF AIRCRAFT—COLOUR C................................................................... REQUEST FSS AT ....................................... UTC......... FUEL EXHAUST TIME H.. ROUTE E..................................................................................................................... AND ATC AT ............................. NUMBER OF CREW AND/OR PASSENGERS D....................................................... DEPARTURE (LOCAL TIME) F......... UTC TO ............................. MANOT NUMBER ...............................—SAR OPERATION ...

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. SUCCESS OF MISSION D...—SAR OPERATION . REMARKS If located.. If not located.... MANOT NUMBER . REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 21 ....... SEARCH SUSPENDED AS OF “date/time” (LOCAL) C.... and include route and description of missing aircraft..... —FINAL—RCC... recommend continued watch by overflights.........B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9F—FINAL MANOT DISTRIBUTION TO: RCC AND CMCC TRENTON//OPSO// All FSSs and ACCs as appropriate. B.. INFO: NDHQ OTTAWA//NDCC/D AIR FE 3// 1 CAD HQ WINNIPEG//A3 SAR/AOC// RCC VICTORIA RCC HALIFAX CFSRS HQ//SSO OPS// (if aircraft has HF) TRANSPORT CANADA//AAB/AANDO// TSB OTTAWA//DIA//FAX 819–997–2239 REQUIRED INFORMATION A..... indicate method and by whom and give other pertinent info that may be of general interest.

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............................................................................. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 23 .............................................. ......................... Commence search at (position)..... co-ordinator aeronautical search.............................................................................................................................................. Progress reports To be passed to......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................... hours.................................................................................................................................................................................... Frequencies of missing craft............................................................................... hours with weather report included every............... Tasked aircraft type & number ......................................................................................... Assigned search areas AREA ........................................................... Date.................................................................................... Full description of craft............................................................................................................................................................ Length ........................................................................................................................... Number or name of craft ..................................... ...... Width (Wing-span)........................................................................................................ Others ........................................................................................................................... .................................................................................. Time on task ................... Altitude/track spacing....................................................................................................................... every .......... ............................................................................. Type of search........................................................................................................................................................................................... Squadron.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................) .... Aircraft ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Details as to nature of distress or emergency ................. including colour and markings..... Description of Search Object Type of aircraft or vessel ....................................................................................................................................................................................... Frequencies Controlling agency......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... and track (N–S) (E–W) .................................................................................... Number on board ............................ Surface vessels ......................... etc.................... Captain .........................................................................................................................................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9G— SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM FOR AIRCRAFT— PRIMARY SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS BRIEFING SAR ....................... ....................................... Special instructions (On-scene commander..............................................................................

.... ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Type of search .. ................ wind velocity....................................................................................................................................... etc........................................................................................................................... ................... Point of landing ............................................................................................................................................................................... Aircraft No ........................................................................................................ Number and condition of survivors ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... criticism........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Off task.............................................................................................................. Weather conditions in search area (visibility........................ Altitude/track spacing ................................................................................. Date – time (Local) ............................................................................................................................................................................................... Name and rank CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 24 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 ...................................... at position......................... ...... Time airborne .......................... .................................................. Area actually searched .......................... ...................................................... Object of search (located)............................................................. Number of observers ...................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................ suggestions) ............................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Date. Point of departure ............................................................................................................. ............................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 DEBRIEFING SAR............................................ Landed ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Sightings and/or other reports............... Remarks: (to include any action taken on search.. .. ............................................................ any problems.............................................................................. ..................................................... .................... Telecommunications: (note quality of communications and/or any changes other than BRIEFED)..................................................... .........................................................................................................................................) ................................................................................................................................................................ ............... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Terrain or sea state ........................... ceiling................................................. .............................................................................................................. ......................................................................................... On task...... ............................................

........................................ ..................................................................................................................................... Track spacing ... Take off time..... ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 25 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9H— ABBREVIATED SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM FOR AIRCRAFT BRIEFING SAR .................... ............................................................ ......................................................... Tasked aircraft type and number ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................... DEBRIEFING Area actually searched ......... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................ Captain................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Type of search........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................... Remarks (On-scene commander....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... co-ordinator aeronautical search...........................................................................................................................................% Remarks....................................... ............................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................ Transit time........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................... etc................................................ Percent of area covered................. .......................................................................................................................................................................... Effectiveness of search .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................).................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... %....................................................................................... Date................................................................................................................................ Search height ................................... Search area ........................... Search time ............................................................ .........................................................

