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Study of Piezoelectricity, A New Source of Energy and Its Prospect

Study of Piezoelectricity, A New Source of Energy and Its Prospect

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Sections

  • 1.1 Background
  • 1.2 Scavenge able Energy
  • 1.2.1 Wind power
  • 1.2.2 Hydro power
  • 1.2.3 Solar energy
  • 1.2.4 Biomass
  • 1.2.6 Geothermal energy
  • 1.2.7 Piezoelectric Energy
  • 1.3 Comparison of Energy Scavenging Technologies
  • 1.4 Overview of Vibration-to-Electricity Conversion Research
  • Table 2: Summary of current PZT energy harvesting devices [10-34]
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Physics of Piezoelectricity
  • 2.3 Piezoelectric Effect
  • 2.4 Axis Nomenclature
  • 2.5 Coupling
  • 2.6 Poling
  • Piezoelectric Materials
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Piezoelectric Materials
  • 3.3 Crystalline Materials
  • 3.4 Piezoelectric Ceramics
  • 3.5 Piezoelectric Material Comparison
  • 3.6 Temperature effect on PZT material properties
  • 3.7 Previous Work
  • 4.2 Piezoelectric Material Model
  • 4.3 Basic Circuitry Model
  • Figure 15: Piezoelectric material equivalent circuit [58]
  • 4.4 Power conversion circuit design
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Model Requirement
  • 5.3 Prototype Performance
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Energy catastrophe around the World
  • 6.3 Why Piezoelectric energy Harvesting?
  • 6.4 Energy harvesting around the World
  • 6.4.1 Power Generation Floor in Japan
  • 6.4.2 Energy Harvesting System in Israel

Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source of

Energy & Its Prospect

By


Md. Meizanur Rahman
Md. Junaed Tasnim Rahman
Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain















Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY CHITTAGONG
Chittagong.













Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source of
Energy & Its Prospect



Bachelor of Science Thesis [EEE]



Md. Meizanur Rahman
Md. Junaed Tasnim Rahman
Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain


Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY CHITTAGONG
Chittagong, Bangladesh 2011, Report no.2011.11

Report no.2011.11






Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source of
Energy & Its Prospect




Md. Meizanur Rahman
Md. Junaed Tasnim Rahman
Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain









Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY CHITTAGONG
Chittagong, Bangladesh 2011


Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source of Energy & Its Prospect

Md. Meizanur Rahman
Md. Junaed Tasnim Rahman
Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain






© md. meizanur rahman
© md. junaed tasnim rahman
© mohammad sahed hossain bhuyain










Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
International Islamic University Chittagong
154/A College road, Chittagong-4203
Bangladesh
Telephone + 880-625230, 610085, 610308, 638656-7 Ext. 157


Cover: Piezoelectricity

[IIUC EEE Reproservice]
Chittagong, Bangladesh 2011





The Thesis “Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source of Energy & Its Prospect” Submitted
by Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain, Md. Meizanur Rahman & Md. Junaed Tasnim
Rahman, Matric no. ET-071039, ET-071057 & ET-071063 respectively Session: 2007-2010, to
the department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, International Islamic University
Chittagong, has been accepted as satisfactory for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Bachelor of Science in Engineering (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) and
approved as to its style and contents for the examination held on June 16, 2011.

Approved by:


Engr. Mohammad Amin
Head (In-Charge)
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (Chairman)
International Islamic University Chittagong

Mohammad Razaul Karim
Lecturer
Faculty of Electrical & Computer Engineering (Supervisor)
International Islamic University Chittagong

Engr. Yasir Arafat
Lecturer
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (Member)
International Islamic University Chittagong

Engr. Md. Ataur Rahman
Lecturer
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (Member)
International Islamic University Chittagong

Engr. S. M. Taslim Reza
Lecturer
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (Member)
International Islamic University Chittagong

Engr. Md. Shahid Ullah
Lecturer
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (Member)
International Islamic University Chittagong

Dr. Md. Rezaul Huque Khan
Professor
Department of Applied Physics, Electronic &Communication Engineering (External)
Chittagong University





DECLARATION

This is to certify that the work presented here is the outcome of our investigation carried out by
us under the supervision of Mohammad Razaul Karim, Lecturer, Faculty of Electrical &
Electronic Engineering, IIUC. This submitted report or any part of it is not presented anywhere
for the award of any degree.




















Counter signed







Mohammad Razaul Karim
Lecturer
Faculty of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
IIUC
Signature of Students











Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain
Matric no: ET071039
Md. Meizanur Rahman
Matric no: ET071057
Md. Junaed Tasnim Rahman
Matric no: ET071063
i

Acknowledgement


First of all, we express our endless thank to almighty Allah for his great blessings enabling us to
finish this thesis.

We also want to take the opportunity to express our deep gratitude to our supervisor Mr. Md
Razaul Karim LECTURER, DEPT. OF EEE INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
CHITTAGONG, Bangladesh, for his continuous support and guidance to complete this thesis.
He helped us a lot by providing necessary information relating about the project. Without his
generous support, participation and encouragement, this thesis would not have been a success.

We want to show our special thanks to our ex head Md. Rifat Shahriar and Md. Yasir Arafat and
our lecturer Md. Ataur Rahman for their enormous help and support.

We wish to express our gratefulness to all the teachers of the departments for so many helps and
supports.

We are extremely grateful to our parents, family member and friends for their support, constant
love and sacrifice.
Finally, we beg pardon for our unintentional errors and omission if any.






Authors

Md. Meizanur Rahman
Md. JunaedTasnimRahman
Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain

ii

Abstract


The thesis paper presents a new idea of piezoelectric energy harvesting which is a process of
capturing ambient waste energy and converting it into usable electricity, has been attracting more
and more researchers’ interest because of the limitations of traditional power sources. This paper
presents the piezoelectric materials properties, piezoelectric energy harvesting technique, the
comparison between different energy harvesting system with piezoelectric energy harvesting, the
utilization of piezoelectric energy harvesting as next generation energy source, the condition of energy
sector in Bangladesh and the possibility of piezoelectric energy harvesting system in Bangladesh.




















iii

Table of Content

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………………i
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………............ii
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………….vi
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………….vii

Chapter 1
Introductory Concept

1.1Background……………………………………………………………………......................01
1.2Scavenge able Energy ………………………………………………………………………..02
1.2.1 Wind power……………………………………………………………………..…02
1.2.2 Hydro power……………………………………………………………………….03
1.2.3 Solar energy……………………………………………………………………..…03
1.2.4 Biomass…………………………………………………………………………….03
1.2.5 Biofuel………………………………………………………………………….…..03
1.2.6 Geothermal energy …………………………………………………….……….….04
1.2.7 Piezoelectric Energy ………………………………………………………………05
1.3 Comparison of Energy Scavenging Technologies ………………………………………..…05
1.3.1 Summary of Power Scavenging Sources………………………………….……….05
1.3.2 Conclusions Regarding Power Scavenging Sources…………………………….…06
1.4 Overview of Vibration-to-Electricity Conversion Research…………………………...…….07


Chapter 2
Piezoelectricity

2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….10
2.2 Physics of Piezoelectricity…………………………………………………………………...10
2.3 Piezoelectric Effect………………………………………………………………………......11
2.4 Axis Nomenclature…………………………………………………………………………..13
2.5 Coupling……………………………………………………………………………………...14
2.6 Poling………………………………………………………………………………………...14



iv

Chapter 3
Piezoelectric Materials


3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..16
3.2 Piezoelectric Materials……………………………………………………………………….16
3.3 Crystalline Materials…………………………………………………………………………17
3.4 Piezoelectric Ceramics……………………………………………………………………….18
3.5 Piezoelectric Material Comparison…………………………………………………………..18
3.6 Temperature effect on PZT material properties……………………………………………...19
3.7 Previous Work……………………………………………………………………………….22


Chapter 4
Modeling

4.1Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….25
4.2 Piezoelectric Material Model………………………………………………………………..27
4.3 Basic Circuitry Model……………………………………………………………………….30
4.4 Power conversion circuit design…………………………………………………………......32

Chapter 5
Energy Harvesting Technology

5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..34
5.2 Model Requirement………………………………………………………………………….34
5.3 Prototype Performance………………………………………………………………………36

Chapter 6
The Next Generation of Energy Source: Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

6.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..37
6.2Energy catastrophe around the World………………………………………………………...37
6.3 Why Piezoelectric energy Harvesting......................................................................................42
6.4 Energy harvesting around the World………………………………………………………...43
6.4.1 Power Generation Floor in Japan…………………………………………………..43
6.4.2 Energy Harvesting System in Israel………………………………………………..44
v

Chapter 7
Energy Harvesting Prospect in Bangladesh

7.1Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………...46
7.2 Energy Crisis in Bangladesh…………………………………………………………………46
7.3 Steps Taken to Overcome this Situation……………………………………………………..47
7.4 An Exemplary Model of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Bangladesh…………………..48
7.4.1 Power produced per step…………………………………………………………...48
7.4.2 Average steps per person…………………………………………………………..48
7.4.3 Power produced by per person……………………………………………………..49
7.4.4 Inhabitants appearance in the mall…………………………………………………49
7.4.5 Total energy generated per year……………………………………………………49
7.4.6 Cost estimation……………………………………………………………………..49
7.5 Cost estimation of other energy sources and PZT energy harvesting system………………..53
7.5.1 Fossil fuel power station……………………………………………………………53
7.5.2 Solar power system…………………………………………………………………53
7.5.3 Hydro power system……………………………………………………………….54
7.5.4 Wind power system………………………………………………………………...54
7.5.5 Cost comparison among the energy sources……………………………………….54


Chapter 8
Conclusion

8.1 Overview of the work……………………………………………………….……………….55
8.2 Limitations…………………………………………………………………………………...55
8.3 Future plans…………………………………………………………………………………..55
8.4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………...56

References………………………………..………………………………………57








vi

List of Figures

Figure1: Power density versus lifetime for batteries, solar cells, and vibration generators……..06
Figure 2: Atomic distortion of piezoelectric material……………………………………………11
Figure 3: Mono vs. Poly Crystals………………………………………………………………..12
Figure 4: Axis nomenclature…………………………………………………………………….13
Figure 5: Poling process: (a) Before poling (b) During poling (c) after poling………………....14
Figure 6: Piezoelectric Material Applications…………………………………………………...17
Figure 7: Interaction between the electrical, mechanical and thermal processes………………..20
Figure 8: Influence of temperature on the dielectric constant…………………………………...21
Figure 9: Influence of temperature on the piezoelectric strain constant, d31………………………21
Figure 10: Piezoelectric crystal used for measurement of force and axis numbering system for the
crystal…………………………………………………………………………………………….25
Figure 11: Hard PZT 5a material………………………………………………………………...28
Figure 12: “Hard” Material Diagram and Loading; Units are in Inches…………………………28
Figure 13: Soft PZT Type 5a Material…………………………………………………………...29
Figure 14: “Soft” PZT Loading Diagram; Units are in Inches…………………………………..30
Figure 15: Piezoelectric material equivalent circuit……………………………………………..31
Figure 16: Circuit representation of a PZT material………………………….………………….31
Figure 17: Circuit representation of generation of electricity…………………………………...32
Figure 18: Principle of power conversion…………………………..……………………………32
Figure 19: Circuit Diagram for the Part I…………………….…………………………………..33
Figure 20: energy harvesting tile…………...……………………………………………………35
Figure 21: Energy harvested floor……………....……………………………………………….36
Figure 22: World population growth rate…………………………………………………..……38
Figure 23: Projected world energy demand in Gtoe………………………………..……………39
Figure 24: World energy consumption rate from different sources………………………..…….39
Figure 25: Amount of reserve energy at constant consumption……………………………...….40
Figure 26: Energy consumption increment rate and its impact on reserve energy………………41
Figure 27: Approximate expiration time for accessible non renewable energy sources………...41
vii

List of Tables

Table 1: Comparison of energy scavenging and energy storage methods………………….……05
Table 2: Summary of current PZT energy harvesting devices……………………………………………09
Table 3: Technology comparison…………………………………………………………………………43
Table 4: Current energy condition of Bangladesh……………………………………………….47
Table 5: Energy estimation………………...…………………………………………………….51
Table 6: Cost estimate..…………………………………………………………………………..52
Table 7: Cost of power generation using various fuels in Bangladesh…………………………..53
Table 8: Per unit cost comparison………………………………………………………………..54

1
Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
of Energy & Its Prospect
IIUC
Chapter 1


Introductory Concept


1.1 Background

Power plays an important role whatever man lives and works. Power provides our homes with
light and heat. The living standard and prosperity of a nation vary directly with increase in use of
power. As technology advancing the consumption of power is steadily rising. This necessitates
that in addition to the existing sources of power should be search out more. The existing sources
such as coal, water, petroleum etc. are natural sources and are in limited amount. So this makes
energy crisis which attracted the attention of the developing and developed countries to explore
and find out new means of energy sources. In our country energy crisis is one of the greatest
problem in our way to success. Now a day government is trying to search new energy sources
and encouraging people to use renewable sources. Solar energy is a useful energy source which
is promoted by our government in recent past. We are using hydraulic energy from many years.
But all this renewable energies have some drawbacks that are why these energies are not able to
fulfill our energy requirement. Our energy sector is mainly dependent on natural resources
mainly gas, petroleum and coal which are not enough in amount. We all know about the crisis of
power in Bangladesh, with the increase of population this disease enlarging at an alarming rate.
As everybody knows population is the main burden of Bangladesh because of is wealthy amount,
so if we use this huge population for energy production it will be a revolutionary improvement in
our country. So main intention of this paper is to research about piezoelectric energy harvesting
(which uses population density properly) according to Bangladesh point of view. This type of
energy harvesting has been used by different country around the world. In this paper we will
study briefly about piezoelectric energy harvesting and analyze its prospect and acceptability in
Bangladesh. Piezoelectric materials (PZT) are able to interchange between electrical energy and
mechanical strain or force. The ability of piezoelectric materials to covert mechanical energy into
electrical energy can provide a medium to transfer ambient motion (usually vibration) into
electrical energy that may be stored and utilized by electronic devices such as sensors and
wireless nodes. The energy density achievable with piezoelectric devices is potentially greater
than that possible with electrostatic or electromagnetic devices.



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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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1.2 Scavenge able Energy

Scavenge able energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain,
tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of
global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional
biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewables
(small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another
2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around
18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable.
Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Sunlight, or solar
energy, can be used directly for heating and lighting homes and other buildings, for generating
electricity, and for hot water heating, solar cooling, and a variety of commercial and industrial
uses.
The sun's heat also drives the winds, whose energy, is captured with wind turbines. Then, the
winds and the sun's heat cause water to evaporate. When this water vapor turns into rain or snow
and flows downhill into rivers or streams, its energy can be captured using hydroelectric power.
Along with the rain and snow, sunlight causes plants to grow. The organic matter that makes up
those plants is known as biomass. Biomass can be used to produce electricity, transportation
fuels, or chemicals. The use of biomass for any of these purposes is called bioenergy.
Hydrogen also can be found in many organic compounds, as well as water. It's the most
abundant element on the Earth. But it doesn't occur naturally as a gas. It's always combined with
other elements, such as with oxygen to make water. Once separated from another element,
hydrogen can be burned as a fuel or converted into electricity.
Not all renewable energy resources come from the sun. Geothermal energy taps the Earth's
internal heat for a variety of uses, including electric power production, and the heating and
cooling of buildings. And the energy of the ocean's tides come from the gravitational pull of the
moon and the sun upon the Earth.
In fact, ocean energy comes from a number of sources. In addition to tidal energy, there's the
energy of the ocean's waves, which are driven by both the tides and the winds. The sun also
warms the surface of the ocean more than the ocean depths, creating a temperature difference
that can be used as an energy source. All these forms of ocean energy can be used to produce
electricity. Different renewable sources are described below [78]

1.2.1 Wind power
Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to
5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most
common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind
speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically. Areas where winds are
stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites are preferred locations for
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
of Energy & Its Prospect
IIUC
wind farms. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in
particularly favourable sites.
Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total
current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand. This could require wind
turbines to be installed over large areas, particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Offshore
resources experience mean wind speeds of ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources
could contribute substantially more energy [78].


1.2.2 Hydro power
Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even
a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy.
There are many forms of water energy:
Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams. Examples are
the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State and the Akosombo Dam in Ghana.
Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW
of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a remote-area power supply (RAPS). There
are many of these installations around the world, including several delivering around 50 kW in
the Solomon Islands. Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems derive kinetic energy from rivers
and oceans without using a dam.
Ocean energy describes all the technologies to harness energy from the ocean and the sea. This
includes marine current power, ocean thermal energy conversion, and tidal power [78].

1.2.3 Solar energy
Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar
powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaics and heat engines. A partial list of other
solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, daylighting,
solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on
the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use
of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar
techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal
mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air [78].

1.2.4 Biomass
Biomass is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains comes from the sun.
Through the process of photosynthesis, plants capture the sun's energy. When the plants are
burnt, they release the sun's energy they contain. In this way, biomass functions as a sort of
natural battery for storing solar energy. As long as biomass is produced sustainably, with only as
much used as is grown, the battery will last indefinitely.
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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IIUC
In general there are two main approaches to using plants for energy production: growing plants
specifically for energy use, and using the residues from plants that are used for other things. The
best approaches vary from region to region according to climate, soils and geography [78].

1.2.5 Biofuel
Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid
biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols, such as
bioethanol, and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous biofuels include biogas, landfill gas and
synthetic gas.
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is
made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic
biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol
can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to
increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in
Brazil.
Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a
fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of
particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is
produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe.
Biofuels provided 1.8% of the world's transport fuel in 2008. According to the International
Energy Agency, biofuels have the potential to meet more than a quarter of world demand for
transportation fuels by 2050 [78].

1.2.6 Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from
kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in volcanically active locations of the globe or from
shallow depths, as in geothermal heat pumps in most locations of the planet. It is expensive to
build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites.
Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.
Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam,
flash, and binary. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and use it to directly
drive a turbine that spins a generator. Flash plants take hot water, usually at temperatures over
200 °C, out of the ground, and allows it to boil as it rises to the surface then separates the steam
phase in steam/water separators and then runs the steam through a turbine. In binary plants, the
hot water flows through heat exchangers, boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine. The
condensed steam and remaining geothermal fluid from all three types of plants are injected back
into the hot rock to pick up more heat.
The geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in
others. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and brought to the surface it may
be used to generate electricity. Such geothermal power sources exist in certain geologically
unstable parts of the world such as Chile, Iceland, New Zealand, United States, the Philippines
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
of Energy & Its Prospect
IIUC
and Italy. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in the Yellowstone
basin and in northern California. Iceland produced 170 MW geothermal powers and heated 86%
of all houses in the year 2000 through geothermal energy. Some 8000 MW of capacity is
operational in total.
There is also the potential to generate geothermal energy from hot dry rocks. Holes at least 3 km
deep are drilled into the earth. Some of these holes pump water into the earth, while other holes
pump hot water out. The heat resource consists of hot underground radiogenic granite rocks,
which heat up when there is enough sediment between the rock and the earth’s surface. Several
companies in Australia are exploring this technology [78].

1.2.7 Piezoelectric Energy
This type of energy is converted from mechanical stress. In this system of energy scavenging
mechanical energy is converted into electric energy. A broad analysis and discussion of this
technology are provided later of this thesis paper.

1.3 Comparison of Energy Scavenging Technologies

A broad survey of potential energy scavenging methods has been undertaken by Jyoti K Ajitsaria
of Auburn University. The results of this survey are shown in Table 1. The table also includes
batteries and other energy storage technologies for comparison. The table contains pure power
scavenging sources and thus the amount of power available is not a function of the lifetime of the
device. The values in the table are derived from a combination of published studies, experiments
performed by the author, theory, and information that is commonly available in data sheets and
textbooks. The source of information for each technique is given in the third column. While this
comparison is by no means exhaustive, it does provide a broad cross section of potential methods
to scavenge energy and energy storage systems. Other potential sources were also considered but
deemed to be outside of the application space under consideration or to be unacceptable for some
other reason. A brief explanation and evaluation of each source listed in Table 1 follows.

Table1: Comparison of energy scavenging and energy storage methods. [1]

Power Sources Power density Source of information
Solar (solar panel) 19 to 56 W/m² Commonly available
Vibrations 200 μW/cm3 Roundy
Temperature gradient
315 μW/cm3 from 5C
Thermolife
Batteries (non rechargeable) 45 μW/cm3 Commonly available
Batteries (rechargeable) 7 μW/cm3 Commonly available



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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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IIUC
1.3.1 Summary of Power Scavenging Sources
Based on this survey, it was decided that solar energy and vibrations offered the most attractive
energy scavenging solutions. The question that must then be asked is: is it preferable to use a
high energy density battery that would last the lifetime of the device, or to implement an energy
scavenging solution?
Figure 1 shows average power available from various battery chemistries (both rechargeable and
non-rechargeable) versus lifetime of the device being powered.
















The shaded boxes in the figure indicate the range of solar (lightly shaded) and vibration (darkly
shaded) power available. Solar and vibration power output are not a function of lifetime. The
reason that both solar and vibrations are shown as a box in the graph is that different
environmental conditions will result in different power levels. The bottom of the box for solar
power indicates the amount of power per square centimeter available in normal office lighting.
The top of this box roughly indicates the power available outdoors. Likewise, the area covered
by the box for vibrations covers the range of vibration sources under consideration in this study.
Some of the battery traces, lithium rechargeable and zinc-air for example, exhibit an inflection
point. The reason is that both battery drain and leakage are considered. For longer lifetimes,
leakage becomes more dominant for some battery chemistries. The location of the inflection
roughly indicates when leakage is becoming the dominant factor in reducing the amount of
energy stored in the battery. The graph indicates that if the desired lifetime of the device is in the
range of 1 year or less, battery technology can provide enough energy for the wireless sensor
nodes under consideration (100μW average power dissipation). However, if longer lifetimes are
needed, as will usually be the case, then other options should be pursued. Also, it seems that for
lifetimes of 5 years or more, a battery cannot provide the same level of power that solar cells or
vibrations can provide even under poor circumstances.

Figure 1: Power density versus lifetime for batteries, solar cells, and vibration generators [1]
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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IIUC
1.3.2 Conclusions Regarding Power Scavenging Sources
Both solar power and vibration based energy scavenging look promising as methods to scavenge
power from the environment. In many cases, perhaps most cases, they are not overlapping
solutions because if solar energy is present, it is likely that vibrations are not, and vice versa.
Solar cells are a mature technology, and one that has been profitably implemented many times in
the past. So, the main focus of the research and development effort has been vibration based
power generators.

