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The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research.
‘Research’ refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analysing
the facts and reaching certain conclusions.
Objectives of Research
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights
into it (Exploratory or Formulative research studies);
To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group(known as descriptive research studies);
To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (diagnostic research
To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).
Objectives of Research
Research extends knowledge of human beings, social life and environment.
Research brings to light information that might never be discovered fully during the ordinary course of life.
Research establishes generalizations and general laws and contributes to theory building in various fields of knowledge.( law of demand . Principles of mgmt)
OBJECTIVES or PURPOSE OF RESEARCH.. Contd.
Research verifies and tests existing facts and theory, improves knowledge and facilitates decision making
General laws, developed through research may enable us to make reliable predictions of events yet to happen
Research aims to analyze interrelationships between variables and to derive causal explanations.
contd Applied research aims at finding solutions to problems (social unrest.) Analytical studies process various data for rational decision making for number of business and nonbusiness organizations. poverty) Research aims at developing new tools concepts and theories for a better study of unknown phenomena.OBJECTIVES or PURPOSE OF RESEARCH. Research aids planning and thus contributes to national development. unemployment..agri.welfare.. (health. . edn.
TYPES OF RESEARCH The basic types of research are as follows: Descriptive (Ex post facto ) vs. Qualitative Research Other types of Research . Fundamental Research (Pure/Basic) Conceptual vs. Empirical Research Quantitative vs. Analytical Research Applied vs.
. Analytical Descriptive Fact finding enquiries and surveys Collection of present information Researcher can only report about the existing facts Ex: frequency of shopping.Descriptive vs. preference of people Analytical: Critical analysis of the available information and facts by the researcher.
Fundamental Research (Pure/Basic) Applied: For the purpose of applying or testing theory and evaluating its usefulness in solving practical problems. Basic: solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement (laboratory or scientific research) .Applied vs.
Conceptual vs. Used by philosophers to develop new concepts or to re interpret the existing ones Empirical Research: relies on experience or observation. Data based. Empirical Research Conceptual: related to some abstract ideas or theory. conclusions being .
(to know the underlying motives) Motivation Research Attitude or Opinion Research .Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research Quantitative: based on the measurement of quantity or amount (expressed in terms of quantity) census. degree of influence Qualitative Research: relating to quality or kind.
Research Process .
HOW IS RESEARCH CONDUCTED ? (Research Methodology) Identification of the research problem Review of the literature Formulation and statement of hypothesis Preparation of the research design Sampling Data collection Analysis of the data Testing of hypothesis Generalization and interpretation Writing the research report .
RESEARCH PROCESS Define the Research Problem Review concepts and theories Review previous research findings Formulate Hypothesis Research design (including sample design) Collect data (execution) F F Analyze Data (test hypothesis if any) F Interpret and report .
Research process in flow chart FF FF Review concepts And theories Define research problem Review previous research finding Formulate Hypothesis Design research Collecting data Analyze data F Interpret and report FF Where F = feedback = feed forward FF .
measurement and analysis of data . It constitutes the blue print for the collection. It is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.RESEARCH DESIGN Research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted.
The design decisions happen to be in respect of: What is the study about? Why is the study being made? Where will the study be carried out? What type of data is required? Where can the required data be found? What periods of time will the study include? What will be the sample design? What techniques of data collection will be used? How will the data be analyzed? In what style will the report be prepared? .
. It facilitates thought processing and avoids misleading conclusions. Thoughtlessness in designing the research project may result in rendering the research exercise futile.Need for Research design It facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations.
efficient. economical and so on The means of obtaining information. appropriate. The nature of the problem to be studied.Features of Good design It should be flexible. and . The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff. if any. The objective of the problem to be studied.
but may affect the dependent variable are termed as extraneous variables . such the concepts like weight. income are all examples of variables 2. height. Extraneous variable Independent variables that are not related to the purpose of the study.Important concepts relating to Research design 1. Dependent and independent variables A concept which can take on different quantitative values is called a variable. As.
3. Confounded relationship When the dependent variable is not free from the influence of extraneous variable(s). Control The technical term 'control' is used when we design the study minimising the effects of extraneous independent variables 4. . the relationship between the dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable(s).
it is termed as research hypothesis 6. Experimental and control groups . Research hypothesis When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is to be tested by scientific methods. Experimental and non-experimental hypothesis-testing research Research in which the independent variable is manipulated is termed 'experimental hypothesis-testing research' and a research in which an independent variable is not manipulated is called 'non-experimental hypothesis-testing research' 7. 5.
