You are on page 1of 546

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

INTRODUCTION TO RIFLE PLATOON OPERATIONS B3J3638

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Introduction to Rifle Platoon Operations


Introduction The Marine Corps warfighting philosophy of maneuver warfare is rooted in the principles of war. The principles of war are useful aids to a commander as he considers how to accommodate his mission regardless of whether it is offensive or defensive in nature. The fundamentals and concepts that relate to the operations of the rifle platoon will be introduced in this class beginning with the offense and then transitioning to the defense. These nine principles apply across the range of military operations including those at the tactical level. They are listed under the age-old acronym, MOOSEMUSS (MCDP 1-0 Marine Corps Operations): Mass: Concentrate the effects of combat power at the decisive place and time to achieve decisive results Objective: Direct every military operation toward a clearly defined, decisive, and attainable objective Offensive: Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative Security: Never permit the enemy to acquire an unexpected advantage Economy of Force: Allocate minimum essential combat power to secondary efforts Maneuver: Place the enemy in a disadvantageous position through the flexible application of combat power Unity of Command: For every objective, ensure unity of effort under one responsible commander Surprise: Strike the enemy at a time or place or in a manner for which he is unprepared Simplicity: Prepare clear, uncomplicated plans and clear, concise orders to ensure thorough understanding Importance This lesson will introduce rifle platoon fundamentals, task-organization, and offensive/defensive concepts that will establish a foundation for tactical thought at the platoon level. This will allow the Marine Officer to make sound tactical decisions at the platoon level and prepare them for follow-on classroom and field instruction at The Basic School.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

In This Lesson

This lesson will provide the student officer with a foundation that will allow for success in both tactical planning and execution of operations at the platoon level. This lesson prepares the student officer for later sand table and field exercises here at The Basic School, with the ultimate goal of service as a provisional Rifle Platoon Commander in the operating forces. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Topic One: Task-Organization of a Rifle Platoon & Rifle Company Topic Two: Purposes of the Offense Topic Three: Types of Offensive Operations Topic Four: Purposes of the Defense Topic Five: Types of Defenses Operations Summary References Notes Supplemental Reading Page 4 7 7 10 10 12 12 13 14

Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives Without the aid of reference, describe types of defensive operations without omission. (MCCS-DEF-2101) Without the aid of reference, describe types of offensive operations without omission. (MCCS-OFF-2103d) Without the aid of reference, describe forms of maneuver without omission. (MCCS-OFF-2103e) Without the aid of reference, describe rifle platoon task organization without omission. (T&R-0302-OFF-1201a)

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Task-Organization of a Rifle Company


A rifle company is led by a company commander, typically a captain, and consists of three rifle platoons, a weapons platoon, and a company headquarters. The company headquarters is led by a company executive officer, typically a first lieutenant, and includes a company first sergeant, company gunnery sergeant, company clerk, police sergeant, and company corpsman.

Company Commander

Company HQ
Executive Officer Co Gunnery Sergeant First Sergeant Police Sgt Company Clerk

First Platoon

Second Platoon

Third Platoon

Weapons Platoon

Rifle Company Billet Descriptions


Company Commander The Rifle Company Commander, Infantry Battalion, carries out the orders of the Infantry Battalion Commander. He is responsible for training and employment of his unit. He is responsible for the discipline, morale, and welfare of his unit, in addition to its equipment and material readiness. A Captain holds the Rifle Company Commander billet.

Executive Officer The Executive Officer, Rifle Company carries out the orders of the Rifle Company Commander and serves as Company Commander is his absence. He ensures that the company is trained in accordance with Marine Corps standards and the company commanders guidance. He is proficient with all personal and crew-served weapons in the company. He acts as platoon commander for all company headquarters personnel. He assists the commander to deploy and tactical employ the unit. A First Lieutenant usually holds the Executive Officer billet. Company First Sergeant The Company First Sergeant assists the commander as senior enlisted Marine in the unit, and acts as principal enlisted assistant to the commander; the first sergeant may be of any MOS background. He keeps apprised of all policies of the commander, and disseminates information to the unit's enlisted personnel regarding such policies. He reports to the commander on the status of matters pertaining to the efficient operation of the command. The First Sergeant

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Rifle Company Billet Descriptions (continued)


counsels subordinate enlisted personnel on pertinent professional and personal matters to improve the general effectiveness and efficiency of the command. He assists the commander in the conduct of office hours, request mast, meritorious mast, and other assignments by the CO. Company Gunnery Sergeant The Company Gunnery Sergeant carries out the orders of the rifle company commander. His is the senior enlisted infantry Marine in a rifle company and advises the company commander on the discipline, appearance, control, conduct, and welfare of the company. He serves as the senior enlisted technical and tactical advisor to the company commander. He coordinates and supervises the embarkation/debarkation for deployment of the company, maintenance, condition, and care of the companies weapons and equipment including accountability, communication equipment, and if applicable, maintenance and upkeep of assigned vehicles. His rank is Gunnery Sergeant.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Task-Organization of a Rifle Platoon


A rifle platoon is led by a platoon commander, typically a 2ndLt, and consists of three rifle squads and a platoon headquarters. Each rifle squad is made up of three fire teams and a squad leader, typically a sergeant. A platoon also has a headquarters element, made up of a platoon sergeant, platoon guide, radio-transmitter operator (RTO) and corpsman.

Platoon Commander

Platoon HQ
Platoon Sergeant RTO Corpsman Guide

1st Squad Leader

2nd Squad Leader

3rd Squad Leader

Rifle Platoon Billet Descriptions


Platoon Commander The Rifle Platoon Commander carries out the orders of the Rifle Company Commander. He is proficient with all T/O weapons within his platoon. He ensures that the platoon is trained in accordance with Marine Corps standards and the company commanders guidance. He is responsible for deployment, tactical employment, discipline, morale, and welfare of his unit. In addition to his specific duties, a Platoon Commander must be: A man or woman of exemplary character Devoted to leading Marines 24/7 Able to decide, communicate and act

A Warfighter Mentally and Physically tough

Platoon Sergeant The Platoon Sergeant, Infantry Platoon, carries out the orders of the Platoon Commander and Company Commander. He is capable of performing all the tasks required of an infantry unit leader and assumes the position of the Platoon Commander in his absence. He advises the Platoon Commander on the discipline, appearance, control, conduct, and welfare of the platoon. He assists the Platoon Commander in training of the platoon in performance of tasks which support assigned training objectives. He coordinates and supervises the embarkation/debarkation, maintenance, condition, and care of the platoons weapons and equipment including accountability, communication equipment, and if applicable, maintenance, and upkeep of the platoon's assigned vehicles. He advises the Platoon Commander and works

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Rifle Platoon Billet Descriptions (continued)


with the Company First Sergeant on all administrative matters pertaining to the Marines in the platoon. His rank is Staff Sergeant. Platoon Guide The Platoon Guide is the senior sergeant in a rifle platoon. He assists the platoon sergeant with administration and logistics of the platoon. In combat, he may be responsible for coordinating CASEVACs and handling EPWs. He is capable of performing all the tasks of a Squad Leader, and can serve as either a Squad Leader or Platoon Sergeant in their absence. Due to personnel limitations in the operating forces, many platoons may not have the ability to employ a guide. Squad Leader The Squad Leader carries out the orders issued to him by the Platoon Commander. In combat, he is responsible for the tactical employment, fire discipline, fire control, and maneuver of his squad. His T/O weapon is the M16 series service rifle. He is also responsible for the discipline, appearance, training, control, conduct, and welfare of his squad at all times, as well as the condition, care, and economical use of its weapons and equipment. Fire Team Leader The Fire Team Leader carries out the orders of the Squad Leader. He is responsible for the fire discipline and control of his fire team and for the condition, care, and economical use of its weapons and equipment. In addition to his primary duties as a leader, and as per unit SOP, he may serve as a Grenadier and is responsible for the effective employment of the grenade launcher, his rifle, and for the condition and care of his fire teams weapons and equipment. Radio Operator (RO) The RTO is responsible for establishing and maintaining communications between higher, adjacent, and supporting units. He is proficient in all communication devices operated by the platoon and company. While the Platoon Commander is responsible for timely and accurate reporting to higher, particularly the delivery of combat reports, the RTO may be employed to pass pertinent reports (such as POSREPs, SPOTREPs, etc.) as per unit SOP. The RTO may be of the 06xx or 03xx MOS, depending on unit SOP. Platoon Corpsman The Platoon Corpsman is responsible for the health, sanitation, first aid training, and casualty care of the platoon. He is a sailor assigned to the unit, and may be either a petty officer or a hospitalman. Depending on unit SOP or operating environment, there may be as many as three corpsman (one per squad) assigned to a platoon.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Purposes of the Offense


Marine Corps units normally undertake offensive operations to: Destroy enemy forces, equipment, and resources Disrupt enemy actions or preparations Deceive and divert the enemy Deprive the enemy of terrain relevant to his objective Fix the enemy in place Seize key terrain Gain information on the enemy

Types of Offensive Operations


The four general types of offensive operations are Movement to Contact Attack Exploitation Pursuit

Movement to Contact Movement to contact seeks to gain or regain contact with the enemy and develop the situation. Movement to contact helps the commander to understand the battlespace. It allows him to make initial contact with the enemy with minimum forces, thereby avoiding an extensive engagement or battle before he is prepared for decisive action. When successfully executed, it allows the commander to strike the enemy at the time and place of his choosing. A movement to contact ends when the commander has to deploy the main bodyto conduct an attack or establish a defense. (MCDP 1-0, Marine Corps Operations, Pg. 7-7) (Here at TBS, this is taught in a separate class B3N4638 Movement to Contact) Attack An attack is an offensive operation characterized by coordinated movement, supported by fire, conducted to defeat, destroy, neutralize or capture the enemy. An attack may be conducted to seize or secure terrain. Focusing combat power against the enemy with a tempo and intensity that the enemy cannot match, the commander attacks to shatter his opponents will, disrupt his cohesion, and to gain the initiative. If an attack is successful, the enemy is no longer capable ofor willing to offermeaningful resistance.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Types of Offensive Operations (Continued)


There are eight types of attack Hasty Attack: An attack in which preparation time is traded for speed to exploit a fleeting opportunity.

Deliberate Attack: A type of offensive action characterized by pre-planned and coordinated employment of firepower and maneuver to close with and destroy the enemy. They usually include the coordination of all available resources and thorough reconnaissance of the enemy. Deliberate attacks are used when the enemy cannot be defeated with a hasty attack or there is no readily apparent advantage that must be rapidly exploited. Spoiling Attack: A tactical maneuver employed to seriously impair a hostile attack while the enemy is in the process of forming or assembling for an attack. It is usually an offensive action conducted in the defense. Counterattack: A limited objective attack conducted by part or all of a defending force to prevent the enemy from attaining the objectives of his attack. It may be conducted to regain lost ground, destroy enemy advance units, and wrest the initiative from the enemy. It may be a precursor to resuming offensive operations and can be conducted when the an enemy tactical error exposes him to effective counteraction. A counterattack is normally conducted with the reserve or least engaged unit. Feint: A limited objective attack made at a place other than that of the main effort with the aim of distracting the enemys attention away from the main effort. It is a supporting attack that involves contact with the enemy. A feint must be sufficiently strong to confuse the enemy as to the location of the main attack. Ideally, a feint causes the enemy to commit forces to the diversion and away from the main effort. Demonstration: An attack or show of force on a front where a decision is not sought. Its aim it to deceive the enemy. A demonstration is a supporting attack that does not make contact with the enemy. The commander executes a demonstration by an actual or simulated massing of combat power, troop movements, or some other activity designed to indicate the preparations for or beginning of an attack at a point other than the main effort. Reconnaissance in Force: A deliberate attack made to obtain information and to locate and test enemy dispositions, strengths, and reactions. It usually develops information more rapidly and in more detail than other reconnaissance methods. Raid: An attack, usually small scale, involving penetration of hostile territory for a specific purpose other than seizing and holding terrain. It ends with the planned withdrawal upon completion of the assigned mission. Raids require detailed planning, preparation, and special training. At The Basic School, the focus of instruction will be on hasty and deliberate attacks. Exploitation Exploitation is an offensive operation that usually follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. The exploitation extends the initial success of the attack by preventing the enemy from disengaging, withdrawing, and reestablishing an effective defense. The exploitation force expands enemy destruction through unrelenting pressure thus weakening his will to resist.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Types of Offensive Operations (Continued)


Pursuit A pursuit is an offensive operation designed to catch or cut off a hostile force attempting to escape, with the aim of destroying it. Pursuit often develops from successful exploitation operations when the enemy defenses begin to disintegrate. A pursuit may also be initiated when the enemy has lost his ability to fight effectively and attempts to withdraw.

Forms of Offensive Maneuver


Frontal Attack: A frontal attack is an offensive maneuver where the main action is directed against the front of the enemy forces. It is used to rapidly overrun or destroy a weak enemy force or fix a significant portion of a larger enemy force in place over a broad front to support a flanking attack or envelopment. It is generally the least preferred form of maneuver because it strikes the enemy where he is the strongest. It is normally used when commanders possess overwhelming combat power and the enemy is at a clear disadvantage. Flanking Attack: A flanking attack is a form of offensive maneuver directed at the flank of an enemy force. A flank is the right or left side of a military formation and is not oriented toward the enemy. It is usually not as strong in terms of forces or fires as is the front of a military formation. A flank may be created by the attacker through the use of fires or by a successful penetration. It is similar to an envelopment but generally conducted on a shallower axis. Such an attack is designed to defeat the enemy force while minimizing the effect of the enemys frontally oriented combat power. These attacks are normally conducted with the main effort directed at the flank of the enemy. Usually a supporting effort fixes the enemy in place with fires while the main effort maneuvers to attack the enemys flank. Envelopment: An envelopment is a form of offensive maneuver by which the attacker bypasses the enemys principal defensive positions to secure objectives to the enemys rear. It compels the defender to fight on the ground of the attackers choosing. It requires surprise and superior mobility relative to the enemy. An envelopment is conducted at sufficient depth so that the enemy does not have time to reorient his defenses before the commander concentrates his force for the attack on the objective. Turning Movement: A turning movement is a form of offensive maneuver where the attacker passes around or over the enemys principal defensive positions to secure objectives deep in the enemys rear. Normally, the main effort executes the turning movement as the supporting effort fixes the enemy in position. A turning movement differs from an envelopment in that the turning force usually operates at such distances from the fixing force that mutual support is unlikely. The turning force must be able to operate independently. The goal of a turning movement is to force the enemy to abandon his position or reposition major forces to meet the threat. Once turned the enemy loses his advantage of fighting from prepared positions on ground of his choosing. Infiltration: Infiltration is a form of maneuver where forces move covertly through or into an enemy area to attack positions in the enemys rear. This movement is made, either by small groups or by individuals, at extended or irregular intervals. Forces move over, through or around enemy positions without detection to assume a position of advantage over the enemy. Infiltration is normally conducted with other forms of maneuver. Penetration: A penetration is a form of offensive maneuver where an attacking force seeks to rupture the enemys defense on a narrow front to disrupt the defensive system. Penetrations are used when enemy flanks are not assailable or time, terrain or the enemys disposition does

10

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Purpose of the Defense


not permit the employment of another form of maneuver. Successful penetrations create assailable flanks and provide access to the enemys rear.

Purpose of the Defense


In general, the purpose of defensive operations is to defeat an enemy attack. Specifically, the defense achieves one or more of the following purposes: To force the enemy to reach his culminating point without achieving his objectives To rapidly gain and maintain the initiative for friendly forces To create opportunities to shift to the offense

Types of Defensive Operations


The specific design and sequencing of defensive operations is an operational art largely conditioned by a thorough METT-TC analysis. Doctrine allows great freedom in formulating and conducting the defense. A key characteristic of a sound defense is the ability of the commander to aggressively seek opportunities to take offensive action and wrestle the initiative from the enemy. The two types of defensive operations are Position defense Mobile defense

Mobile Defense: A mobile defense is the defense of an area or position in which maneuver is used together with fire and terrain to seize the initiative from the enemy. The mobile defense destroys the attacking enemy through offensive action. The commander allocates the bulk of his combat power to mobile forces that strike the enemy where he is most vulnerable and when he least expects attack. Minimum force is placed forward to canalize, delay, disrupt, and deceive the enemy as to the actual location of our defenses. Retaining his mobile forces until the critical time and place are identified, the commander then focuses combat power in a single or series of violent and rapid counterattacks throughout the depth of the battlespace. This type of defensive operation is normally conducted by a division sized force or larger.

MOBILE DEFENSE

11

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Types of Defensive Operations (Continued)


Position Defense: The position defense is a type of defense in which the bulk of the defending force is disposed in selected tactical positions where the decisive battle is to be fought. It denies the enemy critical terrain or facilities for a specified time. A position defense focuses on the retention of terrain by absorbing the enemy into a series of interlocked positions from which he can be destroyed, largely by fires, together with friendly maneuver. Principal reliance is placed on the ability of the forces in the defended positions to maintain their positions and to control the terrain between them.

POSITION DEFENSE At The Basic School, the instruction will be focused on the position defense.

Forms of Defensive Maneuver


Battle Position: A battle position is a defense position oriented on the most likely enemy avenue of approach from which a unit may defend or attack. It can be used to deny or delay the enemy the use of certain terrain or an avenue of approach. The size of a battle position can vary with the size of the unit assigned. Once occupied, these positions should be continuously improved. Strongpoint: A fortified defensive position designed to deny the enemy certain terrain as well as the use of an avenue of approach. It differs from a battle position in that it is designed to be occupied for an extended period of time. It is established on critical terrain and must be held for the defense to succeed. A strongpoint is organized for all-around defense and should have sufficient supplies and ammunition to continue to fight even if surrounded or cut off from resupply. Sector: A sector is a company, or larger unit, control measure that provides the most freedom of action to a platoon, or other subordinate unit. It allows for decentralized execution which is synchronized with the higher units intent. This form of defensive maneuver is often utilized in restrictive terrain, where the lack of mutual support between units can be countered by the flexibility allowed by defending in sector. While a platoon may be assigned a sector as part of the companys defensive scheme of maneuver, the platoon commander may choose to utilize another form of maneuver within the assigned sector. For example, a platoon could defend from a battle position within their assigned sector. Reverse-Slope: A reverse slope is any slope which descends away from the enemy. A reverse slope defense is organized so that the main defensive positions are masked from enemy

12

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Forms of Defensive Maneuver (continued)


observation and direct fire by a topographical crest. A reverse slope aids the defender in bringing massed surprised fires to bear against an attacking enemy. While the crest is not occupied in strength, control of the crest by fire and employment of obstacles is key to success. Perimeter: A perimeter defense is oriented in all directions. A unit can use this form of maneuver to accomplish a specific mission, such as defend friendly infrastructure, or to provide immediate self-protection, such as during resupply operations when all-around security is required. Weapons employment considerations are similar to those used when conducting a strongpoint. The commander establishes a perimeter defense when the unit must hold critical terrain, or when it must defend itself in areas where the defense is not tied in with adjacent units. Once again, as stated above, a platoon may utilize another form of defensive maneuver as part of the larger companys perimeter defense. Linear: This technique allows interlocking and overlapping observation and fields of fire across the units front. The bulk of the units combat power is well forward. Sufficient resources must be available to provide adequate combat power across the frontage to detect and stop an attack. The unit relies on fighting from well-prepared mutually supporting positions. It uses a high volume of direct and indirect fires to stop the attacker. The main concern when fighting a linear defense is the lack of flexibility and the difficulty of both seizing the initiative and seeking out enemy weaknesses. When the enemy has a mobility advantage, a linear defense might be extremely risky. Obstacles, indirect fires, and contingency plans are key to this maneuver. The unit depends upon surprise, well-prepared positions, and deadly accurate fires to defeat the enemy. Contingency plans for the least engaged unit must be thoroughly rehearsed. Non-Linear: The nonlinear defense is the most decentralized and dynamic position defense conducted infantry units. It is frequently used when operating against an enemy force that has equal or greater firepower and mobility capabilities. This type of defense is almost exclusively enemy-oriented and is not well suited for retaining terrain. To be successful, this defense depends on surprise, offensive action, and the initiative of small-unit leaders. It is a very fluid defense with little static positioning involved. An infantry company or larger force will normally conduct a non-linear defense.

Summary
Every Marine Officer should be able to clearly define the task organization of a rifle company and its platoons. Through the examination of the purposes of offensive and defensive operations, and different types of each, the basic officer should gain an understanding of doctrinal concepts. However, this alone cannot and will not ensure mission accomplishment. An understanding of the tactical concepts needed for success will be provided in follow on classes.

13

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

References
Reference Number or Author MCDP 1 MCDP 1-0 MCDP 1-3 MCRP 5-12A MCWP 3-1 MCWP 3-11.1 NAVMC DIR 3500.87 Reference Title Warfighting Marine Corps Operations Tactics Operational Terms and Graphics Ground Combat Operations Marine Rifle Company/Platoon Infantry Training and Readiness Manual

Notes

14

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

The following article illustrates the absolute connection between the offense and the defense and how, during operations at any level, leaders must identify the importance of their connectivity and when to transition from one to the other. ATTACK OR DEFEND? By LtCol Michael D. Wyly, published in the Marine Corps Gazette, June 1983. Whether Marines should charge inland upon hitting the beach or dig into a solid defensive position has been argued in recent issues of the Marine Corps GAZETTE (*1). I hope that the debate has not degenerated into an argument over whether offensive or defensive is better. Warfare has far more dimensions than two, and both the offensive and defensive modes are as indispensable now as they always have been. Too often, we fail to see the crucial connection between the two and the great advantage gained by the force that can make the transition from one to the other with finesse. It is that connectivity, how it can be used, and how important it is, that is the more appropriate subject for serious students of war. Essential to any discussion about the defensive and offensive and their relationship to one another is the concept of initiative. In fact, whether the landing force retains or cedes the initiative is far more important than whether it assumes the offensive or defensive. The defensive posture should not connote ceding the initiative to the other side. You choose where to defend. In that way, you choose where to fight. The initiative, therefore, is yours. You give it up if your defense ties you to the terrain or an installation in a way that denies you the option of switching back to the offensive. Retention of initiative, then, is always essential. If we have the initiative, the enemy is reacting to us. Unless he knows precisely what we are about, he is at a disadvantage. For if he must react to us and he misunderstands what we are doing, he will react incorrectly. There can be little argument, then, that it is desirable to have the initiative, whether we gain it by attacking or defending in some advantageous position. The great advantage of the amphibious force is that so long as it is at sea, it has all the initiative. The enemy has to try to guess when and where it will land. The unfortunate thing about an amphibious force that lands and settles into a static beachhead is not that it has gone on the defense. The defense can indeed be the stronger form of war. But the force that seizes the beach and stops, at once cedes all the initiative to the enemy. Where before our confused enemy was anxiously trying to guess when and where we would land, now we, ensconced on our beachhead, are anxiously trying to guess when and where the enemy will attack our perimeter. If, however, our defense not only includes but focuses on a violent counterattack, and if we can shift totally to an offensive mode at the time of our choosing, then we have not given up the initiative after all. We may, in fact, trap the enemy into thinking we have given up the initiative-a belief that could lead all the more swiftly to his destruction. But no defense can be permanent. It is no more feasible to remain in a defensive position continuously than it is to remain continuously on the offensive. The important thing is that we be able to make the transition from one to the other. Both defense and offense alike are temporary statuses to be adopted when appropriate. The essence of the art of war emerges as the ability to know when to make the transition from one posture to the other. It is certain that the necessity of switching over will occur. Therefore, the ability to make the transition effectively when the time arises becomes the most important talent that a fighting unit must possess. It was no mere whim that caused Napoleon's 19th maxim to read: "The passage from the defensive to the offensive is one of the most delicate operations of war." Some common misunderstandings pertaining to both the defense and the attack need clearing up before returning to the subject of the transition between the two. "To trap and destroy hostile forces" is one out of a list of seven possible purposes of the defenses given in FMFM 6-3, and it receives insufficient attention. It is not mentioned until fifth, after four passive uses for the defense, none of which deserves the attention that is due the one quoted above. The primary purpose for the defense ought to be the defeat of the enemy. Seldom in our exercises in the FMF or in our schools are defenses designed with this purpose in mind. Even the counterattack, according to Marine Corps

15

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

doctrine, is said to be for the purpose of regaining lost portions of the "battle area," to destroy the enemy that happens to be "within the penetration" (see FMFM 6-3, page 290, but not, primarily, to be a means of defeating his total force. FMFM 6-3 misses the point. The most useful purpose for setting up a defense, especially for an amphibious force, is to defeat the enemy. The defensive can be one of the best ways of getting at him. In order to use it in this way, we must recognize that the defensive posture, once assumed, is temporary only. No matter how we fortify ourselves, if we stay in the same position, our adversary is going to work towards dislodging us until he finds a way to do so. But if we can choose some terrain that is for some reason dear to the enemy, and entice him into coming to us, destroy him in a counterattack, and then go on the offensive, moving somewhere else, we can turn the defensive tactic to great advantage. And, we can hold the initiative. A well-designed defense endeavors to force the enemy to commit himself irrevocably. Its design should be such that when committed the enemy's forces are in a disadvantageous situation relative to ours. Committed thusly, the enemy loses options. When he attacks irrevocably, he literally casts away the initiative as his options disappear. If we, the defenders, have a counterattack plan and the ability to switch totally to the offensive at the time of our choosing, the initiative is ours. Attacking to new locations that are void or nearly void of the enemy and moving on again was the way the Prussians fought throughout their victorious war of 1870 in which they totally defeated the French. Though the technique was by no means new in the 19th century, it became standard in the Prussian Army. Its reemergence in 1870 was the result of the Prussians' realization of how best to use the breechloading rifle. The Prussians were rightfully enamored with the ability the weapon gave the infantryman to reload and fight while lying down. To use it in this way, of course, meant that the rifleman had to be on the defensive. Indeed, in this way, a few men could hold off many. Recognizing that they could not defeat anybody if they remained on the defensive all of the time, or most of the time, the Prussians sought a solution. The synthesis was a combination of the offensive and defensive. Viewed at the operational level, a study of the Franco-Prussian War shows the Prussian armies on a fast-pace, aggressive offensive that gave the French no rest. But, if we select out the tactical battles, the actual clashes between forces, the Prussians, on the contrary, seem always to be defending while the French are attacking them. It is no coincidence that it appears this way for this was Moltke's strategy. The Prussian Army had gained an appreciation of this all important interconnection that is the subject of this article: the transition from defense to offense and back again, and the art of how and when to effect it. Though the technique flowered in Prussia's defeat of France, the Prussians did not invent it. Ironically, its most decisive application in modern history was provided by the French. Napoleon's decisive victory over the Austrian and Russian armies at Austerlitz was a classic application of the defensive-offensive. Using the utmost in wile, he most purposefully enticed his allied adversaries to attack what he had made appear to be the weak flank of a defensive position. They fell for it and no sooner did they commit themselves to the offensive than Napoleon went on his own offensive. He so totally confused the situation for his enemies that they abandoned the whole war effort. What was left of their defeated armies fled in disorder, leaving thousands of dead and wounded behind. Enough said about antiquity. Let us turn to the 20th century and our own country. While studying at the National Achives one day, I came across a thick, dusty document by Gen Franz Halder, formerly of the German Army. He had completed it in 1953. Since then, it was little read. He produced the work for the American Army. Halder had, along with his countrymen, suffered the consequences of bad strategy, corrupt politics, and defeat. As a professional who had studied warfare all his life yet seen the finest soldiers he had served with go down in defeat, he endeavored to extract the things that they had done right, to leave a legacy to the Americans. It was Halder, more than anyone, who convinced the defeated German generals to be cooperative with their American captors. In Halder's view, it would be left to Americans to carry the baton as the Soviet Union's main military opponent. The subject of his treatise was the U.S. Army's Field Service Regulations, FM 100-5. He did not tear it apart or lambaste its authors. Many parts of it, he thought were quite good. But he was highly critical of the way it dealt with the defense. In reserving the defense as a less attractive form of war, to be used only to gain time, hold ground, etc., the Americans, in Halder's opinion, had missed the whole point of what that mode of warfare is all about. The defense, like any other form of war, according to the Germans, has to do with destroying the enemy. It is another means in the repertoire of how to get at him. A cover letter on the old document, signed 30 years ago by an American Army colonel, stated that Gen Halder's comments contained much

16

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

of relevance, of which all officers should take heed. Yet, Halder could write the same critique of the Marine Corps' view of defensive warfare today, for it is little changed. Some of the terminology has changed. What was the main line of resistance (MLR) when I went through The Basic School is now the forward edge of the battle area (FEBA). This is disturbing, however, in that battles are not bound by areas. They have no forward edges. And, if we impose such artificial limitations on our tactics and our thinking, we do to ourselves exactly what Halder criticized us for. Our defense ceases to be a means of defeating the enemy. It becomes a structured "holing up" in which we constrain our forces and impose on ourselves the very difficulty of changing back to the offensive which Napoleon warned us of in his 19th maxim, cited above. The defensive posture is a most versatile one. It need not involve a perimeter, a FEBA, or continuous interlocking bands of steel. It is seldom justified to defend forward slopes because of the inviting target presented to enemy artillery as well as direct fire weapons. The defense can be the integration of several strongpoints, a screen, and a counterattack force. Variations are unlimited. Any force employed to counter an anticipated enemy attack is in the defense, whether its positions are static or mobile. This opens the door to a wealth of ideas, depending on the type of terrain available. Given this viewpoint, our practice of the defense is flawed. It seldom incorporates a design to defeat the enemy. It ignores too many of the options that could be utilized to advantage. Conventional wisdom regarding the offense is equally flawed and some reflection on it is called for here. Any force that moves to engage an enemy force or to seize terrain is attacking. Here we begin to see a merging of the offensive and defensive modes. The distinction becomes less and less clear. Well it should, for all warfare is ultimately directed at the enemy's defeat. As in the case of defending forces, attacking forces may be employed in myriad ways. Their repertoire extends well beyond facsimiles of Pickett's charge. Too often, though, imaginations only conjure up visions of headlong assaults. Thus, the outcry that we can only attack if we greatly outnumber the enemy. Thus, the ridiculous formulas dictating amazing force ratios said to be required for the attacker over the defender. Would-be tacticians continually are producing the most astonishing figures. The attacker, they say, will, in the next war, have to outnumber the defender 3 to 1, 4 to 1, 12 to 1. All this is meaningless. Most often, the especially high ratios, attacker to defender, result from confusion over what is meant by the attack, as differentiated from the assault (*2). The assault is one of the many potential actions that fall under the broad heading of attack. The assault is where you physically move upon the enemy, himself. It is the ultimate commitment. The issue was somewhat clearer when I went to The Basic School, before they changed the name of the "assault position" to the "final coordination line." The difference between attack and assault seemed clear, put in terms of the control measures that governed them. The attack position was (and still is) the last covered and concealed position before crossing the line of departure. The assault position (now the final coordination line) was the last position before initiating the assault itself, the position where supporting fires ceased or were shifted and final coordination between assaulting elements was completed. Even the assault, however, is frequently misunderstood in the Marine Corps. The assault, to be an assault, need not mean lining up and walking forward in the face of the enemy. The assault is where you physically move upon the enemy, himself, but in no way does this require the assaulting force to line up and walk. Running forward might be better, but still, there is no requirement to line up and move forward in unison. To do so makes you an easier target. The assault can be an advance by fire and movement. It can be some walking, some running, some crawling; advancing by bounds; infiltrating the enemy's lines at night and turning on him by surprise, as the Royal Marines did in the Falklands. If we only think of the long, slow-moving line of walking infantry whenever we hear "assault"-or, much worse, whenever we hear "attack"-no wonder such amazing ratios for attacker to defender are formulated. Gen Hermann Balck also recounted that on one occasion, fighting the Russians in Hungary, his division was so badly outnumbered that he had no alternative but to attack. In other words, the attacker need not outnumber the defender. For Balck to have defended in the position that he found himself in would have spelled inevitable doom, for the Soviets had sufficient forces to surround him many times over. When he speaks of attacking, however, he is not describing a broad frontal assault on the enemy's strongpoints. To us, who were in Vietnam, the decision to attack, though outnumbered, should not seem so strange. The Viet Cong and North Vietnamese found themselves outnumbered, locally, most of the time, yet they did not abandon the attack or the assault. They adapted their methods of assault to the situation, assaulting

17

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

in small groups on narrow fronts, infiltrating at night, doing everything possible to make themselves less of a target. The Israelis typically fight an offensive battle, yet they are normally outnumbered. They cannot withdraw into the hinterlands, as the Russian Army has traditionally done, for a retreat away from the Egyptians is an attack on the Syrians. The smallness of their country forces them to the offensive. Outnumbered, they attack, and they succeed. I hope that the foregoing discussion, first of the defense, then of the offense, demonstrates that the two forms are very general categories, each offering a broad range of options. Understanding them in this way, can better prepare the combat leader to combine the two and to decide when to shift from one to the other. Some may say that this is a lot of esoteric philosophy that does not apply to training Marines, to students at The Basic School, or to NCOs. True esoteric philosophy, with little usefulness on a real battlefield, however, comes in the form of memorizing principles of war and the other lists that appear throughout the FMFMs. The ability to decide when to attack and when to defend is essential knowledge for every combat leader. Small units are often dispersed, as in Vietnam, and small unit commanders must make independent decisions. The question of whether to set in and fight on a given piece of terrain, or go out after the enemy, or get in behind him, is one that leaders of patrols and smaller units must be prepared to answer. In Vietnam, some were able, some were not. All needed to be. Few had been consciously prepared in their stateside training, and this included officers, to make the decision whether to attack or defend. Training courses and schools gave instruction and exercises designed to prepare the student to set up a defense if told to defend. They had learned to plan and execute an assault, if told to attack. This is necessary training. But no courses and no stateside training seemed to require NCOs or officers to decide, based on a given situation, whether to attack or defend, or when to shift from one mode to the other. Though the former type of training is necessary, so is the latter, and, the latter question requiring more thought, demands the most education. Therefore, learning to decide whether to attack or defend is the aspect which should be dealt with more thoroughly. We presently put way too much emphasis in our training on how to attack and how to defend. In so doing, we limit the methods which we prepare our Marines to adopt. The defense is almost invariably a forward slope area defense, fixed to a FEBA, focusing on interlocking bands of fire. With the counterattack directed towards restoring the FEBA, we have a defense oriented towards keeping the enemy out of an area rather than trapping him where we can take him apart. Similarly, the attack is almost invariably an assault, whether frontal or flanking, directed against enemy strongpoints. The student of tactics is not likely to begin to consider the whole spectrum of methods available for attack and defense unless he has been required to consider which form is more appropriate in a given situation. FMF commanders, as well as instructors, should exercise the minds of their subordinates by giving them missions that dictate neither attack nor defense. They should require subordinates to decide which posture to assume initially and when to change from one to the other. Once freed from the structured atmosphere of laying out a FEBA between this point and that, or getting troops on line at a given final coordination line, subordinates will begin to consider variations. They will have ideas that combine the offensive with the defensive and need not be categorized into a form described in a paragraph of the FMFM. Some suggestions for missions that give this kind of latitude: For the platoon-Prevent guerrillas from entering Hoa An Village and harassing the populace. For the company-Draw the enemy's attention to the north to enable rapid passage of our main forces to the south of him. For the battalion-Protect the flank of our main force. For the regiment-Force the enemy to abandon his position on the high ground in order to draw him into the swamps where our infantry can harass and destroy him. For the division-Prevent the enemy from using his main supply route in order to cut off his supplies and disrupt his communications. These are only a few examples. The solutions to each problem could entail some form of maneuver nowhere addressed in our manuals. So, what manuals can you study? The Marine Corps Association has recently reprinted Infantry in Battle, replete with reallife combat experiences to draw on. It is excellent. John Langdon-Davies' Invasion in the Snow tells how the Finns again and again applied the defensive-offensive against the Russians, 1939-1940. Read how the Boers used the defensive-offensive to defeat the British at Colenso in 1899. Study Austerlitz. Commanders with

18

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

Vietnam experience can reconstruct small unit experiences from their own recollection. Food for great ideas of this nature abounds, and officers should seek it out. Certainly, fundamentals of soldiering must be taught. How to live in the field, stalk the enemy, care for equipment, throw a grenade, shoot, employ mortars, operate a radio, read a map-these are the things that the British could do so much better than the Argentines in the Falklands. They are important. Training in the FMF, at the Amphibious Warfare School, and at the Command and Staff Collge, however, should be conducted at a higher level. We should be able to presuppose that such basics are already mastered. I realize that we find that our young Marines and even some of our officers have not mastered these essentials. But they should master them at The Basic School, and during initial training at recruit depots and infantry training schools. Tactics, practiced in the FMF and at AWS, should be at least on the level of sophistication discussed in this article. If Marines are found wanting in the basics, the solution to this problem should not be lowering the level of education later in an individual's career. It should mean intensifying courses in fundamental soldiering at the earliest stage of that career (*3). Educating men for war takes work and years of time. It takes study. Of all the things that the profession of arms is, it is not plain commonsense. It never has been. There seems to be in the minds of some Marines a Utopian idea that somehow ours is the one profession in which a lot of academic study is not required, that commonsense is enough. It would be nice, indeed, if that were all there were to it, if all we had to do was go to the field and practice applying commonsense. I am in favor of practice, lots of it. But practice in the field in peacetime, with no real enemy, can lead us to believe that we can do all kinds of things that would be impractical, even ridiculous, on a real battlefield. Without some study of the realities of war, we would be like doctors, espousing a commonsense approach, ignoring medical theory, practicing on artificial dummies, cutting, tying off artificial vessels, succeeding in every way-until they worked on you and encountered the surprise of gangrene. "Lieutenant, it's all commonsense" is not very good advice. Did Lee use commonsense when he split his forces at Chancellorsville? Did Rommel use commonsense when he sent his tanks across the Somme over the narrow track of a railroad trestle under fire? Did MacArthur use commonsense when he chose Inchon as the point of landing? Was it commonsense that caused John Buford to recognize Cemetery Ridge as terrain worth fighting for and to commit his two small cavalry brigades to the risk of holding the Confederates until the Union Army could be guided into positions there? None of this was commonsense. It was uncommon genius. Commonsense produced the repeated headlong frontal assaults of World War I. Years went by without anyone questioning seriously whether hurling more men and more firepower directly against the enemy was the best solution. Obviously, what the French, British and Germans were doing to each other in the trenches made sense to most people, universally. The decisions were made by officers who would have told you that they acted on instinct, on good old-fashioned horse sense, and certainly in accordance with "conventional wisdom" of the time. More recently, the Argentines applied commonsense in the Falklands by defending Port Stanley, applying exclusively the "stronger form of war." Commonsense for the British might have dictated a direct assault on the Argentine positions; however, an indirect approach produced the effect desired. Did Brigadier Julian Thompson simply apply commonsense? It seems apparent that, instead, he applied an intimate knowledge of warfare, and some genius. It is intimate understanding and constant practice in decision making that enables a commander to decide whether he should be moving towards a new position or digging in. He never gets to rest his mind once he has assumed one posture or the other, because the situation is always subject to change, so long as the enemy is still intact. All is fair. Nothing is sacred. There are no rules. Though it seems one day that to dig in on the reverse slope is clearly the answer, the situation that night may dictate an attack the next morning, perhaps even as assault. There is no issue worth arguing, then, over whether the landing force should attack or defend. Leaders on the ground must be prepared to make that decision based on the situation. Units must be able to respond rapidly to changes in posture. The important issues are how fluid and responsive the landing force is and how mobile it is relative to the enemy and the conditions imposed by the terrain.