1.4 Overview of Vibration-to-Electricity Conversion Research

Low level vibrations occur in many environments including: large commercial buildings,
automobiles, aircraft, ships, trains, and industrial environments. Given the wide range of
potential applications for vibration based power generation, and given the fact that vibration-to-
electricity converters have been investigated very little, the thorough investigation and
development of such converters are merited.
A few groups have previously devoted research effort toward the development of vibration-to-
electricity converters. Yates, Williams, and Shearwood [2-5] have modeled and developed an
electromagnetic micro-generator. The generator has a footprint of roughly 4mm X 4mm and
generated a maximum of 0.3 μW from a vibration source of displacement magnitude 500 nm at
4.4 kHz. Their chief contribution, in addition to the development of the electromagnetic
generator, was the development of a generic second order linear model for power conversion. It
turns out that this model fits electromagnetic conversion very well, and they showed close
agreement between the model and experimental results. The electromagnetic generator was only
1mm thick, and thus the power density of the system was about 10μW/cm3 – 15μW/cm3.
Interestingly, the authors do not report the output voltage and current of their device, but only the
output power. This author’s calculations show that the output voltage of the 0.3μW generator
would have been 8 mV which presents a serious problem. Because the power source is an AC
power source, in order to be of use by electronics it must first be rectified. In order to rectify an
AC voltage source, the voltage must be larger than the forward drop of a diode, which is about
0.5 volts. So, in order to be of use, this power source would need a large linear transformer to
convert the AC voltage up by at least a factor of 100 and preferably a factor of 500 to 1000,
which is clearly impractical. A second issue is that the vibrations used to drive the device are of
magnitude 500 nm, or 380 m/s2, at 4.4 kHz. It is exceedingly difficult to find vibrations of this
magnitude and frequency in many environments. These vibrations are far more energy rich than
those measured in common building environments, which will be discussed at length in Chapter
2. Finally, there was no attempt in that research at either a qualitative or quantitative comparison
of different methods of converting vibrations to electricity. Nevertheless the work of Yates,
Williams, and Shearwood is significant in that it represents the first effort to develop micro or
meso scale devices that convert vibrations to electricity (meso scale here refers to objects
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between the macro scale and micro scale, typically objects from a centimeter down to a few
millimeters).
A second group has more recently developed an electromagnetic converter and an electrostatic
converter. Several publications detail their work Amirtharajah 1999, Amirtharajah &
Chandrakasan 1998, Meninger et al 1999, Amirtharajah et al 2000, Meninger et al 2001 [6-9].
The electromagnetic converter was quite large and designed for vibrations generated by a person
walking. (i.e. the person would carry the object in his/her pocket or somewhere else on the
body). The device was therefore designed for a vibration magnitude of about 2 cm at about 2 Hz.
(Note that these are not steady state vibrations.) Their simulations showed a maximum of 400
μW from this source under idealized circumstances (no mechanical damping or losses). While
they report the measured output voltage for the device, they do not report the output power. The
maximum measured output voltage was reported as 180 mV, necessitating a 10 to 1 transformer
in order to rectify the voltage. The device size was 4cm X 4cm X 10cm, and if it is assumed that
400 μW of power really could be generated, then the power density of the device driven by a
human walking would be 2.5μW/cm3. Incidentally, they estimated the same power generation
from a steady state vibration source driven by machine components (rotating machinery). The
electrostatic converter designed by this same group was designed for a MEMS process using
Silicon on Insultor (SOI). The generator is a standard MEMS comb drives (Tang, Nguyen and
Howe, 1989) except that it is used as a generator instead of an actuator. There seems to have
been little effort to explore other design topologies. At least, to this author’s knowledge,
Chandrakasan and colleagues [6-9] have not been published such an effort. Secondly, there
seems to be little recognition of the mechanical dynamics of the system in the design. The
authors assume that the generator device will undergo a predetermined level of displacement, but
do not show that this level of displacement is possible given a reasonably input vibration source
and the dynamics of the system. In fact, this author’s own calculations show that for a reasonable
input vibration, and the mass of their system, the level of displacement assumed is not practical.
Published simulation results for their system predict a power output of 8.6 μW for a device that
is 1.5 cm X 0.5 cm X 1 mm from a vibration source at 2.52 kHz (amplitude not specified).
However, no actual test results have been published to date. Amirtharajah et al [6-9] of
researchers has also developed power electronics especially suited for electrostatic vibration to
electricity converters for extremely low power systems. Additionally, they have developed a low
power DSP (Digital Signal Processor) for sensor applications. These are both very significant
achievements and contributions. In fact, perhaps it should be pointed out that this group is
comprised primarily of circuit designers, and the bulk of the material published about their
project reports on the circuit design and implementation, not on the design and implementation
of the power converter itself. The research presented in this thesis makes no effort to improve
upon or expand their research in this area. Very recently a group of researchers has published
material on optimal power circuitry design for piezoelectric generators (Ottman et al 2003,
Ottman et al 2002). The focus of this research has been on the optimal design of the power
conditioning electronics for a piezoelectric generator. No effort is made to optimize the design of
the piezoelectric generator itself or to design for a particular vibrations source. The maximum
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power output reported is 18 mW. The footprint area of the piezoelectric converter is 19cm
2
. The
height of the device is not given. Assuming a height of about 5 mm give a power density of 1.86
mW/cm
3
. The frequency of the driving vibrations is reported as 53.8 Hz, but the magnitude is
not reported. The significant contribution of the research is a clear understanding of the issues
surrounding the design of the power circuitry specifically optimized for a piezoelectric vibration
to electricity converter. Again, the research presented in this dissertation makes no effort to
improve on the power electronics design of Ottman et al, but rather to explore the design and
implementation of the power converter itself. Table 2 shows PZT energy harvesting devices.

Table 2: Summary of current PZT energy harvesting devices [10-34]
Author Device
Characteristics Modeling
Power
Frequency and
acceleration

Williams and Yates
Shearwood and Yates
Williams et. al
Electromagnetic
micro-generator
10-15 μwatt/cm3
4.4 KHz, 380
m/s2
Generic 2nd
order linear
model
Amirtharajah 1999
Amirtharajah & Chandrakasan 1998
Meninger et al 1999
Amirtharajah et al 2000
Meninger et al 2001
Electromagnetic
converter
2.5 μW/cm3 2 Hz N/A
Kasyap et. al PZT patch N/R N/R
Lumped
element
modeling
Priya PZT windmill 7.5 mW 65 Hz Beam theory
Roundy et. Al PZT cantilever 70 μwatt/cm3
120 Hz, 2.5
m/s2
Electrical
equivalent
model
White et. al Jones et. al. PZT cantilever 2 μwatt 80.1 Hz, FEA model
Umeda et. al PZT plate N/R N/A
Electrical
equivalent
model
Tanaka et. al PZT cantilever 180 μwatt 50 Hz, 10 μm N/A
Mohammadi et. al PZT plate 120 mW N/R N/A
Ayers et. al PZT plate N/R 1 KN, 4Hz
Equivalent
circuit model
Platt et. al PZT stack 1.1 mW 440 N, < 20 Hz
Equivalent
circuit model
Li et. al.
MEMS
electromagnetic
40 μwatt 20 Hz, 200 μm N/R
Ferrari et. al. PZT cantilever 0.25 μwatt 41 Hz, 9 m/s2 N/A
Shu et. al. PZT cantilever N/R N/R
Conversion
efficiency

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Chapter 2


Piezoelectricity



2.1 Introduction

Curiosity about the piezoelectric effect dates back thousands of years. It was first noticed in
rocks which would repel other rocks when they were heated. These rocks, which were actually
Tourmaline crystals, eventually found their way into Europe. Once the crystals arrived in
Europe, they were scrutinized by the scientists of the day. In the mid 1700’s, this effect was
given the name of Pyroelectricity, which means electricity by heat [35]. Further examination of
the Pyroelectric crystals led to the discovery of Piezoelectricity. Pierre and Jacques Curie were
the first to discover the direct piezoelectric effect. This title means the correlation between input
mechanical force and output electrical energy. They first published their research results on
August 2, 1880 [36]. The converse piezoelectric effect, which means mechanical deformation by
application of an electric field, was predicted in 1881 [37]. The first applications of
piezoelectricity were in the area of sonar, where quartz plates were used to emit high frequency
waves, on the order of 50 kHz. These waves would bounce off an object and return to a receiver,
indicating to the operator the presence of an object below the surface of a body of water. Today,
major applications of piezoelectric materials are in sensors, where their linear response makes
them ideal for making mechanical measurements. Now a days another revolutionary use of
piezoelectricity as energy harvesting purpose which will discussed later in this paper.

2.2 Physics of Piezoelectricity

The piezoelectric effect is a property that exists in many materials. The name is made up of two
parts; piezo, which is derived from the Greek work for pressure, and electric from electricity.
The rough translation is, therefore, pressure - electric effect. In a piezoelectric material, the
application of a force or stress results in the development of a charge in the material. This is
known as the direct piezoelectric effect. Conversely, the application of a charge to the same
material will result in a change in mechanical dimensions or strain. This is known as the indirect
piezoelectric effect. Several ceramic materials have been described as exhibiting a piezoelectric
effect. These include lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT), lead-titanate (PbTiO2), lead-zirconate
(PbZrO3), and barium-titanate (BaTiO3). When a piezoelectric material is strained, it polarizes,
creating an electric field. Figure 2 shows how the polarization of the material occurs. As the
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material is compressed, the symmetry of the atomic structure is disrupted, resulting in poles
occurring in atoms of the material. These poles lead to the creation of the electric field. The
converse effect works in much the same way. When an electric field is applied across the
material, it will cause polarization of the material, which in turn will deform it.


















2.3 Piezoelectric Effect

A piezoelectric substance is one that produces an electric charge when a mechanical stress is
applied (the substance is squeezed or stretched). Conversely, a mechanical deformation (the
substance shrinks or expands) is produced when an electric field is applied. This effect is formed
in crystals that have no center of symmetry. To explain this, we have to look at the individual
molecules that make up the crystal. Each molecule has a polarization, one end is more negatively
charged and the other end is positively charged, and is called a dipole. This is a result of the
atoms that make up the molecule and the way the molecules are shaped. The polar axis is an
imaginary line that runs through the center of both charges on the molecule. In a monocrystal the
polar axes of all of the dipoles lie in one direction. The crystal is said to be symmetrical because
if you were to cut the crystal at any point, the resultant polar axes of the two pieces would lie in
the same direction as the original. In a polycrystal, there are different regions within the material
that have a different polar axis. It is asymmetrical because there is no point at which the crystal
could be cut that would leave the two remaining pieces with the same resultant polar axis
illustrates this concept. The difference between the monocrystal and polycrystal structure is
illustrated in Figure 3.

-

+

+
-

+
-

+
-
-

+
F
F

+
-

+

+
-
-
Figure 2: Atomic distortion of piezoelectric material [35]
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It is best to start with an understanding of common dielectric materials in order to understand the
piezoelectric effect. The defining equations for high permittivity dielectrics are:


t
Α
t
Α
t
Α Κ
C
r r


 



0
(1)

And
t
AV
CV Q

  (2)
Where,
C = capacitance
A = capacitor plate area
εr = relative dielectric constant
εo = dielectric constant of air = 8.85 x 10-12 faradays / meter
ε = dielectric constant
V = voltage
t = thickness or plate separation
Q = charge
In addition, we can define electric displacement, D, as charge density or the ratio of charge to the
area of the capacitor:

t
V
A
Q
D

  (3)
And further define the electric field as:

t
V
H  Or H D  (4)
These equations are true for all isotropic dielectrics. Piezoelectric ceramic materials are isotropic
in the unpolarized state, but they become anisotropic in the poled state. In anisotropic materials,
both the electric field and electric displacement must be represented as vectors with three
dimensions in a fashion similar to the mechanical force vector. This is a direct result of the
dependency of the ratio of dielectric displacement, D, to electric field, H, upon the orientation of
Monocrystal with single polar axis Polycrystal with random polar axis
Figure 3: Mono vs. Poly Crystals [38]
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the capacitor plate to the crystal (or poled ceramic) axes. This means that the general equation
for electric displacement can be written as a state variable equation:
j ij i
E D  (5)
The electric displacement is always parallel to the electric field, thus each electric displacement
vector, Di, is equal to the sum of the field vector, Ej, multiplied by its corresponding dielectric
constant, εij:

3 13 2 12 1 11 1
E E E D     

3 23 2 22 1 21 2
E E E D      (6)

3 33 2 32 1 31 3
E E E D     
Fortunately, the majority of the dielectric constants for piezoelectric ceramics (as opposed to
single crystal piezoelectric materials) are zero. The only non-zero terms are:
33 22 11
  

2.4 Axis Nomenclature

The piezoelectric effect, as stated previously, relates mechanical effects to electrical effects.
These effects, as shown above, are highly dependent upon their orientation to the poled axis. It
is, therefore, essential to maintain a constant axis numbering scheme. The axis nomenclature
followed is shown in Figure 4.



















Z(3)
X(1)
Y(2)
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
Axis
X
Y
Z
Shear around X
Shear around Y
Shear around Z
Figure 4: Axis nomenclature [38]

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2.5 Coupling

Coupling is a key constant used to evaluate the "quality" of an electro-mechanical material. This
constant represents the efficiency of energy conversion from electrical to mechanical or
mechanical to electrical.

k =
McchunìcuI cnc¡g¡ con¡c¡tcd to cIcct¡ìcuI cnc¡g¡
McchunìcuI cnc¡g¡ ìnput
(7)
Or
k =
LIcct¡ìcuI cnc¡g¡ con¡c¡tcd to mcchunìcuI cnc¡g¡
LIcct¡ìcuI cnc¡g¡ ìnput
(8)
In this chapter, the review of different forms of piezoelectric generators configuration is done.
They are presented here to provide a working foundation for the mathematical modeling in the
next chapter highlighting important features that distinguish each design. While there are many
piezoelectric materials from which to choose for a piezoelectric generator, we plan on using lead
zirconate titanate (PZT). So from this point onwards, the word PZT and piezoelectric may be
used interchangeably, although, it is understood that except when referring to specific PZT
material constants, other piezoelectric materials could be assumed to be used.

2.6 Poling

Piezoelectric material, which is non-conductive in nature, does not have free electrons, and
therefore electrons cannot pass freely through the material. Piezoelectric material is made up of
crystals that have many “fixed” electrons. These fixed electrons can move slightly as the crystals
deform by an external force. This slight movement of electrons alters the equilibrium status in
the adjacent conductive materials and creates electric force. This force will push and pull the
electrons in the electrodes attached to the piezoelectric crystal as shown in the Figure 5.








Piezoelectric ceramic materials, as stated earlier, are not piezoelectric until the random
ferroelectric domains are aligned. This alignment is accomplished through a process known as
"poling". Poling consists of inducing a D.C. voltage across the material. The ferroelectric
domains align to the induced field resulting in a net piezoelectric effect. It should be noted that
not all the domains become exactly aligned. Some of the domains only partially align and some
Figure 5: Poling process: (a) Before poling (b) During poling (c) After poling [35]
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do not align at all. The number of domains that align depends upon the poling voltage,
temperature, and the time the voltage is held on the material. During poling the material
permanently increases in dimension between the poling electrodes and decreases in dimensions
parallel to the electrodes. The material can be depolarized by reversing the poling voltage,
increasing the temperature beyond the materials Currie point, or by inducing a large mechanical
stress.
Voltage applied to the electrodes at the same polarity as the original poling voltage results in a
further increase in dimension between the electrodes and decreases the dimensions parallel to the
electrodes. Applying a voltage to the electrodes in an opposite direction decreases the dimension
between the electrodes and increases the dimensions parallel to the electrodes.
Applying a compressive force in the direction of poling (perpendicular to the poling electrodes)
or a tensile force parallel to the poling direction results in a voltage generation on the electrodes
which has the same polarity as the original poling voltage. A tensile force applied perpendicular
to the electrodes or a compressive force applied parallel to the electrodes results in a voltage of
opposite polarity. Removing the poling electrodes and applying a field perpendicular to the
poling direction on a new set of electrodes will result in mechanical shear. Physically shearing
the ceramic will produce a voltage on the new electrodes.



















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Chapter 3


Piezoelectric Materials


3.1 Introduction

This chapter contains different types of piezoelectric materials, classification of piezoelectric
effect, piezoelectric material comparison, piezoelectric material properties, temperature effect on
piezoelectric materials and some history of previous work done by several research groups. This
chapter will provide elaborate description of piezoelectric materials and their properties and will
help to find out proper piezoelectric material for energy harvesting.

3.2 Piezoelectric Materials

There are two main types of piezoelectric materials, crystalline materials and ceramic materials.
Crystalline materials, such as quartz, occur naturally. They were found to exhibit piezoelectric
properties as long as 100 years ago. Recent advancements have yielded man-made materials that
also exhibit piezoelectric properties. These materials have begun to be used in many
applications, from sensor applications to powering remote electronics in areas where other power
sources are unavailable. An example of such an application is the use of sensors on bridges. For
older bridges, monitoring of modern loads on the bridge has become an important area of
research. For existing structures, having to retrofit the structure with wiring for a monitoring
system is expensive and time-consuming. Using sensors powered by piezoelectric materials,
which transmit their data using a RF link in a burst at periodic intervals, the real time load and
stresses on a bridge can be determined. This capability enables an easy retrofit, and is a very
cost-effective way to monitor physical structures. Figure 6 shows a comprehensive list of general
piezoelectric material applications






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Piezoelectric Effect
Piezoelectric motors
Positioning devices
Ink jet printers
Filters Oscillators
Frequency standards
Time standards
Actuators Resonant sensors
measuring physical
measurands through
Shift of resonant
Frequency
Electronics
Time and frequency
control
Ul t r asoni c
ul t r asoni c w ave
gener at or s
Resonant
Bulk acoustic
Waves BAW
Surface acoustic
waves Saw
Not resonant Voltage Generators
(Spark) Ignitors
Sensors
Measuring
mechanical
measurands
Force
Torque
Strain Pressure
Acceleration
Acoustic emersion
Converse Effect Direct Effect
Figure 6: Piezoelectric Material Applications [35]
3.3 Crystalline Materials
Crystalline materials were the first materials identified to exhibit piezoelectric properties. These
materials, particularly quartz, are found naturally, especially in areas of the South Pacific [35].
Since these materials are crystalline, they are especially sensitive to their cut and orientation, and
they exhibit different piezoelectric properties depending on the crystal orientation [35].
Since the advent of piezoelectric sensors, the demand for quartz crystals has outstripped the
natural supply. Therefore it became necessary to develop ways to artificially create the crystals.
Methods were developed and many Quartz piezoelectric materials today are grown artificially in
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autoclaves. It was found that with a pressure between 1 and 2 kilo Bars and at a temperature of
between 350 to 450 OC, Quartz can be grown [35].
There are, however, problems with artificially creating quartz. One such problem is the effect of
twinning. This occurs when Quartz of two different crystal orientations intergrowth. Twins can
also form under loading, affecting the piezoelectric coefficient. It is best that this occurrence be
avoided and must be considered when designing, or designing with, piezoelectric materials [35].

3.4 Piezoelectric Ceramics

Another common group of piezoelectric materials other than quartz is a ceramic material which
has been developed more recently. Piezo-ceramic materials are man-made, and come in many
different types. These materials exhibit high coupling coefficients, and are very flexible, so they
are very suited to custom applications. Another advantage of ceramic piezoelectric materials is
that since they are man made, they do not suffer from the problems which natural materials have
regarding scarcity, and crystal orientation (having to cut the crystal on a certain geometric plane
for optimal output). The ceramic material studied through the course of this research is lead-
zitronite-titanate (PbZrO3, PbTiO3), commonly referred to as PZT material.
PZT Materials are manufactured by sintering a finely ground power mixture. The powder is
usually made of ferroelectrics of the oxygen-octahedral type, which are first shaped into the
desired shape [35]. Piezoelectric ceramics are formed of a number of ferroelectric grains
(crystallites), each containing domains in which the electric dipoles are aligned [35]. To properly
demonstrate piezoelectric properties, the material must be polarized by heating the material to a
high temperature and applying a strong electric field [35].
The PZT materials can be manufactured into various subtypes. These subtypes can be custom-
designed for different uses and environments. The subtype materials are created by doping, or
introducing impurities into the materials. By controlling the amount and types of impurities
introduced, the physical properties of the material, such as the dielectric constant, coupling
coefficient, and piezoelectric constant, can be modified to the designer’s needs. The subtypes are
given a standard designation, such as PZT-5A. For the research conducted at Villanova, the
materials examined were PZT-5A and PZT-8 [39].

3.5 Piezoelectric Material Comparison

Some general considerations for selecting crystalline or ceramic piezoelectric materials for
certain applications are presented next. Ceramic materials are much cheaper than crystalline
materials to use. They do not have to be grown, nor do they have to be cut properly. They
manufactured by several companies such as Noliac and Advanced Cerametrics amongst others.
Natural crystals can be rare, artificial crystals are difficult to use for applications which have
space requirements, and finding the proper one for a specific application can be difficult. Finally,
the ceramic materials are usually much more sensitive than the crystalline materials [35].
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There are drawbacks to the ceramic materials. For some PZT materials, their sensitivity can
degrade over time, an effect called “aging”. For applications where consistent and reproducible
measurements are necessary over a long period of time, such as sensors, this is a most
undesirable trait.
The ceramic materials usually exhibit very high temperature sensitivity, making their thermal
operating range very limited. This makes these materials unsuitable for more extreme
environments, especially high temperature ones. At high temperatures the piezoelectric
properties of these materials such as the coupling coefficient and the piezoelectric constant
change and tend to degrade as temperature increases. This change becomes complete when the
ambient temperature increases to the Curie temperature of the material. At this point, the material
will lose all of its polarization, losing its piezoelectric properties. Typical Curie temperatures for
PZT materials are on the order of 200°C.
Finally, ceramic materials as well as certain quartz materials are pyroelectric, so when being
used in sensors, electric noise will increase as their temperature increases. These materials
exhibit a lower resistivity than the quartz materials, which can be a potential problem for
designers. In sensor applications, a high resistance is needed in applications where the
measurand is quasistatic to ensure a reliable output, making piezo-ceramic materials unsuitable
for certain applications.

3.6 Temperature effect on PZT material properties

Since piezoelectricity constitutes relation between electrical and mechanical processes, and the
related phenomenon pyroelectricity is due to thermal-electrical coupling, the general set of
electrical, mechanical and thermal processes depicted in Figure 7. The intensive variables
electric field E, stress σ, and temperature T are represented at vertices of the outer triangle
whereas the corresponding conjugate extensive variables polarization P, strain ε, and change in
entropy S are represented on the inner triangle.