8. Experiment The process of examining the truth of a statistical hypothesis. . Experimental unit(s) The pre-determined plots or the blocks. Treatments The different conditions under which experimental and control groups are put are usually referred to as 'treatments' 9. are known as experimental units. relating to some research problem. where different treatments are used. is known as an experiment 10.
Different Research Designs 1. and 3. Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies .Research design in case of exploratory research studies 2.Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies.
The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights.Exploratory Research Design The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypotheses from an operational point of view. The experience survey and The analysis of 'insight-stimulating' examples. the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about: The survey of concerning literature. Generally. .
. Hypotheses stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. The survey of concerning literature happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or developing hypothesis.
. Thus. The object of such a survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. Experience survey means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. This survey may as well provide information about the practical possibilities for doing different types of research. an experience survey may enable the researcher to define the problem more concisely and help in the formulation of the research hypothesis.
It is particularly suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide. Analysis of 'insight-stimulating' examples is also a fruitful method for suggesting hypotheses for research. whatever method or research design outlined above is adopted. This method consists of the intensive study of selected instances of the phenomenon in which one is interested Thus. . the only thing essential is that it must continue to remain flexible so that many different facets of a problem may be considered as and when they arise and come to the notice of the researcher. in an exploratory of formulative research study which merely leads to insights or hypotheses.
what he wants to measure and must find adequate methods for measuring it along with a clear cut definition of 'population' he wants to study . In descriptive as well as in diagnostic studies. whereas diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else. the researcher must be able to define clearly. or of a group.Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Design Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual.
. Reporting the findings.The design in such studies must be rigid and not flexible and must focus attention on the following: Formulating the objective of the study (what the study is about and why is it being made? Designing the methods of data collection (what techniques of gathering data will be adopted? Selecting the sample (how much material will be needed? Collecting the data (where can the required data be found and with what time period should the data be related?) Processing and analysing the data.
Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies (Causal research/experimental)) Professor R.3.A. Beginning of such designs was made by him when he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station (Centre for Agricultural Research in England). . Such studies require procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability. As such the study of experimental designs has its origin in agricultural research. Fisher's name is associated with experimental designs.
Methods of Data Collection .
Sources of data • • Primary sources Secondary sources .
Primary source • • • • • Focus group Survey Field test Interview Observation • They are collected directly from the respondents .
Secondary data • • Data that already exists They may not answer specific question to the researcher .
clarifying and redefining the research problem • • Hold a solution to the problems Provide alternative method that can be used for primary research • Generates information for better creativity .Advantages of secondary data • Helps in identifying.
Disadvantages • • • • Lack of availability Lack of relevance Inaccurate data Insufficient data .
Methods of collecting primarydata • • • • • Observation Interviewing Mail survey Experimentation Projective technique .
Observation • Becomes scientific when it: • • • • Serves a formulated research purpose Is planned deliberately Is recorded systematically Is subject to checks and control on validity .
Characteristics • • • It is both physical and mental activity It is selective It is purposive and not casual .
Non participant observation Direct observation: observation of an event personally when it take place In direct observation Controlled observation Un controlled observation .Types of observation • • • • • • Participant observation: the person who are observed should not be aware of researchers purpose.
When observation is made a rough copy is made and at the end of the day it is recorded. • Mechanical devices .Observation tools and Recording devices • • Schedule Field observation log: in the form of card or diary.
• • • • The behavior of other living creature Physical characteristic Flow of traffic and parking problem Movement of material/ products through plant . interpersonal relationship.Suitability and application • It is used to study: • The behavior of the human beings. life style customs and manner.
• Helps to capture the whole event .Advantages • • • Directness Data is received from the natural setting Suitable method for studying subjects who are unable to articulate meaningfully.
• The accuracy and dependability of answers given by the respondent can be checked by observation • Flexible and adaptable to individual situation. living conditions etc. ..Interview • • • In depth and detail of information that can be secured Percentage of response and quality of information is more. Interviewer can also gather supplemental information like economic level.
Depth interview: lengthy procedure designed to encourage free expression . Focused interview: semi structured where the investigator attempts to focus the experience of to which respondent have been exposed. directive interview: made with a detailed standardized schedule Unstructured or non directive interview: interviewer encourages the respondent to talk freely about a given topic. Clinical interview: to know individuals personal experience.Types of interview • • • • • Structured.
Survey • • • • A survey of the resident of a new extension on why they happened to select that particular area and on their likes and dislikes about it.D . A poll of students at a university on their preference among three candidates who are running for the presidency of students union A survey of manufacturing companies scattered over southern India on wage policy. A survey of financial analysis of merchant bankers to learn their prediction on capital market developments in India in 2000 A.
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