19

Basic Officer Course

B3J3638

Introduction to the Rifle Platoon

The idea of landing and setting up static defense immediately, right on the littoral, is not usually very attractive; historically it has a poor track record. While we should not categorically exclude that or any other option, defending with one's back to the wall, or to the sea, is not usually sparked by genius. The reason for this was discussed at the beginning of this article. It is initiative that is important. Backed up against the sea, having just violated somebody's sovereignty, with everything your opponent can muster coming at you, you do not leave yourself many options for initiative. The defense offers many ingenious opportunities to defeat the enemy. But an offensive option should always be kept open. Land and back him up to the wall. Get in deep where he never planned on finding you and push him into the sea. A little uncommon sense can go a long way. *1 See MCG articles/commentaries by Maj J.D. Burke, Sep82, pp.67-71; Maj E.J. Robeson IV, LtCol L.G. Karch, Capt R.S. Moore, LtCol M.D. Wyly, Maj J.D. Burke, Dec82, pp.24-26; Maj K.W. Estes, Jan83, p.11; LtCol M.D. Wyly, Jan83, pp.34-38; Maj E.J. Robeson IV, Apr83, p.24. *2 Clausewitz wrote about this tendency to confuse the two terms 150 years ago (see Chapter 5, Book Six,) however, it warrants reiteration from time to time. *3 See Maj S.W. McKenzie's comment on the Royal Marines' 30-week basic training course for enlisted Marines in MCG, Aug82, p.70. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without permission. Marine Corps Association

Notes

20

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

RIFLE PLATOON IN THE ATTACK B3J3718 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Rifle Platoon in the Attack


Introduction Up to this point at The Basic School, all of your tactical operations have been at the squad level. While the principles of warfare are the same at all levels, a platoons larger size gives it a different set of capabilities and limitations than a squad. Some of the tactics, techniques, and procedures at the platoon level will be different to reflect this unique set of capabilities and limitations.

Importance

The offense is one of the principles of war and one of the most important concepts in maneuver warfare. Offense allows initiative, which lets us dictate the terms of battle and bend the enemy to our will. The better our offensives are planned and executed, the longer they can be sustained and the more likely they are to result in decisive success.

In this Lesson

This lesson will give the student officer an understanding of the tactics, techniques, and procedures necessary to conduct a successful attack at the provisional rifle platoon level. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Types of Attack Preparation Phase/Begin Planning Arrange/Make Reconnaissance Complete the Plan Issue the Order Supervise Conduct Phase/Movement to the Objective Actions on the Objective Consolidation Phase References Notes Page 5 5 9 14 18 18 18 20 23 23 24

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Rifle Platoon in the Attack (Continued)


Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objectives 0302-FSPT-1300 Given a scheme of maneuver, fire support available, and commanders intent, develop a fire support plan to support the ground scheme of maneuver in accordance with commanders intent. MCCS-OFF-2102 Given a mission, implement Marine Corps warfighting concepts to accomplish the mission. MCCS-PAT-2101 Given a unit and a warning order, prepare Marines for combat operations to ensure the unit is ready to accomplish its assigned mission. Enabling Learning Objectives MCCS-OFF-2102k Given a mission and commander's intent in a changing situation, while serving as a leader of Marines, integrate maneuver warfare into decision-making to accomplish the mission. MCCS-OFF-2102l Given a mission and commander's intent develop a mental estimate of the situation using METT-TC to accomplish the mission. MCCS-OFF-2102m Given a mission and commander's intent and a mental estimate of the situation integrate the principles of war into tactical planning to accomplish the mission. MCCS-OFF-2103f Without the aid of reference, define a hasty attack without error. MCCS-OFF-2103g Without the aid of reference, define a deliberate attack without error. 0302-OFF-1201b Without the aid of reference, describe the purposes of the offensive leader's reconnaissance without omission. 0302-OFF-1201c Without the aid of reference, describe rifle platoon actions at the attack position without omission. 0311-OFF-2001a Given a unit, a mission, and a mental estimate of the situation, employ movement formations to ensure command and control. 0302-OFF-1201d Without the aid of reference, describe rifle platoon actions at the assault position without omission.
3 Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Rifle Platoon in the Attack (Continued)


Learning Objectives (Continued) 0302-OFF-1201e Given a unit, a mission and a mental estimate of the situation, integrate a support by fire position into the ground scheme of maneuver to accomplish the mission. 0311-OFF-2001c Given a unit, a mission, a scheme of maneuver and a mental estimate of the situation, employ tactical control measures to support the ground scheme of maneuver. 0311-OFF-2001e Given a unit, a mission, a scheme of maneuver and a mental estimate of the situation, employ a base unit to support the ground scheme of maneuver. 0311-OFF-2001l Given a unit, an objective, and a mission, while using the acronym SAFE conduct consolidation to prepare for an enemy counterattack. 0300-PAT-2002h Given an order from higher and a mental estimate of the situation, develop a scheme of maneuver to accomplish the mission. 0300-PAT-2002k Given an order from higher and a mental estimate of the situation, develop a signal plan to accomplish the mission.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Types of Attack
Hasty MCDP 1-0 defines a hasty attack as an attack when the commander decides to trade preparation time for speed to exploit an opportunity. A hasty attack is used when a fleeting opportunity must be rapidly exploited. There is minimal time for planning and coordination, so many of the detailed planning considerations used for deliberate attacks will be abbreviated or eliminated altogether. Hasty attacks rely on intuitive vice analytical decision-making, and orders are usually brief and sometimes even given over the radio. To be successful, hasty attack plans must be simple and flexible, and execution will rely heavily on unit SOPs and battle drills to replace the lack of detail in the order. Realistic training and experience will greatly increase a units proficiency at hasty attacks. Deliberate MCDP 1-0 defines a deliberate attack as a type of offensive action characterized by pre-planned and coordinated employment of firepower and maneuver to close with and destroy the enemy. Deliberate attacks are used when there is no need to rapidly exploit an enemy weakness, or when a hasty attack will not defeat the enemy. Deliberate attacks rely on analytical decision-making for detailed planning that coordinates all available resources to allow the unit to close with and destroy the enemy. Even in detailed planning there will be no 100% solutionthere is still a need to maintain the tempo of the offense and execute the plan before changes on the battlefield render it obsolete. Commanders must continue to train and gain experience that will make their planning more timely, efficient, and effective. This lesson will deal with the planning and execution of a platoon deliberate attack.

Preparation Phase

BEGIN PLANNING
Planning begins when the commander receives the warning order or operations order from higher. The commander analyzes his mission and highers intent to determine what he is doing and, more importantly, why. The commander looks for both specified tasks (deliberately stated in the order) and implied tasks (not stated in the order, but necessary to accomplish the mission and/or intent). For example: At 1200, 1st Platoon destroys the enemy squad guarding the bridge at 873 341 IOT allow the battalion to continue its attack to the north. In this case
5 Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Preparation Phase (continued)


DESTROY (physically rendering an enemy force combat-ineffective unless it is reconstituted) is a specified task, assigned by the company commander to the platoon commander. An implied task would be that 1st Platoons attack must leave the bridge intactthough not specifically stated by the company commander, the destruction of the bridge would likely significantly disrupt the battalions ability to continue its attack north. Based off the commanders understanding of the mission and intent, he will develop the tentative form of maneuver for his plan. Although there are six different offensive forms of maneuver, most of them can only be effectively used at a company or higher level. At the platoon level, attacks will be frontal or flanking.

Frontal Attack

A frontal attack is used to rapidly destroy a weak enemy force, or to fix an enemy in place to support a flanking attack. The frontal attack is simple and easy to control, but attacks the enemys strongest point. Frontal attacks utilize fire and movement, as demonstrated on R5. In fire and movement, one buddy suppresses the enemy in order to allow the other buddy to move closer to the enemy. Marines use the 300 mil rule to avoid fratricide. A flanking attack uses fire and maneuver in order to gain a position of advantage against an enemy vulnerability. A flanking attack usually uses a support by fire position that diverts attention away from the main effort and uses fires to fix the enemy in place, preventing them from reorienting on the main effort. This can also be accomplished by fire support assets, which is a case where a platoon could conduct a flanking attack without a support by fire position. A support by fire position makes a flanking attack more complex than a frontal attack, and requires more planning and coordination to avoid fratricide. Fire and maneuver is different from fire and movement. In fire and maneuver, one unit (such as a squad support by fire) and/or fire support agencies (such as mortars or artillery) uses FIRES to fix the enemy, preventing him from moving or reorienting his forces. This allows another unit to MANEUVER to a position of advantagei.e. the enemy flank. Once in a position of advantage, the maneuver unit finishes the assault using fire and movement. The commander uses fire support coordination measures, tactical control measures, and the signal plan to avoid fratricide.

Flanking Attack (see Diagram 1)

ACHIEVING A DECISION
After his initial estimate of the situation, a platoon commander must develop a tentative plan, based off of the EMLCOA that is derived from the Tactical Planning Process (METT-TC). This decision will drive the leaders reconnaissance and rehearsals that are conducted prior to crossing the line of departure, and its suitability for the mission is essential to a units success. Sound, tactical decision-making is one of the most important responsibilities of a Marine Rifle Platoon Commander, and the reason that we emphasize this so heavily at The Basic School. The foundation of a Platoon Commanders tactical thought must be based upon:

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Preparation Phase (continued)


The Maneuver Warfare Concepts discussed in MCDP-1, Warfighting The tactical tenets presented in MCDP 1-3, Tactics The principals of war that you were taught in B2F2737 Tactical Fundamentals Mass Objective Offensive Security Economy of Force Maneuver Unity of Command Surprise Simplicity

This initial decision-making will allow a commander to choose a form of maneuver and task organization, which is enough information to issue a warning order. The warning order allows subordinate leaders to begin their own planning while the commander writes the full order. They can build a terrain model, prepare mission-essential gear, or conduct rehearsals that apply to the situation, mission, task organization, and chosen form of maneuver listed in the warning order. Utilizing this time will allow subordinates to focus better on the specific details when the commander briefs the full order.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Diagram 1 shows a platoon flanking attack utilizing a support by fire position

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Arrange/Make Reconnaissance
COC Coordination
COC coordination can provide updates to all aspects of a commanders METT-TC analysis, but is especially useful for completing the picture on Troops and Fire Support Available. COC coordination will likely be conducted at least twice: before the commander writes his order, so he can update his METT-TC and plan more realistically, and after the commander writes his order, when his detailed planning has identified more clearly the support his unit needs to accomplish the mission. The following are a few items to consider when planning COC Coordination: S-2. Ground, signal, and human intelligence sources may be able to provide information on the terrain and enemy. Check debriefs from units that may have patrolled the area before for information on terrain. UAVs can recon the route and the objective and provide real-time information on terrain and enemy. The intelligence officer can better support you if he or she knows what information you need to plan your mission. S-3. If available and requested, aviation assets can recon the route and objective to provide real-time information on terrain and enemy. The battalion may also use aviation assets as part of preparatory fires. Submit list of targets to support leaders recon. Submit list of targets to support the attack. Confirm the locations and missions of adjacent and supporting units, to include CASEVAC assets, reinforcements, and fire support. S-4. Request logistics necessary to accomplish the mission, to include ammunition, chow, water, specialized equipment such as breach kits, transportation, fuel, etc. Try to anticipate what missions might follow the attack and what logistics they might require. Carry extra logistics into the attack or coordinate a resupply to be delivered immediately on consolidation if follow-on missions are known. S-6. Get updated CEOI and challenges/passwords. Check fills and timing on encrypted radios. A platoon will need a minimum of two radios (one for support by fire, one for maneuver) to ensure the best command and control in a flanking attack.

COC Coordination (Continued)

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Arrange/Make Reconnaissance (continued)


Leaders Recon
A leaders recon is a small, leadership-heavy reconnaissance patrol that will operate in close proximity to the enemy. As such, it must be planned in detail. Some considerations are: Task Organization. Who goes? Smaller is better on a leaders recon, since a small patrol has less chance of being compromised. Take only necessary platoon leadershipin a flanking attack, for example, the support by fire leader and the main effort leader. The remaining squad leader and the platoon sergeant remain in the assembly area supervising pre-combat actions. Because the patrol is small and leadership-heavy, Marines will likely have to perform roles to which they are not accustomedfor example, a squad leader may have to navigate or be flank security. Each Marine on the patrol needs to understand their responsibilities for the patrol. SOM. Routes should maximize cover and concealment, and avoid likely enemy LP/OP locations and patrol routes. Decide the priority of recon, in order to collect the information most vital to mission accomplishment first, and build the route around this. If the enemy compromises the leaders recon, it may reveal key details about the attack plan and force the commander to change the attack scheme of maneuver. FSP/IA Drills. Fire support plan and IA drills should be designed to allow the patrol to avoid and break contact.

Priorities of recon should work from the enemy back to friendlypicking an assault position first is a waste of time if the patrol discovers later that the enemy is in a different location or has a different orientation. The following is a sample priority of recon: Confirm location and orientation of enemy defense, crew-served weapons, obstacles, and security. Identify the enemy critical vulnerability. Identify an assault position that will best allow the ME to exploit the enemy critical vulnerability. Identify a support by fire position that will best support the ME Identify routes and tactical control measures that will best support the scheme of maneuver.

When choosing a support by fire position, the commander should consider the following: The support by fire position should ideally be located on the enemy frontage (see Diagram 1 above). This allows the support by fire element to effectively fix and suppress the entire enemy defense, whereas if it is located on a flank it may only be able to effectively fix and suppress that flank. Additionally, if the support by fire element is located on the frontage of the enemy defense, it allows the maneuver element to attack from a flank. The support by fire positions direction of fire should ideally be
10 Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Leaders Recon (Continued)

located 90 degrees offset from the maneuver elements direction of assault (see Diagram 1 above). This allows the maneuver element to advance as close to the enemy as possible under friendly suppression without the risk of fratricide. The closer to 0 or 180 degrees offset the position is, the sooner there is a risk of fratricide, meaning the maneuver element will have to cover a greater distance using only its own fire and movement. Should have cover and concealment. This protects the support by fire element and promotes an occupation by stealth vice force: o Stealth. An occupation by stealth is when the enemy does not observe the occupation. The enemy is not aware of the support by fire position until they open fire. This method promotes surprise and protects the support by fire element. o Force. The enemy observes the occupation, or currently occupies the planned support by fire position. In this case, the maneuver element or fire support assets would isolate the position (by suppressing any enemy that could reinforce or fire on the position) in order to allow the support by fire element to seize the position and commence fire on the objective. An occupation by force requires better timing than an occupation by stealth because, unlike an occupation by stealth, the support by fire position must establish fire superiority on the objective immediately upon occupation. Since the enemy is aware of the support by fire occupation, the commander should not occupy the support by fire position until he is ready for their fires. This promotes surprise, protects the SBF element, and conserves ammunition.

Some Tactical Control Measures that will be useful in controlling a platoon attack are listed below. See the sample scheme of maneuver in the COMPLETE THE PLAN section of this lesson for examples of their use. Boundary: A line which delineates surface areas for the purpose of facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas. (Army) - 1. A control measure used to define the right, left, rear, and forward limits of an area of operation. 2. A control measure normally drawn along identifiable terrain features and used to delineate areas of tactical responsibility between adjacent units and between higher headquarters to the rear of subordinate units. Within their boundaries, units may maneuver within the overall plan without close coordination with neighboring units unless otherwise restricted. Direct fire may be placed across boundaries on clearly identified enemy targets without prior coordination, provided friendly forces are not endangered. Indirect fire also may be used after prior coordination. Assembly Area: An area in which a command is assembled preparatory to further action. Attack Position: The last position occupied by the assault echelon before crossing the line of departure. Line of Departure: In land warfare, a line designated to coordinate the departure of attack elements. Checkpoint: Predetermined point on the ground used to control
11 Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Leaders Recon (Continued)

movement and tactical maneuver. Phase Line: A line used for control and coordination of military operations, usually a terrain feature extending across the zone of action. Units normally report crossing PLs, but do not halt unless specifically directed. Release Point: A well-defined point on a route at which the elements composing a column return under the authority of their respective commanders, each one of these elements continuing its movement toward its own appropriate destination. Target Reference Point: An easily recognizable point on the ground (either natural or man-made) used to initiate, distribute, and control fires. TRPs are designated by maneuver leaders from platoon through battalion to define battalion, company, platoon, section, squad, or individual sectors of fire and observation usually within an engagement area. TRPs can also designate the center of an area where the commander plans to distribute or converge the fires of all his weapons rapidly. TRPs are designated using the standard target symbol and numbers issued by maneuver commanders. Once approved by the battalion fire support officer, TRPs can be designated as indirect fire targets using the standard target symbol with letters and numbers issued by the fire support officer. Assault Position: That position between the line of departure and the objective in an attack from which forces assault the objective. Ideally, it is the last covered and concealed position before reaching the objective. Objective: The physical object of the action taken (for example, a definite terrain feature, the seizure or holding of which is essential to the commander's plan, or, the destruction of an enemy force without regard to terrain features). Limit of Advance: An easily recognized terrain feature beyond which attacking elements will not advance. Linkup Point: An easily identifiable point on the ground where two forces conducting a linkup meet. When one force is stationary, linkup points normally are established where the moving force's routes of advance intersect the stationary force's security elements. Linkup points for two moving forces are established on boundaries where the two forces are expected to converge.

The commander will usually issue his operations order before departing on the leaders recon. This allows subordinates to conduct detailed planning and rehearsals during the leaders recon. When the commander returns, he can brief any changes to the plan resulting from information gained on the leaders recon.

12

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

LU 1

ASLT POS 1 2 3

WEST CREEK

RP 3

100 meters
Diagram 2 depicts the tactical control measures for the example scheme of maneuver.

13

EAST CREEK

LO A
PL GREEN

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Complete the Plan


Scheme of Maneuver
The commander updates his estimate of the situation (METT-TC analysis) in several ways: highers order, COC coordination, and the leaders recon. While each of these inputs can provide some information on all the elements of METT-TC, the commander will primarily understand his mission and time available from highers order and intent, the enemy and terrain from the leaders recon, and the troops and fire support available from the COC coordination. The information from these three sources, combined with the commanders judgment, will produce the commanders assessment of the enemys most likely course of action (EMLCOA). The commander then focuses on the enemy center of gravity and critical vulnerability specific to that EMLCOA. His plan to exploit that critical vulnerability, combined with the METT-TC analysis, becomes the detailed scheme of maneuver. Example: 2nd Platoon will conduct a flanking attack on Co Obj A with two rifle squads online as a maneuver element (ME, SE1) and one rifle squad supporting by fire (SE 2). Direction of attack is north. We will depart the assembly area in platoon column (SE 1, ME, SE 2) and move to the attack position, where we will establish priority target AB1001 and request permission to cross the LD. From the LD to RP 3, we will travel in platoon wedge (SE 1, ME, SE 2). At RP 3, SE 2 will release and travel via an independent route to PL Green and hold there. The maneuver element will continue to CP 6 in echelon right (SE 1, ME). When the maneuver element has crossed West Creek, SE 2 will call for three minutes of suppression on AB1001, seize the SBF position, and begin suppressing Co Obj A at the rapid rate between TRP 1 and TRP 2, switching to the sustained rate after one minute. At CP 6, the maneuver element will transition into a line (SE 1, ME) and continue to the assault position. When SE 2 is effectively suppressing the enemy on Co Obj A, the maneuver element will begin the assault. On signal, SE 2 will shift their fires and suppress withdrawing or reinforcing enemy between TRP 2 and TRP 3 at the sustained rate. The maneuver element will assault through the objective and, on signal, SE 2 will cease fires. The maneuver element will consolidate facing east, SE 1 with 9 to 12 and ME with 12 to 3. On signal, SE 2 will displace by unit via most direct route and link up with the guide at LU 1. When SE 2 joins consolidation, SE 1 will have 8 to 12, ME will have 12 to 4, and SE 2 will have 4 to 8. When consolidation, reorganization, and resupply are complete, the platoon will be prepared to continue the attack to the north. See Diagram 2 above.

14

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Fire Support Plan

A detailed fire support plan will support the scheme of maneuver. Fires in the attack are broken into three categories: Preparatory fires. Conducted before the platoon steps into the attack, usually at the battalion level or higher. These fires isolate the objective by targeting enemy command and control, logistics, fire support, reinforcements, etc. Fires in support of conduct. These fires are used by the platoon commander to support the platoons movement to and actions on the objective. The platoon commander should target the enemy security plan (LP/OPs, patrol routes), the enemy main defense (objective), and likely reinforcement routes. When suppressing the main defense to allow the platoon to close with the objective, the platoon commander should echelon fires. Echeloning fires is a technique by which a commander uses multiple fire support agencies in succession to achieve continuous suppression on an objective, allowing the maneuver element to close. This economy of fires uses the minimum amount of ammunition necessary to effectively fix and suppress the enemy. For example: o The maneuver element will be exposed to the enemy 800 meters from the objective. Artillery begins firing on the objective when the maneuver element is 800 meters from the objective. In this situation, 400 meters is as close as the commander wants to get to the artillery fires in order to avoid fratricide. o At 500 meters from the objective, the commander initiates 81mm mortar fire on the objective. This allows the mortars to be on target and effectively suppressing when the artillery fire on the objective ceases. o At 400 meters, the artillery ceases or shifts to a deeper target (such as enemy reinforcements or withdrawing units). 60mm mortar fire begins on the objective. o At 300 meters, 81mm mortar fire ceases or shifts to a deeper target. o At 250 meters, the support by fire element begins suppression on the objective. The support by fire element will achieve effective suppression faster than indirect fires because they do not have to rely on a forward observer. o At 200 meters, 60mm mortar fire ceases or shifts to a deeper target. o At 50 meters, support by fire suppression ceases or shifts to deeper targets, and the maneuver element finishes the assault using fire and movement. Fires in support of consolidation. These fires target likely enemy withdrawal and counterattack routes.

Fire Support Plan (Continued)

15

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Tasks

Tasks provide subordinate units with their missions. Tasking statements should include an appropriate tactical task and a clear purpose for what the commander intends the unit to accomplish. Avoid overloading tasking statements with implied tasks (ensure your radios work before stepping off) or coordinating instructions (you will be first in the order of movement). Ensure that supporting effort tasking statements are worded so that supporting efforts understand how they support the main effort. For example: 1st Squad: ME. O/O, destroy the enemy on the southern half of Co Obj A IOT allow the company to continue its attack to the north. o The ME is the platoons bid for success and, as such, will accomplish the platoons mission (destroy enemy IOT allow the company to continue its attack north). 2nd Squad: SE 1. O/O, destroy the enemy on the northern half of Co Obj A IOT prevent the enemy from withdrawing from or interfering with the ME attack. BPT assume the ME mission. o In a flanking attack, the ME squad is probably the only one destroying the enemys main defensive line. SE 1 will be destroying enemy behind the main defensive line; this may be enemy withdrawing from the ME attack (enemy attempting to retreat or move to alternate or supplementary positions), or enemy interfering with the ME attack (enemy supporting assets such as communications or logistics, or enemy reinforcements). Since this will probably involve less fighting than the ME, the commander may shift this effort to the ME mission to maintain tempo if the ME is significantly slowed by heavy fighting. 3rd Squad: SE 2. O/O, suppress the enemy on Co Obj A IOT allow the ME to close with the enemy right flank. o SE 2s suppression will fix the enemy in place, preventing them from reorienting or effectively firing on the ME attack.

Tasks (Continued)

Coordinating Instructions

Detailed coordinating instructions support the rest of the order. They coordinate actions between two or more units, and include any of highers coordinating instructions that pertain to your unit. They include, but are not limited to, the examples provided in your Combat Orders Student Handouts.

16

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Administration and Logistics

Ensure the platoon has enough ammunition, chow, water, batteries, special equipment, transportation, fuel, etc. to accomplish the mission and plan resupply for any known follow-on missions. Have a plan to deal with casualties and EPWs during any part of the attack.

Command and Signal

Some additional signals necessary for an attack using a support by fire are: Commence: When to begin firing. If occupying by force, this will also be the signal to seize the position. Remember: o Original: the signal will not be confused with other events on the battlefield. If the commander tells the support by fire element to occupy when mortar suppression begins, what happens if the enemy fires mortars or the maneuver element has to use fire support moving to the assault position? o Appropriate: the signal should be received by the intended unit in a timely manner. A smoke grenade is not an appropriate signal for a night attack because it is not visible. It is also not an appropriate signal for commence or cease fire, because it takes time to billow up and be recognized. o Redundant: Radio is usually the primary signal, but the commander should have back-up signals in case the radio does not work. Just because there is a redundant signal does not mean it should be usedremember that part of the intent of a support by fire is to draw enemy attention away from the maneuver element so that they can achieve surprise. If the commander fires a pop-up to tell the support by fire element to occupy, he has revealed the maneuver elements location to the enemy. Shift (sometimes): When the maneuver element reaches the objective, the support by fire element may still able to safely suppress deep targets or another part of the objective. Cease: When support by fire element can no longer support the maneuver element without the risk of fratricide, or when their fires are no longer needed. Displace: Tells the support by fire element to execute the displacement criteria, usually briefed in scheme of maneuver and/or the support by fire elements task. Sample displacement criteria can be found in the example scheme of maneuver above. Displacement criteria are: o Method: By unit or by echelon. By unit means the whole unit will pick up and displace at once, which is ideal for speed. By echelon means the unit will split and one half will move while the other covers their movement, which may be used if security is more important than speed. o Objective: Where the unit is going. o Route: Most direct or most covered and concealed. Most
17 Basic Officer Course

Command and Signal (Continued)

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

direct is simply the fastest route, and may not necessarily translate to a straight line (instead of fording a river, the support by fire element may detour a little bit to cross a bridge). Most covered and concealed is used when security is more important than speed. Time: The displacement signal.

Issue the Order


The platoon commander will issue the order to the platoon. If time permits the platoon commander will issue the order to the entire platoon over a terrain model large enough to accommodate all three squads and attachments. The platoon commander will use the order issuing techniques taught in combat orders.

Supervise
Supervision that the commander should conduct in the preparatory phase includes, but is not limited to: Rehearsals: Rehearsals ensure that the commanders plan is both valid (realistic and within the units capabilities) and understood by subordinates. Pre-Combat Checks: This is an individual Marine responsibility. Based on criteria (checklists or guidance) provided by the commander, Marines will ensure that missionessential gear is present and functional. Pre-Combat Inspections: This is a unit leader responsibility. Leaders at all levels are responsible for ensuring that their Marines have completed the pre-combat checks.

Supervision in the conduct and consolidation phases involves the commander ensuring that subordinates are adhering to his orders and intent.

Conduct Phase
MOVEMENT TO THE OBJECTIVE
During movement to the objective, terrain is the primary cover. The platoon commander controls the unit using formations and tactical control measures, reporting progress and any significant changes to the situation or scheme of maneuver to higher. Fires are used as necessary to clear or bypass enemy security elements, but should be avoided if possible to achieve surprise. Formations during movement to the objective are based on METT-TC, and will reflect the relative importance of speed/control versus security/deployability. The order of movement in the formation should protect the main effort until the unit is ready to conduct actions on the objective.

18

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Column

Column provides the best speed and control, and is ideal when conducting night operations or moving through thick vegetation and canalizing terrain. Column provides the best security and deployability to the flanks, but the worst to the front.

Wedge

Wedge is a flexible formation that provides good speed and control and good all-around security and deployability. It is used when the enemy situation is uncertain.

Echelon

Echelon is slower and more difficult to control than many formations. It provides excellent security and deployability to the front and in the direction of the echelon. It is typically used to guard an exposed flank.

Vee

Vee is slow and difficult to control because there are two lead elements. Security is excellent to the front and good to the flanks. Vee is typically used when the enemy is to the front or when crossing a large open area.

19

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Line

Slowest and most difficult to control. Excellent security and deployability to the front, but poor to the flanks. Line is typically used in the assault once oriented on a known enemy.

Actions on the Objective


Actions on the objective begin when terrain no longer covers our normal movement from enemy main body fires. Fires are the primary cover. All maneuver must be covered by terrain or fires; if not, it will result in heavy casualties. For example: Terrain covers the maneuver elements movement to the assault position and the support by fire elements movement to its last covered and concealed position. Mortar fire suppresses the enemy defense, allowing the support by fire element to destroy an enemy OP/LP and commence firing on the enemy defense. Suppression from the mortars and the support by fire element allow the maneuver element to close with the enemy defense. While the maneuver element destroys enemy defense using fire and movement, mortars and support by fire isolate the defense by destroying withdrawing and reinforcing enemy.

Only EFFECTIVE fires allow maneuver. A commander achieves this by: Ensuring that rounds are on target and suppression is adequate before exposing a maneuver unit in an area where they could be engaged by the enemy. Ensuring proper distribution of fires across the objective. If everyone focuses their fires on one machinegun, suppression overall will not be effective. Distribute fires by using target reference points and ADDRACs to guide subordinates fires. For indirect fires, consider using linear targets (if enemy location and orientation is known in advance). Ensuring targets are prioritized. If the entire enemy force cannot be effectively suppressed, focus fires on the highest priority targets. For example, crew served weapons and enemy positions with the best fields of fire on the maneuver element. If the maneuver element is attacking the enemys right flank, it is more important that those positions be effectively suppressed than the left flank positions (unless the enemy attempts to maneuver his left flank for a counterattack).

20

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Support by Fire Considerations

Rates of fire typically used by the support by fire position are sustained and rapid, and the capabilities and limitations of each are listed below: Sustained: The sustained rate of fire provides average suppression and conserves ammunitionin most cases, a round on target every five seconds will keep the enemys head down as effectively as two or three rounds every five seconds. The sustained rate of fire will not overheat weapons, and should be the default rate of fire unless a higher rate is needed to achieve effective suppression. Rapid: The rapid rate of fire provides more suppression, but uses double the ammunition. This will cause weapons to overheat and malfunction more often, and begins to affect soldiers loada machinegun squad will go through 14 pounds of ammunition per minute at the rapid rate. The rapid rate can be used to achieve fire superiority when commencing fire, when the maneuver element slows because of effective enemy fire, or when the maneuver element is about to reach the objective.

The commander must take time/distance into account when planning for the assault. During the assault, the commander and the support by fire element leader are both responsible for maintaining situational awareness on how much ammunition remains in the support by fire position versus the maneuver elements distance from the objective: ASM A is ammunition, S is suppression, and M is maneuver S = Weapons firing average rate of fire (in rounds per minute) M = Distance to objective (in meters) average rate of movement (in meters per minute) For example, a support by fire squad has 9 M16s and 3 M249s. The commander estimates the M16s will have an average rate of fire of 20 rounds per minute and the M249s will have an average rate of fire of 150 rounds per minute (between the sustained and rapid rates). The maneuver element has 200 meters of open ground to cover to reach the objective, and the commander estimates the maneuver element can move at 50 meters per minute with effective suppression. The M16s need at least (920) (20050) rounds, or 720 rounds. The M249s need at least (3150) (20050) rounds, or 1800 rounds. Once in the assault, the amount of ammunition and distance to the objective are constants. Weapons firing, the rate of fire, and rate of movement are variables. That means that if the maneuver element is moving more slowly than planned, the commander has three options: o Reduce the overall rate of fire. o Reduce or cease fires on lower priority enemy, such as the opposite flank from the maneuver element (reduce the amount of weapons firing). o Increase the rate of movement for the maneuver element. This may require temporarily increasing the rate of fire if effective enemy fires are slowing the maneuver element.

21

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Support by Fire Considerations (Continued)

Where to place leadership and automatic weapons in the support by fire position is another consideration: Automatic weapons. Placing automatic weapons on the flank the maneuver element is assaulting provides better suppression on targets that affect the maneuver element most, as well as better geometries of fire. Distributing them across the support by fire position provides better overall distribution of fires. Leadership. Placing the support by fire element leader in the center of the position provides the best overall control of fires; however, the flank the maneuver element is assaulting is the point of friction. From that flank, the support by fire element leader can more effectively direct the fires that will support the maneuver element most, as well as have a better perspective on the geometries of his fires as they affect the maneuver element.

Platoon Commander Considerations

During actions on the objective, the platoon commander has several responsibilities: Control fire support and the support by fire element. The platoon commander must ensure that the objective is effectively suppressed and isolated before exposing his maneuver element to the enemy fields of fire. This will involve calling for and adjusting fires and ensuring that timing between agencies is correct when fires are echeloned. The platoon commander must also track geometries and rates of fireslowing rates of fire to conserve ammunition, raising them to increase suppression, or ceasing them to prevent fratricide. Control the maneuver element. To do this, the platoon commander will use his base unit. Remember that the base unit is not always the main effort or the center squad; it is the unit that best allows the platoon commander to control the formation. The base unit may be the lead element in the platoon column for movement, or a unit that will advance along a guiding feature in the assault. The base unit may not be the same throughout the entire attack. The platoon commander controls maneuver element fires by giving TRPs and ADDRACs to his squad leaders in order to ensure proper distribution of fires. The platoon commander controls movement by issuing specific direction to his base unit. Shift left and shift right invariably leads to a slinky effect, where everyone overcorrects in one direction and then the other. The platoon commander should pick identifiable objects ahead of the base unit where he wants the base unit to be: 1st Squad, left flank on that dead tree, right flank on that bunker. The base unit shifts to between those objects and the other unit(s) adjust off its movement. Coordinate with higher and adjacent. This may involve requesting casualty evacuation or reinforcement, or updating them on a changing situation (such as enemy withdrawing into an adjacent unit AO).

22

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Consolidation Phase
During consolidation, the platoon commander will go through his ACE criteria. Some items will be running concurrently; obviously the aid and litter teams and corpsmen will be collecting and treating casualties while the platoon is setting security and redistributing ammunition. Casualty evacuation and equipment accountability should not be started until the platoons security is set: Ammunition. Redistribute ammunition and prepare for counterattack. Casualties. Collect and evacuate casualties, EPWs, and intelligence. Reassign key billets vacated by casualties. Equipment. Account for weapons, equipment, ammunition, fuel, batteries, water, and chow.

The platoon commander should also submit reports to higher; at the minimum, this should include a SITREP. It may also include specialized reports as required, as well as any resupply requests that the platoon needs to accomplish follow-on missions. At this point, the platoon commander should planexecute pre-plannedfollow-on operations. Follow-on operations may be offensive, defensive, or retrograde.