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There are many methods for formulating non-linear temperature dependent relations for
ferroelectric compounds. One method is to assume the function is an infinite series in the
independent variables. Polynomial formulation can be described as phenomenological in nature,
where constants are chosen to match observed physical behavior. This approach was used in
formulation the temperature dependence properties of the PZT material. The experimental data
[41] for dielectric constant and piezoelectric charge coefficient were plotted in Microsoft excel
software and a fourth order curve fitting was done to get the correlation between the material
properties of the PZT and temperature.
The constants given in the equation above are obtained from the experimental data [41], where
the variation of the relative dielectric constant, the piezoelectric strain constant, d31, and the
resistivity of PZT-5H material are provided as function of temperature. The data can be
interpolated by different functions, which are graphically depicted in Figure 8, and Figure 9.











Figure 7: Interaction between the electrical, mechanical and thermal processes [40]

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Figure 9: Influence of temperature on the piezoelectric strain constant, d31 [42]

Figure 8: Influence of temperature on the dielectric constant [42]

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When temperature rises, both the dielectric and the piezoelectric strain constant of the
material 5H tend to significantly increase. In addition, the Young’s modulus of the PZT is known
to being slightly dependent on the change in temperature. The dielectric constant among the
temperature dependent constants exhibits the most significant effect on the electric impedance of
PZT. Most of the previous work is concerned with very large magnitudes of temperature
variations at extremely high temperatures. Changes in temperature have distinct effects on the
dynamic properties of structures, which is dependent on boundary conditions, temperature
distribution and structure materials. However, the exact nature of these relationships on effect on
power generation has not been investigated by any researcher as gathered from previously
published papers. The correlation for temperature dependence of dielectric constant and charge
coefficient can be found from the data plotted in Figure 8 and Figure 9.

3.7 Previous Work

A number of research groups have examined piezoelectric materials, in both an academic sense
and also in examining them for practical applications. The main focus of both research attempts
has been in the sensor and actuation areas.
Some work has focused on constructing piezoceramics. These materials can be custom
designed for specific applications, and a group from Japan headed by Y. Hosono focused on
developing piezoceramic materials with high Curie Temperatures and high piezoelectric
constants. They examined a new piezoceramic material, PbZr03-free relaxor-lead titanate (PT),
and compared it to the classical PZT material. They found that the new material had a much
better electro-mechanical coupling coefficient and a larger piezoelectric constant. These
materials however have a very low Curie temperature which must be overcome for these
materials to become practical. The research team identified a material (PINMT) which showed a
high electro-mechanical coupling coefficient, piezoelectric constant, and also a high Curie
temperature [43].
Eric Prechtl from MIT examined the use of piezoelectric materials for use in helicopter
rotor blades as an actuator. Flexing of the rotor is accomplished by placing the actuator in the
trailing edge of the helicopter rotor. By deflecting the rotor blade, the pitch of the rotor can be
adjusted, which is critical to the control of the helicopter. The device was built and tested at MIT,
and results showed that it was possible to achieve a 5 degree rotation at 90 percent of the span on
an operational helicopter [44].
Another research group from the National Taiwan University focused their research on
applying piezoelectric materials as a generator for remote sensors. In certain regions, there is a
major need to monitor the health of older bridge structures. As these structures age, they fatigue,
and loose their structural strength. This is further accelerated by modern loads, such as heavy
trucks and cars, being placed upon the bridge. Current bridge monitoring involves manned
inspections, which are time consuming, and costly, especially on bridges in remote areas. Their
solution to the problem was to harvest the vibrational energy of the bridge itself using a
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piezoelectric material. This energy will power electronics which measure the strain on the
bridge, and will also power a RF transmitter to relay the information to a remote receiver in short
bursts. This solution will provide the necessary data to monitor the load on the bridge, without
the need to continuously send manned teams to check the bridge health [45].
A research group from the University of Brescia in Italy conducted research on using
piezoelectric materials for power harvesting. In a paper titled “Modeling, fabrication and
performance measurements of a piezoelectric energy converter for power harvesting in
autonomous Microsystems”, they presented their findings. Using PZT piezo-ceramic materials
mounted in a cantilever position, they attempted to use these materials for remote sensors. They
succeeded in developing models for these devices, and were able to harvest tenths of a
microwatt, which when stored over time was sufficient to power electronics needed for a RF
transmitter [46].
A group from Pennsylvania State University, headed by Geffrey Ottman conducted
research on harvesting energy from piezoelectric energy from piezoelectric materials and using
DC to DC converter to perform power transfer operations and store the energy harvested. Two of
the papers were titled “Adaptive Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Circuit for Wireless Remote
Power Supply” and “Optimized Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Circuit Using Step-Down
Converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode”, and were presented in the IEEE Transactions on
Power Electronics [47][48]. In these papers, the researchers used PZT materials, a full bridge
rectifier and a DC to DC converter to harvest the energy from the PZT Materials. They
concentrated on looking at the duty cycle of the converter versus peak power output. They
developed techniques for determining optimal duty cycle, and found that as the mechanical
excitation increases, the optimal duty cycle becomes constant [48].
Another group from the University of Nevada conducted research into using piezoelectric
materials for energy harvesting. This research focused not on the piezoelectric material itself, but
on how the energy is harvested and stored. They used a rectifier, a storage capacitor, and power
conversion circuitry to use the piezoelectric material as a stable electrical power source. The
researchers further continue to discuss constructing a wireless sensor network with piezoelectric
materials as a possible power source [49].
A group from the University of Missouri – Columbia has done extensive research into the
electrical modeling of piezoelectric materials, and correlating their excitation to their mechanical
output through their physical properties and the compressive force that they are subjected to. The
team has written a series of papers detailing their research, in which they first developed
modeling techniques for the piezoelectric materials themselves, and then used those techniques
to develop various generators for use.
In a paper titled “Electrical Power Generation Characteristics of Piezoelectric Generator
under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Stress Conditions”, they presented their results for their model.
They examined the material, and modeled it as a mechanical resonator comprising of a mass,
spring and a damper. Using the conservation of energy, they concluded that the total energy of
the system must comprise the electrical and mechanical energies. Using this, they modeled the
electrical structure of the material itself as an ideal voltage generator, a capacitance and two
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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resistances. They determined methods to calculate the component values, and also the internal
voltage generation based on the compressive force exerted on the material and the materials
physical properties. They verified the model using testing of existing materials [50].
Further research this team conducted took the model that they created previously and
extended it to the examination of maximum power transfer in a piezoelectric pulse generator. In
papers titled “Maximum Power Generation in a Piezoelectric Pulse Generator”, “Energy
Conversion and High Power Pulse Production Using Miniature Piezoelectric Compressors”,
“Design, Modeling, and Implementation of a 30-kW Piezoelectric Pulse Generator”, “Scaling
Relationships and Maximum Peak Power Generation in a Piezoelectric Pulse Generator”, the
research team examined various methods of determining maximum power transfer, and then
described some possible applications of the methods developed [51][52][53][54].
To maximize the power generated, the team connected the material to a spark gap and an
inductor. By varying the thickness to area ratio (TAR), they were able to maximize energy
transfer from the material. The researchers sought to optimize the product of voltage and current.
They found that the voltage of the material increased linearly with respect to the TAR, however,
the current changed with an exponential trend with regard to the TAR. Thus there is a clearly
defined maximum to the data, and optimal physical dimensions for the material. Using this
information, the researchers continued to design high power pulse generators. One such
generator designed yielded a peak current, peak power and power density of 58.2 A, 28.4 kW,
and 517 kW/cm respectively [54].
For the present research project, the goal is the modeling and simulation of piezoelectric
devices for an energy harvester application. This project encompasses the research presented
here, but extends it in the use of piezoelectric materials in a munitons environment characterized
by a short operational life and very high accelerations. Testing new materials in this environment
can be prohibitively expensive, and therefore a low cost testing tool was needed. In addition, this
project uses a mechanical mass-spring resonator to store energy mechanically, and this capability
needed to also be modeled.
This previous research was used as a stepping point to begin the examination of piezoelectric
materials in this new environment with the purpose of modeling an energy harvester.










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Chapter 4


Modeling


4.1 Introduction

Common piezoelectric materials include Rochelle salts, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,
lithium sulphate, dipotassium tartarate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, quartz and ceramics A
and B. Except for quartz and ceramics A and B, the rest are man-made crystals grown from
aqueous solutions under carefully controlled conditions. The ceramic materials are
polycrystalline in nature. They are, basically, made of barium titanate. They do not have
piezoelectric properties in original state but these properties are produced by special polarizing
treatment.
The materials that exhibit a significant and useful piezo-electric effect are divided into two
categories: (i) Nature group and (ii) Synthetic group.
Quartz and Rochelle salt belong to natural group while materials like lithium sulphate, ethylene
diamine tartarate belong to the synthetic group.
















The piezoelectric effect can be made to respond to mechanical deformations of the material in
many different modes. The modes can be: thickness expansion, transverse expansion, thickness
shear and face shear. The mode of motion affected depends on the shape of the body relative to
Figure 10: Piezoelectric crystal used for measurement of force and axis numbering system
for the crystal [55]

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the crystal axis and location of the electrodes. A piezoelectric element used for converting
mechanical motion to electrical signals may be thought as charge generator and a capacitor.
Mechanical deformation generates a charge and this charge appears as a voltage across the
electrodes. The voltage is E=Q/C.
The piezoelectric affect is direction sensitive. A tensile force produces a voltage of one polarity
while a compressive force produces a voltage of opposite polarity. A piezoelectric crystal is
shown in Figure 10.
The magnitude and polarity of the induced surface charges are proportional to the magnitude and
direction of the applied force F. The polarity of induced charges depends upon the direction of
applied force [55].
Charge Q=dF coulomb (9)
Where d= charge sensitivity of the crystal; C/N
And F= applied force, N,
The force F causes a change in thickness of the crystal.
t
t
AE
F   newton (10)
Where A= area of crystal;
2
m , t= thickness of crystal; m,
E= Young’s module; N/
2
m ,
Young’s modulus
2
/
/
1
). / ( m N
t A
Ft
t t
A F
Strain
Stress
E



  (11)
Area A= wl
Where w=width of crystal; m, and l= length of crystal; m.

From equation (9) and (10) we have
Charge ) / ( t t dAe Q   (12)
The charge at the electrodes gives rise to an output voltage
o
E .
Voltage
o
E =
p
C Q/ (13)
Where
p
C = capacitance between electrodes; F.
Capacitance between electrodes
p
C = t A
o r
/   (14)
From equation (9), (13) and (14)

A
F dt
t A
dF
C
Q
E
o r o r p
o

 

 
 
/
(15)
But F/A= P =Pressure or stress in
2
/ M N .
tP
d
E
o r
o
 
 gtP  (16)

o r
d g    / (17)
Where ‘g’ is the voltage sensitivity of the crystal. This is constant for a given crystal cut;
its units are Vm/N
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Now
P
t E
tp
E
g
o o
/
  (18)
But
o
E /t = electric field strength, V/m, Let =
o
E /t=electric field

g =
cIcct¡ìc ]ìcId
st¡css
=

P
(19)

Now
o
E /t is the electric field intensity in the crystal and P is the pressure or the applied stress to
the crystal. Therefore, crystal voltage sensitivity, g, can be defined as the ratio of electric field
intensity to pressure. Now
o
E /t= is the electric field intensity in the crystal and P is the
pressure or the stress to the crystal. Therefore, crystal voltage sensitivity, g, can be defined as the
ratio of the electric field intensity to pressure. The units of g are Vm/N.
From equation (17),
Charge sensitivity g d
o r
  C/N (20)
It has been stated earlier that the piezoelectric effect is direction sensitive. The main
characteristics of piezoelectric motion to voltage transducers can be illustrated by considering
only one common mode of deformation i.e. thickness expansion shown in figure 7. Various
double-subscripted physical constants are used to describe numerically the phenomena
occurring. The convention is that first subscript refers to the direction of the electrical effect and
the second to that of the mechanical effect.
The two main families of constants i.e. the‘d’ constants and ‘g’ constants are considered. For
barium titanate the commonly used constants are
33
d and
33
g

g
33
=
PìcId p¡oduccd ìn dì¡cctìon 3
St¡css uppIìcd ìn dì¡cctìon 3
(21)
Voltage output tP g t
A
F
g E
o 33 33
    (22)
In order to relate the applied force to the generated charge, the constants are used. One of the d
constants can be defined as:
J
33
=
Chu¡gc gcnc¡utcd ìn dì¡cctìon 3
Po¡cc uppIìcd ìn dì¡cctìon 3
=
ç
P
[55] (23)

4.2 Piezoelectric Material Model

The materials of Advanced Cerametrics incorporated [56] are in the form of bare materials, i.e.
the piezoelectric ceramic materials themselves. They are in several varieties, and several material
subtypes. These varieties included the “soft” material, which is loaded transversely, and also a
“hard material”, which is loaded longitudinally. In this paper PZT 5a is used.
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The materials are all ceramic materials; created artificially. They are in two main types. ACI
manufactures the actual piezoelectric fibers. When these fibers are subjected to mechanical
stresses, they generate electricity. The fiber materials are then embedded into ceramic matrices
that allow them to be custom formed to whatever geometry is necessary.
The first type, referred to as the “hard” material, is a hard piece of material which generates an
electric field when it is compressed. This material is shown in figure 11. Figure 12 shows a
technical drawing of the material, with the physical dimensions of the material. The term hard
does not refer to the piezoelectric type, But merely to its physical characteristics.
































Figure 11: Hard PZT 5a material [56]
Figure 12: “Hard” Material Diagram and Loading; Units are in Inches [56]

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This material is one in which the piezoelectric fibers are embedded along the vertical axis of the
material, as shown in figure X as the “Z” axis. When the material is compressed, the fibers are
also compressed vertically, causing an electric field to be generated at the ends of the fibers, or
the top and bottom plates of the material.
The second material is referred to as the “soft” material because of its flexibility. Figure 13
shows a photograph of the soft material. Figure 14 shows a dimensioned technical drawing of the
soft material. Again, the term “soft material” does not refer to the piezoelectric type, but its
physical characteristics.
In this material, the piezoelectric strands are oriented along the length of the material, so that
when the material is bent along its “y” axis, as shown in figure 14, the strands are stretched, and
placed under tension. This action causes an electric field to be generated.
The soft materials come in two different varieties, the regular material, and a bi-morph material.
The bi-morph material is one in which two of the regular soft test materials are placed in a
sandwich, with a hard piece of material in between. The sandwich material is less than .06 inches
thick. Essentially the device is two “soft” materials connected in parallel. The middle material is
much harder than the regular test materials, and since the piezoelectric elements are bonded to it,
a greater strain is placed upon the materials and therefore higher output voltage is seen from this
device.























Figure 13: Soft PZT Type 5a Material [56]
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4.3 Basic Circuitry Model

Piezoelectric materials exhibit electrical properties, which can be modeled by equivalent circuits
comprising capacitive and resistive elements. They have a defined capacitance, resistance, and
inductance, and therefore exhibit an electrical resonance, where the electro-mechanical coupling
peaks. These characteristics are directly related to the area and the piezoelectric modulus e [57].
The equivalent circuit element equations for a piezoelectric material at electromechanical
resonance are shown in equations (24), (25) and (26) for the resistance, inductance and
capacitance, respectively. Equation (27) shows the natural capacitance of the material. Figure 15,
16 shows the total equivalent circuit for the material at resonance.


R m
K
Ae
l
R  
2
(24)

s L
s
m
K
Ae
l
L 

 
2
2
2
(25)
s K
c
K
cl
Ae
C
c c m
  
1
2
(26)

l
A
C
o

 (27)
where: c = elastic constant; s = compliance coefficient;
e = piezoelectric stress constant; A = area;
l = height of the material; ps = surface mass density; η = viscosity
Figure 14: “Soft” PZT Loading Diagram; Units are in Inches [56]
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In a power generation circuit major components involved would be an AC/DC rectifier, a filter
capacitor, and a DC-DC converter. The AC/DC rectifier converts the AC signal from the piezo-
source into DC current. The filter capacitor smoothes electrical flow and the DC-DC converter is
what allow the battery to store the energy. Most of the power conversion comes into play in the
DC-DC converter. From the battery the DC power is converted into AC power by using an
inverter. Figure 17 shows the basic circuit diagram of power generation from a PZT material.





Figure 15: Piezoelectric material equivalent circuit [58]

Figure 16: Circuit representation of a PZT material [59]
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4.4 Power conversion circuit design

The PZT bender produces an alternating current, whose amplitude varies according to the
amplitude of the acceleration and the frequency of vibration. On the other hand, electronic loads
connected at the output require a DC voltage with relatively low amplitude. Thus, two steps of a
power conversion are inevitable. The AC/DC rectifier in the first stage (Part I) converts the
varying AC output voltage delivered by the PZT bender into a DC output. The DC/DC converter
in the second stage (Part II) serves as a step-down of the primary DC voltage to a required output
voltage. The principle of the power conversion is depicted in the Figure 18.














A circuit scheme for the part I is shown in Figure 18, which is an uncontrolled rectifier
consisting of diodes in a bridge configuration. Since we need the maximum power from PZT,
uncontrolled rectifier is preferred in this design. The magnitude and frequency of input voltage
for the rectifier varies in a wide range dependent upon the acceleration imposed to the bender.
Figure 18: Principle of power conversion [60]

Figure 17: Circuit representation of generation of electricity [60]
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Therefore, a DC/DC converter is required to get stable DC output. However, the DC voltage
generally includes voltage ripples that fluctuates a twice higher than the frequency of the AC
input voltage. The ripples can be further reduced when a capacitor is connected in parallel to
loads. However, the voltage at capacitor can exceed a limit given by input voltage of the
following DC/DC converter. Fortunately, the DC/DC presents a continuous load that is applied
to the DC voltage. Countermeasure will be the use of an additional Zener diode that clamps
potential over-voltage at the input of the DC/DC converter that can be generated by the PZT
bender.
Under consideration of the voltage generation of the PZT bender, and the load profile
requirement that the output voltage should be 3.3V, the converted AC voltage should be stepped
down (Buck) converter as the part II represents. Generally, the ratio of the converting voltage
between the input and output is less than 3, so the proper selection of the topology should be
taken into account for an optimal design of the circuit. In addition, efficiency is one of important
criteria. If the efficiency is low, the power can be only consumed by operating the DC/DC circuit
and no power can be transformed to the actual load.















One possible choice for the DC/DC converter is MAX640 manufactured by Maxim
Integrated Products. According to the data sheet provided by the manufacturer, the efficiency can
reach up to 95% under no load condition.





Figure 19: Circuit Diagram for the Part I [60]
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Chapter 5


Energy Harvesting Technology


5.1 Introduction

A piezoelectric based energy scavenging floor tile that harvests energy from foot strikes is the
main objective of this thesis. People walking on the floor continuously, the tile will harvest the
energy created by the piezoelectric strips. Traditional ceramic piezoelectric materials are very
brittle, and have low electrical energy outputs per unit strain. Materials research and technology
improvements have changed the perspective entirely, and the application of piezoelectric to a
multitude of new applications is becoming an achievable possibility in light of these
technological breakthroughs. Some examples include active smart sporting goods, next
generation aircraft, automobiles, motorcycles, wireless sensors, acoustical equipment, sports
gear, industrial equipment, infrastructure, apparel and more. A company by the name of
Advanced Cerametrics (ACI) in Lambertville, NJ [61] is a pioneer in this technology
breakthrough. They produce a composite material with an aluminum substrate, and PZT
piezoelectric fibers spun into the material. A group of Stevens Institute of Technology
accompanied with ACI successfully implemented the energy harvesting system.

5.2 Model Requirement

The prototype for this project consisted of a floor tile made out of Lexan in which four
piezoelectric strips were mounted inside using an adjustable aluminum mounting block,
electrical components were mounted to the sidewall of the floor tile, and an actuation bar was
mounted so that it was just enough to flick the strips using the actuation system. The electrical
components consisted of four rectifiers connected to the positive and negative ends of the
piezoelectric strips. The outputs of the rectifiers were connected in parallel to provide power to
the energy harvesting module, which stores the energy from the people stepping on the floor tile.
This section will provide detailed design and functionality specifications of the main components
of the project. The first component is the oscillating piezoelectric strip. To increase output
voltage, 4 piezoelectric strips are incorporated into the final prototype.
Test result shows an average output of 39 volts from a single strip when deflected. The output
from each strip was connected together, passed through individual rectifiers, and entered the
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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energy harvesting PCB in series. Due to using the energy harvesting PCB, impedance matching
was no longer a concern.
The second component is the energy harvesting circuitry. According to Advanced Cerametrics
energy harvesting PCB (EH301) [62] developed by ALD could harvest enough energy to charge
a 1000uF capacitor in only a few flicks of the piezoelectric strip. For implementation, the
positive and negative input from the piezoelectric strips was connected to the positive and
negative inputs of the bridge rectifier, and then to the PCB. Figure 20 shows a piezo energy
harvesting tile model.

































Figure 20: energy harvesting tile [63]
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Figure 21 shows an energy harvested tile mounted on a floor for energy scavenging.















5.3 Prototype Performance

This prototype was able to charge a 5.3 volt capacitor from 3.1 volts to 5.2 volts in
approximately 20 steps on the tile. While stepping on the tile, SIT group was able to observe an
average charge of 100mV per step. As explained earlier, the harvester charges a capacitor and
when the internal logic recognizes that the capacitor reaches 5.2 volts, it begins to output the
voltage. Using a rectifier for each strip, the group was successfully able to store energy using the
piezoelectric output. The team was also able to show that the LED stayed lit for approximately 3
seconds.
The only operating limitations were regarding the use of the tile. When stepping on the
tile, it should simulate real world operation. So, after a step, the piezo strips should be allowed to
stop vibrating before the tile is allowed to be stepped on again. Stepping on the tile repeatedly, or
before the strips stop vibrating, will not get the most voltage from the tile or could stop the piezo
strip from vibrating altogether. Also, the tile should be stepped on evenly so the tile remains
level and each of the strips is actuated evenly [63].







Figure 21: Energy harvested floor [63]
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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Chapter 6


The Next Generation of Energy source:
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting


6.1 Introduction

This chapter highlights present world population growth rate, world energy demand, world
energy consumption rate, reserve source of energy and its expiration time. This chapter will
present a new source of energy which is piezoelectricity a convenient source of energy and its
prospect around the world. This chapter also provides technology comparison between some
traditional power sources and piezoelectric energy harvesting system. This chapter also presents
some examples of piezoelectric energy harvesting around the world.

6.2 Energy catastrophe around the World

The root cause of world energy problems is growing world population and energy consumption
per capita. World population is presently slightly over 6 billion and expected to grow to at least
8-9 billion, and possibly to 12 billion, by the end of the 21
st
century. It would reach 12 billion by
the middle of the 21st century if the present 1.5% per year growth rate were to continue. A
statistical data of world population growth is given according to “World Population Prospects:
The 2008 Revisions”. Figure 22 shows the World population growth.