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........................... Search Object Type: (aircraft/vessel/swimmer/hunter/other—specify)...........................................................................................................................................).......................................... .... Direction to track (N–S) (E–W).............................................................. Tasked squadron/aircraft type...................................................................................... Description.... ................................ etc................................ Assigned Tasking/Mission (describe in plain language) .................................................... Search pattern (ELT.............................................................................................................................. single/multi engine.................................................................................................... sailboard................................................. Track spacing............................... open boat... Commence search point .......................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................. Tasking authority............................ Number on board ............. etc........................................ skidoo............. Assigned Search Areas Area description (corner points................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... latitude and longitude................................ Name/registration No .................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. including colours and marking (hi/low wing...........................................)................................................................................................................................................................ cabin cruiser...................................................................................................................................................... Radios on board/last known frequency...................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9I— SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM FOR AIRCRAFT— SECONDARY SEARCH AND RESCUE UNITS BRIEFING Date – time group ....................................... Nature of distress or emergency (describe).................................................................. Emergency equipment........................................................................................................... Search altitude (not below VFR limits).................................................................................................................................................................................................... track crawl....................................................................................... etc.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... SAR (RCC case No/name) .........................) .............................. . Name of pilot/operator/owner.......................................................................................... .. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 27 ...................................................

.................................................. 4 hours for vessels) Advise controlling agency when and why..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... forced to return or until the rescue has been effected.................................................................................................................. THE UNIT AND CREW CAPABILITIES ARE SUFFICIENT TO SAFELY COMPLETE THE MISSION AS BRIEFED................................................................................................ Unit certification (the controller will read these statements to the unit commander and certify his/her acceptance) • IN THE OPINION OF THE UNIT COMMANDER....................................................... co-ordinator aeronautical search.............................. ............................................................................................ if progress reports or SITREPs cannot be maintained..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................... CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 28 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .......................................................................................... Frequencies and callsigns for communications RCC/OSC/SM ........................................ ................................................................................... If unable to effect rescue............... ground search teams.....NATIONAL SAR MANUAL Other search and rescue units in same or adjacent areas • • • B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 aircraft/altitude/area ....................... Initials • THE UNIT COMMANDER UNDERSTANDS THAT AT ANY TIME A CONDITION/SITUATION IS ENCOUNTERED THAT EXCEEDS THE UNIT OR CREW CAPABILITIES.. Every ................... Search object/survivors . ... Communication checks Progress reports should be passed to..................................... Other search aircraft .......) ......................... Initials Special instructions (On-scene commander........................................................................................................................................................ vessels/area ........................................................................................................................................ ............................ Remain on scene until relieved.............................................................................................................................................................................................. Action on sighting search object ....................... ...................................................................................... Other search vessels/ground team ......................... IF CONSECUTIVE PROGRESS REPORTS OR SITREPs ARE MISSED............ SEARCH ACTION MAY BE INITIATED.......... hours (Normal: 1 hour for aircraft. etc.................................. ............................................................. THE MISSION SHALL BE ABORTED..................... ............................................................................................................................................................. direct other aircraft and/or vessels to scene........................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 29 ................................................................................... ...... Remarks/comments on this mission ................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................ Time on task ................................................................................... Area actually searched ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................. ..................................... .......... advise RCC of the following details: Time airborne ................................................................................................. Time off task......................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................ TO THE PARENT UNIT) PRIOR TO DEPARTURE.....................................................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL DEBRIEFING Immediately upon return to base...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... SAR CONTROLLERS WILL TRANSMIT THIS FORM TO THE SRU COMMANDER (IF AIRBORNE................................... ....................................................................................................................... Time search object sighted . Time returned to base............................... ...................................................................................................................................................................

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.... ...................................... .. F.................... etc...............................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9J— SAR BRIEFING/TASKING FORM FOR VESSELS 1..................................... 5...................................................) ......................... REQUESTED SEARCH SPEED ........................................................ AREA DESCRIPTION (four corners............................ characteristics)......................................................................... C.......................................................................................... E.. NATURE OF DISTRESS OR EMERGENCY (brief description) ........................................................... .................................................... at (date – time group) ....................................... DESCRIPTION (colour.............................................................................................................................. TONNAGE ............................................ REQUESTED SEARCH PATTERN................................................................................................................. B............................................................. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 31 .................. 4...................................................................................... latitude & longitude................................................................................................................................................................................................ superstructure.................................. SEARCH AREA A.................................................................. B....... ............................................................. ........................................................................................ (case number) ............. D.............................................................................................. SAR (case name)....... PERSONS ON BOARD......................................... markings. COMMENCE SEARCH POINT............................................................................. SRU tasked........................................................................................................... G........................................................................................................................... REQUESTED TRACK SPACING....................................... E............................... G.................................................................................................................... NAME ............................................ DIRECTION OF CREEP.............................................................................................................................................................................. REGISTRATION ............................. REQUESTED COVERAGE FACTOR ..................................................................................................... D................... OWNER/OPERATOR/AGENT.................................. 3.............................................................................................. F............................. TYPE (delete as necessary) AIRCRAFT/VESSEL/other ................................................................................................... H............................................ EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT CARRIED............................................................................................. SEARCH OBJECT A......................................................... C.................................... .... ........................ 2.......................................................................................