References
Reference Number
FMFM 2-7 MCDP-1 MCDP 3-11.1A MCRP 3-11.1B MCRP 3-11.2A MCRP 3-16A MCRP 3-16C MCWP 3-1 MCWP 3-11.1 MCWP 3-11.2 MCWP 3-11.3

Reference Title
Fire Support in MAGTF Operations Warfighting Commanders Tactical Handbook Small Unit Leaders Guide to Weather and Terrain Marine Troop Leaders Guide Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the Targeting Process Support for the Combined Arms Commander Ground Combat Operations Marine Rifle Company/Platoon Marine Rifle Squad Scouting and Patrolling

23

Basic Officer Course

B3J3718

Rifle Platoon in the Offense

Notes

24

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

RIFLE PLATOON IN THE DEFENSE B3J3778 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Rifle Platoon in the Defense


Introduction The Marine Corps fighting doctrine is based on rapid, flexible, and opportunistic maneuver. As stated in MCDP 1, Warfighting, Maneuver warfare is a warfighting philosophy that seeks to shatter the enemys cohesion through a variety of rapid, focused, and unexpected actions which create a turbulent and rapidly deteriorating situation with which the enemy cannot cope. Capitalizing on violence and shock effect, we must aggressively hunt to identify enemy gaps, continually seeking an opportunity for decisive action. When it arrives, we must exploit it fully, committing every ounce of combat power we can muster and pushing ourselves to the limits of exhaustion. (MCDP 1, pg.75) Maneuver is not mutually exclusive to offensive operations. In fact, the offense and the defense cannot exist separately. The offense cannot exist indefinitely. At some point, a unit will reach their culminating point, or be ordered into the defense to facilitate decisive action elsewhere. Conversely, an effective defense must have offensive characteristics, striking when the enemy is most vulnerable. An effective unit is able to leverage the advantages of both the stronger and decisive forms of combat. This student handout pertains equally to all Marine leaders, whether their duties entail combat service support (CSS), combat support, or combat arms. It applies tactics at the basic platoon level in the defense, which are used as building blocks for a larger unit. All Marines face tactical decisions in battle regardless of their roles. Tactical leaders must develop and hone their warfighting skills through study and practice.

Importance

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

In This Lesson

This lesson will give you a framework of how to make sound tactical decisions and begin to understand the tactical decision-making process in the defense at the platoon level. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Characteristics of the Defense Types of Defensive Operations Forms of Defensive Maneuver Sequence of the Defense Planning Phase Preparation Phase Execution phase Summary Annex A: Defensive Op Order Example Annex B: Fire Plan Sketch Construction References Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Notes Page 6 10 11 14 14 31 39 41 42 45 50 51 52

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Rifle Platoon in the Defense (Continued)


Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objectives 0311-DEF-2005 Given an order, a sector of fire, and a team/squad fighting position organized on the ground, prepare a fire plan sketch to depict each of the required items. 0302-DEF-1306 Given subordinate unit fire plan sketches, crew served weapons range cards, a map and an overlay, prepare a platoon/company fire plan overlay to report the units defensive plan to higher, coordinate with adjacent units or facilitate relief in place. Enabling Learning Objectives MCCS-DEF-2101b Without the aid of reference, define battle position without error. 0300-DEF-1001b Without the aid of reference and given weapons organic to a rifle platoon, describe methods of delineating sectors of fire without error. MCCS-DEF-2101d Without the aid of reference, describe the purpose of a defensive leader's reconnaissance, without omission. MCCS-DEF-2101c Without the aid of reference, describe occupation methods without error. MCCS-DEF-2101e Without the aid of reference, describe the least engaged unit employment without omission. MCCS-DEF-2101f Without the aid of reference, define primary positions without error. MCCS-DEF-2101g Without the aid of reference, define alternate positions without error. MCCS-DEF-2101h Without the aid of reference, define supplementary positions without error. MCCS-OFF-2102l Given a mission and commander's intent develop a mental estimate of the situation using METT-TC to accomplish the mission.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Rifle Platoon in the Defense (Continued)


Learning Objectives (Continued) Enabling Learning Objectives (Continued) MCCS-OFF-2102m Given a mission and commander's intent and a mental estimate of the situation integrate the principles of war into tactical planning to accomplish the mission. MCCS-OFF-2102k Given a mission and commander's intent in a changing situation, while serving as a leader of Marines, integrate maneuver warfare into decision-making to accomplish the mission. 0302-DEF-1301d Given an order from higher and a mental estimate of the situation, and a defensive scheme of maneuver, develop a security plan to support the ground scheme of maneuver. 0311-OFF-2001c Given a unit, a mission, a scheme of maneuver and a mental estimate of the situation, employ tactical control measures to support the ground scheme of maneuver. 0302-DEF-1301b Given a mission, a commander's intent, and a defensive position, select command post location to facilitate command and control. 0302-DEF-1301a Given an order from higher and a mental estimate of the situation, develop a defensive priority of work to accomplish the mission. 0302-DEF-1301c Given a mission, a commander's intent, and a defensive position, plan for counter attack to accomplish the mission. 0300-DEF-1001a Without the aid of reference, define fighting hole dimensions without error.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Characteristics of the Defense


Purpose: According to MCDP 1, a defense is A coordinated effort to defeat an attack by an opposing force and prevent it from achieving its objectives. Additionally, defensive operations can force the enemy to reach his culminating point without meeting his objectives, allowing friendly forces to gain and maintain the initiative. At the rifle platoon level, the coordination of effort is the responsibility of the platoon commander. Defensive operations may also be conducted to: Gain time Retain key terrain or deny a vital area to the enemy Counter surprise action by the enemy Economize force, allowing combat power to be concentrated elsewhere Increase the enemys vulnerability by forcing him to concentrate his forces Attrite or fix the enemy as a prelude to offensive operations Prepare to resume the offensive. Fundamentals of the Defense The platoon commander must consider the fundamentals of the defense when planning, preparing, and conducting defensive operations. The ten fundamentals described below should not be used as a checklist. Rather, these concepts should help guide the commanders thinking and tactical planning process prior to engagement with the enemy. Knowledge of the Enemy: A defenders options are dictated in large part by what the attacker does. Therefore, thorough knowledge of the enemys capabilities, operational concepts, and habits is essential to a successful defense. A thorough tactical planning process, specifically enemy analysis, will provided valuable information on enemy assembly areas, assault positions, routes, firing positions for supporting arms units, axes of advance, and the area most advantageous for the enemys main effort. When the defender can accurately anticipate the enemys actions, he can trap the attacker within the defense and establish conditions for resumption of offensive operations. Maneuver: Maneuver is as important in the defense as it is in the offense. While steadfastness and the tenacious holding of key terrain are essential in the defense, the defender must not become immobile. The defender must maintain freedom of maneuver. Maneuver is essential in generating the offensive power fundamental to a successful defense. Maneuver is essential throughout the defensive battlespace, both forward of and within the engagement area. The platoon commander must ensure that elements of the platoon are able to maneuver in depth, taking advantage of terrain and tactical developments to concentrate, disperse, and occupy positions from which they can bring more effective fire to bear on the enemy. Preparation: The defender usually organizes the defense on terrain of his choosing. While the attacker can choose the specific time and point of attack, the defender, through the proper selection of terrain and reinforcing obstacles, can direct the energy of the enemys attack into terrain which is
6 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Characteristics of the Defense Fundamentals (continued)


advantageous to the defender. The defender must take advantage of this by making the most thorough preparations that time allows. Preparations should begin as early as possible and be continuous. The platoon commander must be aware that these preparations may be made under constant observation by the enemy. The platoon commander should develop a security plan which utilizes patrols and LP/OPs to deceive the enemy as to the exact location of the main defenses. a. Hasty Defense: A hasty defense is a defense normally organized while in contact with the enemy or when contact is imminent and time available for organization is limited. Reconnaissance of the defensive area must be curtailed and the defense assumed directly from the current positions of units. Depending on the situation, it may be necessary for the platoon commander to initiate a hasty attack to seize terrain suitable to his defense. Or, the platoon commander may employ patrols to delay the enemy while deploying the bulk of his force to more suitable defensive terrain. A hasty defense is improved continuously as the situation permits and may eventually become a deliberate defense. b. Deliberate Defense: A deliberate defense is a defense normally organized when out of contact with the enemy or when contact with the enemy is not imminent and time for organization is available. A deliberate defense normally includes fortifications, strongpoints, extensive use of obstacles, and fully integrated fires. The platoon commander normally is free to make a detailed reconnaissance of the area to be defended, select the terrain on which to defend, and decide the best tactical deployment of forces. The instruction at The Basic School will focus more heavily on the deliberate defense. Mass and Concentration: The defender cannot defend everywhere in strength. The platoon commander must concentrate forces and fires at the decisive place if he is to succeed, while exercising economy of force in less critical areas. Some portions may rely more heavily on fires and obstacles rather than manpower. Also, a thorough patrolling effort can be employed along less likely avenues of approach to help reduce risks. The platoon commander designates the main effort based on the anticipation of the enemys main effort. The defensive scheme of maneuver takes advantage of terrain essential to the integrity of the defense. Since the platoon commander cannot determine the exact enemy course of action, he must be prepared to shift the main effort. The platoon commander masses fires and concentrates combat power repeatedly to wrest the initiative from the attacking enemy. The platoon commander must be able to do this swiftly, since periods that allow him to deploy superior combat power will be brief. He may have to surrender some ground to gain the time necessary to concentrate forces.
7 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Characteristics of the Defense Fundamentals (continued)


Flexibility: While the platoon commander utilizes tactical cunning and a thorough tactical planning process to determine the enemys course of action in advance, the plan must be flexible enough to deal with different enemy courses of action. The platoon commander must received detailed, accurate, and effective reporting from patrols and LP/OPs in order to determine when to adjust the plan based on enemy actions. Flexibility is created by Detailed planning for contingencies (The platoon commander must be able to visualize the engagement before it occurs. Designating supplementary and alternate positions Properly planning for the use of the least engaged unit Designing counterattack plans Preparing to assume the offense Planning on-call fire support Rehearsing employment of the least engaged unit, as well as movement between primary, alternate, and supplementary positions. Offensive Action: Since the offense is the decisive form of combat, the platoon commander seeks every opportunity to take offensive action. A defensive platoon commander can do this by launching spoiling attacks on enemy assembly areas; utilizing patrols to harass, distract, deceive, and damage the enemy forward of the engagement area; and conducting counterattacks in the engagement area to destroy enemy penetrations. The platoon commander must prepare to change to the offense at the earliest feasible opportunity. Use of Terrain: The defender must exploit every aspect of terrain and weather to his advantage. In the defense, as in the attack, terrain is valuable only if a force gains advantage from its possession or control. In developing the engagement area, the platoon commander takes account of key terrain and visualizes all possible enemy avenues of approach. The platoon commander seeks to defend on terrain that maximizes effective fire, cover, concealment, movement, and surprise. Obstacle integration multiplies the effects and capabilities of firepower. The combination of firepower and obstacles causes the enemy to conform to the platoon commanders scheme of maneuver. Obstacles magnify the effects of firepower by increasing target acquisition time and creating exploitable vulnerabilities. Obstacles not properly integrated with maneuver and the plan of supporting fires inhibit friendly maneuver and waste resources, while having a negligible effect on enemy maneuver. Mutual Support: Mutual support strengthens any position. It is that support which units render each other. In the defense this is achieved when defensive positions are located in such a way that the enemy cannot attack one position without coming under fire from at least one other. The degree of mutual support obtained depends on the terrain, range of weapons, and visibility. Ideally, the frontage a force must defend is directly related to its
8 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Characteristics of the Defense Fundamentals (continued)


ability to provide mutual support between its units. To neutralize mutually supporting positions, an attacker must disperse fire away from his main objective. Mutual support is essential at all levels. Defense in Depth: Defense in depth is the positioning of mutually supporting defensive positions throughout the defensive battelspace to absorb and progressively weaken an enemy attack. It provides maneuver space within the defensive area for the maneuver of subordinate units against the enemys main effort. It is necessary to Disrupt the momentum of the attack and prevent a breakthrough Force the enemy into the engagement area Allow the platoon commander time to determine the enemys main effort and counter it. Force the enemy to commit his force before a nondecisive point. Disperse the effects of enemy fire. The greater the enemys combat power and the wider the frontage held, the greater the required depth of the defense. Defense in depth is achieved by Engaging the enemy at the earliest opportunity with patrols and LP/OPs. Employing weapons at maximum effective range. Using blocking positions, obstacles, and supplementary positions throughout the engagement area. Planning for decisive use of the least engaged unit and fire support units at the decisive moment in the engagement. Surprise: The defense, no less than the offense, must achieve surprise. To preserve combat power, especially against a superior enemy, the defender must employ every means to mislead the enemy as to the true location of his positions and as to the strength and disposition of forces. The platoon commander must consider the use of patrols, early warning, and reverse slopes, maximizing available cover, concealment, camouflage, and dummy positions. The best defensive terrain will likely also be apparent to an attacking enemy, who will maneuver against it with caution and will mass fires on it. When possible, the platoon commander should select terrain that has good defensive qualities but is not conspicuous.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Types of Defense Operations


Types of Defensive Operations. Every defense contains two complementary characteristics: a static element and a dynamic element. The two types of defensive operations use varying degrees of both to ultimately achieve the missions objectives. a. Mobile Defense: In a mobile defense, the bulk of the force is held as a mobile striking force with strict economy applied to dedicated positional supporting efforts designed to canalize, delay, and disrupt the enemys attack. In this case, the static positions help control the depth and breadth of enemy penetrations and ensure retention of ground from which to launch counterattacks (MCDP 1-0). The striking force, normally a mobile reserve, is the defensive main effort which ultimately destroys the enemy through counterattack. This type of defensive operation is normally conducted by a division sized force or larger. b. Position Defense: A position defense orients on retention of terrain by absorbing the enemy in an interlocking series of positions and destroying him largely by fires. Mutual support and positions in depth force the enemy to expose his force in the attack to each position (MCWP 3-1). In this instance, dynamic elements include patrols, intelligence units, and reserve forces to cover gaps among defensive positions, reinforcing those positions as necessary and counterattacking as directed (MCDP 1-0). These tactics will be covered in more depth throughout the class. While at The Basic School, the lessons will be concerned with position defenses. c. Regardless of the type, a key characteristic of a sound defense is the ability of the commander to aggressively seek opportunities to take offensive action and wrest the initiative from the enemy. (MCDP 1-0)

MOBILE DEFENSE
10

POSITION DEFENSE
Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Forms of Defensive Maneuver


Forms of Defensive Maneuver Forms of maneuver are distinct tactical combinations of fire and movement with a unique set of doctrinal characteristics that differ primarily in the relationship between the maneuvering force and the enemy (MCRP 5-12A). In the defense, there are seven forms of maneuver which a unit may utilize to accomplish their objectives. While several of them are utilized at the company level and above, leaders at all levels must understand the characteristics of each. a. Battle Position: A battle position is a defense position oriented on the most likely enemy avenue of approach from which a unit may defend or attack. It can be used to deny or delay the enemy the use of certain terrain or an avenue of approach. The size of a battle position can vary with the size of the unit assigned. Once occupied, these positions should be continuously improved. i. Blocking Position: A battle position designed to deny the enemy access to a given area or to prevent his advance in a given direction.

Enemy

b. Strongpoint: A fortified defensive position designed to deny the enemy certain terrain as well as the use of an avenue of approach. It differs from a battle position in that it is designed to be occupied for an extended period of time. It is established on critical terrain and must be held for the defense to succeed. A strongpoint is organized for all-around defense and should have sufficient supplies and ammunition to continue to fight even if surrounded or cut off from resupply.

CSS

11

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Forms of Defensive Maneuver (continued)


c. Sector: A sector is a company, or larger unit, control measure that provides the most freedom of action to a platoon, or other subordinate unit. It allows for decentralized execution which is synchronized with the higher units intent. This form of defensive maneuver is often utilized in restrictive terrain, where the lack of mutual support between units can be countered by the flexibility allowed by defending in sector. While a platoon may be assigned a sector as part of the companys defensive scheme of maneuver, the platoon commander may choose to utilize another form of maneuver within the assigned sector. For example, a platoon could defend from a battle position within their assigned sector.

d. Reverse-Slope: A reverse slope is any slope which descends away from the enemy. A reverse slope defense is organized so that the main defensive positions are masked from enemy observation and direct fire by a topograhipical crest. A reverse slope aids the defender in bringing massed surprised fires to bear against an attacking enemy. While the crest is not occupied in strength, control of the crest by fire and employment of obstacles is key to success.

12

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Forms of Defensive Maneuver (continued)


e. Perimeter: A perimeter defense is oriented in all directions. A unit can use this form of maneuver to accomplish a specific mission, such as defend friendly infrastructure, or to provide immediate self-protection, such as during resupply operations when all-around security is required. Weapons employment considerations are similar to those used when conducting a strongpoint. The commander establishes a perimeter defense when the unit must hold critical terrain, or when it must defend itself in areas where the defense is not tied in with adjacent units. Once again, as stated above, a platoon may utilize another form of defensive maneuver as part of the larger companys perimeter defense.

f. Linear: This technique allows interlocking and overlapping observation and fields of fire across the units front. The bulk of the units combat power is well forward. Sufficient resources must be available to provide adequate combat power across the frontage to detect and stop an attack. The unit relies on fighting from wellprepared mutually supporting positions. It uses a high volume of direct and indirect fires to stop the attacker. The main concern when fighting a linear defense is the lack of flexibility and the difficulty of both seizing the initiative and seeking out enemy weaknesses. When the enemy has a mobility advantage, a linear defense might be extremely risky. Obstacles, indirect fires, and contingency plans are key to this maneuver. The unit depends upon surprise, well-prepared positions, and deadly accurate fires to defeat the enemy. Contingency plans for the least engaged unit must be thoroughly rehearsed. g. Non-Linear: The nonlinear defense is the most decentralized and dynamic position defense conducted infantry units. It is frequently used when operating against an enemy force that has equal or greater firepower and mobility capabilities. This type of defense is almost exclusively enemy-oriented and is not well suited for retaining terrain. To be successful, this defense depends on surprise, offensive action, and the initiative of small-unit leaders. It is a very fluid defense with little static positioning involved. An infantry company or larger force will normally conduct a non-linear defense.

13

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Sequence of the Defense


A. Planning Phase a. Estimate of the Situation: As with all operations, platoon defensive operations begin with the tactical planning process. More specifically, a detailed estimate of the situation will facilitate your situational awareness as a platoon commander. The analysis tools and METTTC for defensive operations are no different from any other planning operations. It is important to understand our desired endstate for the planning and preparation phases of defensive operations: a detailed engagement area, integrating direct fires, indirect fires, and obstacles, to maximize the effects of our fires against the enemy. The tactical planning process should allow the platoon commander to envision the defensive battle, facilitating the synchronization of all assets during the fight. The platoon commander is able to think through the way in which the battle will occur, as well as the ways in which engagement criteria for all weapon systems will be tied to specific tactical control measures and enemy dispositions. Integrating the effects of fires, coupled with synchronizing the timing of the engagement, allows the platoon commander to dictate the terms of the defensive battle. After completing the initial tactical planning process, the platoon commander should have the following: Detailed EMLCOA Thorough CG-CV-Exploitation plan Tentative Scheme of Maneuver Publish Warning Order Plan for Leaders Reconnaissance / Patrol Order b. Developing an Engagement Area The engagement area (EA) is the location where the platoon commander intends to destroy an enemy force using the massed fires of all available weapons and supporting assets. The location of the engagement area is based on a detailed and thorough estimate of the situation and leaders reconnaissance by the platoon commander. The EA facilitates focus, mass and concentration, as well as economy of force in areas outside of it. The success of the engagement with the enemy depends on how effectively the platoon commander can integrate and synchronize the obstacle plan, indirect fire plan, and direct fire plan with one another and the terrain in the engagement area to achieve the platoons purpose. The following steps can be used for developing an EA

14

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Sequence of the Defense Planning Phase (continued)


1. Identify all likely enemy avenues of approach Beginning with the initial estimate of the situation, the platoon commander conducts terrain analysis during the map reconnaissance and physical leaders reconnaissance. The platoon commander must identify key aspects of terrain which can be utilized by the enemy to gain a position of advantage. During this step, the platoon commander identifies the possible enemy avenues of approach without choosing a specific one.

1. ID all likely EN Ave of Approach

+200
AA 1

2. Determine likely enemy schemes of maneuver Once the possible enemy routes towards an area are developed, the platoon commander uses them to develop likely enemy schemes of maneuver. The platoon commander identifies the ways in which the enemy can use the terrain along the respective routes to their advantage in order to accomplish their overall goals. The enemys equipment, order of battle, weapons employment considerations, and capabilities at this time on the battlefield assist the leader during this step. This analysis enables the platoon commander to look at the advantages and disadvantages associated with each possible enemy scheme of maneuver.
15 Basic Officer Course

AA 2

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Sequence of the Defense Planning Phase (continued)


The final element of this step is developing the enemys most likely course of action (EMLCOA), i.e. what the enemy WILL do. Looking at the following questions can assist during this portion of developing an EA: Determine the enemys form of maneuver. How does the enemy plan on using terrain to his advantage? How will the enemy use his reconnaissance elements? How will the enemy attempt to infiltrate? How does the enemy plan on using fires to support his maneuver? How does the enemy plan on negotiating our obstacle plan? What is the enemys rate of movement? How will the enemy react to our scheme of maneuver?

SOM 1
- Sqd secures +200, observes fires on BP. Plt(-) crosses bridge -3 Sqd Online frontal assault on BP.

+200

16

2. Determine likely EN SOMs

SOM 2
- Sqd secures crossing site to E. - 2 Sqd online frontal assault with 1 Sqd SBF on flank.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Sequence of the Defense Planning Phase (continued)


3. Determine where to kill the enemy The EAs location can be determined once the EMLCOA is developed (see above step). The platoon commander seeks to visualize the enemys approach and engagement, allowing him/her to select the location which allows for the most advantageous use of terrain by the platoon. Once the engagement area is defined, the platoon commander can begin to identify control measures which will assist in executing the direct and indirect fire plans. Identifying sectors of fire, target reference points (TRPs), and trigger lines can facilitate control and distribution of fires in the defense. The platoon commander can also determine which weapons to use between certain TRPs to maximize their effectiveness.

3. Determine where to kill the EN


3A. SOM 1 1. Enemy has elevated overwatch while crossing bridge. Fires covering squads movement 2. Speed across river due to bridge. 3. Increased control due to close proximity of units

3B. SOM 2 1. Enemy is concealed while crossing river 2. Speed while crossing river decreased due to lack of bridge at crossing site. 3. Control more difficult due to dispersed units.

EA Reaper

3C. EMLCOA=SOM 1 BUILD EA REAPER


+200 SOM 2 = Possible alternate enemy avenue of approach

17

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Sequence of the Defense Planning Phase (continued)


4. Emplace weapon systems The platoons weapon systems must be placed to maximize their capabilities and weaponeering effects, as well as the terrains effects on the employment of the weapons. The exact location of crew served weapons and squad sectors of fire are determined based on maximizing the weapons effects in the engagement area. The platoon commander should consider (not an exhaustive list): M240B assigned FPL or PDF mission and the locations of the fighting positions. Location of squad sectors of fire Hot and Cold Positions for rockets Integrating TRPs and trigger lines with the location of weapons. Location alternate and supplementary sectors of fire to cover possible alternate enemy avenues of approach.

4. Emplace weapons

TL BLUE

A2

A1

A3 A4

A5
TL WHITE

A. Develop sqd sectors of fire which support EA Reaper. B. Emplace MGs Designate PDF or FPL which support defensive SOM. B6

+200

C. Designate TRPs (A1-A5, B6) which will help mass / distribute fires at appropriate locations within EA Reaper. D. Designate trigger lines (Red,White,Blue) based on enemy avenue of approach to help synchronization of defensive SOM. E. Develop supplementary position sectors of fire to cover possible alternate enemy avenue of approach. F. Alternate positions designated.

TL RED

18

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Sequence of the Defense Planning Phase (continued)


5. Plan and integrate obstacles In the defense, tactical obstacles must be integrated with the direct and indirect fire plans to be successful. The platoon commander must understand the desired effects of each obstacle, facilitating optimum emplacement to complement the overall plan for the engagement area. The platoon commander should conduct detailed coordination with engineers during the planning phase, leaders recon, as well as once obstacle construction begins. Obstacles multiply the effects of fires. Obstacle effects will be discussed later in this student handout. The platoon commander must ensure that the platoon obstacle plan follows the company commanders intent for the overall obstacle plan.

5. Plan / Integrate Obstacles C


XXXXXXXXX

-X X-X-X-X-X-X -X -X-X -X-X-X-X -X -X-X -X X -X -X-X -X-X -X -X-X -X-X X-X -X -X-X XXXX -X -X-X -X-X X-X XXXX XXXX X XX XXXX TL BLUE XXXX XXXX X =X XX XX XX X= =X XX X X= XX XX A2 XX XX X= XX =X XX XX XX

XXXXXXXXXXXXXX

XXX XX XXX XXX XXX

A1

XXXXXXXX Tactical X-X-X-X Protective XX=XX=XX Supplementary

XX XX XX A3 XX XX X XX X X XX X= XX =X X XX =X XX XX

A5 A4
TL WHITE

B6

-Obstacles should be placed based on their desired effect. -A. Tactical wire is emplaced to achieve desired effect -B. Supplementary wire emplaced to disguise desired tactical wire effects.

+200

TL RED

- C. Protective wire emplaced around positions.

19

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Sequence of the Defense Planning Phase (continued)


6. Plan and integrate indirect fires (organic / non-organic) Indirect fires must be fully integrated and synchronized with the direct fire plan and obstacle plan. The platoon commander must develop the purpose for his fire plan, along with: Determine the location of indirect fire targets which will best support the intent of the engagement area. Determine the location of the observer for each target, ensuring that every observer can effectively communicate with the fire agency in a timely manner. Obtain accurate target location Register appropriate targets Plan and register FPF. Location of FPF must be integrated with obstacles and machine gun FPLs.

6. Plan/Integrate IDF assets


XXXXXXXX

-X

X X-XX-X-

XX =X X= XX

X -X-X X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X X- X- X -X-X-X X- X- X X-XXX-XXX-XXX XX-XXXXX X-XXX -XXXXX X XXXX X XXXX TL BLUE XXX XXXX X =X XX XX X= XX X X XX A2 =X XX XX XX = XX XX XX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX

XXX X XXX XXX XXX X

204 AE5

AE5202
XX XX X

A1

A3 XX XX XX X X XX XX X= XX =X X XX =X XX X X

A5 A4
TL WHITE

AE5203

B6

-AE5201: Suppress IOT disrupt approach. -AE5202: Suppress En main body IOT isolate advance party in EA -AE5203: Suppress En recon elements IOT allow patrols to break-contact

+200 AE5201
TL RED

- AE5204: FPF for defense, from Co 60mm mortar section

20

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Sequence of the Defense Planning Phase (continued)


7. Conduct EA rehearsal The purpose of the rehearsal is to ensure that all Marines understand the plan, specifically the ways in which each unit and Marine are integrated. All Marines must understand the TRPs associated with their sectors, as well as the trigger lines which initiate their fires. Proper execution of the integration and synchronization of the fire plan ensures that the maximum effect of all weapon systems and obstacles are applied to the enemy in the engagement area. To be effective and efficient in the time sensitive environment of combat, concurrent tasks must be accomplished when developing the engagement area. This can only occur when all subordinates have a complete understanding of the platoon commanders intent. c. Direct Fire Planning A defenses strength lies in the proper utilization of time during preparation to ensure effective use of terrain and maximizing weapons effects in the engagement area. Direct fire planning should assist in effectively distributing and integrating fires at all levels in the platoon. Employment Considerations: The platoon commander must ensure that all weapons systems are being employed to maximize their effectiveness within their respective capabilities. For example, M203s should be used to cover dead space within fire teams sectors of fire while M249s are assigned to likely enemy avenues of approach within the sector. Sectors of Fire: The platoon commander establishes sectors of fire in order to translate the concept of the engagement area into manageable portions for the rifle squads and crew-served weapons. Squad sectors of fire should overlap to ensure proper coverage. The platoon commander assigns sectors of fire based on the tasks given to subordinates in the operation order. The platoons main effort squad should be assigned a sector of fire which will enable it to accomplish the platoons assigned mission while the supporting efforts assist in facilitating the main effort. At the platoon level, the main effort squad will normally have a sector of fire in the middle of the platoon position. Once the platoon commander has distributed his forces and assigned squads sectors of fire, the squad leaders must divide their sectors into fire team sectors of fire. The squad leader should emplace the main effort fire team first during occupation, due to the fact that the main effort is the squad leaders bid for accomplishing the mission. Within the fire team, the M249 SAW should be emplaced first on the most likely enemy avenue of approach. The remainder of the fire team will be emplaced around the SAW, ensuring adequate coverage of the sector.
21 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Planning Phase Direct Fire Plan (continued)


The squad leader inspects his Marines sectors continuously to ensure they meet the platoon commanders intent. The fire team is the smallest unit which gets assigned a sector of fire. Buddy pairs DO NOT get assigned a sector of fire. The fire team sector of fire ensures adequate coverage of the security in the event of casualties, as well as when executing the defensive priorities of work.

Fire Team Sectors of Fire

Fire Team will cover same sector of fire

SE2

ME

SE1 KEY Sqd Sector PDF FT Sector

190 180 170

195 190 195 180 175 170

22

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Planning Phase Direct Fire Plan(continued)


Principal Directions of Fire: M249 Squad Automatic Weapons and M240B MMG can be assigned principal directions of fire cover likely enemy avenues of approach. The location of PDFs must be integrated into the platoon commanders overall defensive scheme of maneuver. Final Protective Lines: Machine guns may be assigned a FPL mission in the defense when the platoon commander desires to achieve grazing fire across the defenses frontage. (Refer to B3N4478 Machine Gun Employment)
PDF and FPL

Target Reference Points: Easily recognizable points on the ground (either natural or man-made) used to initiate, distribute, and control fires. Fire team and squad leaders must all understand their respective TRPs to ensure proper distribution of fires. Trigger Lines: A designated linear feature (selected along identifiable terrain) in an engagement area used to commence massed fires at a predetermined range. Trigger lines assist in synchronizing the defensive plan to maximize weapons effects in the engagement area. Units and weapon systems should understand which trigger line is used to commence their respective fires. Engagement Criteria: Normally associated with trigger lines or specific enemy elements, engagement criteria allows Marines to engage enemy targets at the proper time in accordance with the platoon commanders overall scheme of maneuver. Simplified, engagement criteria tells Marines WHEN to engage. Engagement criteria facilitates decentralized execution and proper synchronization to maximize weapons effects in the
23 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Planning Phase Direct Fire Plan(continued)


engagement area. This control measure also assists in concealing friendly assets, such as machine guns, until the decisive time and place in the defensive scheme of maneuver despite enemy reconnaissance techniques. Target Precedence: When engagement criteria is met by multiple targets, target precedence determines the order in which targets should be engaged. Each weapon system is given target precedence in accordance with its capabilities. Another control measure facilitating decentralized execution, the platoon commander should develop target precedence which maximizes weapons effects and which will most quickly disrupt the enemys scheme of maneuver.

24

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Planning Phase Fire Support Plan


d. Fire Support Planning (Refer to B2C2797 Fire Support Planning) Platoon defensive operations require detailed and thorough fire support planning. Indirect fires must be fully integrated with the obstacle and direct fire plans to ensure overlapping fires which complement one another and achieve the desired effects. Defensive fire support can be divided into three categories: Long Range Fires The platoon commander seeks to use long range fires to engage the enemy forward of the engagement area. These fires are developed to create confusion and cause the enemy to deploy early. The disruptive effects of long range fires should begin to cause the enemy to bend to our will and pick a course of action which is favorable to the friendly scheme of maneuver. Long range fires also support security patrols and LP/OPs which are operating forward of and adjacent to the platoons engagement area. Indirect fire asset range, employment considerations, observer identification, and communications architecture are all considerations which the platoon commander must take into account while supporting the patrolling effort. The platoon commander must also have a plan for battle handover of fires from the patrolling elements when the enemy begins their final assault. Close In Fires Close in fires are used to target the enemy in the engagement area prior to reaching the trigger for final protective fires. These massed fires should canalize and slow the enemy, as well as disrupt enemy breaching elements. Targets can be planned on the likely enemy avenue of approach, potential enemy overwatch and support by fire positions, as well as targets which support the platoon commanders counterattack plan. Close in fires must be completely integrated with the obstacle plan and synchronized with the direct fire plan in order to maximize their effectiveness and the casualties which they produce. Final Protective Fire (FPF) The priority of fire in the defense, the final protective fire is a registered barrier of indirect fire which is designed to impede enemy movement across the engagement area. Following along with the common theme of platoon defensive operations, the FPF is integrated and synchronized with the obstacle and direct fire plans. The FPF can be planned to cover dead space in the machine guns final protective line (FPL). The dimensions of the FPF target depend on the size and type of the indirect fire agency supporting the platoon.

25

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Planning Phase Fire Support Plan (continued)


Final Protective Fires Indirect Target Dimensions Width of FPF Weapon Unit (ECR) Length of FPF (# of tubes X ECR) 60mm Mortar Squad 30 meters 30 meters 60mm Mortar Section 30 meters 90 meters 81mm Mortar Squad 35 meters 35 meters 81mm Mortar Section 35 meters 140 meters 81mm Mortar Platoon 35 meters 280 meters 155mm Howitzer Battery 50 meters 300 meters When firing the FPF, the enemy should be fixed, or at least be significantly slowed, by the obstacle plan. This will ensure maximum enemy casualties in the engagement area. The overall final protective fire for the defense encompasses all direct fire weapons and indirect fire assets which have the platoon as first on the priority of fires. The decision to fire the FPF is made by the platoon commander and must be tied to specific trigger lines and distributed between well defined TRPs. e. Obstacle Planning The platoon commander must understand obstacle effects in order to ensure all obstacles are fully integrated with the platoon defensive plan. Tactical obstacles and fires manipulate the enemy in a way that supports the commanders intent and scheme of maneuver. The four tactical obstacle effects are: Disrupt: These obstacles cause the enemy to break up formation and temp, interrupt the sequence of their attack, and cause the enemy to commit breaching assets early. Turn: Obstacles which divert an enemy formation toward an avenue of approach which facilitates the platoons defensive scheme of maneuver. Fix: In this effect, obstacles and fires strive to slow the enemy within the engagement area. Block: These obstacles stop the enemy along a specific avenue of approach and/or prevent the enemy from passing through the engagement area. Obstacle effects drive integration within the engagement area, help to focus crew served weapons and rifle squads fires, focus the obstacle effort, and multiply the effects of firepower within the engagement area (MCWP 3-17). During the planning phase, the platoon commander should focus on determining which obstacle effects he/she wants at specific locations on the battlefield, not on specific obstacle construction. By providing the attached engineer support with the overall commanders intent and the desired obstacle effects in relation

26

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Planning Phase Obstacle Plan (continued)


to the engagement area, the platoon commander can facilitate decentralized execution, accomplishing concurrent tasks, as well as engineer logistics planning. Engineer attachments can also conduct reconnaissance with security from the platoon to provide the commander with information on the best location for obstacle to achieve the desired effect. Obstacles must also take into account the platoon commanders counterattack plans. While the obstacle plan seeks to limit the enemys ability to maneuver within the engagement area, the platoon commander must ensure that the obstacle plan does not inhibit friendly schemes of maneuver. The two categories of obstacles are existing and reinforcing. Existing obstacles include natural and cultural obstacles, while reinforcing obstacles include examples such as mines, wire, early warning devices, ditches, and log cribs. Wire obstacles are classified in three categories: Protective: Wire obstacles which are designed to protect friendly fighting positions. They are designed to disrupt the enemys final assault and should be placed just outside of hand grenade range from the enemy. Tactical: These wire obstacles are constructed to achieve the desired obstacle effect for a given location. For example, wire obstacles may be constructed forward of the engagement area to turn the enemy into the engagement area. Wire obstacles can also be designed to fix the enemy in the engagement area in front of machine gun FPLs and/or PDFs. Supplementary: Supplementary wire obstacles are designed to conceal tactical wire obstacles. These obstacles prevent the enemy from determining the platoon commanders desired obstacle effects before they come under to effects of the platoons fires. (For specific wire construction, see MCWP 3-17A Engineer Field Data) The principals of obstacle employment should be applied at all times during the planning, preparation, and execution phases of the defense. (For more on principals of obstacle employment, refer to B3L4038 Engineers in the Offense and Defense)

27

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Planning Phase Planning for Flexibility / Offensive Action


f. Offensive planning in the defense Flexibility While the defense is the stronger form of combat due to the defenders ability to choose the ground from which to defend, prepare an engagement area, and utilize terrain to his advantage, the defender must actively seek opportunities for offensive action. The platoon commander plans for flexibility in the defense, maintaining the ability to react to the enemys scheme of maneuver. Flexibility in the defense is accomplished in several ways. Types of Positions Primary Position: The primary position is the best available position for an individual or crew served weapon to accomplish the assigned mission. When the platoon occupies the defensive position, the primary positions are first to be occupied. Alternate Position: Alternate positions are located so that individuals and crew-served weapons can continue to accomplish the assigned mission when the primary position becomes untenable or unsuited for carrying out the mission. These are normally located behind the primary positions. Supplementary Position: These positions are prepared to guard against attack from directions other than those from which the main attack is expected, such as the flanks. A supplementary position is a secondary position and does not cover the same sector of fire as the primary and alternate positions.
ALTERNATE SUPPLEMENTARY

Integration of Fires and Obstacles


PRIMARY

Least engaged unit Company level and above units utilize a reserve. At the platoon level, the least engage unit allows the platoon commander to incorporate offensive action in the scheme of maneuver once the enemy has
28 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Planning Phase Leaders Reconnaissance


committed his force in the engagement area. The least engaged unit is the unit which is under minimal enemy influence when the engagement begins based on their placement in the platoons position. The least engaged unit can move to supplementary positions to protect the platoons flank, or conduct a counterattack based on the commanders plan. While the platoon commander can plan for the employment of the least engaged unit, it cannot be tasked to a unit in the platoon operation order. The enemy determines which element is the least engaged unit in the defense. During the planning phase, the commander must develop an employment plan for the least engaged unit and ensure that all squads know their respective responsibilities should they be designated as the least engaged unit. g. Leaders Reconnaissance The platoon commander conducts his/her leaders reconnaissance to validate (confirm or deny) the assumptions made about the enemy and terrain during his/her estimate of the situation, as well as to put the measures in place to facilitate a smooth occupation. The platoon commander must maximize the efficiency of the leaders reconnaissance due to the time compressed environment on the battlefield. The platoon commander develops a priority of reconnaissance prior to conducting the recon. This prioritized list of tasks provides focus to the reconnaissance element and assists in maximizing the recons efficiency. The number one priority for a defensive leaders reconnaissance is to identify/visualize the engagement area, where the platoon commander plans on killing the enemy. The platoon commander issues an order to all Marines going on the leaders recon patrol. At a minimum, this order needs to include EMLCOA, the scheme of maneuver for the patrol, the fire support plan, immediate action drills, priorities of reconnaissance, security plan for patrol will platoon commander is gathering recon information, lost Marine plan, and casualty evacuation plan. The senior Marine remaining with the main body of the platoon, most likely the platoon sergeant, should also be at the order and completely understand the patrols plan. This will enable the main body to support the patrol should the leaders recon come under fire. The platoon commander leaves a five point contingency plan (GOTWA) with the platoon sergeant prior to departing on the reconnaissance (refer to B2H3317, Patrolling Operations)

29

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Planning Phase Leaders Reconnaissance (continued)


A sample priority of reconnaissance is listed below (This list is meant to be used as a guide and is not all inclusive): 1. Identify / confirm the enemys most likely avenue of approach and terrain which maximizes the weapons employment of the platoon. This identifies the location of the engagement area. 2. Visualize the ways in which the engagement area can be subdivided into squad sectors of fire. Identify the locations of the squads which facilitate the above the described sectors. 3. Identify crew-served weapons locations. The location of machine guns in the defense should maximize the effects of the weapon system. Machine guns effectiveness can also be increased by integrating the weapons effects with the obstacle plan. (Refer to B3N4478 Machine Gun Employment) 4. Mark the sectors of fire and squad locations, ensuring the squads representatives on the patrol understand the location and weapons employment considerations from the platoon commander. 5. Confirm and/or refine occupation plan, marking designated release points. 6. Identify command post location. The location should allow the platoon commander to effectively command and control the defense during contact with the enemy. 7. Emplace or leave behind LP/OP(s) to report on situation and assist in providing security for the platoon during occupation. ENDSTATE: The leaders reconnaissance should validate and/or update the platoon commanders estimate of the situation, leading to the identification of the engagement area, and identify control measures which will facilitate a seamless transition to the defense during occupation. h. Issue the Order The platoon commander conveys his plan to his subordinates through the operations order. The platoon commander must determine to issue the order before or after the leaders reconnaissance.