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This huge bulky population requires a massive amount of energy. A research was made by
Holdren, IIASA/WEC MITRE, and Sheffield on world energy demand which is given below in
Figure 23. Energy demand unit is in Gtoe (Gigatonnes of oil energy equivalent per year) [65].
1.25
1.8
2.5
6
9.2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1850 1900 1950 2000 2050
P
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
b
i
l
l
i
o
n
)
Year
Figure 22: World population growth rate [64]
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World economic growth and global demand for energy, the essential engine of economic growth,
are expected to grow even faster during the next few decades - by 3.3 percent a year,
corresponding to a doubling time of 21 years [66]. The energy which is absorbs by the world
population mainly comes from non renewable natural sources. According to research made by
BP - Statistical Review 2008; IEA – WEO 2006, 82% energy comes from fossil fuels. Figure 24
shows the research report on energy consumption from different sources.


37%
25%
23%
6%
4%
3%
0.50% 0.30% 0.20% 0.20%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
C
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
Figure 24: World energy consumption rate from different sources [80].
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Statistics says that the consumption of Oil is 10.8 million ton/day, Natural gas is 5.8 million
ton/day, Coal is 17.7 million ton/day and Uranium is 67000 ton/year [67] [68].
We consuming this huge amount of without any concern how many year it will lasts. Obviously
the energy sources are not infinity. They have a certain limitation. An official research report on
this topic may clear the entire concept. Figure 25 represents the research report.



So from the above given data it is clear that if the world consumes 13.8TW/day and makes it
constant then another 76 years there will be no tension for energy crisis. But if the consumption
rate increases then the scenario will be different. Actually it is almost difficult to control the
consumption rate at a constant rate. The given in the Figure 25 is on the basis of research made
by Energy Watch Group during year 2007. Scientist makes a report on increment of energy
consumption year by year and its impact on reserve energy. Figure 26 shows the report.

43
60
131
80
76
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Oi l Nat ur al gas Coal Ur ani um Tot al (i f
13.8TW/ day
consumed
ar ound t he
Wor l d)
Y
e
a
r
Figure 25: Amount of reserve energy at constant consumption [69]
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So how far can the world survive with non renewable energy? A statistical data given in Figure
27 will clear the scenario properly.



So from the statistic it is clear that the, world no longer will provided by natural non renewable
energy sources. That means after the safe time period there will be huge power crisis. But our
world is still not ready with any alternates. So from statistics it is obvious that only renewable
energy sources are able to overcome this crisis. At present days only 10%-15% renewable energy
are used around the world [69]. If the percentage of renewable energy usage is increased to a
bulky amount it would surely triumph over our future energy crisis sturdily.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
15 30 36 48 76 80
T
i
m
e

(
y
e
a
r
)
Pow er ( TW )
Figure 26: Energy consumption increment rate and its impact on
reserve energy [69]
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150
(
T
W
)
Year
Figure 27: Approximate expiration time for accessible non renewable
energy sources [69].
Oi l
Gas
Coal
RE
U
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6.3 Why Piezoelectric energy Harvesting?

According to experts research the only way to deal with energy crisis efficiently is to develop the
usage of renewable energy. Right now around the world numerous renewable energy sources are
used in a number of countries. All over the world renewable green energy are now promoted. We
know about some renewable sources such as wind power, solar power, hydro power, geothermal
power. But in this paper we are promoting piezoelectric energy harvesting source. If we give
attention to the statistical research given in the paper we can realize that main reason of energy
crisis is population growth, which is increasing at alarming rate. Main reason of promoting
piezoelectric energy harvesting is, of this increasing population. From previous chapters
discussion it is now clear to us that strain produced by human foot strike is responsible for
energy production in a piezoelectric energy harvesting source. So the increasing population is
very much helpful for piezoelectric energy harvesting. With increasing population human
activity will also increase in roadways, railways, markets and run roads that will produce huge
amount of energy. In fact this concept converts the burdensome population into energy sources.
So, piezoelectric energy harvesting source is more efficient than other renewable sources
considering the main reason of energy crisis. In addition PZT energy harvesting source is
economically competitive to traditional carbon based energy production. The movement energy
of busy roads, railroads and runways all day long near population centers can be converted into
electrical energy that can be supplied to nearby customers and electrical storage system which is
integrated in the roads, railroads and runways does not take up any public space and functions in
all weather conditions. PZT energy harvesting system does not require any additional
maintenance after its implementation.
A privately held company Innowattech specializing in the development of custom piezoelectric
generators makes a research on comparison between other energy harvesting sources with
piezoelectric energy harvest [70]. Table 3 shows technology comparison made by Innowattech.














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Table 3: Technology comparison [70]


Wind Solar
Geothe
rmal
Hydro
Power
Coal
Oil &
Gas
Piezoelectric
Harvesting from
Roads, Railways,&
Runways(Innowattech)
Payback, years 12 – 30 20 – 30 10 – 20 12 – 15 15 – 20 10-13** 4 – 10*
Reliable X X √ √ √ √ √
Clean √ √ √ √ X X √
Mature
Technology
√ √ √ √ √ √ X
Deployment
Availability
X X X X √ √ √
Implementation in
urban areas
X √ X X X X √
Low maintenance
cost
X X X X X X √
Successfully
operates in
Northern areas
X X √ √ √ √ √
Preserves
environment in
original state
X X X X X X √
*Depending on the volume of traffic
**Assuming revenue from consumer of $60 per barrel

6.4 Energy harvesting around the World

Piezoelectric energy harvesting is a new alternative energy system that harvests mechanical
energy imparted to roadways, railways and runways from passing vehicles and trains and
converts it into green electricity. The system harvests energy that ordinary goes to waste and can
be installed without changing the habitat. After all, human power is readily available in pretty
much any area with heavy foot traffic. Piezoelectric flooring is a technology with a wide range of
applications that is slowly being adopted in the race to develop alternative energy sources.
Different countries around the world are now adopting this alternate source of energy.

6.4.1 Power Generation Floor in Japan
In Japan they have been trialing these systems for the past year. They have recently improved
and expanded the system by changing the floor covering from rubber to stone tiles, and have
improved the layout of the mechanisms to improve energy generation. The total amount of floor-
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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space will add up to around 25 square meters, and they expect to obtain over 1,400kw per day
[71].
Commuters at the Tokyo station walk on a piezoelectric sheet which generates electricity when
pedestrians step on it. Experiments have started at two of the Japanese capitals' busiest stations,
with special flooring tiles installed in front of ticket turnstiles. Every time a passenger steps on
the mats, they trigger a small vibration that can be stored as energy. Multiplied many times over
by the 400,000 people who use Tokyo Station on an average day, according to East Japan
Railway, and there is sufficient energy to light up electronic signboards.
The tiles are constructed of layers of rubber sheeting, to absorb the vibrations, and ceramic.
Deeply dependent on imported fuel to power its industries, Japanese companies are at the
forefront of research into clean and reusable energy sources.
On the other side of Tokyo, a remarkable 2.4 million people pass through the sprawling Shibuya
Station on an average week day, with many of them now treading on Soundpower Corp.'s
"Power Generation Floor." An average person, weighing 60 kg, will generate only 0.1 watt in the
single second required to take two steps across the tile. But when they are covering a large area
of floor space and thousands of people are stepping or jumping on them, then we can generate
significant amounts of power. Stored in capacitors, the power can be channeled to energy-hungry
parts of the station, including the electrical lighting system and the ticket gates [71].

6.4.2 Energy Harvesting System in Israel
Innowattech is a privately held company specializing in the development of custom piezoelectric
generators. The Company is based in Ra’anana Israel with research facilities in the Technion,
Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. Innowattech's IP is protected as patent pending [70].
Today piezoelectric materials have multiple uses in industry both as sensors and actuators.
Innowattech has developed a new breed of piezoelectric generators with a mechanical/electrical
association ideally suited to harvest the mechanical energy imparted to roadways from passing
vehicles, trains and pedestrians. The system does not harm the efficiency of the vehicles, trains
or human movement. In addition Innowattech has developed a very efficient storage system to
collect and store the electricity produced by these generators. The accumulated energy can be
used for local power needs or routed into the grid.
Innowattech's solution is optimal. It maximizes retrieval of wasted mechanical energy converting
it into electrical energy. It then stores the energy with minimal energy waste. The energy is also
produced in close proximity to its end users. It does not require the use and development of vast
new areas as do solar and wind farms.
Innowattech's solution for the roads, railroads and runways is capable of producing significant
amounts of electricity and has an economical and commercial advantage over other green
alternatives. The building costs and the expected return on investment time are estimated to be
much lower than for solar energy. The solution is applicable to any place with heavy vehicle
travel and not confined to specific climate and geographic areas as are solar and wind energy.


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Produced energy can be applicable in:
•Power plant, feeding electricity to the grid.
•Lighting Street lights, traffic lights and warning signs.
•Powering road side electric devices such as billboards without the need of existing power line
infrastructure.
•Deliver real-time data on the weight, frequency and speed of passing vehicles as well as the
spacing between vehicles.
•Innowattech harvests energy that ordinary goes to waste without changing the car’s MPG or any
road characteristics.
•Innowattech's vehicular system can produce 400 kWh from a 1 km stretch of dual carriageway.
This is enough energy to power 500 homes!






















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Chapter 7


Energy harvesting prospect in Bangladesh


7.1 Introduction

This chapter presents electric energy condition of Bangladesh and its raising demand. It also
demonstrates an exemplary model of piezoelectric energy harvesting model in Bangladesh. We
have calculated total energy estimation and per unit cost estimation of the exemplary model and
the comparison of per unit cost between traditional power plants, renewable energy sources and
our exemplary power plant.

7.2 Energy Crisis in Bangladesh

Energy crisis is now one of the great problems around the world. Bangladesh is facing the worst
energy crisis from many years. Actually Bangladesh has most horrible energy crisis comparing
with other countries. Main reason behind the situation is population problem. Right now our
population is 161.915 Million (2008) [72] with a population growth rate 1.7% (2009) [72] which
is very alarming. Our population density is about 1101.9/km
2
. So with inadequate energy sources it
is very much complicated to support such hulking population. If we explore the present energy
situation of our country it will be more understandable to us. Table 4 demonstrates current
energy condition of Bangladesh.














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Table 4: Current energy condition of Bangladesh [72]
Total energy consumption 16.6 million tons oil equivalent
Per capita energy consumption 171 kg oil equivalent
Energy related CO2 emission 42.74 million metric tones
Per capita CO2 emission 0.3 metric tones
Energy consumption Conventional energy (54%), Biomass (46%)
Conventional energy consumption Natural gas: 1850-1900 millions of standard
cubic feet per day (2009)
Oil: 3.5 metric tons (2008)
Coal: 3.8 metric tons (2008)
Access to electricity 45%
Per capita electricity consumption 145 kilowatt per hour per annum
Present electricity demand 4200 – 5500 MW
Present available generation 3800 – 4200 MW
Maximum load shedding in FY-09 1270 MW (April 23, 09)

So from the information given over it’s clear about energy disaster in Bangladesh. This
unfortunate circumstance is pulling back our national development. Because Energy is one of the
basic ingredients required to alleviate poverty and socio-economic development. Energy is the
source of growth and the mover for economic and social development of a nation and its people.
No matter how we cry about development or poverty alleviation- it is not going to come until
lights are provided to our people for seeing, reading and working.

7.3 Steps Taken to Overcome this Situation

Therefore Government of Bangladesh has issued its Vision and Policy Statement, to bring the
entire country under electricity service by the year 2020 in phases, to remove the disparity in the
standards of living between the urban and rural areas through rural electrification and
development. The energy prospect is generally assessed on the basis of available commercial
sources of energy i.e., fossil fuel like gas, coal, oil etc. are completely used or economically
depleted. Because, we are rapidly exhausting our nonrenewable resources, degrading the
potentially renewable resources and even threatening the perpetual resources. It demands
immediate attention especially in the third world countries, where only scarce resources are
available for an enormous size of population. Now interest in renewable energy has been revived
over last few years, especially after global awareness regarding the ill effects of fossil fuel
burning. However our Government has taken so many steps to develop renewable energy as an
alternate, which is appreciate able. Government is mainly promoting solar energy as alternate.
Nevertheless in this paper we discussing about opportunities of piezoelectric energy harvesting
in Bangladesh.

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7.4 An Exemplary Model of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in
Bangladesh

By using PZT energy harvester burdensome population can play an important role in energy
production in Bangladesh. Population density is the main reason why we use piezoelectric
energy harvester in Bangladesh. Around thousands of people live in one km area, that is a huge
amount to produce a large quantity of energy from PZT energy harvester. If we see An Example
of Piezoelectric Model with Estimated energy and cost it will be clear more to us. “Bashundhara
City” of Dhaka 12
th
largest shopping mall in the world, which is 19
th
storey high building
covering an area of 191200Sqft. Approximately 50,000 people visits the mall daily and it
increases to around 100,000/day during festivals and special occasions [73]. We are considering
about 1000Sqft where maximum gathering occurs Such as entrance, lobby etc. We have
estimated power and cost for 1000sqft for flooring the piezoelectric tiles. We know 1000 sqft is
not a large space but our main attention is to consider the maximum people gathering and
maximum power with optimal cost. We can install the PZT energy harvester tiles in those areas.
We are considering if any person enters the mall, he will step in those tiles and we are assuming
the average person will takes over 135 steps if he or she walks 100 feet into the considered
1000sqft area [76].
To calculate the electric power and cost estimation we have to consider the following
observations.
 Power produced per step
 Average steps per person
 Power produced by per person
 Inhabitants appearance in the mall
 Total energy generated per year
 Cost estimation
Here some details about the observations:

7.4.1 Power produced per step
We should consider those tiles which will give us maximum electric power. In Japan,
Soundpower Corp installed a "Power Generation Floor" in their two of the Japanese capitals'
busiest railway stations where an average person, weighing 60kg, will generate 0.1 watt per step
[71]. So we can assume 0.1 watt per step in our power estimation.

7.4.2 Average steps per person
We are considering maximum foot step in the PZT energy harvester flooring areas. Research
shows that an average person takes about 3,000-5,000 steps per day which should be 10,000 per
day for healthy life [75]. The average person’s stride length is approximately 1.5 feet long for
our country [76]. That means average person will take 2 steps to walk 1.5 feet distance [76]. So
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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from the data we can assume that if a normal person walks about 100 feet into the piezoelectric
tiles covered area he or she will take approximately 133 to 135 steps [76].

7.4.3 Power produced by per person
We can easily calculate the power produced by per person by multiplying Power produced per
step and Average steps per person. In our case, if we assume 135 steps for a person into
considered area, than power produced by per person will be 135 steps X 0.1 watts =13.5 watts.

7.4.4 Inhabitants appearance in the mall
We have got the information that in “Bashundhara City” approximately 50,000 people visits
daily and it increases to around 100,000/day during festivals and special occasions [73]. We are
taking 50,000 people visits the mall daily for our calculation.

7.4.5 Total energy generated per year
In Japan, the total amount of floor-space is up to around 25sqft, and they are obtaining electric
energy over 1,400KWsec per day [71].
In our case we are considering Bashundhara city where approximately 50000 people appears per
day. The mall normally runs up to 13 hours per day that means from 9 am to 10 pm. So it is clear
that 50000 people gather on the mall during these 13 hours of a day. Therefore from the data we
can assume that hourly approximately 3800 people appear in the mall.
So energy produced per hour = (3800 X 13.5) X 1 Wh
= 51300 Wh
= 51.3 KWh.
Energy produced per day = 51.3 X 13 KWh
= 667 KWh
Energy produced per week = 667 X 6 KWh
= 4000 KWh
Energy produced per year = 4000 X 52 KWh
= 208000 KWh

7.4.6 Cost estimation
In our cost estimation we are considering three sections which are PZT energy harvester flooring
tiles cost, Electrical appliances cost and Maintenance cost.
PZT energy harvester flooring cost:
Here we can use PZT energy harvester which will cost 7000 per sqft [74]. Our assumption is
about 1000sqft. So, total cost will be 7000000tk. Now if we install PZT energy harvester tiles
then we should subtract the cost of normal flooring tiles cost of 1000sqft. Normal flooring tiles
will cost 150tk to 200tk per sqft [77]. That means 1000sqft flooring tiles would cost around
200000tk.
So total PZT energy harvester flooring cost = (7000000 – 200000) tk =6800000tk
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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Electrical appliances cost:
Electrical appliances are mainly batteries and inverters. Based on our survey on some local
retailer such as Rahimafrooz and Energypac the cost of batteries and inverters according to our
demand will be around 1200000 to 1500000 lac taka.

Maintenance cost per year:
This includes salaries, wages and maintenance. We assume that yearly maintenance cost will be
around 500000 taka.

Total capital cost:
This cost includes PZT flooring cost and electrical appliance cost which are fixed cost.
Total capital cost = PZT energy harvester flooring cost + Electrical appliances cost
= (6800000 + 1500000) tk
= 8300000 tk
We assume that our project payback time is 10 years.
So depreciative capital cost per year = Total capital cost/Payback time
= (8300000/10) tk
= 830000 tk
Total investment per year = Depreciation cost per year + Maintenance cost per year
= (830000 + 500000) tk
= 1330000 tk
Per unit cost = Total investment per year/ Energy produced per year
= (1330000/208000) tk per KWh
= 6.3 tk per KWh

















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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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Table 5&6 shows the estimations

Table 5: Energy estimation

Bashundhara City
Electric energy generated per step[71] 0.1 W
Average steps per person[76] 135
Electric energy generated by per person 13.5 W
Energy produced per hour (3800 X 13.5) X 1 Wh
= 51300 Wh
= 51.3 KWh.
Energy produced per day 51.3 X 13 KWh
= 667 KWh
Energy produced per week 667 X 6 KWh
= 4000 KWh
Energy produced per year 4000 X 52 KWh
= 208000 KWh

















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Table 6: Cost estimation

Bashundhara City
Total Area[73] 191200 sqft
Cost Per Sqft [74] 7000 tk
Estimated area 1000 sqft
Normal flooring cost 200000 tk
Cost for PZT flooring tiles in 1000sqft 7000000 tk
Total PZT energy harvester flooring
cost
(7000000 – 200000) tk
=6800000tk
Maintenance cost per year 500000 tk
Total capital cost PZT energy harvester flooring cost +
Electrical appliances cost
= (6800000 + 1500000)tk
= 8300000 tk
Depreciative capital cost per year Total capital cost/Payback time
= (8300000/10) tk
= 830000 tk
Total investment per year Depreciation cost per year +
Maintenance cost per year
= (830000 + 500000) tk
= 1330000 tk
Per unit cost Total investment per year/ Energy
produced per year
= (1330000/208000) tk per KWh
= 6.3 tk per KWh

The above estimation shows that we can get sufficient electric energy for minimum cost which is
feasible. It also should be added that to generate 208000 KWh electrical energy the amount of
CO2 emission is about 125 ton by the fossil fuel per year [85]. So if we are able to establish this
new green source of energy around the world we can reduce the rate of CO2 emission. So it is
clear that country like ours with overpopulation PZT energy harvester is efficient and affordable.



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7.5 Cost estimation of other energy sources and comparison with
PZT energy harvesting system

Here other energy sources and their costs are given and also a comparison with pzt energy
harvesting source is shown.

7.5.1 Fossil fuel power station
A fossil-fuel power station is a power station that burns fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas or
petroleum (oil) to produce electricity. Central station fossil-fuel power plants are designed on a
large scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the electrical
energy used. Around the world 82% of energy is produced by fossil fuels [66]. In our country
85% electricity is produced from gas based power plants. Coal and diesel have very little
contribution in our power system. Table 7 indicates the cost of power generation using various
fuels in Bangladesh.
Table 7: Cost of power generation using various fuels in Bangladesh [79]

Fuel Source Cost Per Unit Tk/kWh
Gas 4.2
Coal (local) 3.7
Coal (Imported) 5.4
Diesel 25.2

As indicated above, a further expansion of gas-based power generation is not feasible in the near
future given inadequate gas production. Gas is being used for transportation, industries (mainly
fertilizer), and domestic purposes. Given the severity of power shortages, the government has
decided to cut down the gas supply to some sectors, such as fertilizer production, and it has
limited the supply of gas to the power sector. Under such circumstances, local gas, although the
least-cost option, will not provide an immediate solution to the current power crisis. While
Bangladesh has sizable coal reserves in the north-west region, currently only one coal-based
power plant is operating and it has been facing fuel shortages given constraints in coal
production. The development of domestic coal fields will take time and will require significant
investment. Imported coal-based power generally costs about Tk 5.4/kwh ($0.077) at current
coal prices.

7.5.2 Solar power system
Putting aside other conventional energy sources now the whole world is adopting green energy
sources. Solar energy is one of the efficient green energy sources. Though is has been adopted by
the world from ancient time but this system is not being able to make a strong position in worlds
energy sector. According to global energy usage 2005 only 0.5% solar energy is used around the
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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world [80]. In comparison to conventional hydrocarbon fuels such as coal or oil in generating
electricity, the cost of solar energy is significantly higher. According to Sharp Solarbuzz a solar
energy system provider average cost for a solar system is 26.6 tk/KWh [81].

7.5.3 Hydro power system
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of
electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the
most widely used form of renewable energy. This source is frequently used around the world.
According to research this source supplies around 2.2% of total energy around the world [82].
The stat is poorer in our country. In Bangladesh only one hydro power system exist in kaptai
damp. Kaptai hydro power plants installed capacity is 230MW at present its generating capacity
is 192MW. It can generate power at a cheaper rate in the country. Its generation cost is around
1.4 tk/KWh [79] which is lowest in Bangladesh.

7.5.4 Wind power system
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind
turbines to make electricity. Around the world only 0.3% of total energy is used from wind. In
our country there is no practical use of this type of power plant. Figure 28 shows worldwide
wind power installed capacity. According to A British Wind Energy Association report gives an
average generation cost of onshore wind power of around 3.2 pence (between US 5 and 6 cents)
per kWh [84] in our currency it around 3.6 tk/KWh.

7.5.5 Cost comparison among the energy sources
From the above study we can formulate per unit cost comparison among the energy sources can
be easily understood from table 8.

Table 8: per unit cost comparison

Fuel Source Cost Per Unit(Per KWh)
Gas 4.2 tk
Coal 3.7-5.4 tk
Diesel 25.2 tk
Solar 26.6 tk
Hydro power 1.4 tk
Wind power 3.6 tk
Piezoelectric energy harvester 6.3 tk

From the above research it is observable that piezoelectricity can be a good source of energy in
prospect of Bangladesh.
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Chapter 8


Conclusion


8.1 Overview of the work

The main purpose of this thesis is to analyze piezoelectric energy harvesting technique and its
possibility as alternate energy source. In this paper we discussed briefly about piezoelectric
materials characteristics and also showed the process of energy harvesting utilizing its character.
We have illustrated the bright future of energy harvesting in energy sector and the prospect as an
alternate source. We also tried to demonstrate its prospect in Bangladesh. This paper will
obviously be helpful to increase the knowledge about energy harvesting. Nevertheless, this paper
can further be modified or developed any time to offer more flexibilities and facilities.