. B............ ......................................... PROGRESS REPORTS TO BE PASSED TO .................................................................................. etc. SHIP OR CRAFT IN DISTRESS/SURVIVORS .................................................................................................................................................................................... VESSELS ............ ....................................................................... REMAIN ON SCENE UNTIL RELIEVED OR FORCED TO RETURN OR RESCUE HAS BEEN EFFECTED............................ OTHER SRUs TO BE ENGAGED IN ADJACENT AREAS B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 A....................................... ACTION ON SIGHTING THE SEARCH OBJECT (delete as necessary) • • • 9..................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL 6............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS (On-scene Commander............. ........... HOURS..................................... CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 32 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 ....................................................................................................................) ............. IF UNABLE TO EFFECT RESCUE............................................. OTHER SEARCH VESSELS............................................................ SEARCH AIRCRAFT......................... E............................................................................................ .. REPORT TO................................................................ .............................................................................. C..................... AIRCRAFT/ALTITUDE.................................................................................. GROUND PARTIES..................................................... EVERY................................................................................................ 7.................................................. FREQUENCIES AND CALLSIGNS TO BE USED FOR COMMUNICATION WITH A............................................ B...................... RCC/MRSC/OSC/SM (delete as necessary).......................................... GROUND PARTIES.................. DIRECT OTHER VESSELS AND/OR AIRCRAFT TO THE SCENE..................................................................................................... C............................................................................................................................................................ D..................................................... ....................................... 10.............................. 8.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................

.........................................UTC 3.............................................................................. Other vessels/aircraft involved .............. 15...................................................................................................................................................................................................... SITREP ......................... State of sea .......... (number) 2............................................. Cloud coverage..... 8............................ Time.........................(latitude/longitude) 4................................ Helicopter status (if applicable).......................... 10............................................................................................ ETA to area of next planned activity .... Visibility ......................................................................................................... 13...................... ...... bearing in mind that the transmission is not secure )........................................°C and water temperature..................................................................................................(in eighths) C........................... Position .... 7.. 12............................................ Future planned activities (next 24 hours)...... REMARKS (briefly provide any detail which will allow RCC/MRSC to initiate appropriate action...... Fuel ....................... 14....................................................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9K— OPERATIONAL SITREP FROM A MARITIME SRU 1................................................................. Estimated time of departure (ETD) from present area ............................... Wind speed/direction ..... Weather conditions: A................. 11................................................ E............................... Course................................................. 9................................ Past activities...... °C B............... 5...................................... 6............ D.......................... Air temperature................................................... Speed ............................................................................................... Ice conditions ........ ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 33 ................................................... .............................................................................

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......... Time.................................................. Weather at time of sighting................................ Date/time received........................................................................................................................................................................................ Engines/sails................. High/low wing...................................................................................................................................... Other aircraft sighted.....B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9L—SAR SIGHTING REPORT Report no.................................................................................. Apparent height ................................................................. Number of engines .......................................................... Aircraft....................................................................................................... Description.......................... Time of sighting... Thunder storm...................................................... Action taken......................... Number/colour ................................................................................................... Location....................................................................................................................................... Raining/snowing .............................................................................................. ... Type.......................................... Description....................................... Hull type ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Direction ................................................................... Name of person reporting............................................................. Colour.......................................................................................... Parachutes sighted................................................................................................ Assessed validity of report....... Type............................................. Turning? ............................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Time...... Turning? .............................................................................................................................................. Remarks................................. (local) Date.................................. Do aircraft pass regularly?................................................ Trim ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 35 ....................................... Other vessels sighted ............................................................................................................................... Superstructure ............................................................ by................... Did engines sound normal? ........................................................................................................................................................................................ Received direct or relayed .................. Wind/sea state.. Vessel .......... Occupation ........... Direction ......................................... Did engines sound normal? ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Telephone .................................................................................................................................................. Address.................................................................................................................................................. Type.................................................................. Description of sighting........ Wheels/floats/skis ........................................................