30

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Preparation Phase
B. Preparation Phase Once the initial planning phase and leaders reconnaissance has been conducted, the platoon can move to and begin preparing their defensive position. Defensive operations are LABOR INTENSIVE and require effective use of time to maximize the defenders advantages prior to the engagement with the enemy. a. Occupation of the position: The platoon commander utilizes occupation methods in order to facilitate control while the platoon moves into position. Also, a poorly planned and orchestrated occupation will make the platoon vulnerable to enemy attack due to a low security posture. There are three techniques which can be used to occupy a position: Crows Foot: This technique utilized squad and fire team release point to move units into position while the units are oriented in the direction in the enemy. The advantage of the Crows foot is the forward security posture which each element maintains during occupation, allowing for immediate reaction to premature enemy contact. However, due to the multiple release points, this technique is more difficult to control and demands that unit leaders at every level know the exact location of all release points. Using guides and marking release points can increase the control when using this method.

Bent L: This technique allows the platoon to remain centrally located throughout the occupation of the position. Utilizing an anchor point, the platoon moves in a column until the location of primary positions, then turns perpendicular to the direction of enemy approach and moves into position. The bent L technique increases the direct control by the platoon commander. However, the platoon is more vulnerable to attack until all elements have reached their primary positions.

31

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Preparation Phase (continued)

Combination: The combination technique uses a hybrid of both previous techniques to achieve a balance between control and security. Release points are identified until a certain point where the units move into position using the bent L.

The platoon commander must choose the occupation technique which facilitates the best control and deployability based on the enemy situation and terrain. b. Sectors of Fire and Position development Once the primary positions have been occupied, the platoon commander, along with the squad leaders, should confirm the sectors of fire developed during the leaders reconnaissance. Once confirmed, all fire teams and above can begin to develop the positions which cover their respective sectors of fire. At the individual level during an enemy attack, the maintenance of sectors of fire are adhered to through sectors bags. Sector bags are seen in the diagram below. Sector bag construction will be covered in more depth at the Defensive Tactical Exercise Without Troops (TEWT)

32

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Preparation Phase (continued)

Sandbag Configurations
Base Bags
E N E M Y

1 3

(Shoot an Azimuth) -Continually improve position Space for Bipods -Insert stick as PDF aiming stake

-Bags are listed in order of emplacement -Do not overfill bags -Make sure bags 4-7 align with your field of fire

M16 Configuration (Top)


Traverse Limited by Barrel Contact w/ Bags

M249 Configuration (Top)


Traverse Limited by Barrel Contact w/ Bags

4 1 3 2

Space for Bipods

6 4
Half fill to allow for Ammo Drum

1 3

5 6
PDF Stake

Enemy View of the 7 Bag Configuration


6 5 2 7 3 1

Parapet

Parapet

Fighting positions enable the defender to capitalize on preparation time, maximizing cover from enemy weapons effects. A skirmishers trench and two man fighting position can be seen in the diagrams below. Their construction will be covered in more depth at the defensive TEWT.

Skirmishers Trench

Two-Man Fighting Position

33

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Preparation Phase Security Plan


c. Security Plan Security must be maintained at all times when conducting operations. In the defense, the security plan not only ensures that the platoon is ready when the enemy attacks. It also facilitates the offensive action of the platoon in the defense. There are several aspects of the security plan which together help in conducting successful defensive operations. Alert Status: The alert status determines what percentage of the unit is manning their weapons in the primary positions in the defense. A platoon should never go below 25% security at any time, ensure that all squad automatic weapons and/or larger machine guns are manned. Upon occupation, the platoon should remain at 100% security until the platoon commander decides to begin the priorities of work. The alert status should be driven by the platoon commanders analysis of the enemy, specifically likelihood of enemy attack. The platoon commander must be constantly updating his METT-TC to determine with the increase or diminish the alert status. It facilitates the accomplishment of priorities of work, the patrolling plan, and the rest plan due to the fact that it frees marines from security responsibilities. Stand-To: During stand-to, all Marines are in full equipment with their weapons systems in their primary positions. Leaders at all levels should keep movement to a minimum. The platoon commander should designate brevity codes to signal stand-to and must ensure a timely transition from the priorities of work to stand to. The platoon commander can take the platoon to stand-to any time he/she determines the platoon is vulnerable to enemy observation/attack, or at pre-determined times. Most units go to stand to 30 minutes prior to and after sunrise and sunset, along with departure and re-entry of friendly patrols. LP/OPs: A listening post / observation post (LP/OP) is a location from which Marines can observe enemy movement, report to the platoon commander over appropriate communications assets, and/or call for and adjust indirect fire on enemy units. LP/OPs help to add depth to the defensive battlespace and help to update the platoon commanders estimate of the situation with regard to specific enemy courses of action. The location of LP/OPs must be deconflicted with the platoons direct and indirect fire plans and the Marines involved must have detailed knowledge of contingencies when enemy contact is made. LP/OPs are normally used to confirm or deny the enemys approach along pre-determined routes known by the platoon into the engagement area. Patrols: A detachment of ground or air forces sent out for the purpose of gathering information or carrying out destructive, harassing, mopping up, or security missions against the enemy.
34 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Preparation Phase Priorities of Work / Timeline


In the defense, patrols provide the platoon commander with timely information on the enemy while denying the enemy the ability to gather information on the platoons position. Platoons can investigate areas of interest, emplace LP/OPs, and conduct economy of force operations forward of and to the flanks of the engagement area. Patrols are normally used by the platoon commander on routes and areas other than those he/she believes will be most likely used by the enemy. Patrols can be used to notify the platoon commander that the enemy has adopted a different scheme of maneuver than the one planned. The platoons patrolling effort adds considerable depth to the defensive battlespace and helps to maintain the initiative during defensive operations. d. Priorities of Work and Timeline In the defense, the platoon commander must capitalize on the preparation time allowed. There are numerous tasks which must be accomplished in order for the platoon commander to effectively use the terrain to his advantage. Priorities of work are a list of tasks associated with a timeline that state the order of accomplishment for every Marine in the defense. The priority of work should be thorough and based on the enemy situation. The platoon commander must ground this task list on the enemy and continually evaluate the priorities based on the ever changing situation on the ground. At the most basic level, the priorities of work begin with SAFE and continue on utilizing every opportunity for position improvement until the defensive engagement. A sample priorities of work is provided below: Conduct initial SAFE immediately upon occupation. Immediately begin sector bag construction. Emplace LP/OP covering most likely enemy avenue of approach for the platoons defense. Verify crew-served weapons sectors of fire, specifically their assigned missions of FPL or PDF. Once verified, begin entrenching positions Verify sectors of fire for all other weapons and emplace sector bags. Begin patrol operations Prepare range cards and fire plan sketches Construct primary positions. Clear fields of fire for all positions and continue entrenching primary positions until supporting efforts have skirmishers trenches. Establish and register final protective fires Construct supplementary positions on flanks by supporting efforts. Develop skirmishers trenches Establish and disseminate TRPs, trigger lines, etc.

35

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Preparation Phase (continued)


Once supplementary positions are at skirmisher trench depth, continue primary position construction. Emplace early warning devices on enemy avenues of approach not covered by LP/OP Lay comm. wire and field phones. Bury comm. Wire Establish rest plan Construct alternate positions to skirmisher trench depth. Rehearse least engaged unit movement to supplementary positions. Continue supplementary position construction until positions are chest deep. Rehearse counterattack and other contingency plans. The platoon commander must seek opportunities to adjust the priorities of work based on new discoveries concerning the enemy situation. The platoon commander expresses the priorities of work by marrying them to a timeline. The timeline is centered around occupation time, facilitating flexibility within the plan. An example is shown below: X : Occupation of position X + 15: Initial SAFE conducted. Sector bags begun. X + 30: LP/OP emplaced on likely enemy avenue of approach. X + 35: CSWs sectors, FPLs, and PDFs verified and confirmed. Position construction begun. X + 50: Primary position sectors verified. X + 60: 1st patrol departs X + 90: Squad fire plan sketches submitted to platoon commander: X + 120: Primary position skirmishers trenches complete. . The timeline continues with the priorities of work described above. The platoon commander will establish a tentative occupation time during the planning process. However, the method described above takes into account events during occupation which may unforeseeably prolong this portion of the operation. The platoon commander must take a realistic look at the time required for specific tasks and allot the requisite time accordingly. The platoon commander must also continually evaluate and adjust the timeline based on the situation. The platoon sergeant aggressively drives the timeline, maximizing preparation time and allowing the platoon commander to maintain an external focus. e. Fire Plan Sketch The fire plan sketch is a to-scale, graphic representation of the defensive position that is used by the commander to visualize and coordinate the effects of his engagement area and to prevent gaps in his fires. Once the defensive plan has been established, leaders prepare fire plan sketches. The squad leader prepares the squad fire
36 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Preparation Phase (continued)


plan sketch in duplicate. He gives one sketch to the platoon commander for his approval and keeps a copy for himself. The table at the end of this student handout demonstrates step-by-step how to construct a fire plan sketch. * Attached at the end of this student handout is a sheet of graph paper with a scale and an operational graphics page with a range card for machine guns. Use these two items to aid you during your TEWT and in your field exercises to draw a fire plan sketch. Take the two pages copy them to become one page (back and front) and laminate it to use it in a tactical environment. f. Rehearsals The defensive platoon commander must actively and aggressively seek every opportunity for offensive action. Seizing fleeting opportunities requires seamless transitions by the platoon between executing the priorities of work, conducting stand to procedures, and then adjusting the scheme of maneuver based on enemy activity. Rehearsals facilitate these seamless transitions by ensure that all Marines involved know exactly what to do and are able to accomplish the specified and implied tasks without continued, direct tasking by unit leaders. In the defense, numerous rehearsals can be conducted to assist during the execution phase. Rehearsals must be PRIORITIZED with respect to the ENEMY. These rehearsals include, but are not limited to Prior to Occupation: o Actions on contact during movement to position. o Actions on contact during occupation o Movement through control measures to primary positions (based on occupation technique used) o Immediate actions on occupation (initial SAFE) Post Occupation: o Stand-to procedures o Communication procedures inside defensive position o Movement of least engaged unit to supplementary positions (Each element must rehearse actions as least engaged unit. o Counterattack plans o Movement of platoon to alternate positions o Actions on contact during re-entry of friendly lines by a patrol The platoon commander must balance accomplishing priorities of work and preparing for the engagement with the enemy through rehearsals.

37

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Preparation Phase (continued)


g. Logistics Planning in the defense The defense is labor and resource intensive. The platoon commander must put time and thought into the logistical support required and available for his defensive plan. Commanders at all levels must also plan for the ways in which resources will be moved to their primary positions. Platoon sustainment, position construction, obstacle construction, and survivability are just a few of the areas which need attention when conducting a logistical analysis of the platoon commanders defensive plan.

38

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Execution Phase
C. Execution Phase Up to this point, the focus of this class has been planning and preparing during defensive operations. The planning phase consisted of all actions prior to crossing the line of departure by the platoon. The preparation phase began after occupation of the primary defensive position, focusing on effectively utilizing time and the terrain to prepare for the engagement with the enemy. Ultimately, all of the platoons actions must be focused toward defeating an enemy attack. The execution phase describes the actions conducted during the engagement with the enemy. While preparing the defensive position is labor intensive and will take a large amount of the platoons time, the platoon commander must realize that these actions are only worthwhile if they lead towards effectively defeating the enemy in contact. The execution phase can be thought of using the following steps: a. Gain and Maintain Enemy Contact: Gaining and maintaining contact with the enemy despite their efforts to destroy friendly reconnaissance elements is vital to the success of defensive operations. As the enemys attack begins, the platoon commanders first concerns are to confirm the committed enemy units positions and capabilities, determine the enemys intent and direction of attack, and gain time to react. The platoon commander accomplishes these elements through the platoons patrolling effort forward of the engagement area. The platoon commander uses the available information, in conjunction with his military judgment, to determine the point at which the enemy is committed to a course of action. The platoon commander must plan for the actions of the patrolling effort once contact with the enemy is made, specifically prior to the platoons primary positions beginning their fires. Detailed and well rehearsed plans will mitigate any potential for fratricide during this moment. b. Disrupt the Enemy: After making contact with the enemy, the platoon commander seeks to disrupt his plan, his ability to control his forces, and his ability to employ supporting arms. Ideally, the results of the platoon commanders shaping operations should force a disorganized enemy, whose ability to synchronize its elements has been degraded, to conduct a movement to contact against prepared defenses. Actions during this step should force the enemy into avenues of approach which lead them into the engagement area. These actions destroy the enemys cohesion and disrupt the tempo of his approach. Properly planned long range defensive fires and the forward elements of the obstacle plan help to facilitate this step. The platoon commander must understand the importance of timing during these actions. The enemy cannot be allowed to recover from their effects prior to the decisive point in the engagement area.
39 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Execution Phase (continued)


c. Fix the Enemy: The platoon commander does everything in his power to limit the options available to the enemy when conducting a defense. The commanders plan should constrain the enemy into a specific course of action, control his movements, and/or fix him in a given location. The platoon commanders effective use of obstacles and fires should fix the enemy at a given location. These integrated plans help to ensure the enemy is slowed, potentially stopped, in the engagement area at the exact time and place where the effects of all of the platoons fires are maximized. d. Maneuver: Once the enemy has committed his forces to a given course of action, the platoon commander masses all available fires in the engagement area. Keeping an offensive mindset, the platoon commander is able to move the platoons least engaged unit to the most effective location based on the enemys action. The least engaged unit may move to supplementary positions to protect a flank, or may conduct a counterattack into the engagement area to destroy the enemy. All Marines involved in the counterattack must be aware of the obstacle plan to maximize friendly movement. The platoon commander plans for indirect fire assets to support the counterattack. e. Finishing: Once the enemy has committed his forces in the engagement area, timing is critical. The platoon commander must capitalize on the enemys decisions by quickly and violently destroying the enemy in the engagement area. Coordination and deconfliction of fires, through planning, shifting, and ceasing fires, is vital to ensuring weapons effects are maximized on the enemy. Once the enemy is completely destroyed, the platoon commander either continues the attack or moves into consolidation and reorganization. D. Consolidation / Reorganization Any time contact is made with the enemy, the platoon conducts consolidation and reorganization. Re-establishing security is the first priority during this portion of the operation. The platoon commander ensures that ammunition is adequately dispersed based on his distribution of forces and that the defensive plan is still supportable with the available resources. Casualties and enemy prisoners of war must be taken care of and moved quickly to higher echelons. Casualty collection points (CCPs) and EPW collection points must be identified in the defensive position. He also takes the opportunity to analyze, and potentially refine, his plan based on the new information gained about the enemy. Effective consolidation and reorganization ensures that the platoon remains at the highest possible level of readiness at all times. As the platoon commander reorganizes the defense, he must prepare for follow-on enemy attacks or the platoon commander may receive orders from the company commander to transition to the offense.

40

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Summary
This class has covered the doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures of platoon level defensive operations. Platoon commanders must always remember that the offense and defense must co-exist. A good leader is able to transition seamlessly between the two. While the defense is labor and resource intensive, the platoon commander must remember the overall goal of defensive operations: An integrated and synchronized plan in which the effects of all resources are maximized in the engagement area to defeat an enemy attack. Annexes A. Defensive Operations Order Considerations B. Platoon Fire Plan Sketch

41

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Annex A: Platoon Defensive OpOrd example


Mission Statement: 1st Platoon, you are the company ME. NLT 28AUG1200R2009, block the enemy platoon south, in the vicinity of the Rawah Bridge, in order to prevent the enemy from interfering with the Bn ME attack to the north. Example Defensive Scheme of Maneuver: On order, we will conduct a platoon battle position in the vicinity of Hill 265 with one main effort and four supporting efforts. The defense will be oriented to the northeast. The ME will occupy the center of the battle position, SE 1 will occupy to the left of the main effort, while SE 2 occupies to the right of the main effort. SE 3 and SE 4 will provide direct fire and obstacle support for the platoon battle position. The platoon will cross the Line of Departure in a platoon column. Order of movement will be the Main Effort followed by SE 1, SE 3, SE 4, then SE 2. The platoon will pass through Checkpoint 27 before consolidating in a 360 at the ORP. In the ORP, the ME will orient from 10-2, SE 1 from 6-10, and SE 2 from 2-6, with 12 o'clock being our direction of movement. In the platoon ORP, SE 3 and SE 4 will remain in the center position of the 360. Departing from the ORP, the leader's reconnaissance patrol will conduct the reconnaissance in accordance with the priorities stated in coordinating instructions. Upon the return of the leader's recon, I will pass any refinements in the scheme of maneuver to the squad leaders. O/O the platoon will proceed to the SRP in a platoon column, with the ME followed by SE 3, SE4, SE 1, then SE 2. At the squad release point, the platoon will execute a combination of the Crow's Foot and the Bent "L" to occupy the BP. Once beyond the SRP, the squads will execute individual Bent "L"s from left to right into their positions. The ME will occupy the primary positions first. Once the main effort is in position, SE 1, SE 2, and SE 3 will depart the SRP and will occupy. SE 4 will occupy last behind the ME. Upon occupation, all elements will standto. O/O squads will go to 25% security and begin to execute priorities of work. O/O, SE 1 will provide the first patrol and SE 2 will provide the first LP/OP. Once priorities of work begin, the MEs first priority is construction of their primary positions. O/O, SE 4 will also commence the implementation of the obstacle plan. O/O, the platoon will execute stand-to within the BP. O/S, the platoon will fire its FPF. O/S, the least engaged unit will occupy supplementary positions. The platoon will be prepared to occupy alternate positions. Example Fire Support Plan: The purpose of my fire support plan is to neutralize the enemy in Engagement Area Reaper in order to prevent the enemy from interfering with Bn ME attack to the north. (In this example, 1st Platoon has priority of fire from the company 60mm mortar section)

I have four pre-planned targets: AE 5202 (UT 1234 5678). Suspected enemy avenue of approach. Suppress the enemy IOT turn the enemy platoon towards Engagement Area Reaper. The LP/OP will be the observer and will contact L 3/11 over the artillery conduct of fire net when the enemys lead elements cross trigger line red. L battery will fire HE/PD.

42

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Annex A: Platoon Defensive OpOrd example (continued)


AE 5203 (UT 1242 5657). Likely enemy overwatch position. Suppress the enemy IOT prevent the enemy from observing their approach into Engagement Area Reaper. The LP/OP will be the observer and will contact the 81mm mortar section over the battalion mortar net when the enemy is spotted IVO of TRP 2. 81mm mortars will fire HE/PD. AE5204 (UT 1258 5795). Enemy avenue of approach into Engagement Area Reaper. Suppress the enemy as they enter the engagement area IOT prevent the enemys effective command and control during the engagement. I will be the primary observer and will contact the 81mm mortar section over the battalion mortar net when the enemys lead squad crosses trigger line white. 81mm mortars will fire HE/VT. AE5205 (UT 1210 5605). Final Protective Fire. Neutralize enemy assault elements IOT prevent the enemy from assaulting through Engagement Area Reaper. I will be the primary observer and will contact the company 60mm mortar section over the company tac net when the enemy crosses trigger line blue. Company 60mm mortars will fire HE/VT. Patrol leaders will submit a list of targets ISO their patrol routes to me during forward unit coordination for approval prior to departure. Example Tasking Statements: 1st Squad: You are the ME. NLT 1200, block the enemy south in the vicinity of the Rawah Bridge in order to prevent the enemy from interfering with the Bn ME attack to the north. You have one assault squad attached effective immediately. 2d Squad: You are SE 1. NLT 1200 block the enemy south IVO of Rawah Bridge from the east of 1st Squad IOT prevent the enemy from exploiting the eastern flank of the platoons main effort. You will provide Marines for the first patrol to depart friendly line approximately 30 minutes after occupation. BPT assume the mission of the main effort. BPT assume the role of least engaged unit. 3d Squad: You are SE 2. NLT 1200 block the enemy south IVO Rawah Bridge from the west of the 1st Squad IOT allow the main effort to fix the enemy in Engagement Area Reaper. You will provide Marines for the first LP/OP, which will be inserted during the leaders recon. BPT assume the mission of the main effort. BPT assume the role of least engaged unit. MG Squad: You are SE 3 and in general support of the platoon. Refer to B3N4478 Machine Gun Employment Engineer Team: You are SE 4. Utilizing wire and existing obstacles, turn the enemy into Engagement Area Reaper IOT deny the enemy freedom of movement. Also, fix the enemy in Engagement Area Reaper IOT prevent them from closing with the platoons primary positions. Priority of obstacle construction goes to obstacles in the engagement area, obstacles forward of the engagement area, and then to supplementary wire and other dummy obstacles. Actively seek opportunities to employ existing obstacles into
43 Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Annex A: Platoon Defensive OpOrd example (continued)


the plan to maximize our resources. Coordinate with me throughout the course of the operation for security support during obstacle construction. Coordinating Instructions (Not an all inclusive list): Timeline Leaders Recon Patrol task organizaiton Priorities of Reconnaissance for Leaders Recon Method for Marking Squad Release Point Squad BPs Command Post Casualty Collection Point Enemy Prisoner of War Collection Ponit Latrine Priorities of Work Security Plan Patrol Plan Obstacle Plan Target Precedence Engagement Criteria Immediate Action Drills - Actions on enemy contact during occupation - Actions on enemy contact during departure / re-entry of friendly lines by a patrol. Plan for employment of least engaged unit MOPP Level ROE Platoon Insertion Plan (Helos, trucks, AAVs, etc) Platoon Extraction Plan (Helos, trucks, AAVs, etc) Lost Marine Plan Missing Marine Plan Tactical Control Measures - Assembly Area - Tentative ORP - SRP - Tentative primary defensive position - TRPs (tentative) - Trigger Lines (tentative) - Etc

44

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Annex B: Step-by-step to create a fire plan sketch


Step Action Determine appropriate scale required for creation of your platoon fire plan sketch. This means determining the dimensions, in meters, of each box on your graph paper. (remember that the ratio of your scale should grow as the FPS progress from FT to Sqd to Plt). Ensure that you know the length of each squad battle position (pace it off to be exact) as well as the attitude of the position. This will allow you to be precise when you place it on the grid lines. (You can also use a GPS to get the 8-10 digit grid for each position, or the left and right most holes for the fire teams/squads sectors. This info can also be used to place the positions on the grid lines.) Use the grid lines available to orient the grids north. Reference the squad fire plan sketches and, based on the attitude and size (measure both with a protractor), draw your ME and both SE squads primary positions. Repeat for alternate and supplementary positions as necessary. Draw and label the platoon CP. Your company commander may need this information later on. Use the protractor to measure and draw each squads left and right limits (Magnetic Azimuths) using a dotted line Primary Positions Alternate Positions Supplementary Positions Write the azimuth for each sector along its associated line Use the protractor to draw: For Plt MG PDFs and FPLs; do not include SAW PDFs (The platoon commander may choose to include some SAW PDFs based on the SAWs location in the defense and importance in the overall fire plan.) FPLs are depicted with a bold line for grazing fire; where grazing fire cannot be achieved, the dead space is shown by a thin line. FPLs have a magnetic azimuth For Sqd SAW and M203 PDFs for each fire team; SAW PDF has magnetic azimuths M203 has magnetic azimuth and range to target/dead-space in meters Write the azimuth for each PDF/FPL along its associated line Annotate key terrain on the sketch (large fingers or draws, roads, steams and large amounts of dead space. Try not to clutter the sketch. Ensure the terrain matches what you see in front of you. (This portion falls under the art of developing the sketch. The platoon commander must balance the need for detail with avoiding clutter/confusion on the sketch).

45

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

10

11

Draw and number Target Reference Points (TRPs) and trigger lines Are TRPs recognizable? Do they make sense? Do all the Marines know their respective TRPs/trigger lines? Annotate targets (maintain grids to targets on another piece of paper) ensure FPF target is drawn with boxes. Each box is labeled with a number that corresponds to a gun on the gun-line. Annotate whether or not the FPF has been registered. Annotate obstacles. This includes both existing and reinforcing obstacles. (Maintain grids to obstacles on another sheet of paper; this includes early warning devices) Draw Passage Points for patrols Draw Check Points for patrols if applicable Draw LP/OPs

12

Complete the marginal information Create a copy of the fire plan sketch. You will keep one and turn the other one over to your company commander. Ensure to update as required.

13

-x-x -x-x-x x-x-x x-x-

x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-xx

xxxxxxxxxxxxx
3 1 2

-x-xx

-x-xx
15

10

YE 2002 01 8

1 sq = 20 m
3
Made By: Unit: Map Data: Date/Time Group:

46

Basic Officer Course

Made By: Unit: Map Data: Date/Time Group:

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

PLATOON FIRE PLAN SKETCH CHECKLIST 1. Significant terrain annotated on the sketch? a. Streams? b. High Ground? c. Trails? 2. Left and Right Grids and Sector Limits for Squads (Magnetic Azimuths) a. Primary Positions? b. Alternate Positions? c. Supplementary Positions? 3. Center Grid for the Squad position? 4. Left and Right Grids and Sector Limits for the Platoon (Magnetic Azimuths) a. Primary Positions? b. Alternate Positions? c. Supplementary Positions? 5. Center Grid for the Platoon positions? 6. Final Protective Fires for MGs (Principle Direction of Fire PDF, or Final Protective Line FPL) and Rockets/ Missiles (Hot/ Cold Positions) a. SAW has magnetic azimuths? b. M240G has magnetic azimuths for PDF/FPL? i. Length of Dead Space annotated? ii. Have you attached copies of the Range Cards to the Sketch? iii. Do you have a copy of the Range Card at the CP? c. Mk153 hot/cold positions marked? i. Have you attached Range Cards to the sketch? ii. Do you have a copy of the Range Card at the CP? d. Vehicles/other attachments marked? i. Grids to positions? ii. Sectors of Fire/PDFs/FPLs marked? iii. Have you attached Range Cards to the sketch? iv. Do you have copies of the Range Cards at the CP? 7. Target Reference Point (TRP) Grids and Descriptions? a. Are TRPs recognizable? b. Do they make sense? c. Marked in Additional Information? 8. OP/LP positions marked? a. Grids? i. Primary? ii. Alt? 9. Targets annotated on sketch? Grids to targets? FPLs noted for all fire support agencies (60mm, 81mm, Arty, NGF) 10. Wire, Natural Obstacles, Claymores, Booby Traps, Trip Flares, etc.? a. Annotated on map in relation to terrain? b. Grid marked in marginal info?

300m

75m

300m

MG FPL

FPL 6375 mils PDF 1375 mils

Claymore
MG PDF AT Minefield SAW PDF SAW AP Minefield XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Tactical Wire X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X-X Protective Wire XX=XX=XX=XX=XX=XX=XX=XX Supplementary Wire

PDF 137 mag

TOW

Javelin

M203 Single Strand Concertina M240G Double Strand Concertina Triple Strand Concertina M2 .50 Cal Command Post

AT-4 or SMAW

60mm Mortar

81mm Mortar

Mk19 Primary Pos

LP/OP

PP 1

Passage Point

Alt LP/OP Check Point Alt/Supp Pos Target Ref Point (TRP)

LU 1

Link Up Point

Contact Point

Point Target Anti-Tank Ditch Early Warning Device Linear Target Mortar FPF Trip Wire

48

Basic Officer Course

References
Reference Number or Author FMFM 2-7 JP 1-02 MCDP 1 MCDP 1-0 MCRP 3-11.1A MCRP 3-11.1B MCRP 3-11.2A MCRP 3-16A MCRP 3-16C MCRP 5-2A MCWP 3-1 MCWP 3-11.1 MCWP 3-11.2 MCWP 3-11.3 MCWP 3-15.1 MCWP 3-15.5 MCWP 3-16 MCWP 3-17 Reference Title Fire Support in MAGTF Operations Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms Warfighting Marine Corps Operations Commanders Tactical Handbook Small Unit Leaders Guide to Weather and Terrain Marine Troop Leaders Guide Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for the Targeting Process Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Fire Support for the Combined Arms Commander Operational Terms and Graphics Ground Combat Operations Marine Rifle Company/Platoon Marine Rifle Squad Scouting and Patrolling Machine Guns and Machine Gun Gunnery Antiarmor Operations Fire Support Coordination in the Ground Combat Element Engineering Operations

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym AA ACE AO ASAP BAMCIS Definition or Identification Assembly area Ammunition, Casualties, and Equipment Area of operations As soon as possible Begin planning, arrange for reconnaissance, make reconnaissance, complete the plan, issue the order, and supervise Casualty evacuation Call for fire Combat Operations Center Center of gravity Casualty collection point Command post Combat service support Critical vulnerabilities Engagement area Enemys most likely course of action Enemy Enemy prisoner of war Forward edge of the battle area Field exercise Forward line of own troops Final protective fires Final protective lines Fire support plan Immediate action In order to Killed in action Listening post/Observation post Main battle area Main effort Mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available-time available, time and cultural considerations Marine Logistics Group No later than Marine Logistics Group Original, Appropriate, and Redundant Principle direction of fire Reconnaissance Squad automatic weapon Supporting effort Scheme of maneuver

CASEVAC CFF COC COG CCP CP CSS CV EA EMLCOA EN EPW FEBA FEX FLOT FPF FPL FSP IA IOT KIA LP/OP MBA ME METT-TC MLG NLT MLG OAR PDF Recon SAW SE SOM

50

Basic Officer Course

B3J3778

Rifle Platoon in the Defense

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym TBS TCM TRP TTP US Definition or Identification The Basic School Tactical control measures Target Reference Points Tactics, techniques, and practices United States

Notes

51

Basic Officer Course

Notes

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

RIFLE PLATOON NIGHT ATTACKS B3J3838 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks


Introduction An attack emphasizes maximum application of combat power, coupled with bold maneuver, shock effect in the assault, and prompt exploitation of our success. Our four principle tasks in an attack (Prevent effective enemy maneuver, Maneuver to gain an advantage, deliver an overwhelming assault, and exploit advantages gained) make it necessary that we are capable of operating in a limited visibility environment. As you are conducting your METT-TC analysis in planning for a limited visibility attack it should be more deliberate in nature, except when it is part of a follow-up mission to a day attack mission or as a part of an exploitation or pursuit operation. As the commander you need to consider the affect that operating in a limited visibility environment will have on your unit. During this lesson we will cover the many considerations on conducting a limited visibility attack. We will consider how the limited visibility environment affects the control of units and fires, identifying and engaging targets, navigating and moving without detection, locating, treating and evacuating casualties and enemy prisoners of war, and identifying and bypassing the enemies obstacle plan. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Purpose of Night Attacks Phases of a Night Attack Preparation Phase of a Night Attack Conduct Phase of a Night Attack Consolidation/Reorganization Phase of a Night Attack References Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Appendix: Example of a PLD patrol and its possible tasks Page 4 4 5-12 12-13 14 13 13 16

Importance

In This Lesson

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks (Continued)


Learning Objectives Learning Objectives
Given a mission and commander's intent in a changing situation, while serving as a leader of Marines, integrate maneuver warfare into decision-making to accomplish the mission. (MCCS-OFF2102k) Given a mission and commander's intent, develop a mental estimate of the situation using METT-TC to accomplish the mission. (MCCS-OFF-2102l) Given a mission, commander's intent, and a mental estimate of the situation, integrate the principles of war into tactical planning to accomplish the mission. (MCCS-OFF-2102m) Without the aid of reference, define probable line of deployment (PLD) without error. (MCCS-OFF-2103h) Without the aid of reference, describe the probable line of deployment (PLD) patrol without omission. (MCCS-OFF-2103i) Given a unit and a mission with commander's intent, lead a unit in a night attack to accomplish the mission. (MCCS-OFF-2103j) Given a unit, mission, scheme of maneuver, and a mental estimate of the situation, employ tactical control measures to support the ground scheme of maneuver. (T&R 0311-OFF2001c) Given thermal devices and an area to observe during limited visibility and darkness, employ thermal devices to identify objects or enemy. (MCCS-PAT-2102c) Given observation aiding equipment and an area to observe during limited visibility and darkness, search field of view to identify objects or enemy. (MCCS-PAT-2102d) Given night vision devices and an area to observe during limited visibility and darkness, employ night vision devices to identify objects or enemy. (MCCS-PAT-2102b)

Success in a night attack depends largely upon direction, control, and surprise. -FMFRP 12-2, Infantry in Battle

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Purpose of Night Attacks


As a unit leader you would conduct attacks during limited visibility to take advantage of our night vision devices against the majority of our potential enemies. Other reasons that you would conduct a limited visibility operation are to continue an attack started in the daylight (i.e. pursuit of an objective or exploitation of an objective), achieve surprise and psychological advantage, and compensate for inferior combat power. The table below highlights some of the advantages and disadvantages of conducting limited visibility operations.