8.2 Limitations

As the piezoelectric materials are not sufficiently available, due to unreasonable price in our
country, it is difficult to make any practical research on piezoelectric energy harvesting. For
these reasons any noticeable attempt in this sector is not yet being made in our country. But if
sincere and professional attempts can be made in this sector it will be so much profitable for all
of us.

8.3 Future plans

We have studied piezoelectric materials, piezoelectric energy harvesting, modeling and its
application. We are willing to increase our knowledge about renewable energy sectors especially
piezoelectric energy harvesting and its practical implementation. Here we worked with small
places like markets, railway stations but in future we want to apply this technology in giant
amount covering big road ways where large vehicles passes of main cities of Bangladesh.





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8.4 Conclusion

Bangladesh has major problems of energy crisis, persisting poverty and environmental
degradation. The level of economic development of a country is the most important factor
influencing the pattern of energy consumption indicating that the higher the energy consumption,
the greater the level of a development. Development in Bangladesh without a corresponding
increase in per capita electricity is, therefore, not feasible. So for the development of our country
it is a mandatory to find out convenient ways to increase electric power generation which will
not be harmful for our environment. In this thesis we have shown that piezoelectric energy
harvesting is such a convenient way which is still not a popular source of energy. But we do
believe that it will play an important role to meet the world energy crisis especially country like
ours widely populated in future. We have shown in our exemplary model of “Bashundhara City”
of Dhaka 12
th
largest shopping mall in the world in which around 50000 people visits in a day
and we have illustrated about 1000sqft of piezoelectric energy harvester flooring areas which can
generate 208000 kwatth per year .We have estimated the per unit cost of this exemplary model
project would be around 6.3 tk. Many developed countries around the world are adopting this
piezoelectric energy harvesting successfully. Many international companies are also now
showing their expertise in this sector. If it is possible to make them come in our country for
investment in piezoelectric energy harvesting it will be a great hope for the people of
Bangladesh. Our local engineers should also come forward and be more initiative for the
development of energy harvesting process in Bangladesh. Moreover we hope that in coming
future Government of Bangladesh and the private sectors will emphases on this technique and
will take required steps for its development.

















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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source
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Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source of Energy & Its Prospect

Bachelor of Science Thesis [EEE]

Md. Meizanur Rahman Md. Junaed Tasnim Rahman Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY CHITTAGONG Chittagong, Bangladesh 2011, Report no.2011.11

Report no.2011.11

Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source of Energy & Its Prospect

Md. Meizanur Rahman Md. Junaed Tasnim Rahman Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY CHITTAGONG Chittagong, Bangladesh 2011

Junaed Tasnim Rahman Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain © md. Bangladesh 2011 . meizanur rahman © md. Chittagong-4203 Bangladesh Telephone + 880-625230. junaed tasnim rahman © mohammad sahed hossain bhuyain Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering International Islamic University Chittagong 154/A College road.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source of Energy & Its Prospect Md. 638656-7 Ext. Meizanur Rahman Md. 610085. 157 Cover: Piezoelectricity [IIUC EEE Reproservice] Chittagong. 610308.

Junaed Tasnim Rahman. S. to the department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering. Meizanur Rahman & Md.The Thesis “Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source of Energy & Its Prospect” Submitted by Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain. Md. M. Rezaul Huque Khan Professor Department of Applied Physics. Md. Md. Approved by: Engr. ET-071039. Yasir Arafat Lecturer Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering International Islamic University Chittagong Engr. Matric no. International Islamic University Chittagong. Shahid Ullah Lecturer Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering International Islamic University Chittagong Dr. 2011. ET-071057 & ET-071063 respectively Session: 2007-2010. Taslim Reza Lecturer Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering International Islamic University Chittagong Engr. Electronic &Communication Engineering Chittagong University (Chairman) (Supervisor) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) (External) . has been accepted as satisfactory for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Engineering (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) and approved as to its style and contents for the examination held on June 16. Md. Mohammad Amin Head (In-Charge) Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering International Islamic University Chittagong Mohammad Razaul Karim Lecturer Faculty of Electrical & Computer Engineering International Islamic University Chittagong Engr. Ataur Rahman Lecturer Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering International Islamic University Chittagong Engr.

Meizanur Rahman Matric no: ET071057 Md. Junaed Tasnim Rahman Matric no: ET071063 . Faculty of Electrical & Electronic Engineering. IIUC. This submitted report or any part of it is not presented anywhere for the award of any degree.DECLARATION This is to certify that the work presented here is the outcome of our investigation carried out by us under the supervision of Mohammad Razaul Karim. Signature of Students Counter signed Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain Matric no: ET071039 Mohammad Razaul Karim Lecturer Faculty of Electrical & Electronic Engineering IIUC Md. Lecturer.

DEPT. we express our endless thank to almighty Allah for his great blessings enabling us to finish this thesis. this thesis would not have been a success. He helped us a lot by providing necessary information relating about the project. Ataur Rahman for their enormous help and support. We also want to take the opportunity to express our deep gratitude to our supervisor Mr. for his continuous support and guidance to complete this thesis. Yasir Arafat and our lecturer Md.Acknowledgement First of all. participation and encouragement. family member and friends for their support. We wish to express our gratefulness to all the teachers of the departments for so many helps and supports. Meizanur Rahman Md. Authors Md. OF EEE INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY CHITTAGONG. JunaedTasnimRahman Mohammad Sahed Hossain Bhuyain i . Finally. We want to show our special thanks to our ex head Md. we beg pardon for our unintentional errors and omission if any. Bangladesh. We are extremely grateful to our parents. Without his generous support. Md Razaul Karim LECTURER. constant love and sacrifice. Rifat Shahriar and Md.

has been attracting more and more researchers’ interest because of the limitations of traditional power sources. the utilization of piezoelectric energy harvesting as next generation energy source. the condition of energy sector in Bangladesh and the possibility of piezoelectric energy harvesting system in Bangladesh. the comparison between different energy harvesting system with piezoelectric energy harvesting. piezoelectric energy harvesting technique. This paper presents the piezoelectric materials properties. ii .Abstract The thesis paper presents a new idea of piezoelectric energy harvesting which is a process of capturing ambient waste energy and converting it into usable electricity.

.2..01 1...1 Wind power…………………………………………………………………….3 Solar energy……………………………………………………………………..…03 1..2.04 1.ii List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………….…..4 Axis Nomenclature………………………………………………………………………….6 Poling……………………………………………………………………………………….5 Coupling…………………………………………………………………………………….Table of Content Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………………i Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………….13 2..2 Physics of Piezoelectricity…………………………………………………………………..10 2.2...3 Piezoelectric Effect……………………………………………………………………….4 Overview of Vibration-to-Electricity Conversion Research…………………………..……….10 2..1 Summary of Power Scavenging Sources…………………………………..03 1.2 Conclusions Regarding Power Scavenging Sources……………………………..……….6 Geothermal energy …………………………………………………….vii Chapter 1 Introductory Concept 1.....5 Biofuel………………………………………………………………………….03 1..3...14 2.03 1..3.7 Piezoelectric Energy ………………………………………………………………05 1..11 2...…02 1....2Scavenge able Energy ………………………………………………………………………...07 Chapter 2 Piezoelectricity 2....……..2..2...2 Hydro power……………………………………………………………………….3 Comparison of Energy Scavenging Technologies ………………………………………....vi List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………….05 1....…06 1.14 iii .….4 Biomass…………………………………………………………………………….2.…05 1....1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………....02 1.2..1Background…………………………………………………………………….

..16 3....37 6..27 4...34 5..25 4....42 6.44 iv .......6 Temperature effect on PZT material properties……………………………………………....43 6..3 Why Piezoelectric energy Harvesting...4 Power conversion circuit design………………………………………………………….....3 Prototype Performance………………………………………………………………………36 Chapter 6 The Next Generation of Energy Source: Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting 6....18 3......2Energy catastrophe around the World………………………………………………………....4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………....1Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….....2 Model Requirement…………………………………………………………………………..22 Chapter 4 Modeling 4.....4 Piezoelectric Ceramics………………………………………………………………………..18 3.....19 3..2 Energy Harvesting System in Israel……………………………………………….........34 5.Chapter 3 Piezoelectric Materials 3......3 Basic Circuitry Model……………………………………………………………………….7 Previous Work……………………………………………………………………………….....43 6.30 4....1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………......1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..2 Piezoelectric Material Model……………………………………………………………….4 Energy harvesting around the World……………………………………………………….32 Chapter 5 Energy Harvesting Technology 5.1 Power Generation Floor in Japan…………………………………………………........16 3....5 Piezoelectric Material Comparison…………………………………………………………..4.......3 Crystalline Materials…………………………………………………………………………17 3..2 Piezoelectric Materials………………………………………………………………………...37 6.

.5 Cost estimation of other energy sources and PZT energy harvesting system………………..54 Chapter 8 Conclusion 8.5.4 Wind power system……………………………………………………………….5 Cost comparison among the energy sources………………………………………..3 Power produced by per person…………………………………………………….5.4 Inhabitants appearance in the mall…………………………………………………49 7.4.1 Power produced per step………………………………………………………….48 7.54 7.2 Solar power system…………………………………………………………………53 7....5.49 7...4.4..4 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………….4..4 An Exemplary Model of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Bangladesh…………………..4.4.56 References……………………………….6 Cost estimation…………………………………………………………………….Chapter 7 Energy Harvesting Prospect in Bangladesh 7.3 Future plans………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………57 v .1Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….5.47 7.3 Steps Taken to Overcome this Situation……………………………………………………..5..53 7.49 7.....54 7.55 8.48 7.2 Energy Crisis in Bangladesh…………………………………………………………………46 7.48 7..5 Total energy generated per year……………………………………………………49 7.3 Hydro power system……………………………………………………………….1 Fossil fuel power station……………………………………………………………53 7.55 8.1 Overview of the work……………………………………………………….2 Average steps per person………………………………………………………….46 7.……………….55 8.2 Limitations………………………………………………………………………………….

.....13 Figure 5: Poling process: (a) Before poling (b) During poling (c) after poling………………..41 vi ..33 Figure 20: energy harvesting tile………….. Poly Crystals………………………………………………………………...21 Figure 9: Influence of temperature on the piezoelectric strain constant... mechanical and thermal processes………………..12 Figure 4: Axis nomenclature…………………………………………………………………….………………………………….17 Figure 7: Interaction between the electrical.…...31 Figure 17: Circuit representation of generation of electricity…………………………………..39 Figure 25: Amount of reserve energy at constant consumption…………………………….36 Figure 22: World population growth rate…………………………………………………..40 Figure 26: Energy consumption increment rate and its impact on reserve energy………………41 Figure 27: Approximate expiration time for accessible non renewable energy sources……….……38 Figure 23: Projected world energy demand in Gtoe………………………………. Units are in Inches…………………………28 Figure 13: Soft PZT Type 5a Material…………………………………………………………..List of Figures Figure1: Power density versus lifetime for batteries...……………………………………………………35 Figure 21: Energy harvested floor…………….14 Figure 6: Piezoelectric Material Applications………………………………………………….. and vibration generators…….……………………………………………….. Units are in Inches…………………………………...31 Figure 16: Circuit representation of a PZT material………………………….30 Figure 15: Piezoelectric material equivalent circuit…………………………………………….28 Figure 12: “Hard” Material Diagram and Loading. solar cells.29 Figure 14: “Soft” PZT Loading Diagram.20 Figure 8: Influence of temperature on the dielectric constant………………………………….……………39 Figure 24: World energy consumption rate from different sources……………………….. d31………………………21 Figure 10: Piezoelectric crystal used for measurement of force and axis numbering system for the crystal…………………………………………………………………………………………….25 Figure 11: Hard PZT 5a material………………………………………………………………...…………………...…….06 Figure 2: Atomic distortion of piezoelectric material……………………………………………11 Figure 3: Mono vs....32 Figure 18: Principle of power conversion………………………….……………………………32 Figure 19: Circuit Diagram for the Part I…………………….

.54 vii ...……05 Table 2: Summary of current PZT energy harvesting devices……………………………………………09 Table 3: Technology comparison…………………………………………………………………………43 Table 4: Current energy condition of Bangladesh……………………………………………….51 Table 6: Cost estimate..…………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………….52 Table 7: Cost of power generation using various fuels in Bangladesh………………………….47 Table 5: Energy estimation……………….53 Table 8: Per unit cost comparison……………………………………………………………….List of Tables Table 1: Comparison of energy scavenging and energy storage methods…………………...

Now a day government is trying to search new energy sources and encouraging people to use renewable sources. As technology advancing the consumption of power is steadily rising. The ability of piezoelectric materials to covert mechanical energy into electrical energy can provide a medium to transfer ambient motion (usually vibration) into electrical energy that may be stored and utilized by electronic devices such as sensors and wireless nodes. This necessitates that in addition to the existing sources of power should be search out more. Our energy sector is mainly dependent on natural resources mainly gas.1 Background Power plays an important role whatever man lives and works. are natural sources and are in limited amount. As everybody knows population is the main burden of Bangladesh because of is wealthy amount. water. Solar energy is a useful energy source which is promoted by our government in recent past. The energy density achievable with piezoelectric devices is potentially greater than that possible with electrostatic or electromagnetic devices. petroleum etc. But all this renewable energies have some drawbacks that are why these energies are not able to fulfill our energy requirement. In our country energy crisis is one of the greatest problem in our way to success. We all know about the crisis of power in Bangladesh.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 1 Chapter 1 Introductory Concept 1. This type of energy harvesting has been used by different country around the world. petroleum and coal which are not enough in amount. with the increase of population this disease enlarging at an alarming rate. Power provides our homes with light and heat. So main intention of this paper is to research about piezoelectric energy harvesting (which uses population density properly) according to Bangladesh point of view. Piezoelectric materials (PZT) are able to interchange between electrical energy and mechanical strain or force. So this makes energy crisis which attracted the attention of the developing and developed countries to explore and find out new means of energy sources. We are using hydraulic energy from many years. The living standard and prosperity of a nation vary directly with increase in use of power. The existing sources such as coal. so if we use this huge population for energy production it will be a revolutionary improvement in our country. In this paper we will study briefly about piezoelectric energy harvesting and analyze its prospect and acceptability in Bangladesh. .

as well as water. the winds and the sun's heat cause water to evaporate. geothermal. with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable. Hydrogen also can be found in many organic compounds. there's the energy of the ocean's waves. Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. solar cooling. such as with oxygen to make water. and a variety of commercial and industrial uses. creating a temperature difference that can be used as an energy source. When this water vapor turns into rain or snow and flows downhill into rivers or streams. modern biomass. solar. The sun's heat also drives the winds. and for hot water heating. although turbines with rated output of 1. sunlight causes plants to grow. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant. and the heating and cooling of buildings. In 2008. And the energy of the ocean's tides come from the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun upon the Earth.1 Wind power Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. All these forms of ocean energy can be used to produce electricity. tides. New renewables (small hydro. But it doesn't occur naturally as a gas. wind. The organic matter that makes up those plants is known as biomass.7% and are growing very rapidly. rain. The use of biomass for any of these purposes is called bioenergy. or solar energy. for generating electricity. which are driven by both the tides and the winds. In addition to tidal energy. the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed. which are renewable (naturally replenished).2 Scavenge able Energy Scavenge able energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use. can be used directly for heating and lighting homes and other buildings. power output increases dramatically. is captured with wind turbines. In fact. and 3. hydrogen can be burned as a fuel or converted into electricity. It's always combined with other elements. its energy can be captured using hydroelectric power.2% from hydroelectricity. Once separated from another element. about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power. which is mainly used for heating. with 13% coming from traditional biomass. Sunlight. or chemicals. and biofuels) accounted for another 2. wind. Geothermal energy taps the Earth's internal heat for a variety of uses. Different renewable sources are described below [78] 1. It's the most abundant element on the Earth.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 2 1. whose energy. Biomass can be used to produce electricity. including electric power production. Then. such as offshore and high altitude sites are preferred locations for . Not all renewable energy resources come from the sun. ocean energy comes from a number of sources. transportation fuels.2. Along with the rain and snow. The sun also warms the surface of the ocean more than the ocean depths. and geothermal heat. so as wind speed increases. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%.

4 Biomass Biomass is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains comes from the sun. daylighting. As long as biomass is produced sustainably.3 Solar energy Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation.2.2 Hydro power Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Globally. ocean thermal energy conversion. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%. and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. 1. the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 3 wind farms. Through the process of photosynthesis. solar hot water. plants capture the sun's energy.2. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. In this way. . they release the sun's energy they contain. so offshore resources could contribute substantially more energy [78]. Since water is about 800 times denser than air. Examples are the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State and the Akosombo Dam in Ghana. 1. even a slow flowing stream of water. convert and distribute solar energy. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds of ~90% greater than that of land. This could require wind turbines to be installed over large areas. and designing spaces that naturally circulate air [78]. selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties. There are many forms of water energy: Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams. They are often used in water rich areas as a remote-area power supply (RAPS). with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites. Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. including several delivering around 50 kW in the Solomon Islands. can yield considerable amounts of energy. and tidal power [78]. solar cooking. 1. Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems derive kinetic energy from rivers and oceans without using a dam. This includes marine current power. biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture. or 40 times current electricity demand. There are many of these installations around the world. When the plants are burnt. particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaics and heat engines. Ocean energy describes all the technologies to harness energy from the ocean and the sea. the battery will last indefinitely. or moderate sea swell. with only as much used as is grown.2. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture.

The best approaches vary from region to region according to climate. soils and geography [78]. The term covers solid biomass. and oils. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form. The geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in others. both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in volcanically active locations of the globe or from shallow depths. such as trees and grasses. the Philippines . In binary plants. Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam.2.2. and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils. but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.8% of the world's transport fuel in 2008. but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates. carbon monoxide. and binary. Gaseous biofuels include biogas. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form. and allows it to boil as it rises to the surface then separates the steam phase in steam/water separators and then runs the steam through a turbine. animal fats or recycled greases. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. According to the International Energy Agency.6 Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself. 1. usually at temperatures over 200 °C. biofuels have the potential to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050 [78]. cellulosic biomass.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 4 In general there are two main approaches to using plants for energy production: growing plants specifically for energy use. The condensed steam and remaining geothermal fluid from all three types of plants are injected back into the hot rock to pick up more heat.5 Biofuel Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. Biofuels provided 1. flash. New Zealand. Ultimately. out of the ground. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and brought to the surface it may be used to generate electricity. 1. Iceland. With advanced technology being developed. landfill gas and synthetic gas. liquid fuels and various biogases. Such geothermal power sources exist in certain geologically unstable parts of the world such as Chile. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. the hot water flows through heat exchangers. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and use it to directly drive a turbine that spins a generator. Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols. as in geothermal heat pumps in most locations of the planet. such as bioethanol. United States. such as biodiesel. Flash plants take hot water. boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine. and using the residues from plants that are used for other things.

[1] Power Sources Solar (solar panel) Vibrations Temperature gradient Batteries (non rechargeable) Batteries (rechargeable) Power density 19 to 56 W/m² 200 μW/cm3 315 μW/cm3 from 5C 45 μW/cm3 7 μW/cm3 Source of information Commonly available Roundy Thermolife Commonly available Commonly available . The results of this survey are shown in Table 1. While this comparison is by no means exhaustive.2. Several companies in Australia are exploring this technology [78]. In this system of energy scavenging mechanical energy is converted into electric energy. The values in the table are derived from a combination of published studies. A broad analysis and discussion of this technology are provided later of this thesis paper.3 Comparison of Energy Scavenging Technologies A broad survey of potential energy scavenging methods has been undertaken by Jyoti K Ajitsaria of Auburn University. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in the Yellowstone basin and in northern California. The table also includes batteries and other energy storage technologies for comparison. Some 8000 MW of capacity is operational in total. Iceland produced 170 MW geothermal powers and heated 86% of all houses in the year 2000 through geothermal energy. The source of information for each technique is given in the third column.7 Piezoelectric Energy This type of energy is converted from mechanical stress. Some of these holes pump water into the earth. The table contains pure power scavenging sources and thus the amount of power available is not a function of the lifetime of the device. There is also the potential to generate geothermal energy from hot dry rocks. it does provide a broad cross section of potential methods to scavenge energy and energy storage systems. 1. which heat up when there is enough sediment between the rock and the earth’s surface. A brief explanation and evaluation of each source listed in Table 1 follows. Table1: Comparison of energy scavenging and energy storage methods. while other holes pump hot water out. and information that is commonly available in data sheets and textbooks. Other potential sources were also considered but deemed to be outside of the application space under consideration or to be unacceptable for some other reason. experiments performed by the author.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 5 and Italy. The heat resource consists of hot underground radiogenic granite rocks. 1. Holes at least 3 km deep are drilled into the earth. theory.

3. a battery cannot provide the same level of power that solar cells or vibrations can provide even under poor circumstances. . Also. the area covered by the box for vibrations covers the range of vibration sources under consideration in this study. Figure 1: Power density versus lifetime for batteries. The reason is that both battery drain and leakage are considered. leakage becomes more dominant for some battery chemistries.1 Summary of Power Scavenging Sources Based on this survey. solar cells. if longer lifetimes are needed. Some of the battery traces. then other options should be pursued. The bottom of the box for solar power indicates the amount of power per square centimeter available in normal office lighting. it was decided that solar energy and vibrations offered the most attractive energy scavenging solutions. The top of this box roughly indicates the power available outdoors. For longer lifetimes. it seems that for lifetimes of 5 years or more. The reason that both solar and vibrations are shown as a box in the graph is that different environmental conditions will result in different power levels. exhibit an inflection point. battery technology can provide enough energy for the wireless sensor nodes under consideration (100μW average power dissipation). lithium rechargeable and zinc-air for example. The location of the inflection roughly indicates when leakage is becoming the dominant factor in reducing the amount of energy stored in the battery. The graph indicates that if the desired lifetime of the device is in the range of 1 year or less. and vibration generators [1] The shaded boxes in the figure indicate the range of solar (lightly shaded) and vibration (darkly shaded) power available. as will usually be the case. However.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 6 1. Solar and vibration power output are not a function of lifetime. The question that must then be asked is: is it preferable to use a high energy density battery that would last the lifetime of the device. Likewise. or to implement an energy scavenging solution? Figure 1 shows average power available from various battery chemistries (both rechargeable and non-rechargeable) versus lifetime of the device being powered.