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if any. etc. phase of flight. Rationale for arriving at particular search plan. a complete explanation of how. Brief narrative of initial actions from log. altitude and/or distance. time of day. Brief outline of each day’s search activities including areas covered. c. Evacuation details. SRUs used.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9M—SAR OPERATION REPORT TITLE PART I SAR OPERATION NAME AND CASE NUMBER SEARCH OBJECT DETAILS— Completed copy of initial SAR data report form (see Annex 9A). to include type of SRU. why (in general terms). SEARCH OPERATIONS a. 2. If object is found. NOTE: A copy of the SAR Mission Report may suffice here. Explanation of any departures from a. distress beacon details. Basic assumption regarding search object. name. RESCUE OPERATIONS a. b. c. e. b. ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 37 . Condition of survivors. Problem areas. was spotter trained. If object not found. SRUs used and general weather. DETAILS OF SAR OPERATION RCC ACTION a. location of SAR HQ. d. from what position in SRU. response times. what was visual reference. d. Search and rescue units (SRUs) tasked. SM appointment. b. PART II 1. search conditions. d. c. 3.

...................... SAR HQ maps.......................... c.................................... 6... 5................................. Missing .................................................... 2.................................................... b................. 3................. Sighting reports.......... d............ Authority........................................................... SRU utilization (flying/steaming hours).... b..................................................................................................... N... Missing ......... Photographs (if applicable).. 4....... c.......................... d................... f... Weather reports........................ (from Part I) Survivors.... SEARCH REDUCED a.............................................) RCC REMARKS SRR COMMANDER REMARKS 3................................................................................. Fatalities.......................... PART IV CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS 1.......... e............. 4........... 2..... CESSATION OBJECT LOCATED a............................. Fatalities....................... e................................................ SM CONCLUSIONS SM RECOMMENDATIONS (May include recommendations to Transport Canada and to the Transport Safety Board to help prevent future accidents of this kind........... Location....................... ATTACHMENTS 1............................................................ 2... W Number on board ..... CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 38 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 ....................................NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 PART III 1....... List of objects recovered....... (from Part I) Survivors...... Date – time group ..... (message date – time group) Number on board .......

Search and Rescue Canadian Coast Guard Centennial Towers 200 Kent Street. For aeronautical cases: Transport Canada Transport Canada Building Place de Ville Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0N8 Attention: AAB Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Director of Air Investigations Place du Centre 200 Promenade du Portage. 5th Floor Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0E6 c. all of the SRUs involved. One copy of each aeronautical and maritime case report to: National Search and Rescue Secretariat 275 Slater Street. CCG and the NSS addresses are: a. 4th Floor Hull (Québec) K1A 1K8 b. CCG Headquarters/Manager SAR. the NSS. and the Regional Aviation Safety Officer or Marine Investigation Officer as applicable. For maritime cases: Director. Transport Canada.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL DISTRIBUTION OF SAR OPERATION REPORTS Copies of the SAR operation report shall be forwarded to NDHQ Ottawa//D Air FE 3. 4th Floor Ottawa (Ontario) K1A 0K2 REVISED — MAY 2000 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 39 . Further distribution shall be made to other agencies cooperating in the search effort or investigation at the discretion of the appropriate SRR Commander. TSB. 1 CAD Winnipeg/A3 SAR. Transport Canada. each of the RCCs.

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........................ W. BRIEFS NARRATIVES OPERATIONS (pilot)—(Include narrative account of conduct of mission.... SAR (name) ......... (Complement pilot narrative report with account of SAR Tech action...................................... TOTAL TIME .e....................... NAV/FE ...... SAR TIME ............................................... F........................................ TYPE OF INCIDENT............... including conditions encountered on scene.............................................................................. RCC CASE N° ............ AT (date – time group)............................................. Brown/patient............. communications........................................................ NAV/FE ................. PILOT................................................... FACTORS AFFECTING MISSION (may be positive or negative..... (local) METHOD OF PENETRATION .. SQN MISSION N° ........................... NAME/FUNCTION OF PERSONS AIRLIFTED: (i....................................................................... Pay particular attention to chronological sequence and include pertinent times).................................................................................... Amplify factors affecting mission including latitude and longitude.............................................. AIRCRAFT TYPE/N° ............ TAKE OFF ........................................................................... SAR TECH TEAM: LEADER ............................................................................. UTC.......................... Smith/doctor.......... SAR TECHS ..... Brown/father) ................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9N—SAR MISSION REPORT—AIRCRAFT SAR MISSION REPORT—(Name of Squadron) ... procedures used............... problems encountered during penetration of SAR Techs or evacuation of casualties............................................. terrain and environmental conditions.......................................... weather or equipment that resulted in significant impact on mission) .......................................................................UTC REASON FOR DELAY (if applicable)............ DATE ............. TRANSIT TIME..................................................... J......................................... duration of operation/rescue or evacuation..... OPERATIONS (SAR Techs)—DATE/TIME OF SAR TECH ACTION ........................ ............................................. TASKED BY . CODING.................................................................. CF/K1017 N° .......................... SQUADRON COMMANDER’S REPORT (for cost recoverable mission) CREW: AIRCRAFT COMMANDER......................................................................................) ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 41 ............ for example...............