ADAVANTAGES OF LIMITED VISIBILITY OPERATIONS Darkness can conceal the movement of large forces Physical and psychological factors favor the attacker (shock, disorientation, and isolation are easier to achieve) Increase the element of surprise Defender cannot deploy his least engaged unit (or reserve) as quickly as he can during the day Compensate for inferior combat power Avoid heavy losses

DISADVANTAGES OF LIMITED VISIBILITY OPERATIONS Command and control are more difficult Terrain is more difficult to traverse The attacker loses momentum because he attacks at a reduced speed in order to maintain the coherence of the unit Land navigation is more difficult at night The enemy can reposition or emplace obstacles at night without being detected Attacking units are easier to ambush Adjusting indirect fires is difficult at night Units will require significantly larger quantities of signal ammunition to develop a signal plan Locating and evacuating casualties The risk of fratricide Communication upon consolidation Segregating and marking EPWs

Phases of the Night Attack


Preparation Conduct Movement to the PLD/Objective Actions on the Objective

Consolidation

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Preparation of a Night Attack


As with the preparation of a day attack, preparations for a night attack still requires you as the commander to conduct a thorough estimate of the situation to identify the points of friction as well as the advantages that you can exploit. As we talk about considerations for conducting attacks during times of limited visibility utilize the Platoon in the Attack student handout as a reference for the basic concepts of an attack. Understand that our attack during limited visibility doesnt require us to do anything special although we need to consider those things that are different from the day. Once the platoon commander receives his order to conduct an attack, he will immediately begin to conduct his estimate of the situation (METT-TC). Understanding the commanders intent and your mission will enable you to quickly achieve a decision as to whether this will be a hasty or deliberate attack. Based off of the enemy situation we can determine whether we want to conduct a frontal or flanking attack. As stated above we can utilize a hasty attack to exploit success from day time operations or to pursue an enemy. A hasty attack is where we are going to exchange preparation and planning time for execution time. As the commander you can choose to conduct a deliberate attack to help mitigate some of the disadvantages of operating during times of limited visibility. Although this may be the preferred type of attack the commander must understand that the deliberate attack allows the enemy to continue defensive improvements or conduct a spoiling attack. Also we need to determine which form of maneuver to use. Are we going to conduct a frontal attack or a flanking attack? Table 2-1 outlines some of advantages and disadvantages of conducting a flanking or frontal attack.
ADAVANTAGES OF A FRONTAL ATTACK Facilitates control of units during the attack Exploit a weak enemy Greater dispersion of forces along the enemies frontage

DISADVANTAGES OF A FRONTAL ATTACK

Attacking the strength of the enemies defense

ADAVANTAGES OF FLANKING ATTACK Your able to gain the element of surprise Attacks a perceived gap in the enemy

DISADVANTAGES OF A FLANKING ATTACK May not employ all of the commanders forces

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Preparation of a Night Attack


Also we need to look at the advantages and disadvantages of conducting an illuminated attack verses a non-illuminated attack. As the commander we utilize limited visibility attacks to take advantage of our night vision device technology as well as the other advantages that operating at this time affords us. Although non-illuminated may be the preferred course of action what advantages does an illuminated attack afford you as the commander? See table 3-1 below which outlines advantages and disadvantages of an illuminated verses a non-illuminated attack.

ILLUMINATED ATTACK Utilizes illumination from organic weapons (M203) or supporting arms (mortars, artillery, air) Resembles a daylight attack Is supported by continuous illumination Could be used when: o Friendly units lack NVG capability o Enemy has NVG capability and we have no tactical advantage o Poor ambient illumination creates poor visibility with NVGs o Multiple friendly units on the battlefield and commander wants to reduce confusion The visibility resulting from illumination determines the degree to which daylight techniques are employed; under ideal illumination, a night attack could use all the tactics of a daylight attack Used when speed is essential Should be placed beyond the objective to silhouette the objective Used to confuse the enemy about the location of attack

NON-ILLUMINATED ATTACK Conducted by stealth to maintain secrecy and achieve surprise. A complete fire support plan is developed, including illumination, but not used until the enemy discovers the attack. This helps to ensure that tactical surprise is maintained until contact is made. Normally requires accurate and detailed knowledge of the location of Enemy positions Obstacles Security measures Which is gained during the Leaders Recon. Use of NVDs improves our ability to: Move Navigate Reconnoiter Identify enemy positions Adjust fires Some units may not have enough optics to issue one to every Marine. Therefore, priority of issue should go to: Key Leaders Automatic Weapons Lead trace/reconnaissance units Know the enemy: If he has good night vision capabilities, consider an illuminated attack to degrade this. Its a two-way street!

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Preparation Phase: Prep for Combat


After conducting a thorough estimate of the situation and developing a tentative SOM, the platoon commander should publish a Warning Order. The platoon can then begin drawing necessary communications, ammunition, and pyrotechnics specific to operating at night. It is also at this phase of the preparation that a platoon commander should conduct fire support planning and have his subordinates check the functionality of their night vision/thermal devices.
Illumination Planning Considerations WEAPON Projectile Burn Time Effective Illum Diameter (spread) (M) 1000 500 500 200 Rate of Desent (M/Sec) 5 6 6 7

155mm 81mm 60mm 40mm

M485A2 M301A3 M721 M583A1

120 60 40 40

Preparation Phase: Make Reconnaissance


The leaders reconnaissance for a night attack is conducted during the daytime, using a patrol that is task-organized to: Accomplish reconnaissance of the enemy positions Determine routes, key terrain and tactical control measures for the attacking unit; to include the Probable Line of Deployment Provide terminal guidance and security for the attacking unit Mark the PLD

What is a PLD?

Similar to an assault position, a PLD is a tactical control measure (TCM) that we use under limited visibility conditions to identify where our unit will deploy prior to beginning its assault. It provides a platoon with direction, by facilitating the transition to an online formation in front of the enemy. Usually perpendicular to the direction of attack, it is a line on the ground (either natural or man-made) that can be the last covered/concealed position prior to the objective and forward of the LOD. Where the unit leader plans to complete final deployment of his forces. Close enough to the enemy positions so the distance moved in the assault is relatively short and the amount of obstacles are limited. Ideally, is set on terrain that shields it from discovery by the enemy. It is the unit leaders responsibility to confirm the direction of attack and the unit orientation at the PLD.

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Who goes on the PLD/recon patrol?

The patrol takes the minimum number of Marines necessary to accomplish its mission. At a minimum, the patrol should have a patrol leader (platoon commander), one Marine per squad, and two additional Marines who can remain at the PLD for security once reconnaissance is complete. A sample organization of a PLD patrol and its tasks can be found in the Appendix of this student handout.

How do we emplace a PLD?

If no natural features exist to use as a PLD, we can emplace a man-made one with a patrol. PLD patrol can be separate from leaders recon patrol, though at a minimum, the PLD should be identified during the recon. Once near the objective, the patrol leader moves forward to locate the objective. After establishing security, he supervises the guides as they locate and mark the necessary control measures. A small element should remain behind to maintain security on the PLD while the patrol returns to link up with the platoon. PLD should be marked at dusk, loaded in the dark. Directional or IR chemlights can be used to lead unit to PLD in the dark.

Preparation Phase: Make Reconnaissance (Continued)

Ultimately, the decision is up to the unit leader, but there are several things that must be considered before the decision is made to establish a support by fire position. If the platoon commander does decide to use an SBF for a night attack, it is one of the greater command-andcontrol challenges that can be faced at the platoon level.
SUPPORT BY FIRE CONSIDERATIONS Does the terrain support establishing a support by fire position? What is the level of training for my unit? Does the situation require us to gain fire superiority from the flank to be successful? Do we need to minimize the number of Marines in the maneuver element? What is the risk of fratricide? What communications assets does my platoon possess? What pyro do I have remaining to use for a detailed signal plan? What is the No comm. plan and has the unit been informed? What unit leader will I place at the SBF position?

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Preparation Phase: Complete the Plan & Issue the Order


As the commander planning for and conducting limited visibility operations you need to plan for the operation just as you would for a day time operation but with specific emphasis on ensuring that your plan is simple, that you take extra time for reconnaissance, formations, communications, contingency plans, tactical control measures, and marking of key leaders.

Formations

Choose the formation to facilitate speed and control. This generally means a column formation in the early stages of the attack. The unit should transition to a more linear formation at the PLD or just prior to contact with the enemy. Other formation considerations: Rate of march should be slow to facilitate control and stealth, which gives us surprise. Leaders should be positioned near the front of their units. Squad leaders and platoon commanders may move at the front of their squads and platoons. This enhances the leaders situational awareness and control, and facilitates the decision-making process. All personnel should know the locations and markings of small unit leaders.

Communications

Because the night attack relies on surprise, maintain radio silence prior to contact with the enemy, when at all possible. At a minimum, use brevity codes. Messengers are also an option for communications. Key personnel, in addition to unit leaders, can be subtly marked to help identify them at night. Night attacks may not always be executed as planned. Leaders must prepare alternate plans and plan for unexpected developments. Plans must be flexible and allow for initiative by subordinate leaders.

Contingency Plan

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Preparation Phase: Complete the Plan & Issue the Order (Continued)
Tactical Control Measures
Control measures are generally more restrictive than during daylight and therefore must be easily recognizable. In addition to the PLD that was discussed earlier, the table below lists specific considerations for employing tactical control measures during a night attack. Assembly Area Usually required to conduct the extensive preparations for a night attack.

Attack Azimuth A magnetic azimuth that gives the direction from the PLD to the objective. Determined during leaders reconnaissance and briefed to Marines prior to crossing the line of departure. Time of Attack If the night attack is launched to seize favorable terrain for a succeeding daylight attack, it is usually launched during the final hours of darkness. Conversely, attacks launched during the early hours of darkness permit the attacker to take advantage of a long period of darkness to consolidate his position or to exploit the enemy's confusion and loss of control. In either case, attacking units must avoid setting patterns. Objective Rally Point The objective rally point (ORP) is located nearest the objective where the patrol makes final preparations prior to approaching the objective. The objective rally point is a point out of sight, sound, and small-arms range of the objective area. The ORP is tentative until the objective is pinpointed. Actions at or from the ORP include: reconnoitering the objective, issuing a FRAGO, disseminating information from the reconnaissance, making final preparations before continuing operations Squad Release Point A TCM that may be used, depending on the method utilized to load the PLD. Established on the friendly side of the PLD, it is the point at which squads separate from the platoon to facilitate loading the PLD. Rally Points Designated for link-up if the enemy repulses the attack.

10

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Limit of Advance Is a terrain feature easily recognized in the dark (stream, road, edge of woods, etc.) beyond which attacking elements will not advance. Aids in consolidation after the assault.

Preparation Phase: Complete the Plan & Issue the Order (Continued)
Marking To facilitate control at night, we mark key leaders for identification in the dark. The following are ways we can do this: Cat Eyes Illumination tape Engineer Tape IR Strobes (Dependent on the capabilities of the enemy) Chemical Lights Colored lights Infrared (ex. 1 = FTL, 2 = SL, 3 = PC, etc.) By marking terrain, a platoon commander can enhance his units direction while closing with the enemy. Engineer tape to mark control measures like the PLD Keep personnel ON LINE Chemical lights prepped in advance Colored Not visible to enemy (directional technique / use tape) Used during training Infrared If enemy does NOT have IR detection capability Must train to this standard with NVGs

Preparation Phase: Supervise


The preparations for combat following the issuance of the order are very similar to when conducting a day attack. However, special emphasis must be placed on inspecting things like NVDs, issuance of pyrotechnics, marking tactical control measures, marking of key leaders, PLD marking kits, rehearsals, and LZ marking kits. PLD Marking Kits Chemlights (IR and Color) Engineer Tape Chalk IR Strobes

11

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

LZ Marking Kits

Chemlights (IR and Color) Engineer Tape Chalk IR Strobes IR Buzzsaw

Rehearsals

Rehearsals are vital for success in a night attack because they: Reinforce techniques Decentralize control Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the plan Enhance coordination

The unit leader should rehearse his plan of attack over ground as similar as possible to the terrain over which the attack will be conducted. If possible, the unit leader should conduct daylight, dusk, and dark rehearsals.

Conduct Phase: Movement to the PLD


Stealth and controlled movement at night give us surprise over the enemy. The key to gaining surprise is the individual discipline of the Marines; discipline must be ruthlessly enforced throughout the operation. It is vital that the platoon move to the PLD without being detected. Therefore, we always load the PLD in the dark to ensure that our movement remains undetected.

Conduct Phase: Loading PLD


There are three basic techniques for loading the PLD. They are the same as the defensive occupation techniques which are as follows: Bent-L Crows Foot Combination (Crows Foot & Bent L)

OCCUPY PLD WITH CROWS FOOT


The Crows Foot technique allows for lateral dispersion of the platoon prior to moving into the PLD. The platoon approaches the squad release point and the squads release. The platoon then approaches the PLD in three squad columns, rather than a single platoon column. This facilitates control and enhances security. Though it may sound easy, the Crow's Foot is not a simple method. The Crows Foot is difficult to set up and to execute (see diagram below).

12

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Conduct Phase Crows Foot (Pure)

Fire Tm Release Point

Squad Release Point

OCCUPY PLD WITH BENT - L


The "Bent L" is a simple and easily executed technique (see diagram below). The significant disadvantage is that if the attacking force is discovered as they move in column to the PLD or while "loading" the PLD, it will have difficulty deploying its forces.

Conduct Phase Bent L (Pure)

OCCUPY WITH COMBINATION METHOD


In the combination method, the platoon approaches the squad release point, as in the crows foot method. Upon reaching the squad release point, each squad moves in column to the PLD, then pivots and moves into an online formation.

13

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

Conduct Phase Combination (Bent-L / Crows Foot)

Squad Release Point (bent L)

Conduct Phase: Actions on the Objective


Once in the PLD, the platoon quietly moves forward to the objective until contact is made or the attack is discovered. At that point, the squads and fire teams transition to fire and movement. To ensure that surprise is maintained, the fire support plan, which may include illumination, is not initiated until contact. Ideally, the assault is not discovered and the attackers capture the enemy in their sleeping bags as they move onto the objective. It is imperative for the attacking force to maintain absolute silence throughout the attack until contact is made. Do not show any lights to the enemy. Flashlights, chemlights, and even the luminous dial on a compass, if visible to the enemy, can negate the advantage of surprise and wreck a good plan. As discussed earlier, we should always attempt to achieve a completely non-illuminated attack. However, if the enemy decides to use illumination on the battlefield, the platoon commander must immediately transition his Marines into an illuminated attack using whatever assets he planned for. Additionally, at any time, a platoon commander may decide to transition to an illuminated attack at his discretion.

Consolidation/Re-Organization Phase
There are a few extra considerations for consolidating at night that we do not necessarily have during the day. The platoons limit of advance must be easily recognizable in the dark. Immediately thereafter, just like with a day attack, the unit must quickly transition to security on the objective, utilizing the priorities of SAFE. Once security is established, the unit begins putting their automatic weapons on the likely enemy avenues of approach as well as establishing fields of fire. As the commander you need to ensure that the subordinate element leaders are giving their units fields of fire that are easily identifiable at night. The Enemy Prisoners of War (EPW) and Casualty Collection Points (CCP) should be marked using chemlights or other devices that are visible to Marines in the dark.

Summary

14

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

The night attack is a difficult operation that requires a detailed yet simple plan, realistic and recognizable control measures, and discipline of individual Marines. The ability to operate successfully at night is not guaranteed by simply being able to operate during daylight hours. For units to be successful at night, they must undertake a thorough and intensive training plan that prepares Marines to operate in the darkness. At the platoon level, platoon commanders must ensure that their units are properly trained, properly supervised, and that the proper planning is done prior to ever crossing the line of departure.

References
Reference Number MCDP 1-3 MCWP 3-1 MCWP 3-11.1 FMFRP 12-2 MCWP 3-11.3 Reference Title Tactics (Chapter 3) Ground Combat Operations Marine Rifle Company / Platoon Infantry in Battle Scouting and Patrolling

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Terms and Acronyms PLD Definitions or Identifications Probable Line of Deployment

Notes

15

Basic Officer Course

B3J3838

Rifle Platoon Night Attacks

APPENDIX: Example of PLD patrol and possible tasks


Organization Patrol leader: Platoon commander Assistant patrol leader: Generally an experienced squad leader Radio operators: Patrol will normally require at least one radio However, the patrol leader determines how many radio operators he needs Guides: Each squad provides a Marine to act as that squad's guide The first squad guide also acts as the platoon guide Guides should be trained and experienced at operating independently Normally, squad and fire team leaders will not be used as guides. Leaders should choose other wellqualified Marines for this purpose PLD security: Each squad may provide one additional man to act as security along the probable line of deployment Tasks (in priority order) Detailed enemy information and terrain analysis: The patrol must locate Obstacles Gaps in obstacles Enemy Ops Enemy automatic weapons The best route to the objective Mark routes and control measures: The patrol must locate and mark very specific and restrictive control measures to Move a rifle platoon at night to an enemy position (or other objective) Transition from a movement formation to an assault formation Assault the objective Provide guides: After locating the enemy and fixing the control measures, some patrol members return to the rifle platoon to lead it to the squad release point Additional guides lead squads and other subordinate units (machine guns...) to the probable line of deployment and into their assault formations Maintain surveillance of objective: Inform the platoon commander of any changes in the enemy situation. Reinforcements of the position, additional enemy patrols or OPs, or repositioning of forces could seriously affect the platoons plan of attack. The patrol needs radios or other communication gear to inform the platoon commander of changes in the situation prior to the platoon arriving at the PLD

16

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

INTRODUCTION TO COMBAT ENGINEERING B3L3998 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Introduction to Combat Engineering


Introduction Combat engineering, simply put, is the means by which a unit commander can increase the mobility of friendly forces, inhibit the movement of enemy forces, provide effective cover and concealment for friendly forces, and be able to possess some limited general construction capabilities in order to facilitate operations of an expeditionary nature. Understanding and properly integrating engineering capabilities into your scheme of maneuver will act as a force multiplier that greatly enhances your combat effectiveness. You will learn engineer unit organization, basic engineering tasks, and mine types and employment. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Engineering Mission Engineer Organization Summary Appendix References Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Notes Page 3 4 14 14 16 16 16

Importance

In This Lesson

Learning Objective

Enabling Learning Objective 0302-OFF-1201h Without the aid of references, describe the four functional areas of combat engineering without error.

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineering Mission
Introduction. Engineering provides a unit commander with the tactical ability to manipulate the existing terrain and/ or structure within an area of responsibility thereby increasing the combat effectiveness of the fighting force. The mission of the combat engineering field of the MAGTF is accomplished through the following four functions: Mobility operations. Mobility is the quality or capability of military forces that permits them to move from place to place while retaining the ability to fulfill their primary mission. The objective of mobility operations is to maintain freedom of movement for maneuver units. Counter-mobility operations. Counter-mobility is the reinforcement of the terrain through the construction of obstacles to disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemy. The primary objective of counter-mobility operations is to: o Slow or divert the enemy o Increase Time for target acquisition o Weapon effectiveness without impairment to the movement of friendly forces Survivability operations. Survivability is the ability of personnel, equipment, and facilities to continue to operate within the wide range of conditions faced in a hostile environment. Survivability includes all aspects of: o Protecting personnel, weapons, and supplies o Employing good tactics, frequent unit moves, deception, camouflage, and emission security o Constructing fighting and protective positions Survivability operations will not completely eliminate vulnerability to fires on the modern battlefield or the effects of weather. It can, however, limit losses by reducing exposure to enemy weapons and the weather. General engineer operations. General engineering, the combat service support function, is characterized by: o High standards of design and construction o Detailed planning and preparation o Normally serves the whole MAGTF and is characterized as force sustainment. Summary. As a combat multiplier, engineers focus on maintaining the ground combat elements (GCEs) freedom of maneuver and attacking the enemy's ability to maneuver on the battlefield.

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization Organization. Engineer units are: Organic to each of the subordinate elements of the MAGTF Uniquely manned and equipped to provide required engineer support Able to reinforce one another when one unit is tasked beyond its means

Additionally, engineer officers are assigned as special staff officers to the MAGTF commander as well as to division, wing, and group general staffs. If the command element (CE) or any element of a MAGTF does not have a dedicated engineer officer, the senior Marine engineer commander normally assumes this as a collateral duty. External engineer support is available to the MAGTF commander from various sources. The diagram below is a composite diagram of all engineer assets available to the MAGTF commander. The MAGTF commander employs these assets to create a combined arms effect in deep, close, and rear operations. Engineers are employed throughout the depth of the battlefield and are essential to each element of the MAGTF's combined arms team.

COMBAT ENGINEER BATTALION

ENGINEER SUPPORT BATTALION

MWSG MWSS

MAGTF

NAVAL CONSTRUCTION FORCES

HOST NATION SUPPORT JOINT / COMBINED FORCES

CIVILIAN CONTRACTOR

Primary MAGTF Engineer Assets (in white) and External Assets (in gray)

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization (Continued) Combat Engineer Battalion (CEB). (See diagram below.)

Combat Engineer Battalion (CEB)

Headquarters & Service Company

Engineer Support Company

Combat Engineer Company

Combat Engineer Battalion Mission. The CEB mission is to: o Enhance the mobility, counter-mobility, and survivability of the Marine division through close combat engineer support o Provide limited general engineering support to the Marine division Concept of Employment. The combat engineer battalion is organized to provide one combat engineer company in support of an infantry regiment and associated task elements. For smaller MAGTF operations, the combat engineer battalion will provide reinforced units to the GCE. Normally, a reinforced combat engineer platoon will support a battalion landing team. Combat engineer units are most effective when employed in direct support because the capability of the whole unit is higher than that of its component parts. Dividing a combat engineer unit, especially below the platoon level, significantly degrades the platoon's capability and forfeits much of the laborsaving support that engineers provide. Individual squads do not perform the command and control, training, and other functions performed by the platoon headquarters. Individual maneuver companies within the GCE can still have the benefit of combat engineer advice and assistance by assigning a combat engineer NCO to serve as an advisor to the maneuver company commander. Tasks and Capabilities. Engineer functions accomplished by the CEB encompass both combat support and minimal combat service support tasks. The primary task is in the combat support role--to ensure the mobility, counter-mobility, and survivability of the GCE. CEB training and equipment capabilities are focused on these

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization (Continued) missions. Their work is of a very rough and expeditious nature to ensure the momentum of the fluid battlefield is retained in our favor. The CEB is responsible for the following mission essential task list (METL): Conducting engineer reconnaissance Obstacle breaching from the high-water mark inland Providing expedient repair and reinforcement of existing bridges Constructing expedient, short-span bridges from local materials Providing temporary repair of existing roads, limited new construction, and maintenance of combat roads and trails to support combat operations o Planning, organizing, and coordinating construction of simple and complex explosive and non-explosive obstacle systems o Performing demolition missions beyond the ability of other division units o o o o o Combat Engineer Company. (See diagram below) Each of the combat engineer companies consists of a company headquarters and three combat engineer platoons. Each platoon consists of (1) platoon commander, (1) platoon sergeant, (1) platoon guide, and (3) nine-man squads.

Combat Engineer Company, CEB

Company Headquarters

Engineer Platoon

Combat Engineer Company, Combat Engineer Battalion

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization (Continued) Engineer Support Company. (See diagram below.)

Engineer Support Company, CEB

Company Headquarters

Equipment Platoon

Utilities Platoon

Motor Transport Platoon

Engineer Support Company, Combat Engineer Battalion

The engineer support company consists of o A company headquarters o An engineer equipment platoon, which has all the heavy equipment such as bulldozers, graders, forklifts, and armored combat earthmovers o A utilities platoon, which provides the bulk of the combat service support functions of the battalion, including the provision of potable water, mobile electric power, and hygiene services o A motor transport platoon

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization (Continued) Engineer Support Battalion (ESB). (See diagram below.)

Engineer Support Battalion (ESB)

Headquarters & Service Company

Engineer Support Company

Engineer Company

Explosive Ordnance Disposal Bridge Company Bulk Fuel Company

Engineer Support Battalion Mission. The mission of the ESB is to increase the combat effectiveness of the MAGTF by accomplishing general engineering missions of a deliberate nature. The ESB: o Improves on the hasty engineer work performed by the GCE to enhance the mobility, survivability, and sustainability of the MAGTF o Is particularly strong in construction of roads, buildings, airfields, and fortifications o Is the only source of fixed and floating bridge assets in the MEF Concept of Employment. The ESB initially provides general support to the landing force by providing composite engineer units/detachments to the combat service support element (CSSE) of the MAGTF. Upon consolidation of the Marine Logistics Group (MLG) within the amphibious objective area (AOA), the battalion would regain operational control of most of its committed engineer assets (except fuel and water). Under centralized control, the battalion gives depth to the overall engineering effort. Tasks and Capabilities. The general engineering tasks performed by the ESB are o Vertical and horizontal construction o Facilities maintenance o Utilities support

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization (Continued) o Bulk fuel support

The battalion also provides CSS and lends depth and flexibility to the overall engineer effort by performing general engineering tasks for the entire MAGTF. The battalion possesses a heavy capability to provide water purification, electrical power production, and bulk fuel storage. The ESB or any of its detachments have the additional mission of reinforcing the CEB or Marine wing support squadron (MWSS.) The ESB must be capable of combat support as well as CSS tasks to execute this mission. Engineer Company. (See diagram below) The engineer company provides general engineering support of a deliberate nature to the MAGTF. When suitably augmented by elements from other companies in the battalion, the engineer company is capable of performing engineer tasks for the battalion, except installation of bulk fuel systems.

Engineer Company, ESB

Company Headquarters

Equipment Platoon

Engineer Platoon

Engineer Company, Engineer Support Battalion

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization (Continued) Engineer Support Company. (See diagram below.)

ENGINEER SUPPORT COMPANY, ESB

Motor Transport Platoon

Utilities Platoon

Maintenance Platoon

Company Headquarters

Water Supply Platoon

Engineer Equipment Platoon

Engineer Support Company, Engineer Support Battalion

The engineer support company is responsible for providing o o o o o o Engineer equipment Heavy equipment Utilities support Portable drinking water Water supply and hygiene equipment Augmentation personnel to the GCE and aviation combat element (ACE) engineer support elements

Marine Wing Support Squadron. (See diagram below.)

Marine Wing Support Squadron

Engineer Operations Company

Utilities Platoon

Construction Platoon

Heavy Equipment Platoon

Equipment Maintenance Platoon

Marine Wing Support Squadron

10

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization (Continued) Mission. The Marine wing support squadron is organized to provide the full range of engineer support to the aviation combat element. Concept of Employment. The engineer operations company operates under the staff cognizance of the operations department (S-3). Tasks and Capabilities. The engineers in support of the aviation combat element have the primary task and responsibility of providing special support to airfield operations. Their training and equipment are focused on the missions of survivability and general engineering. Their heavy capabilities are in the area of o o o o Expedient runway construction and repair Vertical construction Fortification construction Material handling

Additionally, they have a heavy capability in the utilities field such as Electrical generation Water production and storage Hygienic equipment operation Bulk fuel storage and distribution

However, unlike the CSSE engineer assets, these capabilities will be localized at the airfield rather than mobile throughout the area of operations (AO). The ACE engineers will perform very little work in the areas of mobility and counter-mobility once the airfield is established. Naval Construction Forces (NCF). The mission of NCF units (more frequently referred to as SeaBees), when assigned to a MAGTF, is to ensure the sustainment of MAGTF operations by providing deliberate construction support, including major construction and repair to existing facilities. NCF equipment and training are strongly oriented toward the deliberate engineering role. They have little-to-no capability in the roles of mobility or counter-mobility as it applies to maneuver forces. Both I and II MEF have access to a naval construction regiment (NCR) (see diagram on next page) that will more than double the amount of engineer personnel and equipment within the MEF. This NCR includes: One regimental headquarters Three naval mobile construction battalions One naval construction force support unit

Smaller, task organized elements of the NCR can be established to support different sized MAGTFs.

11

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization (Continued)

Naval Construction Regiment

Naval Construction Force Support Unit

Naval Mobile Construction Battalion

Naval Construction Regiment

The NCRs organizational relationship within the MAGTF is based on the mission and is established and initiated by the MAGTF commander. Roughly two-thirds of an NCR is composed of reservists, highly skilled in their mobilization billets. NCRs also receive tactics and weapons instruction as part of their annual training. To accomplish this, a Marine gunnery sergeant is assigned to each construction battalion.

12

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Engineer Organization (Continued) Interrelation of Engineer Units and Missions. All unrestricted engineer officers receive the same MOS training at the basic engineer officer's course and may be assigned to any of the above Marine Corps engineer units. Task-organized elements of each are found within the organization of the MAGTF. While the specific efforts and equipment of each engineer unit differ slightly to accommodate their particular area of responsibility (GCE, ACE, or CSSE), all possess the skills necessary to support MAGTF units in mobility, counter-mobility, survivability, and general engineering efforts.
Interface between these units is common as they can and do support each other when the mission of one calls for particular skills and equipment inherent to another. Additionally, cross-training between engineer units and the augmentation of one by another are not at all uncommon. Examples of this interaction between engineer units include: The augmentation of combat engineer battalions during Desert Shield/Storm with members of the engineer support battalions. This act was vital in the successful effort to field enough breaching detachments for the assault into Kuwait. The augmentation of an airfield engineer unit by members and heavy equipment of the engineer support battalion in order to successfully complete a large project such as the construction of a new runway.

Elements of the naval construction forces, or Seabees, can be found in larger MAGTF organizations. Although a naval engineer unit, they too can augment, support, and/or improve the efforts of Marine Corps engineers with their expertise in general engineering and abundance of heavy equipment. This is a snapshot of what engineer organization would be responsible for constructing different stages of a road in a combat zone:

CEB knocks down the trees, cuts through ditches, and gets the GCE to the fight. ESB thoroughly clears the land, grades the surface and installs drainage features, adds gravel and stabilizes the soil. Any bridges needed would be constructed. This road will resemble a two-lane application trail called a combat road. Engineer Operations Division in the MWSS travels down the road to assist in the preparation of forward operating bases. NCR adds gravel and fines, compacts and paves it, (puts up the guardrails, paints the lines, etc.)

13

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Summary
As can be seen, the mission of combat engineering is a tremendous force multiplier. It is solely responsible for the effective movement and survivability of friendly forces while possessing the capability to manipulate and hinder enemy effects against friendly forces.

Appendix
Engineer Capabilities. The capabilities listed in the table on the next two pages are resident, to varying degrees, in every engineer unit within the MAGTF.
NOTE: The task priority and capability codes used in the table are First letter P Primary task and responsibility S Secondary task N Not a task Second letter H Heavy capability M Medium capability L Light capability N No capability
Tasks Mobility Tasks (Combat Support) Conduct engineer reconnaissance Breach obstacles Construct pioneer roads Assault bridging Clear mines Clear helicopter landing sites Improve beaches Employ specialized demolitions Provide technical engineer advice Fight as infantry Counter-mobility Tasks (Combat Support) Conduct engineer reconnaissance Place mines Plan/install obstacles and barriers
CEB

Task Priority and Capability Codes Naval ESB MWSS Engineer


Operations Division Construction Forces NL NL SH NN NN SH NM NL NN NL

PM PH PH PL PH PM PH PH PH SM

PM SM SH SL SH PH SH SH NH NL

PL NL SL NN SL SL NN NL PH NN

PM PH PH

PM SH SH

PL SL SL

NL NN NM

14

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

Employ specialized demolitions Provide technical engineer advice Survivability Tasks (Combat Support) Construct field fortifications Employ specialized demolitions Provide technical engineer advice General Engineering Tasks (Combat Service Support) General engineering Conduct engineer reconnaissance Surveying and drafting Improve beaches Construct standard and nonstandard bridges Improve unpaved roads, airstrips, and marshaling areas Perform rapid runway repair Build expedient airfields (matting) Plan and estimate projects Soil stabilization Construct aircraft revetment/dispersal sites Repair airfield damage Construct semi-permanent camps Perform vertical construction (including concrete) Construct logistical support bases Construct air bases Construct and repair port/waterfront structures Employ specialized demolitions Conduct non-explosive demolition and debris removal Provide technical engineer advice Utilities support Provide tactical water/hygiene services Provide tactical electrical supply Develop sewage and water systems Bulk fuel support Provide tactical bulk fuel storage and dispensing

PH PH PH PH PH

SH SH PH PH PH

NL PH PM NL PH

NL NN SH NL NL

SM SL SL SL SL NN NN PH SL NL NL NL NL NL NN NL NH NL NL SL SL NN

PM PM PH PH PH SM PH PH PH SH PH PH PM PH PH NM PH PH PH PH PH NL

PL PL NL NN SL PM SL PM PL PM PM SL PL NL NN NL NL ML PM PM PM NL

PM PH PH PH PH SM PH PH PH SH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH PH NN NN PM

NN

PH

PM

NN

15

Basic Officer Course

B3L3998

Introduction to Combat Engineering

References
Reference Number or Author FM 20-32 FM 5-100 FM 5-101 FM 5-102 FM 5-103 FM 5-250 FM 5-34 MCWP 3-17 Reference Title
Mine/Countermine Operations Engineers in Combat Operations Mobility Countermobility Survivability Explosives and Demolitions Engineer Field Data MAGTF Engineer Operations

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym METL M-Kill K-Kill SFF Definition or Identification Mission Essential Task List Mobility Kill Catastrophic Kill Self-Forging Fragmentation.

Notes

16

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

ENGINEERING IN THE OFFENSE AND DEFENSE B3L4038 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineering in the Offense and Defense


Introduction A key aspect of battlefield victory is the ability to control the enemy by controlling the terrain. Simply owning the terrain will not suffice. It must be effectively prepared for offensive and defensive missions and improved as needed to sustain the free movement of friendly forces while impeding that of the enemy. Offensively, Combat Engineers search for and exploit the gaps found in the enemys defenses while, defensively, they continuously scrutinize and mitigate what gaps they may discover within their own. This class will provide you with the necessary information to effectively employ engineering assets on the battlefield with regards to mobility, counter-mobility, survivability, and general engineering. We will discuss the capabilities and fundamentals of combat engineering in both the offensive and defensive roles. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Engineers in the Defense Engineers in the Offense Summary References Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Notes Page 4 22 33 33 34 34

Importance

In This Lesson

Learning Objectives

Terminal Learning Objectives MCCS-DEF-2203 Given a unit, a barrier plan, and material needed to emplace obstacles, direct obstacle emplacement to achieve the effect desired by the commander. Enabling Learning Objectives MCCS-DEF-2203a Without the aid of reference, identify obstacle types without error.

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineering in the Offense and Defense (Continued)


Learning Objectives (continued) MCCS-DEF-2203b Given a mission, a commander's intent, obstacle materials, and while leading a rifle squad or platoon, plan obstacles to support the defensive scheme of maneuver. 0302-DEF-1301e Given a unit, a mission, a mental estimate of the situation, supporting engineer assets, and a commander's intent, employ engineers in support of defensive operations to accomplish the mission. 0302-OFF-1201g Without the aid of references, describe engineer capabilities that support offensive operations to support mission accomplishment.

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense


"Everything that is shot or thrown at you or dropped on you in war is most unpleasant but, of all the horrible devices, the most terrifying ... is the landmine." --- Sir William Slim 1959 Engineer assets are generally centralized at the highest command level. Assignment of engineer forces and equipment in general support is desired to provide required technical skills and equipment beyond the capabilities of the supported unit and to ensure coordinated planning and logistics support. However, Engineers have the capability to operate in direct support or as attachments on small unit levels in order to accomplish the mission. Combat Engineer Employment in the Defense The primary role of engineers in defensive operations is to: Impede the mobility of the enemy. Field fortification. Provide general engineering tasks to amplify sustainability of supported unit.

Battlefield Functions in the Defense

Engineer battlefield functions in the defense are the same as in other military operations. Engineers perform the following battlefield functions: Counter-Mobility. Survivability. Mobility. General engineering.

Counter-Mobility

The primary intent of counter-mobility operations is to deny the enemy's ability to execute his plan by: Disrupting his combat formations. Interfering with his command and control. Creating a vulnerability that friendly forces can exploit.

The secondary intent is to destroy or disable his vehicles. Engineers conduct the following counter mobility tasks in the defense: Development of the obstacle plan to support the maneuver commander's concept of operations. Assist in the installation and recording of minefields. Provide technical assistance and supervise the construction of specific obstacles.

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Survivability A key component of the defense, survivability includes all aspects of protecting personnel, weapons, and supplies. The objective of survivability is to reduce exposure to threat acquisition, targeting and engagement, and the effects of weather and thereby contribute to a successful defense. Depending on the priority of work and engineer assets available, engineers will provide technical assistance or assist in constructing: Fortifications o Anti-armor and crew-served weapons positions (hot and cold positions). o Armored vehicle positions (hull defilade vs. turret defilade). o Hardened command posts and combat support positions. Protective obstacles. Strong-points. Camouflage. Development of the deception plan.

Mobility

Mobility support assists forces to move rapidly, mass, disperse, and be resupplied. Engineers conduct the following mobility tasks in the defense: Prepare counterattack routes clear of obstacles and/or have prepared breaches. Prepare combat trails for counterattacks and lateral movement between battle positions. Prepare lanes and gaps through obstacle zones and belts. Reduce obstacles created by enemy fires and sabotage. Clear landing zones for resupply and medical evacuations (MEDEVACs).