It turns out that this model fits electromagnetic conversion very well. and thus the power density of the system was about 10μW/cm3 – 15μW/cm3. ships. 1. The generator has a footprint of roughly 4mm X 4mm and generated a maximum of 0. in order to be of use. but only the output power.4 kHz.4 Overview of Vibration-to-Electricity Conversion Research Low level vibrations occur in many environments including: large commercial buildings. Williams. Their chief contribution. trains. It is exceedingly difficult to find vibrations of this magnitude and frequency in many environments. it is likely that vibrations are not. the authors do not report the output voltage and current of their device.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 7 1. the main focus of the research and development effort has been vibration based power generators. aircraft. A few groups have previously devoted research effort toward the development of vibration-toelectricity converters. So. The electromagnetic generator was only 1mm thick.5 volts. in addition to the development of the electromagnetic generator.2 Conclusions Regarding Power Scavenging Sources Both solar power and vibration based energy scavenging look promising as methods to scavenge power from the environment.4 kHz. A second issue is that the vibrations used to drive the device are of magnitude 500 nm. which is clearly impractical. Nevertheless the work of Yates. Yates. the thorough investigation and development of such converters are merited. they are not overlapping solutions because if solar energy is present. Interestingly. Williams. Solar cells are a mature technology. and one that has been profitably implemented many times in the past. this power source would need a large linear transformer to convert the AC voltage up by at least a factor of 100 and preferably a factor of 500 to 1000. In order to rectify an AC voltage source. Because the power source is an AC power source. and Shearwood [2-5] have modeled and developed an electromagnetic micro-generator. perhaps most cases.3. Given the wide range of potential applications for vibration based power generation. and industrial environments. These vibrations are far more energy rich than those measured in common building environments. which will be discussed at length in Chapter 2. and Shearwood is significant in that it represents the first effort to develop micro or meso scale devices that convert vibrations to electricity (meso scale here refers to objects . and given the fact that vibration-toelectricity converters have been investigated very little. and vice versa. there was no attempt in that research at either a qualitative or quantitative comparison of different methods of converting vibrations to electricity. and they showed close agreement between the model and experimental results. So.3μW generator would have been 8 mV which presents a serious problem. automobiles. at 4. was the development of a generic second order linear model for power conversion. in order to be of use by electronics it must first be rectified. which is about 0.3 μW from a vibration source of displacement magnitude 500 nm at 4. or 380 m/s2. This author’s calculations show that the output voltage of the 0. Finally. the voltage must be larger than the forward drop of a diode. In many cases.

In fact. These are both very significant achievements and contributions. Published simulation results for their system predict a power output of 8. Chandrakasan and colleagues [6-9] have not been published such an effort. No effort is made to optimize the design of the piezoelectric generator itself or to design for a particular vibrations source.52 kHz (amplitude not specified). The generator is a standard MEMS comb drives (Tang. not on the design and implementation of the power converter itself. Amirtharajah & Chandrakasan 1998. the level of displacement assumed is not practical. The maximum measured output voltage was reported as 180 mV. Nguyen and Howe. Ottman et al 2002). A second group has more recently developed an electromagnetic converter and an electrostatic converter. Amirtharajah et al 2000. Incidentally. and if it is assumed that 400 μW of power really could be generated. Secondly. this author’s own calculations show that for a reasonable input vibration. Very recently a group of researchers has published material on optimal power circuitry design for piezoelectric generators (Ottman et al 2003.e. Meninger et al 2001 [6-9]. (Note that these are not steady state vibrations.5 cm X 1 mm from a vibration source at 2. In fact. The device was therefore designed for a vibration magnitude of about 2 cm at about 2 Hz. The authors assume that the generator device will undergo a predetermined level of displacement. The electrostatic converter designed by this same group was designed for a MEMS process using Silicon on Insultor (SOI).5 cm X 0. Several publications detail their work Amirtharajah 1999. 1989) except that it is used as a generator instead of an actuator. Amirtharajah et al [6-9] of researchers has also developed power electronics especially suited for electrostatic vibration to electricity converters for extremely low power systems. The research presented in this thesis makes no effort to improve upon or expand their research in this area. and the mass of their system.) Their simulations showed a maximum of 400 μW from this source under idealized circumstances (no mechanical damping or losses). At least. they estimated the same power generation from a steady state vibration source driven by machine components (rotating machinery). There seems to have been little effort to explore other design topologies. necessitating a 10 to 1 transformer in order to rectify the voltage. there seems to be little recognition of the mechanical dynamics of the system in the design. but do not show that this level of displacement is possible given a reasonably input vibration source and the dynamics of the system. The maximum . The device size was 4cm X 4cm X 10cm.6 μW for a device that is 1. typically objects from a centimeter down to a few millimeters). they do not report the output power. no actual test results have been published to date. then the power density of the device driven by a human walking would be 2.5μW/cm3. they have developed a low power DSP (Digital Signal Processor) for sensor applications. the person would carry the object in his/her pocket or somewhere else on the body). (i. Meninger et al 1999. The electromagnetic converter was quite large and designed for vibrations generated by a person walking.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 8 between the macro scale and micro scale. Additionally. While they report the measured output voltage for the device. However. perhaps it should be pointed out that this group is comprised primarily of circuit designers. The focus of this research has been on the optimal design of the power conditioning electronics for a piezoelectric generator. to this author’s knowledge. and the bulk of the material published about their project reports on the circuit design and implementation.

al Priya Roundy et.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 9 power output reported is 18 mW. Electromagnetic micro-generator Generic 2nd order linear model Electromagnetic converter 2. N/A 50 Hz. Ferrari et. Table 2 shows PZT energy harvesting devices. 200 μm 41 Hz.5 mW 70 μwatt/cm3 2 μwatt N/R 180 μwatt 120 mW N/R 1. al. but rather to explore the design and implementation of the power converter itself. Table 2: Summary of current PZT energy harvesting devices [10-34] Author Device Characteristics Frequency and Power acceleration 10-15 μwatt/cm3 4. Al White et. 9 m/s2 N/R Lumped element modeling Beam theory Electrical equivalent model FEA model Electrical equivalent model N/A N/A Equivalent circuit model Equivalent circuit model N/R N/A Conversion efficiency . 4Hz 440 N.25 μwatt N/R N/R 65 Hz 120 Hz. The footprint area of the piezoelectric converter is 19 . Again. al.8 Hz. al Jones et. but the magnitude is not reported. al.5 μW/cm3 2 Hz N/A PZT patch PZT windmill PZT cantilever PZT cantilever PZT plate PZT cantilever PZT plate PZT plate PZT stack MEMS electromagnetic PZT cantilever PZT cantilever N/R 7. al Ayers et. al Li et.86 mW/ . The height of the device is not given. al Platt et. Assuming a height of about 5 mm give a power density of 1. Umeda et.1 mW 40 μwatt 0. the research presented in this dissertation makes no effort to improve on the power electronics design of Ottman et al. al Mohammadi et. Shu et. The frequency of the driving vibrations is reported as 53.5 m/s2 80. al. al Amirtharajah 1999 Amirtharajah & Chandrakasan 1998 Meninger et al 1999 Amirtharajah et al 2000 Meninger et al 2001 Kasyap et.1 Hz. al Tanaka et. 10 μm N/R 1 KN. 380 m/s2 Modeling Williams and Yates Shearwood and Yates Williams et. The significant contribution of the research is a clear understanding of the issues surrounding the design of the power circuitry specifically optimized for a piezoelectric vibration to electricity converter. < 20 Hz 20 Hz. 2.4 KHz.

When a piezoelectric material is strained. Pierre and Jacques Curie were the first to discover the direct piezoelectric effect. which means electricity by heat [35]. The first applications of piezoelectricity were in the area of sonar. As the . This is known as the direct piezoelectric effect. which were actually Tourmaline crystals. creating an electric field. major applications of piezoelectric materials are in sensors. In a piezoelectric material. lead-titanate (PbTiO2). therefore. Further examination of the Pyroelectric crystals led to the discovery of Piezoelectricity. was predicted in 1881 [37]. which is derived from the Greek work for pressure. the application of a force or stress results in the development of a charge in the material.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 10 Chapter 2 Piezoelectricity 2. it polarizes. In the mid 1700’s.2 Physics of Piezoelectricity The piezoelectric effect is a property that exists in many materials. indicating to the operator the presence of an object below the surface of a body of water. and electric from electricity. They first published their research results on August 2. this effect was given the name of Pyroelectricity. lead-zirconate (PbZrO3). These waves would bounce off an object and return to a receiver. Conversely. 2. Once the crystals arrived in Europe. These rocks. pressure . These include lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). This title means the correlation between input mechanical force and output electrical energy. piezo. Several ceramic materials have been described as exhibiting a piezoelectric effect.electric effect. 1880 [36]. The converse piezoelectric effect. The rough translation is. It was first noticed in rocks which would repel other rocks when they were heated. Now a days another revolutionary use of piezoelectricity as energy harvesting purpose which will discussed later in this paper. eventually found their way into Europe. Today. Figure 2 shows how the polarization of the material occurs. This is known as the indirect piezoelectric effect. where quartz plates were used to emit high frequency waves. on the order of 50 kHz. which means mechanical deformation by application of an electric field.1 Introduction Curiosity about the piezoelectric effect dates back thousands of years. the application of a charge to the same material will result in a change in mechanical dimensions or strain. The name is made up of two parts. and barium-titanate (BaTiO3). where their linear response makes them ideal for making mechanical measurements. they were scrutinized by the scientists of the day.

To explain this.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 11 material is compressed. The difference between the monocrystal and polycrystal structure is illustrated in Figure 3. there are different regions within the material that have a different polar axis. The polar axis is an imaginary line that runs through the center of both charges on the molecule. The converse effect works in much the same way. resulting in poles occurring in atoms of the material. the symmetry of the atomic structure is disrupted. and is called a dipole. which in turn will deform it. It is asymmetrical because there is no point at which the crystal could be cut that would leave the two remaining pieces with the same resultant polar axis illustrates this concept. These poles lead to the creation of the electric field. one end is more negatively charged and the other end is positively charged. F + + + + - + + + F + - Figure 2: Atomic distortion of piezoelectric material [35] 2. In a monocrystal the polar axes of all of the dipoles lie in one direction. In a polycrystal. it will cause polarization of the material. This effect is formed in crystals that have no center of symmetry. The crystal is said to be symmetrical because if you were to cut the crystal at any point. Conversely. Each molecule has a polarization. When an electric field is applied across the material. . we have to look at the individual molecules that make up the crystal. the resultant polar axes of the two pieces would lie in the same direction as the original. a mechanical deformation (the substance shrinks or expands) is produced when an electric field is applied. This is a result of the atoms that make up the molecule and the way the molecules are shaped.3 Piezoelectric Effect A piezoelectric substance is one that produces an electric charge when a mechanical stress is applied (the substance is squeezed or stretched).

we can define electric displacement.85 x 10-12 faradays / meter ε = dielectric constant V = voltage t = thickness or plate separation Q = charge In addition. Poly Crystals [38] It is best to start with an understanding of common dielectric materials in order to understand the piezoelectric effect. Q  CV   AV t (2) C = capacitance A = capacitor plate area εr = relative dielectric constant εo = dielectric constant of air = 8. to electric field. upon the orientation of . This is a direct result of the dependency of the ratio of dielectric displacement. The defining equations for high permittivity dielectrics are: C Κ r Α 0 r Α  Α   t t t (1) And Where. D. H. as charge density or the ratio of charge to the area of the capacitor: Q V D  (3) A t And further define the electric field as: V H Or D  H (4) t These equations are true for all isotropic dielectrics. both the electric field and electric displacement must be represented as vectors with three dimensions in a fashion similar to the mechanical force vector. Piezoelectric ceramic materials are isotropic in the unpolarized state. but they become anisotropic in the poled state.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 12 Monocrystal with single polar axis Polycrystal with random polar axis Figure 3: Mono vs. In anisotropic materials. D.

essential to maintain a constant axis numbering scheme. therefore. as shown above. Di. the majority of the dielectric constants for piezoelectric ceramics (as opposed to single crystal piezoelectric materials) are zero. relates mechanical effects to electrical effects. Ej. multiplied by its corresponding dielectric constant. are highly dependent upon their orientation to the poled axis. εij: D1 11 E1  12 E 2  13 E 3 D2 21 E1  22 E 2  23 E 3 D3 31 E1  32 E 2  33 E 3 Fortunately. The only non-zero terms are: 11 22 33 (6) 2. as stated previously. These effects. The axis nomenclature followed is shown in Figure 4. It is. is equal to the sum of the field vector. Z(3) # 1 2 3 4 5 6 X(1) Y(2) Axis X Y Z Shear around X Shear around Y Shear around Z Figure 4: Axis nomenclature [38] . thus each electric displacement vector. This means that the general equation for electric displacement can be written as a state variable equation: Di ij E j (5) The electric displacement is always parallel to the electric field.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 13 the capacitor plate to the crystal (or poled ceramic) axes.4 Axis Nomenclature The piezoelectric effect.

Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 14 2. it is understood that except when referring to specific PZT material constants. While there are many piezoelectric materials from which to choose for a piezoelectric generator. It should be noted that not all the domains become exactly aligned. does not have free electrons. Piezoelectric material is made up of crystals that have many “fixed” electrons. This force will push and pull the electrons in the electrodes attached to the piezoelectric crystal as shown in the Figure 5. This slight movement of electrons alters the equilibrium status in the adjacent conductive materials and creates electric force. the review of different forms of piezoelectric generators configuration is done. So from this point onwards. Poling consists of inducing a D.5 Coupling Coupling is a key constant used to evaluate the "quality" of an electro-mechanical material. as stated earlier. This alignment is accomplished through a process known as "poling". and therefore electrons cannot pass freely through the material. are not piezoelectric until the random ferroelectric domains are aligned. which is non-conductive in nature. 2.C. the word PZT and piezoelectric may be used interchangeably. other piezoelectric materials could be assumed to be used. This constant represents the efficiency of energy conversion from electrical to mechanical or mechanical to electrical. Figure 5: Poling process: (a) Before poling (b) During poling (c) After poling [35] Piezoelectric ceramic materials. although. Some of the domains only partially align and some .6 Poling Piezoelectric material. = Or (7) = (8) In this chapter. These fixed electrons can move slightly as the crystals deform by an external force. They are presented here to provide a working foundation for the mathematical modeling in the next chapter highlighting important features that distinguish each design. voltage across the material. The ferroelectric domains align to the induced field resulting in a net piezoelectric effect. we plan on using lead zirconate titanate (PZT).

A tensile force applied perpendicular to the electrodes or a compressive force applied parallel to the electrodes results in a voltage of opposite polarity. Voltage applied to the electrodes at the same polarity as the original poling voltage results in a further increase in dimension between the electrodes and decreases the dimensions parallel to the electrodes. Applying a voltage to the electrodes in an opposite direction decreases the dimension between the electrodes and increases the dimensions parallel to the electrodes. Physically shearing the ceramic will produce a voltage on the new electrodes. During poling the material permanently increases in dimension between the poling electrodes and decreases in dimensions parallel to the electrodes. Removing the poling electrodes and applying a field perpendicular to the poling direction on a new set of electrodes will result in mechanical shear.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 15 do not align at all. Applying a compressive force in the direction of poling (perpendicular to the poling electrodes) or a tensile force parallel to the poling direction results in a voltage generation on the electrodes which has the same polarity as the original poling voltage. temperature. and the time the voltage is held on the material. or by inducing a large mechanical stress. . The material can be depolarized by reversing the poling voltage. The number of domains that align depends upon the poling voltage. increasing the temperature beyond the materials Currie point.

An example of such an application is the use of sensors on bridges. and is a very cost-effective way to monitor physical structures. which transmit their data using a RF link in a burst at periodic intervals. classification of piezoelectric effect. such as quartz. This chapter will provide elaborate description of piezoelectric materials and their properties and will help to find out proper piezoelectric material for energy harvesting.2 Piezoelectric Materials There are two main types of piezoelectric materials. Figure 6 shows a comprehensive list of general piezoelectric material applications .1 Introduction This chapter contains different types of piezoelectric materials. crystalline materials and ceramic materials. having to retrofit the structure with wiring for a monitoring system is expensive and time-consuming. occur naturally. monitoring of modern loads on the bridge has become an important area of research. the real time load and stresses on a bridge can be determined. For older bridges.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 16 Chapter 3 Piezoelectric Materials 3. For existing structures. piezoelectric material properties. They were found to exhibit piezoelectric properties as long as 100 years ago. This capability enables an easy retrofit. Using sensors powered by piezoelectric materials. piezoelectric material comparison. from sensor applications to powering remote electronics in areas where other power sources are unavailable. Crystalline materials. These materials have begun to be used in many applications. temperature effect on piezoelectric materials and some history of previous work done by several research groups. Recent advancements have yielded man-made materials that also exhibit piezoelectric properties. 3.

Methods were developed and many Quartz piezoelectric materials today are grown artificially in . they are especially sensitive to their cut and orientation. and they exhibit different piezoelectric properties depending on the crystal orientation [35]. particularly quartz. are found naturally. Since these materials are crystalline. especially in areas of the South Pacific [35]. These materials. Therefore it became necessary to develop ways to artificially create the crystals.3 Crystalline Materials Crystalline materials were the first materials identified to exhibit piezoelectric properties. the demand for quartz crystals has outstripped the natural supply. Since the advent of piezoelectric sensors.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 17 Piezoelectric Effect Direct Effect Converse Effect Sensors Measuring mechanical measurands Force Torque Strain Pressure Acceleration Acoustic emersion Voltage Generators (Spark) Ignitors Resonant Bulk acoustic Waves BAW Surface acoustic waves Saw Not resonant Ultrasonic ultrasonic wave generators Electronics Time and frequency control Resonant sensors measuring physical measurands through Shift of resonant Frequency Actuators Oscillators Frequency standards Time standards Filters Piezoelectric motors Positioning devices Ink jet printers Figure 6: Piezoelectric Material Applications [35] 3.

Another advantage of ceramic piezoelectric materials is that since they are man made. PZT Materials are manufactured by sintering a finely ground power mixture. One such problem is the effect of twinning. The subtype materials are created by doping.5 Piezoelectric Material Comparison Some general considerations for selecting crystalline or ceramic piezoelectric materials for certain applications are presented next. The ceramic material studied through the course of this research is leadzitronite-titanate (PbZrO3. The PZT materials can be manufactured into various subtypes. each containing domains in which the electric dipoles are aligned [35]. or designing with. This occurs when Quartz of two different crystal orientations intergrowth. It was found that with a pressure between 1 and 2 kilo Bars and at a temperature of between 350 to 450 OC. the material must be polarized by heating the material to a high temperature and applying a strong electric field [35]. The powder is usually made of ferroelectrics of the oxygen-octahedral type. which are first shaped into the desired shape [35]. To properly demonstrate piezoelectric properties. It is best that this occurrence be avoided and must be considered when designing. By controlling the amount and types of impurities introduced. such as PZT-5A.4 Piezoelectric Ceramics Another common group of piezoelectric materials other than quartz is a ceramic material which has been developed more recently. however. They manufactured by several companies such as Noliac and Advanced Cerametrics amongst others. Piezoelectric ceramics are formed of a number of ferroelectric grains (crystallites). or introducing impurities into the materials. the ceramic materials are usually much more sensitive than the crystalline materials [35]. The subtypes are given a standard designation. so they are very suited to custom applications. and crystal orientation (having to cut the crystal on a certain geometric plane for optimal output). the physical properties of the material. affecting the piezoelectric coefficient. 3. Ceramic materials are much cheaper than crystalline materials to use. problems with artificially creating quartz.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 18 autoclaves. the materials examined were PZT-5A and PZT-8 [39]. artificial crystals are difficult to use for applications which have space requirements. Piezo-ceramic materials are man-made. and piezoelectric constant. and are very flexible. such as the dielectric constant. . nor do they have to be cut properly. and finding the proper one for a specific application can be difficult. For the research conducted at Villanova. piezoelectric materials [35]. PbTiO3). Quartz can be grown [35]. 3. These materials exhibit high coupling coefficients. Finally. can be modified to the designer’s needs. coupling coefficient. Natural crystals can be rare. There are. commonly referred to as PZT material. These subtypes can be customdesigned for different uses and environments. They do not have to be grown. they do not suffer from the problems which natural materials have regarding scarcity. Twins can also form under loading. and come in many different types.

mechanical and thermal processes depicted in Figure 7. such as sensors. the material will lose all of its polarization. This makes these materials unsuitable for more extreme environments. their sensitivity can degrade over time. especially high temperature ones. For applications where consistent and reproducible measurements are necessary over a long period of time. and the related phenomenon pyroelectricity is due to thermal-electrical coupling. and change in entropy S are represented on the inner triangle. making piezo-ceramic materials unsuitable for certain applications. In sensor applications. this is a most undesirable trait. stress σ. which can be a potential problem for designers. The ceramic materials usually exhibit very high temperature sensitivity. so when being used in sensors. a high resistance is needed in applications where the measurand is quasistatic to ensure a reliable output. At high temperatures the piezoelectric properties of these materials such as the coupling coefficient and the piezoelectric constant change and tend to degrade as temperature increases. strain ε. making their thermal operating range very limited. At this point. ceramic materials as well as certain quartz materials are pyroelectric. For some PZT materials. losing its piezoelectric properties.6 Temperature effect on PZT material properties Since piezoelectricity constitutes relation between electrical and mechanical processes. electric noise will increase as their temperature increases. and temperature T are represented at vertices of the outer triangle whereas the corresponding conjugate extensive variables polarization P. The intensive variables electric field E. . These materials exhibit a lower resistivity than the quartz materials. This change becomes complete when the ambient temperature increases to the Curie temperature of the material. 3. Typical Curie temperatures for PZT materials are on the order of 200°C.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 19 There are drawbacks to the ceramic materials. Finally. an effect called “aging”. the general set of electrical.

One method is to assume the function is an infinite series in the independent variables. where constants are chosen to match observed physical behavior. and the resistivity of PZT-5H material are provided as function of temperature. This approach was used in formulation the temperature dependence properties of the PZT material. and Figure 9. where the variation of the relative dielectric constant. The data can be interpolated by different functions. The constants given in the equation above are obtained from the experimental data [41]. d31. .Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 20 Figure 7: Interaction between the electrical. The experimental data [41] for dielectric constant and piezoelectric charge coefficient were plotted in Microsoft excel software and a fourth order curve fitting was done to get the correlation between the material properties of the PZT and temperature. the piezoelectric strain constant. Polynomial formulation can be described as phenomenological in nature. which are graphically depicted in Figure 8. mechanical and thermal processes [40] There are many methods for formulating non-linear temperature dependent relations for ferroelectric compounds.

Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 21

Figure 8: Influence of temperature on the dielectric constant [42]

Figure 9: Influence of temperature on the piezoelectric strain constant, d31 [42]

Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 22

When temperature rises, both the dielectric and the piezoelectric strain constant of the material 5H tend to significantly increase. In addition, the Young’s modulus of the PZT is known to being slightly dependent on the change in temperature. The dielectric constant among the temperature dependent constants exhibits the most significant effect on the electric impedance of PZT. Most of the previous work is concerned with very large magnitudes of temperature variations at extremely high temperatures. Changes in temperature have distinct effects on the dynamic properties of structures, which is dependent on boundary conditions, temperature distribution and structure materials. However, the exact nature of these relationships on effect on power generation has not been investigated by any researcher as gathered from previously published papers. The correlation for temperature dependence of dielectric constant and charge coefficient can be found from the data plotted in Figure 8 and Figure 9.

3.7 Previous Work
A number of research groups have examined piezoelectric materials, in both an academic sense and also in examining them for practical applications. The main focus of both research attempts has been in the sensor and actuation areas. Some work has focused on constructing piezoceramics. These materials can be custom designed for specific applications, and a group from Japan headed by Y. Hosono focused on developing piezoceramic materials with high Curie Temperatures and high piezoelectric constants. They examined a new piezoceramic material, PbZr03-free relaxor-lead titanate (PT), and compared it to the classical PZT material. They found that the new material had a much better electro-mechanical coupling coefficient and a larger piezoelectric constant. These materials however have a very low Curie temperature which must be overcome for these materials to become practical. The research team identified a material (PINMT) which showed a high electro-mechanical coupling coefficient, piezoelectric constant, and also a high Curie temperature [43]. Eric Prechtl from MIT examined the use of piezoelectric materials for use in helicopter rotor blades as an actuator. Flexing of the rotor is accomplished by placing the actuator in the trailing edge of the helicopter rotor. By deflecting the rotor blade, the pitch of the rotor can be adjusted, which is critical to the control of the helicopter. The device was built and tested at MIT, and results showed that it was possible to achieve a 5 degree rotation at 90 percent of the span on an operational helicopter [44]. Another research group from the National Taiwan University focused their research on applying piezoelectric materials as a generator for remote sensors. In certain regions, there is a major need to monitor the health of older bridge structures. As these structures age, they fatigue, and loose their structural strength. This is further accelerated by modern loads, such as heavy trucks and cars, being placed upon the bridge. Current bridge monitoring involves manned inspections, which are time consuming, and costly, especially on bridges in remote areas. Their solution to the problem was to harvest the vibrational energy of the bridge itself using a

Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 23

piezoelectric material. This energy will power electronics which measure the strain on the bridge, and will also power a RF transmitter to relay the information to a remote receiver in short bursts. This solution will provide the necessary data to monitor the load on the bridge, without the need to continuously send manned teams to check the bridge health [45]. A research group from the University of Brescia in Italy conducted research on using piezoelectric materials for power harvesting. In a paper titled “Modeling, fabrication and performance measurements of a piezoelectric energy converter for power harvesting in autonomous Microsystems”, they presented their findings. Using PZT piezo-ceramic materials mounted in a cantilever position, they attempted to use these materials for remote sensors. They succeeded in developing models for these devices, and were able to harvest tenths of a microwatt, which when stored over time was sufficient to power electronics needed for a RF transmitter [46]. A group from Pennsylvania State University, headed by Geffrey Ottman conducted research on harvesting energy from piezoelectric energy from piezoelectric materials and using DC to DC converter to perform power transfer operations and store the energy harvested. Two of the papers were titled “Adaptive Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Circuit for Wireless Remote Power Supply” and “Optimized Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Circuit Using Step-Down Converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode”, and were presented in the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics [47][48]. In these papers, the researchers used PZT materials, a full bridge rectifier and a DC to DC converter to harvest the energy from the PZT Materials. They concentrated on looking at the duty cycle of the converter versus peak power output. They developed techniques for determining optimal duty cycle, and found that as the mechanical excitation increases, the optimal duty cycle becomes constant [48]. Another group from the University of Nevada conducted research into using piezoelectric materials for energy harvesting. This research focused not on the piezoelectric material itself, but on how the energy is harvested and stored. They used a rectifier, a storage capacitor, and power conversion circuitry to use the piezoelectric material as a stable electrical power source. The researchers further continue to discuss constructing a wireless sensor network with piezoelectric materials as a possible power source [49]. A group from the University of Missouri – Columbia has done extensive research into the electrical modeling of piezoelectric materials, and correlating their excitation to their mechanical output through their physical properties and the compressive force that they are subjected to. The team has written a series of papers detailing their research, in which they first developed modeling techniques for the piezoelectric materials themselves, and then used those techniques to develop various generators for use. In a paper titled “Electrical Power Generation Characteristics of Piezoelectric Generator under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Stress Conditions”, they presented their results for their model. They examined the material, and modeled it as a mechanical resonator comprising of a mass, spring and a damper. Using the conservation of energy, they concluded that the total energy of the system must comprise the electrical and mechanical energies. Using this, they modeled the electrical structure of the material itself as an ideal voltage generator, a capacitance and two

Modeling. 28. however. By varying the thickness to area ratio (TAR). and optimal physical dimensions for the material. They determined methods to calculate the component values. “Scaling Relationships and Maximum Peak Power Generation in a Piezoelectric Pulse Generator”. They found that the voltage of the material increased linearly with respect to the TAR. Using this information. this project uses a mechanical mass-spring resonator to store energy mechanically. peak power and power density of 58. “Design. and also the internal voltage generation based on the compressive force exerted on the material and the materials physical properties.4 kW. “Energy Conversion and High Power Pulse Production Using Miniature Piezoelectric Compressors”. The researchers sought to optimize the product of voltage and current. and Implementation of a 30-kW Piezoelectric Pulse Generator”.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 24 resistances. the goal is the modeling and simulation of piezoelectric devices for an energy harvester application. the research team examined various methods of determining maximum power transfer. They verified the model using testing of existing materials [50].2 A. and this capability needed to also be modeled. the team connected the material to a spark gap and an inductor. and therefore a low cost testing tool was needed. and 517 kW/cm respectively [54]. In papers titled “Maximum Power Generation in a Piezoelectric Pulse Generator”. but extends it in the use of piezoelectric materials in a munitons environment characterized by a short operational life and very high accelerations. In addition. This previous research was used as a stepping point to begin the examination of piezoelectric materials in this new environment with the purpose of modeling an energy harvester. . This project encompasses the research presented here. the current changed with an exponential trend with regard to the TAR. One such generator designed yielded a peak current. Further research this team conducted took the model that they created previously and extended it to the examination of maximum power transfer in a piezoelectric pulse generator. Thus there is a clearly defined maximum to the data. and then described some possible applications of the methods developed [51][52][53][54]. For the present research project. To maximize the power generated. the researchers continued to design high power pulse generators. Testing new materials in this environment can be prohibitively expensive. they were able to maximize energy transfer from the material.

Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 25 Chapter 4 Modeling 4. made of barium titanate. Quartz and Rochelle salt belong to natural group while materials like lithium sulphate.1 Introduction Common piezoelectric materials include Rochelle salts. The modes can be: thickness expansion. transverse expansion. quartz and ceramics A and B. Figure 10: Piezoelectric crystal used for measurement of force and axis numbering system for the crystal [55] The piezoelectric effect can be made to respond to mechanical deformations of the material in many different modes. ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. dipotassium tartarate. The materials that exhibit a significant and useful piezo-electric effect are divided into two categories: (i) Nature group and (ii) Synthetic group. ethylene diamine tartarate belong to the synthetic group. basically. thickness shear and face shear. potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The ceramic materials are polycrystalline in nature. the rest are man-made crystals grown from aqueous solutions under carefully controlled conditions. Except for quartz and ceramics A and B. They do not have piezoelectric properties in original state but these properties are produced by special polarizing treatment. They are. lithium sulphate. The mode of motion affected depends on the shape of the body relative to .

its units are Vm/N . and l= length of crystal. N/ m 2 . Mechanical deformation generates a charge and this charge appears as a voltage across the electrodes. t= thickness of crystal. m. E= Young’s module. The voltage is E=Q/C. m 2 .Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 26 the crystal axis and location of the electrodes. The force F causes a change in thickness of the crystal. AE F t newton (10) t Where A= area of crystal. A piezoelectric element used for converting mechanical motion to electrical signals may be thought as charge generator and a capacitor. C/N And F= applied force. m. Voltage Eo = Q / C p Where C p = capacitance between electrodes. A tensile force produces a voltage of one polarity while a compressive force produces a voltage of opposite polarity. The magnitude and polarity of the induced surface charges are proportional to the magnitude and direction of the applied force F. N. (13) and (14) C p = r o A / t (12) (13) (14) Eo  But Q dF dt F    C p r o A / t r o A (15) F/A= P =Pressure or stress in N / M 2 . The polarity of induced charges depends upon the direction of applied force [55]. F. Stress 1 Ft E  ( F / A). The piezoelectric affect is direction sensitive. This is constant for a given crystal cut. m. A piezoelectric crystal is shown in Figure 10. From equation (9) and (10) we have Charge Q  dAe(t / t ) The charge at the electrodes gives rise to an output voltage E o . d Eo  tP  gtP r o g  d / r o (16) (17) Where ‘g’ is the voltage sensitivity of the crystal. Capacitance between electrodes From equation (9).  N / m2 Strain t / t At Young’s modulus Area (11) A= wl Where w=width of crystal. Charge Q=dF coulomb (9) Where d= charge sensitivity of the crystal.

the‘d’ constants and ‘g’ constants are considered. crystal voltage sensitivity. From equation (17). For barium titanate the commonly used constants are d 33 and g 33 = Voltage output Eo  g 33  (21) F  t  g 33tP (22) A In order to relate the applied force to the generated charge. In this paper PZT 5a is used. which is loaded transversely. One of the d constants can be defined as: = = [55] (23) 4. i. which is loaded longitudinally. The convention is that first subscript refers to the direction of the electrical effect and the second to that of the mechanical effect. Therefore. g. The two main families of constants i. the piezoelectric ceramic materials themselves. Now E o /t= is the electric field intensity in the crystal and P is the pressure or the stress to the crystal. and several material subtypes. The units of g are Vm/N. . can be defined as the ratio of electric field intensity to pressure. Charge sensitivity d r o g C/N (20) It has been stated earlier that the piezoelectric effect is direction sensitive. Various double-subscripted physical constants are used to describe numerically the phenomena occurring. V/m. g.e. These varieties included the “soft” material. crystal voltage sensitivity. Therefore. Let = E o /t=electric field = = ∈ (19) Now E o /t is the electric field intensity in the crystal and P is the pressure or the applied stress to the crystal.2 Piezoelectric Material Model The materials of Advanced Cerametrics incorporated [56] are in the form of bare materials. thickness expansion shown in figure 7. The main characteristics of piezoelectric motion to voltage transducers can be illustrated by considering only one common mode of deformation i. the constants are used. They are in several varieties.e. and also a “hard material”.e. can be defined as the ratio of the electric field intensity to pressure.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 27 Now g E o Eo / t  tp P (18) But E o /t = electric field strength.

They are in two main types.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 28 The materials are all ceramic materials. Figure 11: Hard PZT 5a material [56] Figure 12: “Hard” Material Diagram and Loading. Units are in Inches [56] . The term hard does not refer to the piezoelectric type. with the physical dimensions of the material. The first type. The fiber materials are then embedded into ceramic matrices that allow them to be custom formed to whatever geometry is necessary. But merely to its physical characteristics. is a hard piece of material which generates an electric field when it is compressed. referred to as the “hard” material. created artificially. Figure 12 shows a technical drawing of the material. ACI manufactures the actual piezoelectric fibers. they generate electricity. When these fibers are subjected to mechanical stresses. This material is shown in figure 11.

the fibers are also compressed vertically. The bi-morph material is one in which two of the regular soft test materials are placed in a sandwich.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 29 This material is one in which the piezoelectric fibers are embedded along the vertical axis of the material. Essentially the device is two “soft” materials connected in parallel. a greater strain is placed upon the materials and therefore higher output voltage is seen from this device. The soft materials come in two different varieties. as shown in figure 14. Again. as shown in figure X as the “Z” axis.06 inches thick. and placed under tension. and since the piezoelectric elements are bonded to it. Figure 14 shows a dimensioned technical drawing of the soft material. This action causes an electric field to be generated. so that when the material is bent along its “y” axis. causing an electric field to be generated at the ends of the fibers. and a bi-morph material. The sandwich material is less than . with a hard piece of material in between. The second material is referred to as the “soft” material because of its flexibility. the term “soft material” does not refer to the piezoelectric type. In this material. the regular material. but its physical characteristics. Figure 13: Soft PZT Type 5a Material [56] . the strands are stretched. The middle material is much harder than the regular test materials. the piezoelectric strands are oriented along the length of the material. or the top and bottom plates of the material. When the material is compressed. Figure 13 shows a photograph of the soft material.

and therefore exhibit an electrical resonance.3 Basic Circuitry Model Piezoelectric materials exhibit electrical properties. resistance. inductance and capacitance.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 30 Figure 14: “Soft” PZT Loading Diagram. These characteristics are directly related to the area and the piezoelectric modulus e [57]. Equation (27) shows the natural capacitance of the material. which can be modeled by equivalent circuits comprising capacitive and resistive elements. respectively. s = compliance coefficient. ps = surface mass density. and inductance. The equivalent circuit element equations for a piezoelectric material at electromechanical resonance are shown in equations (24). Units are in Inches [56] 4. l = height of the material. l Rm   K R (24) Ae 2 sl 2 Lm   K Ls (25) 2 Ae 2 Ae 2 1 Cm   Kc  Kc s (26) cl c A Co  (27) l where: c = elastic constant. (25) and (26) for the resistance. A = area. They have a defined capacitance. where the electro-mechanical coupling peaks. Figure 15. 16 shows the total equivalent circuit for the material at resonance. e = piezoelectric stress constant. η = viscosity .

Most of the power conversion comes into play in the DC-DC converter. and a DC-DC converter. . The filter capacitor smoothes electrical flow and the DC-DC converter is what allow the battery to store the energy.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 31 Figure 15: Piezoelectric material equivalent circuit [58] Figure 16: Circuit representation of a PZT material [59] In a power generation circuit major components involved would be an AC/DC rectifier. The AC/DC rectifier converts the AC signal from the piezosource into DC current. Figure 17 shows the basic circuit diagram of power generation from a PZT material. a filter capacitor. From the battery the DC power is converted into AC power by using an inverter.

The AC/DC rectifier in the first stage (Part I) converts the varying AC output voltage delivered by the PZT bender into a DC output. Since we need the maximum power from PZT. The magnitude and frequency of input voltage for the rectifier varies in a wide range dependent upon the acceleration imposed to the bender. two steps of a power conversion are inevitable. . Figure 18: Principle of power conversion [60] A circuit scheme for the part I is shown in Figure 18. Thus. whose amplitude varies according to the amplitude of the acceleration and the frequency of vibration. which is an uncontrolled rectifier consisting of diodes in a bridge configuration. The DC/DC converter in the second stage (Part II) serves as a step-down of the primary DC voltage to a required output voltage. On the other hand. The principle of the power conversion is depicted in the Figure 18.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 32 Figure 17: Circuit representation of generation of electricity [60] 4.4 Power conversion circuit design The PZT bender produces an alternating current. electronic loads connected at the output require a DC voltage with relatively low amplitude. uncontrolled rectifier is preferred in this design.

the power can be only consumed by operating the DC/DC circuit and no power can be transformed to the actual load. Generally. the efficiency can reach up to 95% under no load condition. so the proper selection of the topology should be taken into account for an optimal design of the circuit. However. According to the data sheet provided by the manufacturer. the voltage at capacitor can exceed a limit given by input voltage of the following DC/DC converter. The ripples can be further reduced when a capacitor is connected in parallel to loads. Under consideration of the voltage generation of the PZT bender. efficiency is one of important criteria. and the load profile requirement that the output voltage should be 3. . Fortunately.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 33 Therefore. the DC voltage generally includes voltage ripples that fluctuates a twice higher than the frequency of the AC input voltage. However. Figure 19: Circuit Diagram for the Part I [60] One possible choice for the DC/DC converter is MAX640 manufactured by Maxim Integrated Products. In addition. the converted AC voltage should be stepped down (Buck) converter as the part II represents. a DC/DC converter is required to get stable DC output.3V. Countermeasure will be the use of an additional Zener diode that clamps potential over-voltage at the input of the DC/DC converter that can be generated by the PZT bender. the ratio of the converting voltage between the input and output is less than 3. the DC/DC presents a continuous load that is applied to the DC voltage. If the efficiency is low.

The output from each strip was connected together.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 34 Chapter 5 Energy Harvesting Technology 5. passed through individual rectifiers. The electrical components consisted of four rectifiers connected to the positive and negative ends of the piezoelectric strips. The first component is the oscillating piezoelectric strip. and entered the . acoustical equipment. apparel and more. The outputs of the rectifiers were connected in parallel to provide power to the energy harvesting module. electrical components were mounted to the sidewall of the floor tile. and an actuation bar was mounted so that it was just enough to flick the strips using the actuation system. Test result shows an average output of 39 volts from a single strip when deflected. and the application of piezoelectric to a multitude of new applications is becoming an achievable possibility in light of these technological breakthroughs. motorcycles. infrastructure. next generation aircraft. This section will provide detailed design and functionality specifications of the main components of the project. A company by the name of Advanced Cerametrics (ACI) in Lambertville. and PZT piezoelectric fibers spun into the material. and have low electrical energy outputs per unit strain. the tile will harvest the energy created by the piezoelectric strips.1 Introduction A piezoelectric based energy scavenging floor tile that harvests energy from foot strikes is the main objective of this thesis. They produce a composite material with an aluminum substrate. To increase output voltage. which stores the energy from the people stepping on the floor tile. A group of Stevens Institute of Technology accompanied with ACI successfully implemented the energy harvesting system. NJ [61] is a pioneer in this technology breakthrough. 5. sports gear. Some examples include active smart sporting goods. wireless sensors.2 Model Requirement The prototype for this project consisted of a floor tile made out of Lexan in which four piezoelectric strips were mounted inside using an adjustable aluminum mounting block. Traditional ceramic piezoelectric materials are very brittle. automobiles. People walking on the floor continuously. industrial equipment. 4 piezoelectric strips are incorporated into the final prototype. Materials research and technology improvements have changed the perspective entirely.

Figure 20: energy harvesting tile [63] . impedance matching was no longer a concern. the positive and negative input from the piezoelectric strips was connected to the positive and negative inputs of the bridge rectifier. According to Advanced Cerametrics energy harvesting PCB (EH301) [62] developed by ALD could harvest enough energy to charge a 1000uF capacitor in only a few flicks of the piezoelectric strip. and then to the PCB. Figure 20 shows a piezo energy harvesting tile model.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 35 energy harvesting PCB in series. Due to using the energy harvesting PCB. The second component is the energy harvesting circuitry. For implementation.

Using a rectifier for each strip.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 36 Figure 21 shows an energy harvested tile mounted on a floor for energy scavenging.3 volt capacitor from 3. will not get the most voltage from the tile or could stop the piezo strip from vibrating altogether. SIT group was able to observe an average charge of 100mV per step. the tile should be stepped on evenly so the tile remains level and each of the strips is actuated evenly [63]. As explained earlier. it begins to output the voltage. So. the harvester charges a capacitor and when the internal logic recognizes that the capacitor reaches 5. the group was successfully able to store energy using the piezoelectric output. When stepping on the tile. Stepping on the tile repeatedly. after a step. Also. The team was also able to show that the LED stayed lit for approximately 3 seconds.3 Prototype Performance This prototype was able to charge a 5.2 volts. or before the strips stop vibrating. it should simulate real world operation. the piezo strips should be allowed to stop vibrating before the tile is allowed to be stepped on again. . Figure 21: Energy harvested floor [63] 5. While stepping on the tile.2 volts in approximately 20 steps on the tile. The only operating limitations were regarding the use of the tile.1 volts to 5.

5% per year growth rate were to continue. world energy consumption rate. Figure 22 shows the World population growth. and possibly to 12 billion.2 Energy catastrophe around the World The root cause of world energy problems is growing world population and energy consumption per capita. This chapter also presents some examples of piezoelectric energy harvesting around the world. reserve source of energy and its expiration time. World population is presently slightly over 6 billion and expected to grow to at least 8-9 billion.1 Introduction This chapter highlights present world population growth rate. 6. . by the end of the 21st century. It would reach 12 billion by the middle of the 21st century if the present 1.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 37 Chapter 6 The Next Generation of Energy source: Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting 6. A statistical data of world population growth is given according to “World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revisions”. This chapter will present a new source of energy which is piezoelectricity a convenient source of energy and its prospect around the world. This chapter also provides technology comparison between some traditional power sources and piezoelectric energy harvesting system. world energy demand.

A research was made by Holdren.2 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1850 1900 1950 1.8 6 2000 2050 Year Figure 22: World population growth rate [64] This huge bulky population requires a massive amount of energy. Energy demand unit is in Gtoe (Gigatonnes of oil energy equivalent per year) [65].Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 38 10 9 8 Population (billion) 9. and Sheffield on world energy demand which is given below in Figure 23.5 1. IIASA/WEC MITRE.25 2. .

20% 0. Figure 24 shows the research report on energy consumption from different sources.by 3.50% 0. corresponding to a doubling time of 21 years [66].20% Figure 24: World energy consumption rate from different sources [80]. According to research made by BP .30% 0. The energy which is absorbs by the world population mainly comes from non renewable natural sources.3 percent a year. 82% energy comes from fossil fuels. IEA – WEO 2006.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 39 World economic growth and global demand for energy. 40% 35% 37% Consumption rate 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 25% 23% 6% 4% 3% 0. are expected to grow even faster during the next few decades . .Statistical Review 2008. the essential engine of economic growth.

Obviously the energy sources are not infinity. Coal is 17. Actually it is almost difficult to control the consumption rate at a constant rate. An official research report on this topic may clear the entire concept.8 million ton/day. The given in the Figure 25 is on the basis of research made by Energy Watch Group during year 2007. Scientist makes a report on increment of energy consumption year by year and its impact on reserve energy.8TW/day consumed around the World) Figure 25: Amount of reserve energy at constant consumption [69] So from the above given data it is clear that if the world consumes 13.7 million ton/day and Uranium is 67000 ton/year [67] [68]. Natural gas is 5. They have a certain limitation. . Figure 25 represents the research report. We consuming this huge amount of without any concern how many year it will lasts. But if the consumption rate increases then the scenario will be different.8TW/day and makes it constant then another 76 years there will be no tension for energy crisis.8 million ton/day. Figure 26 shows the report.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 40 Statistics says that the consumption of Oil is 10. 140 120 100 Year 131 80 60 40 20 0 Oil 43 80 60 76 Natural gas Coal Uranium Total(if 13.