........... Aircraft Commander—Date .......... If changes recommended................................) EQUIPMENT REPORT—(Comments on equipment used including inadequacies............................. vitals...... SAR Tech Section Leader—Date .................................... Memo.............. etc..............) PHOTOS TAKEN—yes/no (Photos mailed on request) ............ etc. on scene and on arrival/release to other medical authority... SAR Tech Team Leader—Date ....... indicate follow-up action taken—Unsatisfactory Condition Report.... Distribution of medical annex should be protected.......... etc.. malfunctions................ Attach 1 CAD medical annex if applicable................................... Material Authorization Change Request........................... diagnosis and treatment given......................... Squadron Commander—Date DISTRIBUTION LIST Action 1 CAD HQ WINNIPEG//A3 TSR// Information external NDHQ OTTAWA//D AIR FE 3// 1 CAD HQ WINNIPEG// COMD FLT SURG// CFSSAR COMOX//CMDT// RCC (as applicable) internal (as required) CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 42 ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 .............NATIONAL SAR MANUAL B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449 MEDICAL (SAR Techs)—(Description of patient condition......

.... photos........... vessels........................... etc................................ OTHER SRUS INVOLVED (aircraft......................... rescuing................. first aid administered........... CHRONOLOGY OF INCIDENT (as it affects the vessel making the report)..................... Signature of Commanding Officer DISTRIBUTION LIST RCC/MRSC (if applicable) Superintendent RSER Director SAR ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 43 ............ latitude and longitude............. FUNCTION OF VESSEL IN INCIDENT (i..........................) BRIEF NARRATIVE (include such items as weather on-scene..... searching.........) LIST OF ATTACHMENTS (charts............. transit...... innovative techniques................... to include response times..... problems on scene affecting the units’ capability.... etc............. etc..................... NAME OF VESSEL REPORTING .............. searching........................ A summary only is required.......... etc. etc. ...) RECOMMENDATIONS OR COMMENTS..................B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9O—SAR MISSION REPORT—VESSELS SAR CASE NAME ...... communications procedures and problems... rescuing....... equipment used and its effectiveness.............................)..........: OSC...........e..........

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Doe) Sgt Ground Search Leader CFS Sydney ORIGINAL — MAY 1998 CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 45 . dense bush RS6 • Map/compass reading • Cross-country navigation • Ground searching exercises • Setting up base camp See our Unsatisfactory Condition Report 2 5 4 16-20 SEP Lake and river area RS6 • Dragging operations • Setting up overnight camps Considerable knowledge gained on this exercise in proper use of water equipment 3 10 1 25 SEP Local area • Helicopter familiarization Demonstration by Labrador from 413 Squadron.B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 NATIONAL SAR MANUAL ANNEX 9P—GROUND SEARCH TRAINING REPORT EXAMPLE GROUND SEARCH TRAINING REPORT SRR HALIFAX STATION OR BASE CFS SYDNEY MONTH OF SEPTEMBER 1997 Exercise Number 1 Number of Personnel 5 Duration Dates Type of Terrain Rations Training Carried Out Defects of Equipment Remarks Strong requirement for a suitable ground search transmitter and receiver 3 5-8 SEP Hilly. (J.