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


General Engineering Engineers also conduct the following general engineering tasks in the defense: Maintain and improve lines of communication and main supply routes. Construct and repair support facilities. Store and dispense fuel and water. Construct airfields and aircraft support facilities.

Counter-Mobility Achieved Through Obstacle Construction

An obstacle is any obstruction that stops, delays, or restricts movement or maneuver. The two general categories of obstacles are: Existing. Reinforcing.

Existing Obstacles

Existing obstacle are those obstacles already present on the battlefield and not placed through military effort. They may be: Natural o Drainage features. o Soil trafficability. o Slope and relief. o Vegetation. o Climate and weather. Cultural o Cities/towns. o Dikes, dams, canals. o Drainage ditches, embankments, cuts, and fills. o Hedgerows and orchards. o Roads and railroads.

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


The table below lists effectiveness criteria for existing obstacles. Feature Drainage (rivers and streams) Ditch Dry gap Ford Soil Critical Value Width >150 m Depth >1.5 m Velocity 3.7 mps Width >2.8 m Depth >1.5 m Width >18 m Depth >1.5 m Effect Major obstacle

Slope

Vegetation

Bearing <8 psi pressure Soil type and moisture 30 % 45% 60% Tree 20.5 cm diameter With 3 to 5 m tree spacing

Exceeds tanks self-bridging capability Exceeds tanks ability to step Exceeds most armored vehicle launch bridges (AVLBs) Cannot be forded without special equipment Hinders tracked and wheeled vehicle movement Affect trafficability Stops most wheeled movement Delays most tank movement Stops tank movement Stops wheeled vehicles Delays tracked vehicles Delays tracked and wheeled vehicles

Notes: 1. Many terrain features can significantly slow cross-country movement even though they may not stop an individual tank. Examples of such features are ditches narrower than 2.5 m, stone walls, trees spaced closer than 25 cm, and slopes less than 45 percent. 2. The combined effect of two or more factors can create a significant obstacle at a lower value. For example, even a slight uphill slope will stop a tank from pushing over trees smaller in diameter than 25 centimeters. Reinforcing Obstacles Reinforcing obstacles are those obstacles placed on the battlefield through military effort, which are designed to extend or improve the effectiveness of existing obstacles. A reinforcing obstacle must force the enemy to react, thereby influencing his scheme of maneuver (SOM). Reinforcing obstacles are an integral part of the defensive scheme of maneuver (DSOM). The five types of reinforcing obstacles are: constructed, demolitions, mines/minefields, contamination, and expedient.

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Reinforcing Obstacles (Continued) Constructed: built by Marines and equipment, normally without the use of explosives. Generally, constructed obstacles require extensive manpower, material, equipment, and/or time. Examples include: o o o o Log cribs. Hedgehogs. Concrete blocks. Tank ditches.

Demolitions: created by the detonation of explosives. Examples include: o o o Road craters. Abatis. Landslides.

Mines/Minefields: the only reinforcing obstacle capable of killing or destroying enemy personnel and equipment. Contamination: nuclear or chemical in nature. Expedient: The potential of expedient obstacles is unlimited. By their nature, expedient obstacles substitute locally available materials and manpower for a logistical requirement.

Principles of Obstacle Employment

A commander has several options in organizing the defense. He plans his defensive scheme based upon his mission analysis and situational estimate (METT-T). Organizing the defense must be carefully matched to the terrain. As the principal element in reinforcing the terrain to best complement the maneuver commander's plan, the engineer is responsible for developing the obstacle plan. The use of reinforcing obstacles is the principal method of terrain reinforcement (see following table). Obstacles have three primary purposes: Enhance the effectiveness of friendly fires. Delay the enemy's advance, upset his timing, disrupt and canalize his formations into designated engagement areas, and delay or destroy follow-on echelons. Enhance friendly economy of force measures.

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


The table below lists examples of existing and reinforcing obstacles. Existing Obstacles Natural Drainage Features Lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams Swamps, marshes, bogs Soil and Rock Soft, slippery ground, cliffs, and outcrops Boulders Surface Features Slopes, hills, cliffs, and mountains Cultural Vegetation Forests, jungle Man-made lakes, ponds, and canals Paddy fields Reinforcing Obstacles Blowing dams or dikes to create flooded areas

Soft farmland Quarries, cuts in rock Pits and open-pit mines

Craters

Embankments, cuts and Craters, ditches, and cuts on slopes fills on roads and railroads Terraces and dams Abatis

Cultivated or seeded forests, orchards, and hedgerows Buildings, towns, fences, and retaining walls

Built-Up Areas Demolished buildings, rubble, and wire obstacles Demolitions Mines/minefields Contamination

Other: War damage, rubble, fires, snow, and ice

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Employment Principles of Reinforcing Obstacles FOCDPIG Regardless of the type of defense employed by the tactical commander, the seven basic employment principles for reinforcing obstacles are that reinforcing obstacles are: Covered by Fire. The principal purpose of integrating obstacle location with fire is to enhance the effectiveness of these fires. With rare exceptions, obstacles that are not covered by fire are little more than a nuisance to the enemy. Observed. It is imperative that all reinforcing obstacles are observed in order to maximize the use of available indirect fires on the enemy. In addition, obstacles should be placed in order to maximize the max effective range of various direct fire weapons systems utilizing HAW-MAW-LAW. Concealed and employed for surprise. By varying the type, design, and location of the obstacle plan, the enemy's understanding of our defensive scheme is made more difficult. Employed in Depth. A series of simple obstacles arranged one behind the other along a probable axis of enemy advance is far more effective than one large, elaborate obstacle and forces the enemy to quickly attrite his organic engineering assets. Protected by early warning and anti-handling devices. Incorporating these assets into reinforcing obstacles amplify detection of the enemy especially during times of little or no visibility. Integrated with existing and other reinforcing obstacles that cannot be easily bypassed. It must support the maneuver commander's plan. Reinforcing obstacles that do not accomplish one or more of the basic purposes of obstacles are of little value. Reinforcing obstacles must be planned and employed to support the tactical plan Non-Geometric. By breaking up the outline of the obstacles/defense, the enemy is in the engagement area before he realizes it. This puts the enemy into a dilemma and makes him show his flank or belly.

10

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Obstacle Types Obstacles are classified as either: Protective. Tactical.

Enemy Assault Enemy Maneuver Phase

Engagement Area

Protective Obstacles

Tactical Obstacles

Obstacle Types by Battlefield Purpose

Protective Obstacles

Protective obstacles are those obstacles employed to protect the defending force from the enemy's final assault; as such, they are key components of survivability operations. Protective obstacles are: Close to defensive positions. Tied in with the final protective fire (FPF) of the defending unit. Emplaced by units normally without the engineers assistance.

Protective obstacles are normally wire entanglements and/ or hasty protective minefields.

11

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Wire Entanglements Tactical. Tactical wire entanglements are used to turn, fix, disrupt, or block formations well forward of the final protective line (FPL) to draw the enemy into planned engagement areas. Tactical wire is: Also sited parallel to and along the friendly side of the machine gun FPL. Used to influence the enemys SOM.

Tactical entanglements extend across the entire front of a position but are not necessarily continuous. Protective. Protective wire entanglements are located to prevent surprise assaults from points close to the defensive position. As in the case of all antipersonnel obstacles, protective wire entanglements are close enough to the defensive position for day and night observation but are beyond hand grenade range. Supplementary. Supplementary wire entanglements in front of the forward edge of the battle position are used to conceal the exact line of the tactical wire. To the rear of the forward positions, supplementary wire is used to enclose the entire defensive position by connecting the protective wire entanglements. Legend for diagram: XXXXXXX = Tactical wire = = XX = = XX = Supplementary wire X X X = Protective wire
protective obstacles
X
=x x= X=

tactical obstacles
x xx xx xx xx x xx xx xxxxx xx xxxxxxxxxx xx xxxxxx x xxx xxx xx xxx xxx xxx

==

x xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx x xx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xxx xxxx xx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxx x xxxx xxx xxxx xxx x X

xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx x

= xx

...
X X
X

= xx

=x x=

== xx == xx == xx == xx == xx == xxxx xx X xxx xxx xxx

=x x=

==

X
X

xx xx xx xx x xx xx xx

xx =

==

EA

= xx

==

xx

==

xx

x= =x

x= =x

Layout of Wire Obstacles in a Defensive Perimeter

xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx x xx xx xx x

x= =x

x= =x

xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx x

12

== xx == xx ==

xx == xx == xx ==

...
X

x= =x

xx

==

RAIDER

...

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Tactical Obstacles Tactical obstacles are those obstacles that directly effect the enemy's ability to maneuver in a way that gives the defending force a positional advantage. Tactical obstacles are designed, sited, emplaced, and integrated with fires to produce four specific tactical obstacle effects: Disrupt. Turn. Fix. Block.

Each obstacle effect has a specific impact on the enemy's ability to maneuver, mass, and reinforce. Obstacles also increase the enemy's vulnerability to friendly fires. Obstacle effects support the friendly scheme of maneuver by manipulating the enemy in a way that is critical to the commander's intent and scheme of maneuver. The diagram below shows the operational symbols for tactical obstacles.

Disrupt

Turn

Fix

Block
enemy direction of attack

Operational Symbols for Tactical Obstacles

13

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Disrupt Disrupt effect: Breaks up the enemy's formations Causes premature commitment of breach assets Interrupts command and control Counters the enemy's initiative and synchronization to hinder him from concentrating combat power, causing a piecemeal commitment of attacking units

Turn

A turn effect manipulates the enemy's maneuver in a desired direction: First the obstacle must have a subtle orientation to entice the enemy to maneuver rather than breach the obstacle. Second, the bypass must be easily detected to entice the enemy to it.

Fix

A fix effect slows the enemy within a specified area so that he can be killed with fires. The term does not mean to stop an enemy advance but rather to give the defender time to acquire, target, and destroy the attacking enemy throughout the depth of an engagement area or avenue of approach.

Block

A block effect is designed to stop an enemy's advance along a specific avenue of approach or allow him to advance at an extremely high cost. Blocking obstacles are complex and integrated with intense fires.

14

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Obstacle Plan An obstacle plan is a comprehensive, coordinated plan which integrates the use of tactical and protective obstacles to support a scheme of maneuver. The obstacle plan designates the following: Obstacle responsibilities. General location. Directed/reserve obstacles. Special instructions.

The obstacle plan is briefed in detail within the combat order.

XX

III

XX

III
III

XX
Example of Engagement Area Using Tactical Obstacles

15

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Counter-Mobility through Mine Employment A mine is an explosive device emplaced for the purpose of killing, destroying, or otherwise incapacitating enemy personnel or equipment. Minefields: Are areas of ground containing mines emplaced with or without a specific pattern. May contain any type, mix, or number of antitank and/or antipersonnel mines. Are classified by type and by purpose. The type of mines used -- conventional or scatterable..determines the minefield type. Must be granted approval by the Component Commander, delegated down to the Regimental level if so desired.

Conventional minefields can be either: Protective Minefields Protective. Tactical. Phony. Nuisance.

Protective minefields, like other protective obstacles, are employed to protect the defending force from the enemy's final assault. Protective minefields serve two purposes: To impose a delay on the attacker to allow the defender time to break contact. To break-up the enemy's assault to complete its destruction.

An important aspect of protective minefields is the requirement to recover them before leaving an area. Protective minefields are classified as either: Hasty protective minefields (HPMFs). HPMFs are used as part of a unit's defensive perimeter: o Mines are emplaced outside hand grenade range but within the range of small caliber weapons. o No anti-handling devices are used. o The emplacing unit picks up all mines upon leaving the area, unless enemy pressure prevents mine retrieval or the minefield is being transferred to a relieving commander o The HPMF is recorded on the DA Form 1355-1-R.

16

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Protective Minefields (Continued) Deliberate protective minefields. Deliberate protective minefields are used to protect static assets (vital sites): logistics sites, communication nodes, depots, airfields, and permanent unit locations. The typical deliberate protective minefield is the standard pattern minefield.

Tactical Minefields

Tactical minefields, like other tactical obstacles, are employed to directly attack the enemy's ability to maneuver and to give the defender a positional advantage over the attacker. Tactical minefields: May be employed by themselves or in conjunction with other types of tactical obstacles. Are not only used in the defense but may also be emplaced during offensive operations to: o o o o Protect exposed flanks. Isolate the objective area. Deny enemy counterattack routes. Disrupt enemy retrograde.

Phony Minefields

Phony minefields are one form of tactical minefields that are areas of ground altered to give the same signature as a real minefield and thereby deceive the enemy. Phony minefields serve two functions: First, they confuse the attacker's breach decision cycle and cause him to second-guess his breach decisions. Second, they may cause the attacker to wastefully expend breach assets to reduce mines that are not really there.

Friendly forces must regard a phony minefield as live until the tactical situation no longer warrants maintaining the deception. Emplacing even a single live mine within a phony minefield makes a live minefield.

17

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Nuisance Minefields Nuisance or interdiction minefields are another form of tactical minefields; they are mainly used to impose caution on enemy forces and to disrupt, delay, and sometimes destroy follow-on echelons. Once nuisance minefields are emplaced, they do not necessarily need to be covered by observation or direct fire. A minefield report is an oral, electronic, or written communication concerning mining activities, friendly or enemy. The local command specifies the exact format of the report. The emplacing unit commander submits these reports through operational channels to the operations officer of the authorizing headquarters. That headquarters integrates the reports with other unit information and disseminates them to subordinate units. The reports will be sent by the fastest, most secure means available. The report of intention serves as notification to a unit's higher headquarters that the unit intends to emplace a minefield. The report of intention doubles as a request when initiated at levels below those with emplacement authority. The report of initiation is a mandatory report, which informs higher headquarters that emplacement has begun and the area is no longer safe for friendly movement and maneuver. The report of initiation should specify the time emplacement began and identify the location of the minefield. The report of completion is usually an oral report to the authorizing commander that the minefield is complete and functional. The report of completion is followed as rapidly as possible by the completed DA Form 1355 (Minefield Record) or DA Form 1355-1-R (Hasty Protective Minefield Record).

Minefield Reporting

Report of Intention

Report of Initiation

Report of Completion

18

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Additional Reports Progress report. During the emplacing process, the commander may require periodic reports on the amount of work completed. Report of transfer. The responsibility for a minefield is transferred from one commander to another in a report of transfer. This report, signed by both the relieved and relieving commander, includes a certificate stating that the relieving commander was shown or otherwise informed of all mines within the commander's zone of responsibility. The report of transfer is sent to the next higher commander who has authority over both relieved and relieving commanders. Report of change. The report of change is made immediately upon any change or alteration made in a previously reported minefield and is sent to the next higher commander. It is then sent through channels to the headquarters that keeps the written mine record. The commander responsible for surveillance and maintenance of the minefield makes the report of change.

Family of Area Scatterable Mines (FASCAM)

FASCAM refers to the entire inventory of scatterable mines used by United States military forces. Scatterable mines: Are laid without regard to classical pattern. Are designed to be delivered or dispensed remotely by aircraft, artillery, missile, or ground dispenser. Have a limited active life; self-destruct after their life has expired. The duration of the active life varies by the type of mine and delivery system.

Scatterable mine systems enable the tactical commander to emplace minefields in enemy-held or contaminated territory or in other areas where it is impossible to emplace conventional minefields. Some systems allow for rapid emplacement of minefields in friendly areas. As with all minefields and obstacles, scatterable minefields are an engineer responsibility.

19

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Family of Area Scatterable Mines (FASCAM) (Continued) Based on the tactical plan, the maneuver commander's staff engineer determines the: Location. Size. Time. Density of the minefield

With this information and thorough understanding of available systems, the engineer recommends the type minefield to be emplaced (conventional or scatterable). If a scatterable minefield is selected, the engineer recommends the delivery system and coordinates with the appropriate staff officers. General Capabilities Speed. Scatterable mines can be emplaced more rapidly than conventional mines to adjust for a changing battlefield. Increased mobility. Upon expiration of the self-destruct time, the minefield is cleared; the commander can move through an area that was previously denied enemy or friendly forces. Efficiency. Scatterable mines can be emplaced by a variety of delivery methods. Extensive manpower, equipment, or tonnage is not required for their emplacement as they are much smaller and lighter than their conventional mine counterparts. Increased lethality. Most scatterable AT mines utilize a self-forging fragment (SFF) warhead designed to produce a K-Kill. Scatterable AP mines are tripwire activated and utilize a blast/fragmentation type kill mechanism.

20

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Defense (Continued)


Limitations Coordination. Extensive coordination is the chief limitation of scatterable mines. Being that it is a very dynamic weapon, great care must be taken to ensure that proper coordination is made with all higher, adjacent, and subordinate units. All affected units must be notified of the location and duration of scatterable minefields to prevent friendly casualties. Cost. Due to their sophisticated design, scatterable mines are much more expensive than conventional mines. The efficiency of scatterable mine systems over conventional mines offsets much of their higher cost. Visibility. Because of their means of delivery, scatterable mines will lay exposed on the surface of the ground. However, given their relatively small size and natural colorings, together with the limited visibility and intense activity on the modern battlefield, this problem does not impose a significant limitation to their effectiveness.

Presidential Decision Directive (PDD)

Per presidential decision directive, Hand emplaced AP mines are no longer authorized. FASCAM (self destruct) and AT mines are allowed.

21

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense


"While riflemen and machine gunners opened a rain of fire against the strongpoint's firing ports, this small band raced across the sand and up the steep slope. The Japanese knew they were in great danger. Scores of them poured out of a rear entrance to attack the Marines on top. Bonnyman stepped forward, emptied his carbine into the onrushing Japanese, then charred them with a flame-thrower. He was shot dead; his body rolling down the slope, but his men were inspired to overcome the Japanese counterattack. The surviving engineers rushed to place explosives against the rear entrances." --- Across the Reef: The Marine Assault of Tarawa

In offensive operations, engineers normally work and fight well forward with the maneuver elements as an integral part of the combined arms team. Decentralization of control is required to provide necessary close engineer support to forward elements in offensive operations. Therefore, combat engineers are best employed in direct support roles with attachment of appropriate engineer elements to specific supported units as dictated by mission. The combat engineer squad is the smallest unit assigned direct support missions and must be at least as mobile and survivable as the unit they are supporting.

Combat Engineer Employment in the Offense

The primary role of engineers in offensive operations are to: Ensure uninterrupted movement of friendly forces maintaining momentum of the attack. Provide flexibility to the supported maneuver unit. Degrade the enemys ability to maneuver.

Battlefield Functions in the Offense

Engineer battlefield functions in the offense are the same as in other military operations. Engineers perform the following battlefield functions:

Mobility. Survivability. Counter-Mobility. General Engineering.

22

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


Mobility Mobility is the key to successful offensive operations. Its major focus is to enable friendly forces to maneuver freely on the battlefield. Mobility missions in the offense are: Engineer reconnaissance. Often necessary for reliable mobility information about the area over which the force is planning to advance. This reconnaissance must be made prior to friendly movement, since the information gained provides a basis for the estimate of engineer personnel, supplies, and equipment necessary to support the operation as well as the ability of the force to move in a certain area. Expedient/hasty road repair. Repair of minor combat damage to existing combat roads and trails. Follow-on forces in a general engineering role would handle extensive damage. River crossings. River crossings are among the most critical, complex, and vulnerable combined arms operations. River crossings will be conducted using assault or standard bridging equipment. Construction of landing zones (LZs)/forward arming and refueling points (FARPS). Helicopter-borne operations will require combat engineer support to clear landing zones and to construct FARPs. Construction and maintenance of expeditionary airfields. Engineers are organized and equipped to construct, repair, and maintain expeditionary airfields. They are equipped to construct these airfields in locations such as abandoned or existing airfields, highways, or reasonably level terrain with suitable soil conditions that require a minimum of construction effort. Obstacle breaching. The most recognized mission of engineers in the mobility functional role. Engineer support is needed to breach an obstacle any time a maneuver unit cannot by itself overcome an obstacle without affecting forward momentum.

23

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


Survivability During offensive operations, use of multiple routes, dispersion, highly mobile forces, and wise use of terrain are the best ways to ensure survivability. In addition, the use of protective measures decreases the lethality of enemy firepower. Engineer expertise, manpower, material, and equipment assist units to improve survivability through: Construction of fighting and protective positions. Whenever maneuver units halt, engineers build and improve as many protective positions as possible. These positions should be constructed expediently and utilize existing terrain when possible. Assistance in camouflage and deception. Engineers install phony equipment and emplace phony minefields as part of a unit's camouflage and deception plan. Observation of both engineer equipment and work transmits a specific message of build up activity to the enemy, thereby contributing to the false intelligence picture.

Counter-Mobility

While mobility of the force is the first priority in offensive operations, counter-mobility operations are vital to help isolate the battlefield and protect the attacking force from enemy counterattacks. Obstacles will be used in offensive operations to: Block or inhibit enemy movement. Obstacles can: o Help secure the flanks and rear of the attacking force during the initial phases of the attack. o Also impede enemy counterattacks by preventing the enemy from reinforcing weak areas under attack and denying the use of critical routes. Concentrate combat power. Obstacles enable friendly forces to control or defend an area with fewer men and assets (economy of force), thus making more combat power available for the main effort (ME).

Obstacle employment must be coordinated to prevent any interference with mobility requirements of the attacking force.

24

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


General Engineering During offensive operations, the focus of general engineering is the sustainability of the force, ensuring that combat support and combat service support functions are able to remain as close as possible to maneuver units by: Replacing assault and tactical bridging with semi permanent fixed bridging. Improving and maintaining lines of communication (LOC) and main supply routes (MSRs). Constructing support facilities. Constructing forward airfields and airfield support facilities. Clearing minefields and other obstacles.

Mobility Through Obstacle Breaching

Obstacle breaching is the employment of a combination of tactics and techniques to project combat power to the far side of an obstacle. Breaching is a synchronized combined arms operation under the control of the maneuver commander. To understand breaching theory and breaching tactics requires knowledge of key terms defined in the table below.

Key Term Obstacle reduction Obstacle clearing Proofing

Marking`

Bulling through

Bypass

Definition The physical creation of a lane through or over an obstacle. The lane can be created by making or finding a way through the obstacle. The total elimination or neutralization of an obstacle. Clearing operations are not conducted under fire and are usually conducted by follow-on engineer forces. Verifying that a lane is free of mines by passing a mine roller or other mine-resistant vehicle through as the lead vehicle. Proofing should be done when time, threat, and mission allow. A good marking system allows a force to quickly pass through a breached lane thereby maintaining momentum, giving confidence in the safety of the lane, and helping to prevent casualties. Not a breaching operation, but a desperate decision made when a commander must react immediately to extricate his force from an untenable position within an obstacle and no other breaching operations are possible. A route that avoids the obstacle. When a unit bypasses an obstacle, it physically changes its direction of movement to avoid the obstacle.

25

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


Breaching Tenets Successful breaching operations are characterized by application of the following breaching tenets: Intelligence. Breaching fundamentals. Breaching tactics. Mass. Synchronization.

Intelligence

A commander needs to "see the battlefield" to be successful. In operations where enemy obstacles can interfere with friendly maneuver, obstacle intelligence (OBSINTEL) becomes a priority. As the experts on obstacles, combat engineers should be incorporated with other human intelligence gathering forces to conduct engineer (obstacle) reconnaissance. Specific OBSINTEL requirements include: Obstacle location. Obstacle orientation. Presence of wire. Gaps and bypasses. Minefield composition: o Conventional or scatterable. o Types of mines. o Depth. o Anti-handling devices. Location of enemy direct-fire weapons.

26

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


Breaching Fundamentals The breaching fundamentals are the actions that must be applied to ensure success when breaching against a defending enemy. SOSR is the acronym for breaching fundamentals, which are to: Suppress. Suppression is the focus of all available direct and indirect fires on enemy personnel, weapons, or equipment to prevent effective fires on friendly forces. The purpose of suppression is to protect forces reducing and maneuvering through the obstacle and to soften the initial foothold. Suppressive fires in sufficient volume, a 3:1 minimum ratio, serve to isolate the breach site. Obscure. Obscuration hampers enemy observation and target acquisition and conceals friendly activities and movement. It may be employed to protect obstacle reduction, passage of assault forces and deployment of forces in assault formations. Secure. The force secures the breaching site to prevent the enemy from interfering with obstacle reduction and passage of the assault force through the lanes created. Identifying the extent of enemy defenses is critical before selecting the appropriate technique to secure the breach. In general, enemy tactical obstacles are secured by fire and protective obstacles are secured by force. Reduce. Once the other breaching fundamentals have been applied and become effective, obstacle reduction to create lanes through or over the obstacle begins. The number and width of lanes varies with the situation and type of breaching operation. The lanes must be sufficient to allow the force to cross and accomplish the mission.

Breaching Tactics

The commander organizes the force with the necessary assets to accomplish SOSR breaching fundamentals quickly and effectively.

27

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


Breaching Tactics (Continued) Support force. The support force's primary responsibility is to eliminate the enemy's ability to interfere with the breaching operation. Suppression is critical for a successful breach; therefore, the first priority of force allocation is the support force. A ratio of 3:1 against the enemy in direct and indirect weapons is generally required for a deliberate breach. For a hasty breach, a ratio of 2.5:1 is required. The support force is responsible for: o Isolating the battlefield with fires and suppressing enemy fires covering the obstacle. o Massing direct and indirect fires to fix the enemy in position and to destroy any weapons that are able to bring fires on the breaching force. o Control obscuring smoke to prevent enemy-observed direct and indirect fires. Breach force. The breach force's primary mission is to create lanes that enable the attacking force to pass through the obstacle and continue the attack. It is also responsible for marking the lanes and entry points to speed passage of the assault units and follow-on forces. In deliberate and in-stride breaching operations, the breach force is a combined arms force of engineers, breaching assets, and enough maneuver force to provide local security. The breach force must be capable of suppressing enemy positions that the support force cannot effectively observe and suppress. The breach force must be capable of creating a minimum of one lane for ech assault company or two lanes for a mechanized task force. Ideally, the breach force wants a minimum 50 percent redundancy in its equipment and organization to account for the heavy casualties that are usually expected in breaching operations. After reducing the obstacle, the breach force may be required to secure a lodgment on the far side for deployment of the assault force into an assault formation. Assault force. The assault force's primary mission is to destroy or dislodge the enemy from the far side of the obstacle; it secures the far side of the obstacle by physical occupation. The assault force must be sufficient in size to seize objectives that eliminate fires on the breaching site. Combat power is allocated to the assault force to achieve a 3:1 ratio on the assault objective.

28

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


Mass Breaching is conducted by rapidly applying concentrated force at a point or place to crack the obstacle and rupture the defense. Massed combat power is directed against an enemy weakness. Achieving necessary mass for the assault requires the breach force to open enough lanes through the obstacle to permit rapid passage and the buildup of forces on the far side. Breaching operations require precise synchronization of the SOSR breaching fundamentals by support, breach, and assault forces. Failure to synchronize effective suppression and obstruction with the obstacle reduction and assault can result in rapid, devastating losses of friendly troops in the obstacle or in the enemy's kill zone. Breaching operations make maneuver possible in the face of enemy obstacle efforts. Since obstacles may be encountered anywhere, maneuver forces integrate breaching operations into all movement plans. The different types of breaching operations possible are In-stride and Deliberate breaches. In-Stride Breach. Maneuver units use in-stride breach to quickly overcome unexpected or lightly defended tactical obstacles. In-stride is: o An extremely rapid technique using standard actions on contact to seize and maintain the initiative o A decentralized, independent breaching operation that relies on well-rehearsed immediate action drills The commander planning for an in-stride breach must consider missions for his maneuver and engineer forces that allow quick transition to a deliberate breach should attempts at an in-stride breach fail. A commander is driven to organize his force for an in-stride breach when: An unclear situation makes it necessary for several lead subordinate units to be capable of independent breaching operations to accomplish the mission. The enemy defense is so weak that the forces necessary to support, breach, and assault can be reasonably task organized into a subordinate unit and do not require the maneuver of other subordinate units to adequately suppress, secure, or reduce the obstacle.

Synchronization

Breaching Operations

29

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


Breaching Operations (Continued) Deliberate Breach. A deliberate breach is a scheme of maneuver specifically designed to cross an obstacle to continue the mission. Characterized by thorough reconnaissance, detailed planning, extensive preparations, and explicit rehearsals, the deliberate breach is centrally planned and executed. Units conduct a deliberate breach when: o The unit fails an attempted in-stride breach of enemy tactical obstacles. o Force allocation ratios indicate that a confirmed enemy situation is beyond the capabilities of a subordinate unit.

Obstacle Reduction Techniques

Obstacle reduction techniques are the means by which lanes are created during breaching operations. Breach forces will seldom employ only one technique against any single obstacle. The techniques are: Mechanical. Involve the use of mine plows, mine rollers, bulldozers, bridging equipment, fascines, or any other heavy equipment assets. Explosive. Use the overpressure produced by the detonation of the explosives to activate single-impulse mines. Explosive means include both mounted and hand-emplaced explosive techniques

Mounted systems include the M58 mine-clearing line charge (MICLIC) or the Mk1 triple-shot Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV), which consists of three MICLICs mounted in the rear of the AAV. Manual systems are the Bangalore torpedo, the APOBS (antipersonnel obstacle breaching system), and any other type of hand-emplaced explosive charge. Additionally, fuel air explosives (FAE) delivered by aircraft or artillery can also be used against minefields. Manual. Include probing, grappling hooks, bolt cutters, assault ladders, and any other expedient method that may be used to breach the obstacle. Electronic. Through the use of mine detectors.

30

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


Steps for Conducting a Breach A sample execution matrix for a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) conducting a deliberate breach is provided in the table below.

Step Action 1 Indirect fire and offensive air support provide suppression. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ground units in support force provide direct suppressive fire. Breach and assault forces move into position. Smoke obscures enemy view of breach site. Obstacles are reduced and cleared lanes are marked. Suppressive fire shifts beyond objective. Assault force attacks through breached lane. Breached lanes handed off to follow-on forces. Resupply. Reorganize to continue mission

Element Support force

Remarks Ground units within support force move to overwatch positions.

Support force Breach force Assault force Support force Breach force Support force Assault force Breach force As required As required Can also be done by support force. Coordinated with assault force. Breach and assault forces prepare to execute tasks.

31

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Engineers in the Offense (Continued)


Obstacle Breaching Table

Obstacle Encountered
Minefield 4 M Lane

Resources Available Grapnel Hook Pioneer Kit Chain Saw Probe Mine Detector/ Probe Blade (Dozer/ ACE) AVLB Towed Assault Bridge Mine Roller Mine Plow Bangalore Explosives MICLIC Direct Fire Soft Material Fascines Lumber

Surface

Buried

Wire

AT Ditch/ Road Crater

Steel Obstruction

Walls

Abatis

Log Obstacle

Bunker

Rubble

5 6 7

3 5 4 5 4

* *

* *

2 3

3 2 5 1

3 2 4 1 2 4 7 1 8 4 5

3 2

3 2

2 1

Legend: Desirability of Employment Scale:

1 = Most desirable

10 = Least desirable

*Probe and/or mine detector combination are used together with the grapnel hook for explosive minefield breaching.

32

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Summary
During most offensive operations, demand for combat engineer support will exceed available resources. Maneuver commanders, with the advice of their engineer commanders, must prioritize the engineer effort. Combat engineer support, like other ground support assets, is task-organized in response to the anticipated threat and mission of the supported unit.

References
Reference Number or Author FM 20-32 FM 5-100 FM 5-101 FM 5-102 FM 5-103 FM 5-250 FM 5-34 MCWP 3-17 Reference Title Mine/Countermine Operations Engineers in Combat Operations Mobility Countermobility Survivability Explosives and Demolitions Engineer Field Data MAGTF Engineer Operations

33

Basic Officer Course

B3L4038

Engineering in the Offense and Defense

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym AAV APOBS AVLB DSOM FAE FARPS FASCAM FOCDPIG Definition or Identification Amphibious Assault Vehicle Anti-personnel obstacle breaching system Armored vehicle launch bridge Defensive scheme of maneuver Fuel air explosives Forward arming and refueling points Family of area scatterable mines Acronym to help recall the employment principles of reenforcing obstacles: Fire, Observed, Concealed, Depth, Protected, Integrated, and Geometric Final protective fire Final protective line Hasty protective minefield Lines of communication Landing zone Marine Air-Ground Task Force Main effort Medical Evacuations Mission, Enemy, Terrain and weather, Troops ad support available Time available Mine clearing line charge Main supply route Obstacle Intelligence Presidential Decision Directive Self-forging fragment Scheme of maneuver Acronym to help recall the fundamentals of obstacle breaching: Suppress, Obscure, Secure, and Reduce

FPF FPL HPMF LOC LZ MAGTF ME MEDEVAC METT-T MICLIC MSR OBSINTEL PDD SFF SOM SOSR

Notes

34

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES (IED) B3L4118 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)


Introduction There is a very unique doctrine the United States has adopted within recent years with regards to a specific tactic enemy forces have begun to employ and continue to refine. Improvised Explosive Devises (IEDs) enable the enemy to inflict catastrophic kills against friendly forces with easily acquired explosives and materials while keeping a relatively safe distance from the target. Our current doctrine consists of reacting to IEDs and attempting to prevent their use but not adopting the tactic ourselves. You will be better able to defend against IEDs if you learn about IEDs, stay current on enemy TTPs, and react effectively to IED attacks. This class is the first step in enabling you to do so. This class will provide the student with the necessary information to effectively recognize, prevent, and react to IEDs This lesson covers the following topics: Topic IED Defined Enemy IED Tactics, Techniques, Procedures (TTPs) IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction IED Encounter Response Procedures Summary References Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Notes Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objectives MCCS-IED-1001 Given an improvised explosive device (IED) threat, visually identify IEDs to reduce IED effects on mission accomplishment. MCCS-IED-1002 Given an improvised explosive device (IED) threat, conduct immediate actions in response to an IED to accomplish the mission. MCCS-IED-2101 Given an IED threat, an enemy situation, a mission, and a commanders intent, plan for movement in an IED environment to accomplish the mission. Page 4 6 12 21 38 38 38 39

Importance

In This Lesson

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

Learning Objectives (Continued)

Enabling Learning Objectives MCCS-IED-1001a Without the aid of reference, identify the types of IEDs and their indicators. MCCS-IED-1001b Without the aid of reference, identify the types of IED initiation methods. MCCS-IED-1002a Without the aid of reference, describe the six tenets of the IED defeat framework. MCCS-IED-1002b Without the aid of reference, describe the actions to be taken upon contact of a suspected IED.

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Defined Introduction. IEDs are a dangerous and effective weapon system that military forces face. IEDs can be made from almost anything with any type of material and initiator. They are an improvised device that is designed to cause death or injury by using explosives alone or in combination with other materials, to include projectiles, toxic chemicals, biological toxins, or radiological material. IEDs can be produced in varying sizes and can have different types of containers, function, and delivery methods. IEDs can use commercial or military explosives, homemade explosives, or military ordnance and ordnance components. IEDs are primarily conventional high-explosive charges, also known as homemade bombs. A chemical and biological (CB) agent, or even radiological material, may be included to add to the destructive power and the psychological effect of the device. They are unique in nature because the IED builder has had to improvise with the materials at hand. Designed to defeat a specific target or type of target, they generally become more difficult to detect and protect against as they become more sophisticated. IEDs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and can be fabricated from common materials. IEDs may range in size from a cigarette pack to a large vehicle. The degree of sophistication depends on the ingenuity of the designer and the tools and materials available. IEDs of today are extremely diverse and may contain any type of firing device or initiator, plus various commercial, military, or contrived chemical or explosive fillers. Cached or stockpiled munitions within the current theater of operations may provide the explosive materials to would be enemy bombers. Definitions: Improvised Explosive Device. A device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, incapacitate, harass, or distract. It may incorporate military stores, but is normally devised from nonmilitary components. Also referred to as an IED. (JP 1-02) Booby Trap. An explosive or non-explosive device or other material, deliberately placed to cause casualties when an apparently harmless object is disturbed or a normally safe act is performed (JP 1-02). Mine. In land mine warfare, an explosive or material, normally encased, designed to destroy or damage ground vehicles, boats, or aircraft, or designed to wound, kill, or otherwise incapacitate personnel. It may be detonated by the action of its victim, by the passage of time, or by controlled means. (JP 1-02) Components of an IED. IEDs can vary widely in shape and form. IEDs share a common set of components that consists of the main charge, initiating system, and casing. Main Charge. The most common explosives used are military munitions, usually 122-millimeter or greater mortar, tank, and/or artillery rounds. These items are

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Defined (Continued) the easiest to use and provide a ready-made fragmentation effect and they allow for relatively easy daisy chaining, which is linking multiple main charges together over long or short distances for simultaneous detonation. Other IEDs have used military and commercial explosives, such as PE4, trinitrotoluene (TNT), ammonium nitrate (fertilizer), and fuel oil (ANFO). Common hardware, such as ball bearings, bolts, nuts, or nails, can be used to enhance the fragmentation. Propane tanks, fuel cans, and battery acid can and have been added to IEDs to propagate the blast and thermal effects of the IED. Initiating System. The initiation system or fuse functions the device. It could be a simple hard wire for command detonation to a cellular telephone or remote controls to toy cars and airplanes for radio-controlled IEDs. The initiator almost always consists of a blasting cap. Batteries are used as a power source for detonators. Batteries of all types are the primary source of power for IEDs. Batteries could be as small as 9-volts, AA, and those used in long-range cordless telephones (LRCTs) to car and truck batteries. IEDs may even be wired into the local power supply of a home or office. Casing. Casings can range in size from a cigarette pack to a large truck or airplane. The container is used to help hide the IED and to possibly provide fragmentation. A myriad of containers have been used as casings, including soda cans, animal carcasses, plastic bags, and vests or satchels for suicide bombers. Initiation Methods. Most IEDs in Iraq are presently command-detonated and use electric firing circuit systems. These IEDs generally have a power source, often standard batteries or car or motorcycle batteries. Electric firing circuit systems are either "hard-wired" with a firing wire (such as speaker wire), or they use a wireless system. Wireless firing systems use radio transmissions from wireless items such as Radios Pagers Doorbell systems Light-switch devices Garage door openers Car alarm receivers/unlocking devices Toy car remote controllers

They also use cellular phone transmissions. Time. Time IEDs are designed to function after a preset delay, allowing the enemy to make his escape or to target military forces which have created a pattern. Timers used include igniferous (fire producing), chemical, mechanical, and electronic devices.