That means after the safe time period there will be huge power crisis. 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1850 1900 1950 Oil Gas Coal U RE 2000 2050 2100 2150 Year (TW) Figure 27: Approximate expiration time for accessible non renewable energy sources [69]. So from the statistic it is clear that the. At present days only 10%-15% renewable energy are used around the world [69]. If the percentage of renewable energy usage is increased to a bulky amount it would surely triumph over our future energy crisis sturdily. So from statistics it is obvious that only renewable energy sources are able to overcome this crisis. world no longer will provided by natural non renewable energy sources.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 41 80 70 60 50 Time (year) 40 30 20 10 0 15 30 36 48 76 80 Power (TW) Figure 26: Energy consumption increment rate and its impact on reserve energy [69] So how far can the world survive with non renewable energy? A statistical data given in Figure 27 will clear the scenario properly. But our world is still not ready with any alternates. .

In fact this concept converts the burdensome population into energy sources. All over the world renewable green energy are now promoted. geothermal power. So. railways. piezoelectric energy harvesting source is more efficient than other renewable sources considering the main reason of energy crisis. hydro power. Right now around the world numerous renewable energy sources are used in a number of countries. But in this paper we are promoting piezoelectric energy harvesting source. solar power. which is increasing at alarming rate. markets and run roads that will produce huge amount of energy. In addition PZT energy harvesting source is economically competitive to traditional carbon based energy production. Table 3 shows technology comparison made by Innowattech. A privately held company Innowattech specializing in the development of custom piezoelectric generators makes a research on comparison between other energy harvesting sources with piezoelectric energy harvest [70]. From previous chapters discussion it is now clear to us that strain produced by human foot strike is responsible for energy production in a piezoelectric energy harvesting source. With increasing population human activity will also increase in roadways. railroads and runways all day long near population centers can be converted into electrical energy that can be supplied to nearby customers and electrical storage system which is integrated in the roads. of this increasing population. We know about some renewable sources such as wind power.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 42 6. So the increasing population is very much helpful for piezoelectric energy harvesting. If we give attention to the statistical research given in the paper we can realize that main reason of energy crisis is population growth. Main reason of promoting piezoelectric energy harvesting is. railroads and runways does not take up any public space and functions in all weather conditions. .3 Why Piezoelectric energy Harvesting? According to experts research the only way to deal with energy crisis efficiently is to develop the usage of renewable energy. PZT energy harvesting system does not require any additional maintenance after its implementation. The movement energy of busy roads.

4.4 Energy harvesting around the World Piezoelectric energy harvesting is a new alternative energy system that harvests mechanical energy imparted to roadways. The system harvests energy that ordinary goes to waste and can be installed without changing the habitat.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 43 Table 3: Technology comparison [70] Piezoelectric Harvesting from Roads. Piezoelectric flooring is a technology with a wide range of applications that is slowly being adopted in the race to develop alternative energy sources.1 Power Generation Floor in Japan In Japan they have been trialing these systems for the past year. Different countries around the world are now adopting this alternate source of energy. human power is readily available in pretty much any area with heavy foot traffic. years Reliable Clean Mature Technology Deployment Availability Implementation in urban areas Low maintenance cost Successfully operates in Northern areas Preserves environment in original state 12 – 30 X √ √ X X X X 20 – 30 X √ √ X √ X X 15 – 20 √ X √ √ X X √ √ √ X √ √ √ √ √ X X X X X X *Depending on the volume of traffic **Assuming revenue from consumer of $60 per barrel 6. Railways. railways and runways from passing vehicles and trains and converts it into green electricity. The total amount of floor- . They have recently improved and expanded the system by changing the floor covering from rubber to stone tiles. and have improved the layout of the mechanisms to improve energy generation. 6.& Runways(Innowattech) 4 – 10* Wind Solar Geothe rmal 10 – 20 √ √ √ X X X √ Hydro Power 12 – 15 √ √ √ X X X √ Coal Oil & Gas 10-13** √ X √ √ X X √ Payback. After all.

1 watt in the single second required to take two steps across the tile. The system does not harm the efficiency of the vehicles. Stored in capacitors. Multiplied many times over by the 400. including the electrical lighting system and the ticket gates [71]. The energy is also produced in close proximity to its end users. Haifa. The tiles are constructed of layers of rubber sheeting. Deeply dependent on imported fuel to power its industries.4. then we can generate significant amounts of power. a remarkable 2. and there is sufficient energy to light up electronic signboards. The solution is applicable to any place with heavy vehicle travel and not confined to specific climate and geographic areas as are solar and wind energy. It maximizes retrieval of wasted mechanical energy converting it into electrical energy. Commuters at the Tokyo station walk on a piezoelectric sheet which generates electricity when pedestrians step on it. Israel. The building costs and the expected return on investment time are estimated to be much lower than for solar energy. Innowattech's solution is optimal.000 people who use Tokyo Station on an average day. Innowattech's IP is protected as patent pending [70]. Innowattech's solution for the roads. weighing 60 kg.4 million people pass through the sprawling Shibuya Station on an average week day. trains or human movement. On the other side of Tokyo. with special flooring tiles installed in front of ticket turnstiles. Israel Institute of Technology. Every time a passenger steps on the mats. Japanese companies are at the forefront of research into clean and reusable energy sources." An average person.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 44 space will add up to around 25 square meters.'s "Power Generation Floor. But when they are covering a large area of floor space and thousands of people are stepping or jumping on them. 6. will generate only 0.400kw per day [71]. the power can be channeled to energy-hungry parts of the station.2 Energy Harvesting System in Israel Innowattech is a privately held company specializing in the development of custom piezoelectric generators. trains and pedestrians. The Company is based in Ra’anana Israel with research facilities in the Technion. . to absorb the vibrations. and ceramic. Innowattech has developed a new breed of piezoelectric generators with a mechanical/electrical association ideally suited to harvest the mechanical energy imparted to roadways from passing vehicles. Experiments have started at two of the Japanese capitals' busiest stations. according to East Japan Railway. with many of them now treading on Soundpower Corp. In addition Innowattech has developed a very efficient storage system to collect and store the electricity produced by these generators. and they expect to obtain over 1. It then stores the energy with minimal energy waste. Today piezoelectric materials have multiple uses in industry both as sensors and actuators. they trigger a small vibration that can be stored as energy. The accumulated energy can be used for local power needs or routed into the grid. railroads and runways is capable of producing significant amounts of electricity and has an economical and commercial advantage over other green alternatives. It does not require the use and development of vast new areas as do solar and wind farms.

frequency and speed of passing vehicles as well as the spacing between vehicles.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 45 Produced energy can be applicable in: •Power plant. feeding electricity to the grid. •Innowattech harvests energy that ordinary goes to waste without changing the car’s MPG or any road characteristics. •Powering road side electric devices such as billboards without the need of existing power line infrastructure. •Lighting Street lights. traffic lights and warning signs. This is enough energy to power 500 homes! . •Deliver real-time data on the weight. •Innowattech's vehicular system can produce 400 kWh from a 1 km stretch of dual carriageway.

Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 46 Chapter 7 Energy harvesting prospect in Bangladesh 7. Bangladesh is facing the worst energy crisis from many years.2 Energy Crisis in Bangladesh Energy crisis is now one of the great problems around the world.915 Million (2008) [72] with a population growth rate 1.1 Introduction This chapter presents electric energy condition of Bangladesh and its raising demand.9/km 2 . It also demonstrates an exemplary model of piezoelectric energy harvesting model in Bangladesh. Right now our population is 161. Table 4 demonstrates current energy condition of Bangladesh.7% (2009) [72] which is very alarming. We have calculated total energy estimation and per unit cost estimation of the exemplary model and the comparison of per unit cost between traditional power plants. So with inadequate energy sources it is very much complicated to support such hulking population. renewable energy sources and our exemplary power plant. Our population density is about 1101. . If we explore the present energy situation of our country it will be more understandable to us. Actually Bangladesh has most horrible energy crisis comparing with other countries. Main reason behind the situation is population problem. 7.

are completely used or economically depleted. especially after global awareness regarding the ill effects of fossil fuel burning.6 million tons oil equivalent Per capita energy consumption 171 kg oil equivalent Energy related CO2 emission 42. 7. However our Government has taken so many steps to develop renewable energy as an alternate. to remove the disparity in the standards of living between the urban and rural areas through rural electrification and development. 09) So from the information given over it’s clear about energy disaster in Bangladesh.it is not going to come until lights are provided to our people for seeing. It demands immediate attention especially in the third world countries.3 Steps Taken to Overcome this Situation Therefore Government of Bangladesh has issued its Vision and Policy Statement.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 47 Table 4: Current energy condition of Bangladesh [72] Total energy consumption 16. fossil fuel like gas. . coal. oil etc.74 million metric tones Per capita CO2 emission 0. Nevertheless in this paper we discussing about opportunities of piezoelectric energy harvesting in Bangladesh. The energy prospect is generally assessed on the basis of available commercial sources of energy i. Because. No matter how we cry about development or poverty alleviation.8 metric tons (2008) Access to electricity 45% Per capita electricity consumption 145 kilowatt per hour per annum Present electricity demand 4200 – 5500 MW Present available generation 3800 – 4200 MW Maximum load shedding in FY-09 1270 MW (April 23. we are rapidly exhausting our nonrenewable resources. to bring the entire country under electricity service by the year 2020 in phases..5 metric tons (2008) Coal: 3. Energy is the source of growth and the mover for economic and social development of a nation and its people.3 metric tones Energy consumption Conventional energy (54%). reading and working. Now interest in renewable energy has been revived over last few years. Biomass (46%) Conventional energy consumption Natural gas: 1850-1900 millions of standard cubic feet per day (2009) Oil: 3. degrading the potentially renewable resources and even threatening the perpetual resources. where only scarce resources are available for an enormous size of population. Government is mainly promoting solar energy as alternate. which is appreciate able.e. This unfortunate circumstance is pulling back our national development. Because Energy is one of the basic ingredients required to alleviate poverty and socio-economic development.

1 Power produced per step We should consider those tiles which will give us maximum electric power.1 watt per step in our power estimation. will generate 0. So .4.000/day during festivals and special occasions [73]. Soundpower Corp installed a "Power Generation Floor" in their two of the Japanese capitals' busiest railway stations where an average person. To calculate the electric power and cost estimation we have to consider the following observations. that is a huge amount to produce a large quantity of energy from PZT energy harvester. weighing 60kg.4 An Exemplary Model of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Bangladesh By using PZT energy harvester burdensome population can play an important role in energy production in Bangladesh. We are considering if any person enters the mall. he will step in those tiles and we are assuming the average person will takes over 135 steps if he or she walks 100 feet into the considered 1000sqft area [76]. Approximately 50. lobby etc. “Bashundhara City” of Dhaka 12th largest shopping mall in the world. We know 1000 sqft is not a large space but our main attention is to consider the maximum people gathering and maximum power with optimal cost.4. The average person’s stride length is approximately 1. Research shows that an average person takes about 3.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 48 7.5 feet distance [76]. If we see An Example of Piezoelectric Model with Estimated energy and cost it will be clear more to us.000-5. We have estimated power and cost for 1000sqft for flooring the piezoelectric tiles. Population density is the main reason why we use piezoelectric energy harvester in Bangladesh.  Power produced per step  Average steps per person  Power produced by per person  Inhabitants appearance in the mall  Total energy generated per year  Cost estimation Here some details about the observations: 7.1 watt per step [71]. In Japan. which is 19th storey high building covering an area of 191200Sqft.2 Average steps per person We are considering maximum foot step in the PZT energy harvester flooring areas. So we can assume 0.5 feet long for our country [76].000 steps per day which should be 10. Around thousands of people live in one km area.000 people visits the mall daily and it increases to around 100. We are considering about 1000Sqft where maximum gathering occurs Such as entrance. That means average person will take 2 steps to walk 1. 7.000 per day for healthy life [75]. We can install the PZT energy harvester tiles in those areas.

7. Our assumption is about 1000sqft.000 people visits daily and it increases to around 100. So. Now if we install PZT energy harvester tiles then we should subtract the cost of normal flooring tiles cost of 1000sqft. Energy produced per day = 51. So it is clear that 50000 people gather on the mall during these 13 hours of a day. PZT energy harvester flooring cost: Here we can use PZT energy harvester which will cost 7000 per sqft [74].3 KWh.5 watts. total cost will be 7000000tk. In our case.3 X 13 KWh = 667 KWh Energy produced per week = 667 X 6 KWh = 4000 KWh Energy produced per year = 4000 X 52 KWh = 208000 KWh 7. 7.4. Therefore from the data we can assume that hourly approximately 3800 people appear in the mall. The mall normally runs up to 13 hours per day that means from 9 am to 10 pm.000 people visits the mall daily for our calculation. In our case we are considering Bashundhara city where approximately 50000 people appears per day. the total amount of floor-space is up to around 25sqft. So energy produced per hour = (3800 X 13.5) X 1 Wh = 51300 Wh = 51.3 Power produced by per person We can easily calculate the power produced by per person by multiplying Power produced per step and Average steps per person. 7.4. So total PZT energy harvester flooring cost = (7000000 – 200000) tk =6800000tk . Normal flooring tiles will cost 150tk to 200tk per sqft [77].4. We are taking 50. Electrical appliances cost and Maintenance cost. if we assume 135 steps for a person into considered area. That means 1000sqft flooring tiles would cost around 200000tk. and they are obtaining electric energy over 1.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 49 from the data we can assume that if a normal person walks about 100 feet into the piezoelectric tiles covered area he or she will take approximately 133 to 135 steps [76]. than power produced by per person will be 135 steps X 0.6 Cost estimation In our cost estimation we are considering three sections which are PZT energy harvester flooring tiles cost.5 Total energy generated per year In Japan.400KWsec per day [71].4 Inhabitants appearance in the mall We have got the information that in “Bashundhara City” approximately 50.4.000/day during festivals and special occasions [73].1 watts =13.

3 tk per KWh .Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 50 Electrical appliances cost: Electrical appliances are mainly batteries and inverters. Total capital cost = PZT energy harvester flooring cost + Electrical appliances cost = (6800000 + 1500000) tk = 8300000 tk We assume that our project payback time is 10 years. Total capital cost: This cost includes PZT flooring cost and electrical appliance cost which are fixed cost. wages and maintenance. We assume that yearly maintenance cost will be around 500000 taka. Maintenance cost per year: This includes salaries. Based on our survey on some local retailer such as Rahimafrooz and Energypac the cost of batteries and inverters according to our demand will be around 1200000 to 1500000 lac taka. So depreciative capital cost per year = Total capital cost/Payback time = (8300000/10) tk = 830000 tk Total investment per year = Depreciation cost per year + Maintenance cost per year = (830000 + 500000) tk = 1330000 tk Per unit cost = Total investment per year/ Energy produced per year = (1330000/208000) tk per KWh = 6.

1 W 135 Electric energy generated by per person 13.3 KWh.5) X 1 Wh = 51300 Wh = 51. 51.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 51 Table 5&6 shows the estimations Table 5: Energy estimation Bashundhara City Electric energy generated per step[71] Average steps per person[76] 0.5 W Energy produced per hour (3800 X 13.3 X 13 KWh = 667 KWh 667 X 6 KWh = 4000 KWh 4000 X 52 KWh = 208000 KWh Energy produced per day Energy produced per week Energy produced per year .

It also should be added that to generate 208000 KWh electrical energy the amount of CO2 emission is about 125 ton by the fossil fuel per year [85].3 tk per KWh Depreciative capital cost per year Total investment per year Per unit cost The above estimation shows that we can get sufficient electric energy for minimum cost which is feasible. So if we are able to establish this new green source of energy around the world we can reduce the rate of CO2 emission. So it is clear that country like ours with overpopulation PZT energy harvester is efficient and affordable. .Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 52 Table 6: Cost estimation Bashundhara City Total Area[73] Cost Per Sqft [74] Estimated area Normal flooring cost Cost for PZT flooring tiles in 1000sqft 191200 sqft 7000 tk 1000 sqft 200000 tk 7000000 tk Total PZT energy harvester flooring (7000000 – 200000) tk cost =6800000tk Maintenance cost per year 500000 tk Total capital cost PZT energy harvester flooring cost + Electrical appliances cost = (6800000 + 1500000)tk = 8300000 tk Total capital cost/Payback time = (8300000/10) tk = 830000 tk Depreciation cost per year + Maintenance cost per year = (830000 + 500000) tk = 1330000 tk Total investment per year/ Energy produced per year = (1330000/208000) tk per KWh = 6.

Gas is being used for transportation. Central station fossil-fuel power plants are designed on a large scale for continuous operation. In our country 85% electricity is produced from gas based power plants. The development of domestic coal fields will take time and will require significant investment. Coal and diesel have very little contribution in our power system. and it has limited the supply of gas to the power sector. Under such circumstances. local gas. such plants provide most of the electrical energy used. 7. Imported coal-based power generally costs about Tk 5. Given the severity of power shortages. natural gas or petroleum (oil) to produce electricity.077) at current coal prices. While Bangladesh has sizable coal reserves in the north-west region. and domestic purposes. Table 7: Cost of power generation using various fuels in Bangladesh [79] Fuel Source Gas Coal (local) Coal (Imported) Diesel Cost Per Unit Tk/kWh 4.2 3. Though is has been adopted by the world from ancient time but this system is not being able to make a strong position in worlds energy sector. the government has decided to cut down the gas supply to some sectors. In many countries. Solar energy is one of the efficient green energy sources.4 25. will not provide an immediate solution to the current power crisis.1 Fossil fuel power station A fossil-fuel power station is a power station that burns fossil fuels such as coal.2 As indicated above. Table 7 indicates the cost of power generation using various fuels in Bangladesh.5% solar energy is used around the . industries (mainly fertilizer).5 Cost estimation of other energy sources and comparison with PZT energy harvesting system Here other energy sources and their costs are given and also a comparison with pzt energy harvesting source is shown.5. currently only one coal-based power plant is operating and it has been facing fuel shortages given constraints in coal production. a further expansion of gas-based power generation is not feasible in the near future given inadequate gas production.2 Solar power system Putting aside other conventional energy sources now the whole world is adopting green energy sources. According to global energy usage 2005 only 0.7 5.4/kwh ($0.5. such as fertilizer production. although the least-cost option. Around the world 82% of energy is produced by fossil fuels [66]. 7.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 53 7.

In our country there is no practical use of this type of power plant. Around the world only 0.6 tk 1. According to Sharp Solarbuzz a solar energy system provider average cost for a solar system is 26.2 tk 3. Its generation cost is around 1. the cost of solar energy is significantly higher.2% of total energy around the world [82]. such as using wind turbines to make electricity. .6 tk 6. This source is frequently used around the world. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy.3 tk From the above research it is observable that piezoelectricity can be a good source of energy in prospect of Bangladesh. According to A British Wind Energy Association report gives an average generation cost of onshore wind power of around 3.5.4 tk 25.5.6 tk/KWh [81]. the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.5 Cost comparison among the energy sources From the above study we can formulate per unit cost comparison among the energy sources can be easily understood from table 8.2 tk 26. 7.4 tk 3.4 tk/KWh [79] which is lowest in Bangladesh. The stat is poorer in our country.3 Hydro power system Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower. In comparison to conventional hydrocarbon fuels such as coal or oil in generating electricity. Figure 28 shows worldwide wind power installed capacity.6 tk/KWh.5. 7. According to research this source supplies around 2. 7.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 54 world [80]. It can generate power at a cheaper rate in the country. In Bangladesh only one hydro power system exist in kaptai damp. Table 8: per unit cost comparison Fuel Source Gas Coal Diesel Solar Hydro power Wind power Piezoelectric energy harvester Cost Per Unit(Per KWh) 4.7-5.2 pence (between US 5 and 6 cents) per kWh [84] in our currency it around 3.3% of total energy is used from wind.4 Wind power system Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy. Kaptai hydro power plants installed capacity is 230MW at present its generating capacity is 192MW.

But if sincere and professional attempts can be made in this sector it will be so much profitable for all of us. This paper will obviously be helpful to increase the knowledge about energy harvesting. railway stations but in future we want to apply this technology in giant amount covering big road ways where large vehicles passes of main cities of Bangladesh. For these reasons any noticeable attempt in this sector is not yet being made in our country. We also tried to demonstrate its prospect in Bangladesh. 8. 8. modeling and its application.3 Future plans We have studied piezoelectric materials. it is difficult to make any practical research on piezoelectric energy harvesting. We are willing to increase our knowledge about renewable energy sectors especially piezoelectric energy harvesting and its practical implementation. this paper can further be modified or developed any time to offer more flexibilities and facilities. We have illustrated the bright future of energy harvesting in energy sector and the prospect as an alternate source. Nevertheless. In this paper we discussed briefly about piezoelectric materials characteristics and also showed the process of energy harvesting utilizing its character. due to unreasonable price in our country. .2 Limitations As the piezoelectric materials are not sufficiently available. piezoelectric energy harvesting.1 Overview of the work The main purpose of this thesis is to analyze piezoelectric energy harvesting technique and its possibility as alternate energy source. Here we worked with small places like markets.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 55 Chapter 8 Conclusion 8.

3 tk. Moreover we hope that in coming future Government of Bangladesh and the private sectors will emphases on this technique and will take required steps for its development. We have shown in our exemplary model of “Bashundhara City” of Dhaka 12th largest shopping mall in the world in which around 50000 people visits in a day and we have illustrated about 1000sqft of piezoelectric energy harvester flooring areas which can generate 208000 kwatth per year .4 Conclusion Bangladesh has major problems of energy crisis. Many developed countries around the world are adopting this piezoelectric energy harvesting successfully. Many international companies are also now showing their expertise in this sector. The level of economic development of a country is the most important factor influencing the pattern of energy consumption indicating that the higher the energy consumption. Development in Bangladesh without a corresponding increase in per capita electricity is. But we do believe that it will play an important role to meet the world energy crisis especially country like ours widely populated in future. persisting poverty and environmental degradation. In this thesis we have shown that piezoelectric energy harvesting is such a convenient way which is still not a popular source of energy. not feasible. therefore. So for the development of our country it is a mandatory to find out convenient ways to increase electric power generation which will not be harmful for our environment. If it is possible to make them come in our country for investment in piezoelectric energy harvesting it will be a great hope for the people of Bangladesh. Our local engineers should also come forward and be more initiative for the development of energy harvesting process in Bangladesh. the greater the level of a development.Study of Piezoelectricity: A New Source IIUC of Energy & Its Prospect 56 8. .We have estimated the per unit cost of this exemplary model project would be around 6.

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