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B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL

ANNEX 9Q—UNSAR MESSAGE
DISTRIBUTION TO: (Aeronautical incident) TRANSPORT CANADA OTTAWA//AARBI/AARQ// TO: (Maritime incident) The appropriate Regional Director as follows: TRANSPORT CANADA—ATLANTIC REGION—DARTMOUTH// REGIONAL DIRECTOR MARINE SAFETY// TRANSPORT CANADA—QUEBEC REGION—QUEBEC// REGIONAL DIRECTOR MARINE SAFETY// TRANSPORT CANADA—ONTARIO REGION—SARNIA// REGIONAL DIRECTOR MARINE SAFETY// TRANSPORT CANADA—PRAIRIES AND NORTHERN REGION—OTTAWA// REGIONAL DIRECTOR MARINE SAFETY// TRANSPORT CANADA—PACIFIC REGION—VANCOUVER// REGIONAL DIRECTOR MARINE SAFETY// INFO: NDHQ OTTAWA//D AIR FE 3// CCG HQ OTTAWA//DIRECTOR SAR// (for marine cases) RCC AND CMCC TRENTON NSS OTTAWA//FEDERAL CO-ORDINATOR// REQUIRED INFORMATION UNNECESSARY SAR ALERT NUMBER 1. TIME OF INCIDENT 2. TYPE AND IDENTITY OF SEARCH OBJECT 3. OWNER AND/OR OPERATOR 4. FLIGHT PLAN/FLOAT PLAN OR LOCATION 5. COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT ON BOARD OR AT DESTINATION 6. SAR ACTION REQUIRED; NUMBER OF HOURS FLOWN OR STEAMED 7. REASON FOR ALERT—for distress beacon cases, include type, model, switch position, time since last sortie and reason for activation.

REVISED — MAY 2000

CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 47

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL

ANNEX 9R—DAILY SAR SUMMARY
DISTRIBUTION FM RCC ............................. TO AIG .............................. INFO: CCG HQ OTTAWA//DIRECTOR SAR// NSS OTTAWA//FEDERAL CO-ORDINATOR// RCC AND CMCC TRENTON TRANSPORT CANADA//AAB/AANDO// SIC OCJ REQUIRED INFORMATION SUBJ: DAILY SAR SUMMARY FOR................... (region) SRR FOR PERIOD ...... (date) 0000 UTC TO .... (date) 2400 UTC. A. INCIDENT SUMMARY 1. CATEGORY 1 2. CATEGORY 2 3. CATEGORY 3 4. CATEGORY 4 5. TOTAL INCIDENTS 6. PREVIOUSLY UNREPORTED B. INCIDENT TYPE 1. AERONAUTICAL 2. MARITIME 3. HUMANITARIAN 4. UNKNOWN DAY ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... DAY ...... ...... ...... ...... MONTH ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... MONTH ...... ...... ...... ...... YEAR ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ YEAR ........ ........ ........ ........

ORIGINAL — MAY 1998

CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 49

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL C. SRU UTILIZATION (See Notes 1 and 2) 1. CF 2. CCG 3. OTHER FEDERAL 4. CASARA 5. CCGA 6. CHARTER 7. OTHER D. DISTRESS BEACON RELATED INCIDENTS 1. CATEGORY 1 2. CATEGORY 2/3/4 3. UNRESOLVED

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 MPO 5449

DAY ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... DAY ...... ...... ......

MONTH ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... MONTH ....... ....... .......

YEAR ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ YEAR ........ ........ ........

E. State cases in progress, providing a detailed but brief description of the incident, actions taken and SRUss employed as per paragraph C. F. For category 1 and 2 incidents: give a short narrative containing the RCC case number, classification, date-time group when RCC was alerted, detailed but brief description of actions taken, SRUs employed and incident conclusion. Include the location, POBs, survivor condition, which SRU resolved the incident and the position of the rescue if different from the incident location. Also include any other incident where CF SRUss were employed. G. REMARKS: (include late departure reasons, oil rig positions, aircraft that remain off base overnight, and any other terms of interest not associated with a specific incident). NOTE 1: SRU utilization means the number of times a specific SRU was used for a specific incident i.e.: • • • • • three sorties of same SRU on same incident counts as one use; three incidents completed during one sortie by one SRU counts as three uses; three SRUs on one incident counts as three uses; CF SRUs detached with a search headquarters in your region are to be included; and CASARA spotters on one CF aircraft counts as one CASARA use.

CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 50

ORIGINAL — MAY 1998

B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449

NATIONAL SAR MANUAL

NOTE 2: This is a daily summary of SRUs used. If the sortie of an SRU starts before 2400 UTC and ends thereafter, then the SRU will be included in messages for both days; however, the SRU’s times will only be included in the cumulative total of the second day.

ORIGINAL — MAY 1998

CHAPTER 9 – PAGE 51

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