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Defined (Continued) Command. Command-initiated IEDs are a common method of employment and allow the enemy to choose the optimum moment of initiation. They are normally used against targets that are in transit or where a routine pattern has been established. The most common types of command-initiated methods are with command wires or radio-controlled devices, such as LRCTs, cordless telephones, and remote car openers and alarms. Victim. A victim-actuated IED is a means of attacking an individual or group of individuals. There are various types of initiation devices, which include pull or trip, pressure, pressure release, movement-sensitive, light-sensitive, proximity, and electronic switches. Trip wires have also been used and targeted for foot mobile patrols or for turret gunners in convoys.

Enemy IED Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs). Introduction. Coalition Forces can more effectively prevent, mitigate, and respond to IED attacks by better understanding enemy IED tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs). This section has three main objectives; at the end of this section, you will be able to: Understand common IED target areas Identify IED camouflage methods and hiding places Understand how IEDs are employed in attacks

Enemy IED Placement, Employment, and Target Positioning. IEDs may be emplaced anywhere that enough space exists or can be created to hide or disguise the IED. Whenever possible, devices are located where employment can exploit known U.S. patterns (such as the use of a main supply route [MSR]) or vulnerabilities (such as soft-skinned vehicles or chokepoints). Common areas of IED emplacement include, but are not limited to: Previous IED sites (past successes, laziness, exploiting Techniques, Tactics, and Procedures [TTPs]). Frequently traveled, predictable routes, such as roads leading to FOBs and along common patrol routes. Boundary turnaround points (pattern). Roadway shoulders (usually within 10 feet). Medians, by the roadside, or buried under the surface of any type of road, often in potholes and covered with dirt or reheated asphalt. Trees, light posts, signs, overpasses, and bridge spans that are elevated. Unattended vehicles, trucks, cars, carts, or motorcycles (attached or installed in them).

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

Enemy IED Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) (Continued) Guardrails (hidden inside) or under any type of material or packaging. Potential incident control points (ICPs). Abandoned structures (sometimes partially demolished). Cinder blocks (hidden behind), piles of sand to direct blast into the kill zone, or inside disguised concrete items (fake curbs). Animal carcasses and deceased human bodies. Fake bodies or scarecrows in coalition uniforms. Buildings. Employed at the edge of town.

The enemy may also employ lures to draw friendly forces into an IED kill zone using methods such as: Broken down motorist Person in need of medical attention Unaccompanied young child/children

Beware; booby-trapped IEDs are common, especially in weapons and munitions caches. Although the enemy puts forth a great deal of effort to keep the IED concealed from friendly forces, the exact location of the weapon must still be known to the attacker for reasons of detonating the IED at his choosing. Threat forces attempt to mark the IED in such a manner that the marker itself does not look out of place and/or does not draw unwanted attention. Some examples include: Piles of rocks Arranged sticks Paint markings Cloth or plastic strips tied to branches

IED Indicators. There are numerous means of detection that can assist in locating IEDs, however the best means of detection is your personal awareness of what is going on around you. Below are a list of indicators, common locations of IEDs, Vehicular Borne Improvised Explosive Device (VBIED) considerations, and the 5 to 25 meter checks: Primary Indicators. The primary indication of an IED will be a change in the environment (something new on the route that was not there yesterday). The enemy may leave behind visual indicators of an emplaced IED by accident or on purpose (to inform the local population). Vigilant observation for these subtle indicators can increase the likelihood of IED detection by friendly forces before detonation. Examples of possible roadside IED indicators include, but are not limited to:

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

Enemy IED Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) (Continued) o Unusual behavior patterns or changes in community patterns, such as noticeably fewer people or vehicles in a normally busy area, open windows, or the absence of women or children. o Vehicles following a convoy for a long distance and then pulling to the roadside. o Personnel on overpasses. o Signals from vehicles or bystanders (flashing headlights). o People videotaping ordinary activities or military actions. Enemies using IEDs often tape their activities for use as recruitment or training tools. o Suspicious objects. o Metallic objects, such as soda cans and cylinders. o Colors that seem out of place, such as freshly disturbed dirt, concrete that does not match the surrounding areas, colored detonating cord, or other exposed parts of an IED. o Markers by the side of the road, such as tires, rock piles, ribbon, or tape that may identify an IED location to the local population or serve as an aiming reference (such as light poles, fronts or ends of guardrails, and road intersections or turns). o New or out of place objects in an environment, such as dirt piles, construction, dead animals, or trash. o Graffiti symbols or writing on buildings. o Signs that are newly erected or seem out of place. Friendly forces should be especially vigilant around: o Obstacles in the roadway to channel convoys. o Exposed antennas, detonating cord, wires, or ordnance. o Wires laid out in plain site; these may be part of an IED or designed to draw friendly force attention before detonation of the real IED.

Employment Techniques. The enemy will generally employ the IED in a fashion and an area that allows the attacker to remain concealed and/or covered (such as a rooftop or window, dirt mound, vehicle [to include motorcycles], vegetation, canal, defile, alleyway, or even within a crowd) during the attack and to egress in a concealed or protected fashion. While typically being within 30-500 meters of the IED kill zone, attackers will generally locate themselves so that restrictive terrain is between them and friendly forces, thereby making it more difficult for friendly forces to over take them. There may be single or multiple IED placed in the kill zone with secondary IEDs, false kill zones, and multiple zones to further confuse friendly forces making them more vulnerable to the attack. Multiple IEDs are often daisy-chained together creating a linear target area. Below are some ways that IEDs can be used, whether they are emplaced by the enemy or used as VBIEDs. Additionally, there are some TTPs included that the enemy has used in order to hinder the mobility efforts of coalition forces. Keep in mind; TTPs

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

Enemy IED Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) (Continued) constantly change with the location and desired intent of the emplaced IED, threat or obstacle. The enemy has also incorporated the use of small arms fire in conjunction with the IED attack to harass forces in their attempts to conduct patrols and convoys along any given route. IEDs can be used in the following manners: Disguised static IEDs can be concealed with just about anything (trash, boxes, tires, and so forth) and can be placed in, on, or under a target or in or under unsecured vehicles. Disguised moveable IEDs (vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices [VBIEDs], suicide bomber vests or victim-actuated IEDs). Thrown or projected IEDs (improvised grenades or mortars). One example would be as a convoy travels beneath an overpass, two threat individuals on top of the bridge will attempt to drop IEDs on top of or into the back of vehicles as they pass under. (One spots the approaching convoy, times its movement, and signals the other who drops the IED as vehicles exit from the other side of the bridge.) Convoys must be aware of the 360-degree threat while traveling. Changing speeds and dispersion will help mitigate the threat to some extent. IEDs placed in, on, or under a secured/unsecured object. Often times coalition forces may want/need to clear the roads of abandoned or broken down vehicles or debris from the side of the road that could pose a threat to convoys that travel along a given route. Identifying possible enemy fighting or firing positions is paramount in order to keep all friendly forces safe while removing hauling or pushing the debris out of the way. If a remote investigative capability is available, use it to ensure that the debris being moved is not rigged with explosives. Hoax IEDs, which the enemy uses for myriad purposes, such as to learn our TTP, entrapment, non-explosive obstacle, and development of identifying complacency for future IED attacks. Hoax IEDs include something resembling an actual IED, but have no charge or a fully functioning initiator device. A TTP that has been used before is emplacing a fake IED (the distraction) along a given route that can be seen by the lead vehicle in a convoy causing the convoy to halt at a safe distance. Actually, the convoy has inadvertently stopped in the kill zone, for emplaced along the route either before or after the hoax IED (at a distance the enemy probably learned by observing repeated friendly reactions and TTPs) putting the convoy in the actual attack zone. Additional ways that IED have been employed are: o The Basic IED Attack. The enemy will place IEDs along routes on either side of the road awaiting foot patrols or convoys to approach in order to cause the most damage to personnel or vehicles. When the convoy reaches the attack or kill zone, the enemy detonates the IED. It is imperative that coalition forces be vigilant and alert at all times to identify the many different locations an enemy may possibly hide in order to trigger an IED or signal a trigger man. o The Broken Down Vehicle Attack. The attack uses a simulated broken down vehicle placed on the side of the road to cause convoys to change their intended route. The broken down vehicle is staged in the road, either side, blocking one or all of the trafficable lanes causing the convoy to be canalized between the broken down vehicle and an emplaced IED. If the convoy chooses to pass, the IED is
9 Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

Enemy IED Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) (Continued) detonated. Or as with the hoax IED, it has also been noted that Coalition Forces have stopped prior to the broken down vehicle and found to have stopped in the actual kill zone where a daisy chained series of IEDs is positioned on their flanks. o Tag Team Attack. Numerous threat individuals work to emplace an IED along a route, usually in an urban area. After the IED and initiation method has been emplaced, one of them will stand by out of site of the convoy and wait to give the signal to another who detonates the IED when the convoy enters the kill zone. They are usually located where they have the best escape route. o Ramming Convoys. The enemy has been known to ram their vehicle (possibly an SVBIED) into the rear or the side of a convoy as it passes in order to get the convoy to slow or come to a complete stop. As the convoy stops, an IED already placed on the side of the road or the SVBIED is detonated causing damage to personnel and equipment. The enemy has also been known to get in front of a convoy slowing their speed in order to conduct a coordinated attack with another VBIED. o Motorcycles. Used by the enemy in areas of decreased mobility in order to harass convoys and possibly throw IEDs or grenades into the rear of vehicles. Once the IED or grenade was launched at the intended vehicle, the motorist would escape using a pre-designated route that was severely restricted to trucks of larger size. Ensure personnel are constantly watching the rear and flanks of the convoy to keep this threat to a minimum. Vehicle Borne IED (VBIED). The VBIED has been successful due to its mobility and enabling the enemy to choose the time and place of the attack with much greater flexibility. VBIEDs are like any other IED, they almost never look the same (from bicycles to dump trucks) and there are countless different scenarios that can be set up by the enemy. This unpredictability makes them difficult to identify. If the driver of the VBIED is alone in the vehicle having direct control of the IED initiator, the initiator may be visible to anyone looking into the vehicle from the outside. Particulars of VBIEDs are: Driver o The presence of a lone male driver in the vehicle. This is the historical standard for VBIED operations; however, there could be any number of people in the vehicle if an unsuspecting person is driving the VBIED. Some VBIEDs have two to three people and females are sometimes used as a distraction. o Ignoring orders to stop, attempting to circumvent a security checkpoint, or attempting to maneuver too close to coalition assets. o Unusual appearance. The enemy may be uncharacteristically clean-shaven and have very short haircuts. (Cutting the hair is a part of the purifying ritual that many follow prior to an attack.) o Age in mid-twenties. The average Middle Eastern suicide terrorist is about 2425, but this may vary in your unique situation. o Driving erratically; driving too slow or too fast. o Wearing inappropriate dress for the environment.

10

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

Enemy IED Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) (Continued) Vehicle o Noticeable sagging of the vehicle; the top of the tire and the wheel well almost touch. o An additional antenna for radio-controlled devices. o Darkened or covered windows to conceal either vehicles contents or actions of the driver. o Recent painting of vehicle to cover body alterations. o Crudely covered holes made in the vehicle to hide explosives. o New welding marks. o No license plates. o Escorted by unusual security detail for type vehicle. o New tires on an old vehicle. o Anything unusual in factory-built compartments. o New or shiny bolts and/or screws. o Unusual scratches, possibly made by screwdrivers, wrenches, or similar tools. o Signs of tampering, such as broken parts or bent sheet metal. o Areas and components cleaner or dirtier than surrounding areas. o Wire and tape stored in vehicle.

Local Signs o Camera crew hanging out near your area. o Vehicle observed more than once. o Absence of normal routine for that area of operations (AO). o Odd traffic patterns. o Person or persons observed conducting reconnaissance. o Vehicle testing local defenses, i.e., drives at a high speed towards traffic control point (TCP) and then breaks off.

SBIEDs (Suicide Bombers). Most suicide attacks involve SBIEDs, and include casualty rates from tens to hundreds. Recently, however, there has been an increasing trend for suicide bombers to attack with an explosive vest, belt or baggage. Coalition Forces have been attacked within the perimeter of a Firm Base; civilians have been attacked at polling stations and at police recruitment drives; and a civilian contractor was killed when a bomber exited his vehicle in traffic, approached the contractors vehicle, and detonated his vest/belt. With effective techniques being used to reduce the effectiveness of VBIEDs, the potential for the enemy to adapt to suicide bombers increases. If the charges used by bombers are effectively packaged and concealed, a suicide bomber could carry up to 45 pounds of explosives; however, most suicide belts are designed to hold smaller amounts, up to 12 pounds. The mass of this weight of explosive promotes conformity of the belt to the individual, improving concealment. It should be noted that fragment producing materials are often incorporated into the design of these belts/vests.

11

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

Enemy IED Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) (Continued) Indicators of a potential suicide attack are: An individual who deliberately ignores orders to stop or attempts to circumvent a security checkpoint. An individual wearing too much clothing for the prevailing weather conditions. A person with suspicious bulges in his/her clothing, carrying packages/bags or wearing satchels/backpacks. An individual handling wires, switches, an actuator, or a dead mans switch. The enemy is smart, and their TTPs change! Threat forces continuously improve and adapt their TTPs. They are clever, flexible, innovative, and deceptive. They seek to exploit friendly forces weaknesses. They are constantly learning, changing tactics, and improving their TTPs. Enemy scouts and spies observe and report on Coalition Forces patterns, TTPs, SOPs, and battle drills and adjust their plans and TTPs accordingly. They conduct pattern analysis, learning and planning around Coalition Forces movement, patrol, and convoy patterns, routes, and schedules.

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction Introduction. Obviously, preventing IED attacks is one key way to enhance your personal safety and that of your unit. In addition, preventing IED attacks makes the local populace feel more confident in your ability to provide a secure environment. This increased confidence reduces the likelihood that they will provide assistance to the enemy or passively ignore their activities. There are also measures you can take to reduce the damage which can be caused by an IED detonation. Measures to reduce the effects of IEDs begin with conducting a thorough METT-TC analysis, gaining an understanding of the enemy, and comprehending the common activities associated with an IED attack. Activities conducted by the enemy include leadership, planning, financing, material procurement, bomb making, target selection, recruiting, and attack execution. A holistic approach to understanding the requirements of an IED attack assists commanders and planners in identifying vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities can be exploited to break the operational chain of events of the enemy, but the main focus here is to know what to look for when conducting an Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) and analyzing intelligence products. In this section, you will learn: Tenets of IED defeat Ways to prevent IED emplacement Ways to avoid IEDs during movement Training and preparation that can enhance your safety Tenets of IED Defeat. The IED defeat framework is enables commanders and staffs to plan and take proactive measures to seek out and defeat IED events before they occur.

12

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction (Continued) It also provides a methodology for addressing IED events upon contact and subsequent detonation. The IED defeat framework consists of the following: Predict. These activities are used to identify and understand enemy personnel, equipment, infrastructure, TTP, support mechanisms, or other actions to forecast specific enemy IED operations directed against U.S. interests. o o o o o o o Identifying patterns of enemy behavior. Identifying emerging threats. Predicting future enemy actions. Exploiting IED threat vulnerabilities. Targeting enemy IED attack nodes (such as funding and supplies). Disseminating alert information rapidly to specific users. Analyzing forensics and enabling better on-the-scene technical analysis.

Detect. These activities contribute to the identification and location of enemy personnel, explosive devices, and their component parts, equipment, logistics operations, and infrastructure in order to provide accurate and timely information. Detecting and identifying explosive material and other IED components. Detecting chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) material. Recognizing suicide bombers. Conducting forensic operations to track bomb makers and/or handlers. Conducting persistent surveillance. Training to improve detection of IED indicators by digital means. Using detection means across the full range available (imagery, mechanicalclearance operations, search techniques, dogs, so forth) o Recognizing individual Marine actions and awareness in all activities. o o o o o o o

Prevent. These activities disrupt and defeat the IED operational chain of events. The actions focus on the target to interdict or destroy key enemy personnel (bomb makers, leaders, and financiers), the infrastructure/ logistics capabilities (suppliers and bomb factories), and surveillance/ targeting efforts (reconnaissance and overwatch operations) before emplacement of the device. Disrupting enemy operations and their support structure. Denying critical IED-related supplies to the enemy. Increasing awareness of enemy TTP and their effectiveness. Denying the enemy the opportunity to emplace IEDs (through presence patrols, observation posts, checkpoints, aggressive surveillance operations, and so forth.) o Rewarding local nationals cooperation in determining the locations of cashes, bomb making, or emplacement activities. o Denying easily concealed locations (such as trash piles and debris along sides of primary routes) and removing abandoned vehicles along routes. o o o o

13

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction (Continued) Avoid activities. These activities keep friendly forces from IEDs when prevention activities are not possible or have failed. o Altering routes and routines. o Marking and bypassing suspected IEDs. Neutralize. These activities contribute to the destruction or reduction of enemy personnel, explosive devices, or supplies. They can be proactive or reactive in nature. o Proactive activities include conducting operations to eliminate or interrupt the enemys leaders, suppliers, trainers, enablers, and executors responsible for the employment of IEDs against coalition forces. o Reactive activities include conducting controlled detonations or render safe procedures (RSPs) against identified IEDs, cashes, captured enemy ammunition (CEA), and so forth. Explosive Ordinance Disposal (EOD) forces are the only personnel authorized to render safe IEDs. Protect. These activities improve the survivability of IED targets through hardening, awareness training, or other techniques. o Disrupting, channeling, blocking, or redirecting enemy and fragmentation. o Creating greater standoff distances to reduce the effect that IEDs have on their intended targets. o Using jamming devices. o Reducing time and distance in which intended targets are within IED range. o Accelerating processes and increasing the effectiveness by which reaction and evacuation operations are conducted. o Providing blast and fragmentation mitigation for platforms, structures, and personnel. o Avoid establishing patterns and predictable forms of behavior. o Conducting proper pre-combat inspections (PCIs) and rehearsals for all operations. o Treating every operation as a combat mission (from a simple convoy to forward operating base [FOB] security). IED Defeat Framework. The IED defeat framework can be broken down into two major sub-elements: Proactive (pre-detection) and Reactive (post-detection). Proactive elements are actions taken by friendly forces to predict, detect, prevent, avoid, neutralize, and protect against IED events. Reactive elements are actions taken by friendly forces to detect, avoid, neutralize, and protect against IED events.

14

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction (Continued)

Proactive Efforts
Focus on Battle Command and Awareness Training (Left of Detection)

Reactive Efforts
Focus on TTPs, Drills, SOPs, and Troop and System Protection (Right of Detection)

Collection & Analysis Enemy Reaction: Develops new attack methods Detect Event Avoid Neutralize Detection of IED

Not Detonated Predict

Actor
Method
Financier Planner Builder Delivery/ Emplacer

Detect Prevent Avoid Neutralize Protect

IED
Explosive Power Source Container Initiation Device

Protect

Enemys Desired Effect


Public Opinion
Regional, National, International, America

Erode Confidence

Feeds back into Collection and Analysis

Local Populace, Coalition Forces

Investigation and Report

IED Defeat Framework

The small unit leader generally has the capability to affect four of the six tenets of the IED-D framework. These are: predict, detect (detection is discussed in the previous lesson), avoid, and protect. Predict. Through analyzing the terrain, the planned route, and recent enemy activity in the area, the small unit leader can predict likely areas for an IED attack. Though many actions are involved within Predict, the small unit leader can likely execute the following actions with limited assistance from the units intelligence section: o Identify patterns of enemy behavior. o Predict future enemy actions.

15

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction (Continued) Avoid activities. Predict and detect aid the leader in avoiding IED attacks. The following activities also aid in avoiding IED attacks: o o o o o o Increasing situational understanding (SU) of the area of operations (AOs). Constantly updating the common operational picture (COP) Disseminating related accurate information about the AO in a timely manner. Ensuring timely and accurate status reporting and tracking. Altering routes and routines. Marking and bypassing suspected IEDs.

Protect. The following actions should be considered when attempting to decrease the effectiveness of IEDs: o Disrupting, channeling, blocking, or redirecting energy and fragmentation. This is primarily accomplished through use of armor kits on combat vehicles. o Creating greater standoff distances to reduce the effect that IEDs have on their intended targets. The minimum safe distance from any IED is 300 meters, but this range increases as the size of the IED increases. o Incorporating unmanned platforms. This would include unmanned aerial vehicles or robotics to investigate likely attack areas prior to entering the area. o Using jamming devices. o Reducing time and distance in which intended targets are within IED range. o Increasing the speed and effectiveness by which reaction and evacuation operations are conducted. o Providing blast and fragmentation mitigation for platforms, structures, and personnel. o Avoiding establishing patterns and predictable forms of behavior. o Conducting proper personnel and equipment inspections and rehearsals for all operations. o Treating every operation as a combat mission (from a simple convoy, to daily forward operating base [FOB] security or patrols).

Preventing IED Emplacement. The most effective way to enhance your security in relation to the IED threat is to deny the insurgents the opportunity to emplace an IED. Activities that reduce insurgent ability to emplace IEDs are to: Develop a good relationship and means of communicating with the community so community members feel comfortable providing you with information. o Advertise phone numbers to report insurgent activity or materials o Offer incentives and consistently ensure anonymity. Coordinate with local police and conduct joint patrolslocal police can aid in collecting information on insurgent actions and materials. (Maintain operations security [OPSEC].) Use patrols, observation points, and checkpoints to interdict and dissuade enemy activities and deny enemy access to key terrain for IED emplacement.
16 Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction (Continued) Use counter IED-ambush teams and scout-sniper teams to interdict or kill enemy insurgent teams. Reduce availability of bomb making materials, especially the pervasively available military explosives. Clean routes of trash, brush/vegetation, abandoned vehicles, etc. from the sides of the road. Select routes that are of the most concern in terms of IED threats.

Prepare For Movement. Follow these important points for movement: Number and Type of Vehicles (combat, logistic, wheeled, tracked). Large convoys consisting primarily of logistic vehicles carrying food, water, and numerous pilferable items that the enemy would like to capture for financial gain are likely targets as they are difficult to defend. These must contain robust security elements to present an aggressive posture and prevent attack. The leader must balance the number and type of vehicles in a movement to prevent the unit from becoming too cumbersome to manage and to allow for a strong security posture. If there are four or more security vehicles in a unit, two of them may scout ahead, maintaining communication and visual contact. Planned Speed of Movement. The speed of movement should be varied according to the drivers level of experience, vehicles/load plan of each convoy, the actual mission (e.g. supply convoy versus presence patrol), and the weather, time of day, and road conditions. Some key considerations are listed below: Driving fast may upset the enemys timing of command detonated IEDs, but it decreases the ability to spot IED indicators. Leaders must be aware that driving too fast may cause loss of control and can be potentially deadly. Driving slow increases the probability of spotting IED indicators, but may make you an easier target for command detonated IEDs or ambushes. Speed should be varied within the capabilities of the vehicles and the operators. This will help avoid setting patterns.

Weapons. Leaders must attempt to have a variety of weapons systems within their unit during any movement. This should range from small arms (rifles, grenade launchers) to medium and heavy machine guns. An effective mix of weapons systems will allow for an aggressive posture with the ability to provide heavy suppressive fires and the ability to conduct a dismounted assault. Either capability without the other exposes a critical gap in a units tactical capability that is easily exploited by the enemy. Leaders must also ensure that Marines are proficient with their weapons systems prior to movement. Route Selection. Before selecting the routes to be used in each mission, an analysis of new information should occur: Check when the routes you are considering using were last cleared or used by other units.

17

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction (Continued) Leaders should check for updated threat and route information with o o o o o o Higher headquarters MPs Force protection teams Intelligence and reconnaissance reports The Mine Data Center The IED Task Force, etc.

Choose routes that avoid chokepoints and other areas where traffic slows because reduced speeds make the convoy more vulnerable. Vary the times of movements, as well as the routes. Maintain OPSEC regarding the timing and routes of convoys, patrols, and other movements.

The figure shown on the following page is an example of a planned route that has been analyzed to show likely areas for an IED attack.

18

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction (Continued)

Example of route denoting likely IED Attack sites Communication Plan. Some movements (especially logistical convoys) cover a great distance and can often pass through several units areas of operation. The following considerations must be taken into consideration when developing a communication plan. Coordination with each unit whose AO you will be passing through to ensure that your means of communication are compatible. Preparation for emergency communications. All members of your unit must be briefed on and able to communicate MEDEVAC requests (air and ground) and Explosive Hazard Spot Reports. While this should be done for any movement, it is especially important in an IED environment due to the particularly catastrophic injuries and damage caused by IEDs.

19

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction (Continued) Pre-Movement Rehearsals. Moving units must be prepared to react quickly and efficiently to any attack--especially IED attacks. Once commencing the mission in the IED environment, it is vitally important to maintain awareness. Maintain an offensive mindset. Make all attempts to avoid setting patterns. One enemy TTP is to set decoy IEDs in order to observe the immediate reactions of coalition forces. By studying our tactics they can increase the lethality of their attacks, like setting up mortars and rockets on the kill zone or safe area. Follow the map you updated carefully75% of IEDs are set up in the exact same location of previous attacks. Follow the below steps to react to IED attacks. The below is not meant to replace initiative and ingenuity of the small unit leader; it is intended to be used as guidance. Remember that the IED may be just one part of the ambush. The unit must be prepared to react to any threat after the IED detonates and move out of the kill zone as quickly as possible. In the fight against an adaptive enemy, variations in TTPs are encouraged. Leaders must be aware all details unique to their particular situation in order to make a timely decision. The decision matrix on page 34 aids the unit leader in deciding how to act/react according to their particular situation. Pre-Combat Inspections. As with any other combat operation, unit leaders must conduct pre-combat inspections. This is the leaders last opportunity to ensure that all personnel and equipment are prepared for the movement. The following are a few key concerns. A more detailed checklist is contained at the end of this outline. Personnel. Inspect personnel for the follow (at a minimum). o Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is present, serviceable, and worn properly. o Weapons systems are operational and properly maintained. o Personnel are familiar with movement order, rally points, immediate action drills, and communication procedures. Vehicles. o Vehicles are in working order and properly maintained. o If not armored, vehicles are properly hardened. Use creativity as the situation dictates. One common example is to use sandbags. This may be especially practical if your AO sees a great deal of large, on route, buried IEDs. Sandbagged floor boards can absorb fragmentation and add weight to the vehicle (which decreases the vertical and horizontal acceleration as a result of the IED detonation). o Fire extinguishers are present on all vehicles and are in working order. o All cargo is properly strapped down to ensure it does not become secondary fragmentation. o Strip maps are present on all vehicles. o The vehicle load plan is adhered to.

20

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Attack Preparation, Prevention, and Effects Reduction (Continued) After Action Report. For your intelligence section to be able to properly update moving units, it is important that you provide a detailed after action report. Update your maps with any IED attacks that occurred during your movement, and add any potential IED attack locations. Strive to understand anything you may consider to be an enemy TTP, and inform the S-2. Pinpoint where any indirect or direct fire came from, and the location of any ambushes. Provide the S-2 with any other information that you think may be relevant for future pattern analysis.

IED Encounter Response Procedures Introduction. This section will provide you with information on how to react should an IED be discovered and/or detonate. At the end of this section you should understand Measures to be taken immediately after IED attack, Follow on actions if o No enemy is in the immediate area, o The enemy is in the immediate area, and General guidelines for the use of force. Units must drill these procedures and develop SOP battle drills for reacting to enemy contact associated with IED attacks. These tactics must be adaptive so that they keep the enemy off balance.

Reacting To Suspected IEDs. In order to mitigate the effects of an IED, there are several things Marines can do regardless of the type of threat. Ensure that personnel wear all protective gear available, to include ballistic eye protection, goggles, Kevlar helmets, body armor with plates, and hearing protection. Wear seatbelts when moving. During mounted movement, ensure that drivers, track commanders, and gunners have as much of their body inside the vehicle as possible to reduce the possibility of being struck by shrapnel or being exposed to the initial blast. Pre-Movement Rehearsals. Moving units must be prepared to react quickly and efficiently to any attack--especially IED attacks. Once commencing the mission in the IED environment, it is vitally important to maintain awareness. Maintain an offensive mindset. Make all attempts to avoid setting patterns. One enemy TTP is to set decoy IEDs in order to observe the immediate reactions of coalition forces. By studying our tactics they can increase the lethality of their attacks, like setting up mortars and rockets on the kill zone or safe area. Follow the map you updated carefully75% of IEDs are set up in the exact same location of previous attacks. Follow the below steps to react to IED attacks. The below is not meant to replace initiative and ingenuity of the small unit leader; it is intended to be used

21

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) as guidance. Remember that the IED may be just one part of the ambush. The unit must be prepared to react to any threat after the IED detonates and move out of the kill zone as quickly as possible. In the fight against an adaptive enemy, variations in TTPs are encouraged. Patrolling. One of the most important things you can do to protect yourself and your unit against the possibility of an IED attack is to limit your predictability. This is much more than varying the times of movement. You also need to consider varying routes, movement techniques, and your TTP for dealing with different situations. Remember, the enemy is always watching. For example, if you react to a specific situation such as a disabled vehicle or suspected IED the same way every time the enemy will quickly catch on and will use this knowledge to his advantage. In an effort to counter route predictability, patrols should change direction at seemingly random intervals, especially in areas of previous IED attacks. Where practical and safe, move against the normal flow of traffic, turn around at points not normally used, and move overland parallel to an established route in order to vary your observable movement tactics. Additionally, these techniques will present the patrol with a different and often more advantageous observation angle that may reveal the backside of an IED that was poorly camouflaged. o Counter VBIED Techniques. The key to surviving a VBIED attack is standoff and cover. Also, stress to security personnel that a VBIED can come from any direction. Units have been attacked by vehicles turning into a patrol from oncoming traffic. When moving in a convoy, make sure you do not present a lucrative target for a VBIED. Maintain an aggressive security posture and have a plan for dealing with civilian traffic. This can include, but is not limited to, the use of signs in the local language, formations that take up all lanes in the road, visual signals, use of an air horn, and the use of flares to warn cars to stay back before firing disabling shots. Top gunners and security personnel should be alert and constantly aware of any vehicle approaching their patrol or parked along the route. Within the ROE, any suspicious vehicle should not be allowed to approach coalition forces. Employ warning signs to tell civilian drivers to remain clear of a moving convoy. Convoy and patrol members should know the authorized escalation of force procedures. Be aware of danger areas/choke points such as turnoffs that force the patrol to slow down. Watch merging traffic as VBIEDs have used on or off ramps to get near coalition vehicles

22

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) If you are going to allow civilian traffic to pass your convoy, make sure you have developed a technique to visually check cars and drivers as they approach. If you are not going to allow civilian traffic to pass your convoy, make sure that you have a plan to let civilians know to stay back, and have a plan for the escalation of force. o Maintaining Standoff: Mobile. Escalation of force techniques/ROE: The techniques used should be simple, clean, and definite: Aggressive/defensive vehicle maneuvers Signs in the local language on the rear of vehicle (Stay Back, Do Not Pass) Hand and arm signals Air horn/siren/bull horn/whistle Spotlight (nighttime) Green lasers Non-lethal warnings Chem-lites, water bottles Use of pen flares Flash bangs 40-mm TP round Warning shots Engage vehicle with weapon, if necessary (ROE) Engage the driver/occupants, if necessary (ROE)

o Maintaining Standoff: Stationary Recon site prior to occupation Perform 5 to 25 meter checks upon halt Maximize distance from roadway (mine and buried IEDs may present a threat) Make use of natural barriers Maintain good dispersion Quickly establish overt perimeter: o o o o Cones Barbed wire Signs Road spikes

Establish overwatch of primary position Defend in depth

23

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) Position electronic countermeasure (ECM) devices for maximum coverage Keep roads clear of civilian vehicles

o Counter Suicide Bomber Techniques Defensive Actions o Evacuate the area immediately. Safe distances will depend on the mass of explosive carried by the bomber and the amount and type of fragmentation used. o Close and negotiate tactics should not be attempted, as suicide bombers are usually trained to avoid surrender at all costs. o A fail safe cell phone or radio-controlled initiator could be used in the event that the bomber is incapacitated or hesitates. This tactic would normally involve a second suspect with a line-ofsight view of the bomber and should always be considered. o If a deadly force response is taken, bullet impact may initiate/detonate the explosive charge(s). Firing on the suspect should only be undertaken from protective cover. o If the suspect is neutralized and there is no explosion, do not administer first aid. Wait for EOD to render safe the explosive charge. o Actions at Halts. No one single set of procedures will work for all situations. If a patrol or convoy must stop during movement, employ techniques to create standoff. Remember to conduct 5 to 25 meter checks as described below. In addition, establish your own local security every time the convoy or patrol halts. Avoid clustering vehicles and vary the vehicle interval between elements. If you will be stopped for any length of time, improve your position constantly and consider contingencies (hasty and deliberate defense) for the site you are occupying. Most importantly, do not remain at one site too long. The enemy has planned and executed attacks against units that remain in place too long. 5 to 25 Meter Checks at Halts. Any patrol or convoy halting for any length of time must consider itself vulnerable to attack. At all halts, Marines must clear the area around their vehicles. Depending on the length of time at the halt, the area to clear varies from 5 to 25 meters. At every halt, no matter how short, the crew must clear 5 meters around the vehicle while inside. For extended halts, teams must clear 25 meters around the patrol or convoy. Begin 5 to 25 before stopping to avoid stopping on top of an IED.

24

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) o 5 meter checks: Identify a position to halt. Visually check the area 5 meters around your vehicles . Look for disturbed earth and suspicious objects, loose bricks in walls, and security ties on streetlights or anything out of the ordinary. Start your search at ground level and continue up above head height. Then conduct a physical check for a radius of 5 meters around your position. Be systematic, take your time, and show curiosity. If the tactical situation permits, use a white light or infrared (IR) light at night. If in an armored vehicle, remain mounted during your 5 meter check to take advantage of the vehicles protection.

o 25 meter checks: Add to the 5 meter check when the patrol or convoy leader decides to occupy an area for any length of time. Once 5 meter checks are conducted, continue visually scanning out to 25 meters. Conduct a physical search for a radius of 25 meters around your position. Look for IED indicators and anything out of the ordinary.

o Actions on Contact. An improvised explosive device (IED) is a form of attack by the enemy. Any IED that detonates should be treated as an enemy contact. Contingency plans and rehearsals are key to concluding the contact, hopefully with the capture or death of the bomber. If you find an IED before it explodes, you must treat it like it will explode at any moment. The enemy at the firing point may be waiting for more Marines to gather around the device before setting it off. He may be moving from an observation point (OP) to the firing point. Training on basic tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) will enable you and your unit to win the engagement. IED Found Before Detonation. o The Five "Cs". The five "Cs" represent a simple set of guidelines that you should use when you encounter a suspected IED: Confirm Clear

25

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) Cordon Check Control CONFIRM. You should always assume the device will explode at any moment. From a safe distance and using a minimal number of personnel, look for IED indicators. Use any hard cover you have available while attempting to confirm the suspected IED, and never risk more personnel than the tactical situation requires. Use all tools at your disposal, to include moving to a better vantage point. Use optics to look for tell-tale signs of an IED: red detonating (det) cord, antennas, electrical wires, or exposed ordnance. Never ask civilians to remove an IED. You may solicit information regarding the suspected IED, but do not ask them to go up and take a look. Stay as far back as possible while looking for clues. When in doubt, back away. Do not ever touch. Let your higher headquarters know what you have found. Submit an IED/unexploded ordnance (UXO) 9-line report. When you move to a new location, always check for secondary IEDs. Always assume that the found IED is a bait round and that the real IED is near your secure location. Team members should always scan their immediate surroundings for more IEDs. Report additional IEDs to the on-scene commander.

LINE 1. Date-time group (DTG): When the item was discovered? LINE 2. Report activity and location: Unit and grid location of the IED/UXO. LINE 3. Contact method: Radio frequency, call sign, point of contact (POC), and telephone number. LINE 4. Type of ordinance: Dropped, projected, placed, or thrown; give the number of items if more than one. LINE 5. Nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) contaminations: Be as specific as possible. LINE 6. Resources threatened: Equipment, facilities, or other assets that are threatened. LINE 7. Impact on mission: Short description of current tactical situation and how the device affects the status of the mission.

26

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) LINE 8. Protective measures: Any protective measures taken to protect personnel and equipment. LINE 9. Recommended priority: Immediate, indirect, minor, no threat. Note: Do not attempt to do the job of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) or engineers. CLEAR. Evacuate the area to a safe distance (around 300 meters) but do not set a pattern. If it is a VBIED, you will need more standoff. Get out of the IEDs line-of-sight. Assess whether your distance and cover is adequate. Direct people out of the danger area, and do not allow anyone to enter other than those responsible for rendering the IED safe, such as EOD. Question, search, and detain as needed. CORDON. Establish blocking positions to prevent vehicle and foot traffic from approaching the IED. Immediately search the safe area for secondary IEDs before occupying it. Make maximum use of available cover. Establish 360 degree security and dominate the area. Scan close in and away from your position. Most likely, the enemy is watching and waiting to make his move. Randomly check people leaving the area to deter attacks. Establish obstacles to control approaches to security positions. Enemy may try to attack local security forces using a VBIED.

CHECK. Check the immediate area around the IED and cordoned positions for secondary devices using the 5/25 meter checks. Expand the search area as time/ threat permit. CONTROL. Control the site until EOD arrives. Clear and set up an entry control point for first responders. Do not let others go forward to inspect the IED. Make contingency plans in case you are attacked by small arms or rocket propelled grenades (RPGs).

27

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued)

Should you be part of a patrol or convoy that finds an IED, the five "Cs" will help to ensure that the situation can be dealt with quickly and safely. Remember, an IED that is found is still an IED attack. By finding the IED, you have just disrupted the enemys attack. Do not forget about the enemys other forms of attack, RPGs, small arms fire, mortars, and secondary IED. Enemy IED site = Enemy ambush site. You are in the kill zone!

28

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) Kill and Danger Estimated Distances. IED Coke Can Shoe Box Small Footlocker Car Van Delivery Semi Trailer Amount of HE 1 lb. 5 lb. 10 lb. 100 lb. 500 lb 4000 lb 10000 lb 60000 lb
Kill Distances Danger Area Frag Danger Area Blast

10 ft 20 ft 22 ft 50 ft 82 ft 164 ft 225 ft 400 ft

500 ft 850 ft 1200 ft 2500 ft 4000 ft 6500 ft 11000 ft 20000 ft

300 ft 500 ft 650 ft 1500 ft 2400 ft 5000 ft 6300 ft 12000 ft

Once you have completed the first five crucial steps (Confirm, Clear, Assess, Cordon, and Control), follow the rest of the steps of these response procedures: Attempt to locate insurgents in the area and, if possible, attempt to kill or capture. Mark the IED using a reference point; determine grid location and record DTG. Do not handle or approach IED at any time. Contact higher headquarters to report any IEDs or possible IEDs using the nine-line IED/UXO report. A grid and sitrep will suffice in the short-term. Do not use radios, cellular phones, radars, or other electronic devices within 100 meters of the suspected IED, as these actions could set off radio-frequency IEDs. Gather information about the IED area and threat environment and interview witnesses. Leave the area when the IED is secured or conduct a battle hand over with EOD or other follow-on unit. Restore site to state of normalcy if possible (restore traffic flow, clear debris, treat local populace with respect, etc.).
29 Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) o Suspected IED What Not To Do. Never approach a suspected IED. Instead, use standoff optics like binoculars and spotting scopes from multiple angles to attempt to confirm the presence of an IED. When in doubt, back off and call EOD. Do not pick up det cord. Det cord is an explosive and the presence of it alone is enough to call EOD. Do not trace or pull on det cord. Tracing command wire (CW). The enemy has placed trip wires and other IEDs under/in the vicinity of command wires. When a command wire is located, rather than walking parallel to the wire or over the wire to locate the initiation point, work in an S pattern, crossing the CW until the initiation point is located.

CAUTION! There has been at least one occasion where an IED was located at the initiation point, in addition to the IED at the main supply route (MSR). Do not focus on the found IED. An IED, once found, is not going to move. Look for additional devices. Look for the trigger man. Look for anyone trying to escape the area. Watch for approaching VBIEDs. Scan for enemy moving into position to engage you with small arms or RPGs. Focus outward. Again, once positive IED indicators are found (det cord, wires, etc.), immediately move a safe distance away; perform a search of your safe area (5 to 25 meter checks) for secondary devices, and call EOD. o IED Detonation. Immediate actions differ when an IED is actually detonated. The enemy may often combine the IED attack with a direct fire ambush to increase the lethality of the attack. In deciding the best course of action following an IED detonation, the leader must first determine if the IED attack is combined with an ambush. The 5 "Cs" are still applicable; however, you must now incorporate your counter-ambush TTPs. Even when you do everything right tactically, the enemy can sometimes surprise you. For this reason, it is important to review some tactical principles for post-explosion actions. Units should be proficient in actions on contact, and team members should be cross-trained on other patrol members duties. Remember, an IED attack is an ambush. It is important to note that the results of an IED attack can range from catastrophic to no damage at all. The enemy is not always successful with IED attacks. If you are attacked, your reaction to contact drills will have to be modified based upon vehicle damage and casualties. Key points: Quick, lethal and aggressive response in accordance with rules of engagement (ROE)
30 Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) Immediately scan outward. The biggest mistake Marines can make is focusing inwards toward the site of the IED detonation and forgetting about the enemy. Obviously, some Marines will have to assess the situation, communicate with higher, tend to wounded, and recover vehicles. Every other patrol or convoy member should scan around the location for the enemy. Move out of kill zone Search for/Clear additional IEDs (5 to 25) -At the new location (5 to 25) -At the location where the vehicle is disabled (5 to 25) Treat/Evacuate casualties Report situation Expect follow on attacks

o IED Detonation: No Ambush; with or without casualties. After an IED is detonated, the unit leader must be prepared to react immediately to a number of potential scenarios. The method chosen will depend on the mission and the circumstances following the attack: The unit leader may chose to continue movement. If there is a casualty the unit leader may chose to find a suitable CASEVAC location Preserve forensic evidence Search the surrounding area Conduct vehicle recovery operations Dismount vehicles and seek out the trigger man Conduct 5 Cs. Be prepared to take additional action as your situation develops. Below is an example of a unit SOP-driven immediate action drill that uses the acronym REACTER: Report. Report contact to personnel internal to patrol/convoy; gain situational awareness. Evacuate. Able vehicles and personnel clear kill zone. Area. Secure the area (ie; establish snap blocking positions using contents of snap VCP kits, conduct 5 to 25 meter checks, establish 360 security, establish overwatch, establish cordon, scan/search for possible triggermen/cameramen). Focus on enemy and control area. Clear the kill zone. Conduct a sweep for secondary IEDs while clearing to damaged vehicle/kill zone. ECM assets should be integrated into sweep if available. First responders should move up immediately behind sweep, but should not move to kill zone before area is secure or sweep for secondary IEDs is conducted.

31

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) Treat casualties: initial lifesaving procedures only. Do not establish Casualty Collection Point (CCP) in kill zone and do not linger in kill zone. Establish CCP and LZ away from kill zone ie; min 300 meters. Conduct 5 to 25 meter checks at CCP and LZ. Report/recover. Report situation to higher and Recover damaged vehicles as required.

o IED Detonation With Direct Fire Ambush. When no ambush is present, the priority is to determine if other IEDs exist in the immediate area. When an ambush is present, the priority shifts slightly; the threat of a potential IED is outweighed by the actual ambush, so the enemy must be addressed first. The leader must employ the principles of reacting to near or far ambushes, and then conduct the 5 Cs. IED Detonation with near ambush. In a near ambush, the kill zone is under very heavy, highly concentrated, close-range (within hand grenade range) fires. There is little time or space for men to maneuver or seek cover. The longer they remain in the kill zone, the more certain their deaths. If attacked with a near ambush: o Marines in the kill zone immediately assault the enemys position without waiting for any order or signal. The assault should be swift, violent, and destructive. Fire weapons at the maximum rate, throw hand grenades, and yell as loudly as possible- anything to kill as many enemy as they can, and confuse enemy survivors. Once they reach the ambush position, they either continue with their assault, or break contact, as directed. o Marines not in the kill zone maneuver against the ambush force, firing in support of those assaulting. o If the ambush force is small enough to be routed or destroyed, the patrol members should continue with their assault and supporting fire. If the force is well-disciplined and holds its ground, then the patrol members should make every effort to break contact as quickly as possible, and move to the last en route rally point to reorganize. o If the leader decides to break contact, he must be aware that the unit may have to provide suppressive fire until any WIA/KIA/disabled vehicles can be extracted from the kill zone. o Consolidate and Conduct 5 Cs. IED Detonation with far ambush. In a far ambush, the killing zone is also under very heavy, highly concentrated fires, but from a greater range (out of hand grenade range). The greater range precludes those caught in the killing zone from conducting an
32 Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) assault. The greater range does, however, permit some opportunity for the men to maneuver and seek cover. If attacked from a far ambush: o Men in the kill zone immediately return fire, take the best available cover, and continue firing until directed otherwise. o Men not in the kill zone maneuver against the ambush force, as directed. o The unit leader either directs his unit and team leaders to fire and maneuver against the ambush force, or to break contact, depending on his rapid assessment of the situation. o If the leader decides to break contact, he must be aware that the unit may have to provide suppressive fire until any WIA/KIA/disabled vehicles can be extracted from the kill zone. o Consolidate and Conduct 5 Cs.

Attempting to Neutralize an IED with Organic Weapons. Depending on your estimate of the situation and your commanders intent, you may be required to neutralize the suspected IED if EOD is not immediately available and the situation is dire enough to warrant taking the risk. Neutralizing the IED is generally not the preferred course of action as it destroys any forensic evidence, may cause explosive waste to scatter without detonating, and could be potentially deadly as these techniques are often conducted from within the fragmentation radius of the IED. Also, you should note that an IED in the open may be a detonator for a larger hidden device. Ensure that there is enough safety standoff distance from the IED before detonating it. The only means that most convoys/patrols will have to attempt to neutralize an IED is through direct fire weapons. o Stand-off Munitions Disruption (SMUD)/ ballistically breaching. Standoff munitions disruption (SMUD) is remotely detonating, disrupting, or deflagrating small ordnance at safe distances. Marines and soldiers have attempted to modify this technique to ballistically breach IEDs. Although it may be successful, there is a great deal of risk to ballistically breaching IEDs. WARNING: Ballistic breaching can leave a fully functional IED or other explosive hazard. It is difficult to verify that the hazard has been neutralized. WARNING: If the ordnance used as the main charge is not identified, the use of ballistic breaching may create a greater hazard by scattering sub-munitions or worse, releasing chemical agents into the environment. Attempting to ballistically breach potential IEDs can be extremely dangerous. It can expose the unit to fragmentation hazards, chemical hazards, and the potential of scattered ordnance. Further, unless conducted by a properly trained

33

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) EOD technician, the use of ballistic breaching may not destroy the IED. This is a risk based decision that a leader must make only after all other alternatives have been exhausted. A LEADERS DECISION CONSIDERATIONS MATRIX IS FOUND ON THE FOLLOWING PAGE.

34

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued)


Detect a Possible IED

Yes Is It a Threat? Move Out of the Danger Area and Establish Standoff.

No

Check for Other Threats: IED, Sniper, RPG, VBIED, Triggerman.

What is the Current Situations Highest Priority?

OPTEMPO

Safety/ Intelligence

EOD Assets Immediately Available?

Unit Response Execute 5- Cs

Yes

No

Neutralize It, Report It, Continue Mission.

Can Mission Continue Without Addressing IED?

EOD Responds, Renders Safe IED, Collects/ Reports Evidence. No

Yes

Mark, Bypass (Avoid), and Report. Provide Security Element (IF Available) And execute 5- Cs.

Take Direct Action. Conduct Breaching Operations: Remotely Mechanically Robotically SMUD By Explosive Charge

Continue Mission Report It, Continue Mission

35

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) General Guide to Responding with the Use of Force. When responding to an IED attack with force, Marines should remember that intelligence is critical to defeating an enemy force and should think about capturing IED enemy forces if possible. Captured IED enemy forces can be a good source of intelligenceleading to the killing or capture of key enemy leaders, planners, operators, and other organizers of the insurgency. IED Hunting. IED hunting requires patience, practice, and proactive approaches to the mission. IED hunters do much more than drive up and down the roads looking for IED signs. Patrol members clear routes to ensure freedom of movement for coalition forces (CF) and civilian traffic. Familiarity with the area to be cleared is one key element in successful IED hunting teams. Looking at the route from the enemys perspective is a second critical element. Teams must use all means available to find IEDs and to prevent themselves from becoming a target. Key points to IED hunting are In depth knowledge of the area Concentrate efforts on high threat areas Clear the route often Use combination of mounted/dismounted teams Move slow enough to observe Observe from multiple angles Investigate every clue that tends to point to an IED Take size of object into consideration Look for other IED indicators Use optics to maximize standoff Elicit information from Iraqi citizens

Some IED hunting teams use specialized vehicles, which offer additional protection, survivability, and equipment to search for IEDs. Other teams use simpler, common equipment to observe changes in their assigned area such as binoculars, spotting scopes, and white searchlights; thermal sights can assist IED hunters. The single most important consideration for IED hunting teams is to vary their actions. Based upon previous experiences, a few key principles for IED hunters have emerged. While the equipment and enemy may vary, these guidelines can help organize counter IED patrols. Use every tool you have. Review daily intelligence reports and debriefs from previous patrols. Use the same personnel consistently. This is one point where you want to set a pattern. Marines who are familiar with a route will know when changes have taken place. They will know what the roads look like and what garbage and dirt piles are new. They will also be able to detect changes in the populations attitudes and presence.

36

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) Drive at slow speeds and use the center of the road. You must drive slowly enough to detect IED indicators. While convoys and other movements should go as fast as practical, IED hunters should move slowly and deliberately while searching. Moving in the center of the road gets the team further away from IEDs in the event of a detonation. Solicit information. Ask locals if they have seen unusual activity (you will need an interpreter). Investigate anything that looks out of the ordinary. Consider any item suspect if it is new, recently disturbed, or out of place. Look closely for other IED indicators such as wires or detonating (det) cord. Do not pick anything up. All of the good souvenirs were picked up long ago by other coalition forces or local people. Something left on the ground that appears valuable most likely was placed there deliberately. Successful teams look at their route from the enemys perspective. Remember, the enemy is trying to conceal the device from someone traveling on the route. IED hunting teams that look at the route form potential enemy observation points often find signs of IED preparations. Threat forces can get careless once they get out of sight of the main route, and they may leave wires, camouflage, or even the IED itself in plain sight. Offset teams searching parallel to the protected route can observe these indicators.

Points to Remember. The enemy adapts to your TTPs. To protect yourself and your units, think like the enemy. Prevent emplacement by collecting information about insurgent activities, deterring activities through patrols and counter-IED ambush teams, clearing the roadsides of debris, and reducing the availability of bomb making materials. Avoid attacks while moving by o Driving at 40 mph or more with a 50 m interval between vehicles whenever possible o Staying as far from the shoulder of the road as possible o Being observant about key enemy IED attack threat indicators, like Areas where traffic slows or the terrain could conceal an IED Common items used to camouflage IEDs o Choosing routes with as few visually obscuring or traffic slowing terrain features as possible Reduce effects of IED attacks by hardening vehicles. Conduct training on all of these TTPs. If there is an IED attack, Confirm, Clear, Call and Assess, Cordon, Control.

37

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

IED Encounter Response Procedures (Continued) Stay Alert! Stay Alive!

Summary
As can be seen, the IED, a simple design constructed from easily obtainable materials, is a very formidable weapon. The enemys TTPs are effortlessly adaptable to friendly responses. However, an IED is vulnerable. A deprivation of simply one of the necessary items of its implementation, whether lack of materials or funding or friendly forces knowing what to look for, diminishes the IEDs effectiveness dramatically.

References
FMI 3-07 .22 GTA 90-01-001 MCIP 3-17.01 MCIP 3-17.02 No. 05-23 July 05 TC9-21-01(093-89D-01) Counterinsurgency Operations IED and Vehicle Borne IED Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Tactical IED Defeat Ops Joint IED Defeat Task Force Soldiers IED Awareness Guide

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym 5 to 25 Meter Checks Definition or Identification At all halts, Marines must clear the area around their vehicles. Depending on the length of time at the halt, the area to clear varies from 5 to 25 meters. At every halt, no matter how short, the crew must clear 5 meters around the vehicle while inside. For extended halts, teams must clear 25 meters around the patrol or convoy. Begin 5 to 25 before stopping to avoid stopping on top of an IED. An explosive or non-explosive device or other material, deliberately placed to cause casualties when an apparently harmless object is disturbed or a normally safe act is performed. A device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals and designed to destroy, incapacitate, harass, or distract. It may incorporate military stores, but is normally devised from nonmilitary components. Also called IED. The five "Cs" represent a simple set of guidelines that you should use when you encounter a suspected IED: Confirm, Clear, Cordon, Check and Control.

Booby Trap

Improvised Explosive Device

The Five "Cs"

38

Basic Officer Course

B3L4118

Improvised Explosive Devices

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms (Continued)


Mine In land mine warfare, an explosive or material, normally encased, designed to destroy or damage ground vehicles, boats, or aircraft, or designed to wound, kill, or otherwise incapacitate personnel. It may be detonated by the action of its victim, by the passage of time, or by controlled means.

REACTER

Stand-off Munitions Disruption (SMUD).

An example of a unit SOP-driven immediate action drill: Report, Evacuate, Area, Clear the kill zone, Treat casualties, Establish CCP and LZ, Report/recover. Remotely detonating, disrupting, or deflagrating small ordnance at safe distances. Marines and soldiers have attempted to modify this technique to ballistically breach IEDs. Although it may be successful, there is a great deal of risk to ballistically breaching IEDs.

Notes

39

Basic Officer Course

Notes

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

ENGINEERING FIELD FIRING EXERCISE B3L4258 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Military Explosives
Introduction Understanding and properly employing demolitions can mean the difference between mission accomplishment or failure. Using explosives requires much knowledge and responsibility, extensive and thorough planning, and, in some circumstances, patience. The importance of a working knowledge of military explosives is demonstrated in the following synopsis from the book, The Bridge at Dong Ha. On Easter Sunday, 1972, two North Vietnamese infantry divisions, more than 200 T-54 tanks, and supporting units attempted to cross the Cua Viet River over the bridge near the village of Dong Ha, eight miles south of the DMZ. The Easter Offensive was to be the push to ultimately capture Saigon. With his knowledge of military explosives, Captain John W. Ripley, 0302/USMC, serving as an advisor to the 3rd Battalion Vietnamese Marine Corps, halted the North Vietnamese offensive. Captain Ripley successfully placed and detonated over 300 pounds of TNT and C-4 to destroy a section of the steel and timber bridge at Dong Ha. The North Vietnamese were unable to launch another large offensive to capture Saigon for another three years. In This Lesson You will learn the various types of explosives, their intended usage, and how to safely and effectively prepare them for use.

Importance

This lesson covers the following topics:

Topic Military Explosives Demolition Charges Specialized Demolition Charges Demolition Accessories Firing Systems Safety Precautions Summary References Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Notes Terminal Learning Objectives

Page 4 6 7 11 16 21 22 22 22 23

Learning Objectives

Given an M18A1 Claymore mine and sector of fire, while wearing a fighting load, emplace an M18A1 Claymore mine

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

to ensure the sector of fire is covered. (0300-DEMO-1003) Given a unit, an assault or engineer unit, demolitions, a mission, and a commander's intent, employ demolitions to achieve desired effects of the demolitions in support of the ground scheme of maneuver. (0302-OFF-1206) Given a unit, a barrier plan, and material needed to emplace obstacles, direct obstacle emplacement to achieve the effect desired by the commander. (MCCS-DEF-2203) Enabling Learning Objectives Given an M18A1 Claymore mine and sector of fire, while wearing a fighting load, prepare a claymore mine without endangering friendly personnel or equipment. (0300DEMO-1003a) Given a positioned M18A1 claymore mine, while wearing a fighting load, recover a claymore mine to support follow-on operations. (0300-DEMO-1003b) Given a unit, a mission, a mental estimate of the situation, supporting engineer assets, and a commander's intent, employ engineers in support of defensive operations to accomplish the mission. (0302-DEF-1301e) Without the aid of references, describe engineer capabilities that support offensive operations to support mission accomplishment. (0302-OFF-1201g) Without the aid of reference, identify demolitions without error. (0302-OFF-1206a) Without the aid of reference, identify demolition capabilities without error. (0302-OFF-1206b) Without the aid of reference, identify obstacle types without error. (MCCS-DEF-2203a) Given a mission, a commander's intent, obstacle materials, and while leading a rifle squad or platoon, plan obstacles to support the defensive scheme of maneuver. (MCCS-DEF2203b)

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Military Explosives
Explosives. Explosives are substances that, through chemical reaction, violently change to a gaseous form. In doing so, they release pressure and heat equally in all directions. The table below describes the two major categories of explosives. Category Low explosives High explosives Description Change from solid to gaseous state slowly over a sustained period (1300 feet/second) Are ideal when a pushing or shoving effect is required Change from solid to gaseous state almost instantaneously (3280 to 28,880 feet/second) Produce a shattering effect on the target

Military Explosives. To be suitable in military operations, explosives must: Be: Produced from readily available raw materials Inexpensive to manufacture Suitable for use under water or in a damp climate Conveniently sized and shaped for packaging, storing, distribution, handling, and emplacing by troops o Assigned a relative effectiveness factor (a ratio that compares the effectiveness of any given military explosive to the effectiveness of TNT) o o o o Have: o Relative insensitivity to shock or friction, yet able to be positively detonated by easily prepared initiators o A shattering effect (Brisance) and potential energy adequate for the purpose o The stability adequate to retain usefulness for a reasonable time when stored in any climate at temperatures between 80 degrees Fahrenheit (F) and 165 degrees F o High density (weight per unit of volume) o Minimum toxicity (poisonous effect) when stored, handled, and detonated o A high energy output per unit of volume

CAUTION: Since explosives contain their own oxidizer, burning explosives cannot be extinguished by smothering. Whenever explosives burn, possible detonation poses a hazard. Personnel should not attempt to extinguish burning explosives without competent supervision and the advice and assistance of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel.

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Military Explosives (Continued)


Characteristics of US Explosives. The table below lists the characteristics and principal uses of US explosives.
Velocity of Detonation (m/sec) Black powder Ammonium nitrate Amatol 80/20 Military dynamite, M1 Detonating cord Time blasting fuse Demolition charge (cratering) Bursting charge Demolition charge (quarrying, stumping, and ditching) Priming 400 2,700 4,900 6,100 6,100 to 7,300 6,900 (ft/sec) 1,300 8,900 16,000 20,000 20,000 to 24,000 22,600 Relative Effectiveness as a Breaching Charge (TNT 100) 0.55 0.42 1.17 0.92 Intensity of Poisonous Fumes Dangerous Dangerous Dangerous Dangerous Water Resistance Poor Poor Poor Fair Excellent

Explosive

Principal Uses

TNT

Tetrytol 75/25 Tetryl Sheet explosive M118 and M186 Pentolite 50/50 Nitroglycerine Bangalore torpedo, M1A2 Shaped charges M2A3, M2A4, and M3A1 Composition B Composition C4 and M112 Composition A3 PETN

Composition explosives Demolition charge (breaching)


Booster charge Composition explosives Demolition charge (cutting) Booster charge

Demolition charge (breaching)

Dangerous

Excellent

7,000 7,100 7,300 7,450 7,700 7,800 7,800

1.2 1.2 2,400 24,400 25,200 25,600 25,600 1.5 1.17 1.17 1.14

Dangerous Dangerous Dangerous Dangerous Dangerous Dangerous Dangerous

Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Excellent Excellent

Bursting charge Commercial dynamites Demolition charge (wire and minefield breaching) Demolition charge (cutting holes) Bursting charge Demolition charge (cut and breach)

7,800 8,040 8,100 8,300

25,600 26,400 26,500 27,200

1.35 1.34

Dangerous Slight Dangerous

Excellent Excellent Good Excellent

RDX

Booster charge Bursting charge Detonating cord Blasting caps Demolition charges Blasting caps Composition explosives

1.66

Slight

8,360

27,400

1.6

Dangerous

Excellent

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Demolition Charges
Demolition Charges. The table below lists the principle uses, advantages, and limitations as well as a diagram of three demolition charges (refer to the Characteristics of US Explosives table, page 5, for their characteristics).
Charge Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Principle Uses Standard demolition charge for all types of demolition work The -pound charge used primarily for training

Advantages Has a high detonating velocity Is o Stable o Relatively insensitive to shock or friction o Water resistant o Convenient in size, shape, and packaging

Limitations Cannot be molded Is difficult to use on irregularly shaped targets Not recommended for use in closed spaces (explosion produces poisonous gases)

TNT
M112 Block Demolition Charge (C-4)

Primarily for o Cutting o Breaching o All types of demolition work Because of high shattering effect, ideally suited for cutting steel and other hard materials

Can be cut and molded to fit irregularly shaped targets Adhesive backing allows charge to be attached to any relatively flat, clean, dry surface above the freezing point Paper color aids in camouflage

Odd weight, 1.25 versus 1 pound (calculating charge weight is difficult) Adhesive backing will not adhere to wet, dirty, rusty, or frozen surfaces

M112 Block Demolition Charge

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Demolition Charges (Continued)


Forty Pound Ammonium Nitrate Block Demolition Charge (Cratering)

Suitable for o Cratering operations o Ditching operations Has been designed as a standard cratering charge Can also be used in destroying o Buildings o Fortifications o Bridge abutments

Size and shape of charge makes it ideal for cratering operations Is inexpensive to produce compared to other explosives

Ammonium nitrate absorbs moisture When wet, is impossible to detonate (to ensure detonation use only metal containers showing no evidence of water damage) Detonate all charges placed in wet or damp boreholes as soon as possible

Forty Pound Ammonium Nitrate Block Demolition Charge (Cratering)

Specialized Demolition Charges and Assemblies


Shaped Charge. The table below lists the principle uses, advantages, and limitations as well as a diagram of the shaped charge (refer to the Characteristics of US Explosives table, page 5, for its characteristics). Principle Uses Advantages Limitations Strong penetration Not effective Primarily to bore holes in capabilities o Earth Under water o Metal When foreign objects are o Masonry present inside the conical o Concrete cavity (prevents a narrow o Paved and unpaved roads jet from forming) Effectiveness depends largely on o Targets shape and material (what it is made of) o Explosive and emplacement

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Specialized Demolition Charges and Assemblies (Continued)

15 and 40 Pound Shape Charge

M183 Demolition Charge Assembly (Satchel Charge). The table below lists the characteristics and principal uses as well as a diagram of the M183 demolition charge assembly (satchel charge).
Characteristics

Consists of o M112 (C-4) demolition blocks 16 total o Priming assemblies 4 total Total explosives weight is 20 pounds Demolition blocks are packed in two bags of 8 blocks per bag Bags are housed in an M85 canvas carrying case

Principle Uses Primarily in breaching obstacles Demolition of structures where large demolition charges are required

M183 Demolition Charge Assembly

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Specialized Demolition Charges and Assemblies (Continued)


Bangalore Torpedo Demolition Kit. The table below lists the characteristics and principal uses as well as a diagram of the Bangalore torpedo demolition kit. Characteristics Principle Uses Each is To clear paths through o 5 feet long o Wire entanglements o Weighs approximately 15 o Minefields pounds (total) o Heavy undergrowth o Bamboo Contains o 10 pounds Composition B4 Clears a path approximately 3 to 4 o 1 pound Composition A3 as a meters wide through wire booster entanglements Each kit consists of 10 torpedoes In minefield breaching, will explode (loading assemblies) o All antipersonnel mines o Most of the antitank mines in a narrow footpath approximately 1 meter wide

Bangalore Torpedo Demolition Kit

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Specialized Demolition Charges and Assemblies (Continued)


M18A1 Claymore (Directional Fragmentation) Anti-Personnel Mine. The table below lists the characteristics, functioning, and effects of the M18A1 claymore (directional fragmentation) anti-personnel mine (see diagram below).
Characteristics

Functioning Effects

Contains o 1.5 pounds of C-4 explosive o 700 steel pellets encased in plastic Is equipped with 33 meters of firing wire attached to an electric blasting cap and an M57 power source (clacker) (which provides only enough power to detonated at 33 meters) If distance is increased, use an alternate power source, wire, and cap One out of six contains a tester (to ensure the firing wire, electric cap, and M57 clacker are functioning properly) Command detonated using the M57 clacker Designed to deliver o Lethal steel ball bearings o In a fan-shaped pattern o Over a designated target area Effective casualty radius is o 50 meters in a 60-degree arc o 2 meters high with a forward danger area of 250 meters Minimum back and side blast safety distances are o 16 meters in a covered position o 100 meters in an uncovered position

M18A1 Claymore Mine

10

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Demolition Accessories
Demolition Accessories. Time Fuse. The M700 fuse (see diagram below) is a dark green cord, 0.2 inches in diameter, with a plastic cover. Depending on the time of manufacture, the cover may Be smooth Have single yellow bands around the outside at 12- or 18-inch intervals and double yellow bands at 60- or 90-inch intervals (bands are provided for easy measuring)

The outside covering becomes brittle and cracks easily in arctic temperatures. The burning rate is approximately 40 seconds per foot.

Detonating Cord. The table below lists the characteristics and principal uses, as well as a diagram of detonating cord.
Characteristics Core of PETN or RDX explosive in a textile tube coated with a thin layer of asphalt On top of this layer of asphalt is an outer textile cover finished with a wax gum composition or plastic coating Transmits a detonating wave from one point to another at a rate between 20,000 to 24,000 feet per second A partially submerged, water soaked detonating cord will detonate if initiated from a dry end When exposed to low temperatures o Does not lose explosive properties o Covering becomes stiff and cracks when bent Use great care when using detonating cord primers in arctic conditions

Principal Uses To prime and detonate other explosive charges When its explosive core is detonated by a blasting cap or other explosive device, detonating cord transmits the detonation wave to an unlimited number of explosive charges

11

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Demolition Accessories (Continued)

Detonating Cord

Blasting Caps. The table below describes and diagrams: Electric blasting caps Non-electric blasting caps
Use when a source of electricity such as a blasting machine or battery, is available Lead wires are 12 feet long For ignition, requires 1 amperes of electricity passing through their wires

Electric Blasting Caps

Electric Blasting Cap Non-Electric Blasting Caps

May be initiated by a o Time blasting fuse o Firing device and detonating cord Because they are difficult to waterproof, when possible, avoid using to prime charges placed o Underwater o In wet boreholes If necessary, use moisture-proof non-electric blasting caps with a waterproof sealing compound

12

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Demolition Accessories (Continued)

Non-Electric Blasting Cap

M81 Weatherproof Fuse Igniter. The M81 weatherproof fuse igniter (see diagram below) is designed to ignite a time blasting fuse in all sorts of weather conditions, even underwater if properly waterproofed. The fuse is inserted through a sealing rubber grommet and into a split collet, which secures the fuse when the end cap on the igniter is tightened. A pull on the pull ring releases the striker assembly, allowing the firing pin to drive against the primer, which ignites the fuse.

M81 Fuse Igniter

13

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Demolition Accessories (Continued)


M1A4 Priming Adapter. The M1A4 priming adapter (see diagram below) is a plastic, hexagonal shaped device threaded to fit threaded cap wells. A shoulder inside the threaded end is large enough for a time blasting fuse and detonating cord, but too small for a military blasting cap. The adapter is slotted lengthwise to permit easy, quick insertion of the electric cap lead wires.

Priming Adapter

M2 Cap Crimpers. The M2 cap crimper (see diagram below) is used to squeeze the shell of a non-electric blasting cap around a Time fuse Standard base Detonating cord

securely enough to keep it from being pulled off, but not tight enough to interfere with the burning of the powder train in the fuse of the detonating cord. One leg of the handles is pointed to use in punching cap wells in explosive material for easy insertion of the blasting cap. The other leg is a screwdriver end. Use the cutting jaw for cutting fuse and detonating cord only.

M2 Cap Crimpers

14

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Demolition Accessories (Continued)


M51 Test Set. Use an OHM meter (see diagram below) to test the continuity of an electrical circuit.

M51 Test Set

Blasting Machine. Use the blasting machine (see diagram below) to provide the electric impulse needed in electric blasting operations. The two types of blasting machine are the: M32 blasting machine, capable of producing enough electricity to set off up to 10 blasting caps M34 blasting machine, capable of setting off up to 50 blasting caps

Both blasting machines are small, lightweight, and impact resistant.

Blasting Machine

15

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Firing Systems
Firing Systems. Non-Electric Firing System. A non-electric system (see diagram below) is one in which an explosive charge is prepared for detonation by means of a non-electric blasting cap. The basic priming materials consist of A non-electric blasting cap, which provides the shock adequate to detonate the explosive A time fuse, which transmits the flame that fires the blasting cap A fuse igniter, which initiates the firing system

Non-Electric Firing System

The table below lists the steps to prepare a non-electric firing system.
Step 1 2 3 4 Action Test burn time fuse. Prepare time fuse to necessary length. Attach fuse igniter. Crimp blasting cap to time fuse (see diagram below).

Crimping 5 6 Insert blasting cap into explosive. Light time fuse.

16

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Firing Systems (Continued)


For non-electric misfires, Delay investigation for at least 30 minutes. If the misfire charge is: o Not tamped, do not move or disturb it. Lay a primed one-pound charge on the misfired charge and fire. o Tamped: One foot or less, place a two-pound charge on top More than one foot, carefully remove tamping material. Lay a primed onepound charge on the misfired charge and fire

Electric Firing System. An electric firing system (see diagram below) is one in which electricity is used to fire the primary initiating element. An electric impulse supplied from a power source, usually an electric blasting machine, travels through the firing wire and cap lead wires to fire an electric blasting cap. The chief components of the system are the: Electric blasting cap Firing wire Blasting machine or battery or alternate power source

Electric Firing System

The table below lists the steps to prepare an electric firing system.
Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Action Lay out and test firing wire. Test blasting caps. Connect caps to circuit. Insert caps into charges. Test entire circuit. Test blasting machine. Connect blasting machine to circuit. Fire.

17

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Firing Systems (Continued)


For electric misfires: Take corrective action immediately Check the firing wire connection to power source to be sure the contacts were good Try two or three more times to fire Use another power source When employing: o Only one electrical blasting cap: Disconnect the blasting machine Shunt wires (twist wires together) Investigate immediately o More than one electrical blasting cap, wait 30 minutes before inspecting. Check entire circuit Replace shot wire/cap Initiate detonation

Detonating Cord Priming. Alternate Tie #2. The table below lists the steps for Alternate Tie #2 (TNT only).
Step 1 Action Place a loop of detonating cord on the explosive (see diagram below).

2 3 4

Alternate Method #2 Wrap the cord four to six times around the explosive. Be sure the first wrap goes immediately over the short leg of the loop, wrapping towards the loop. Insert the running end through the eye of the loop. Tighten the knot by pulling on the short leg.

18

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Firing Systems (Continued)


Overhand Knot (C-4). Insert the knot into the explosive or molded piece of explosive. Be sure at least -inch of explosive is on all sides of the knot (see diagram below).

Overhand Knot

Branch Line Connections. Fasten a branch line to a main line with a girth hitch with one extra turn (see diagram below).

Girth Hitch with Extra Turn

19

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Firing Systems (Continued)


Trunk Line. Place a single strand of detonating cord down the center of charges (see diagram below).

Trunk Line

Ring Main. Make a ring main by: Bringing the main line back in the form of a loop Attaching the main line to itself with a girth hitch with one extra turn

A ring main will detonate an almost unlimited number of charges. The ring main makes the detonation of all charges more positive because the detonating wave approaches the branch lines from both directions. The charges will be detonated even if there is one break in the ring main.

20

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Safety Precautions
General Safety Precautions for Handling Military Explosives. Do not detonate demolitions electrically during any electrical, dust, sand, or snow storm of a severity great enough to produce atmospheric static electrical charges or when such a storm is within three miles. Do not work with electric blasting caps while wearing static electricity-producing clothing (nylon, silk). Do not ingest any explosive material. Do not get in the smoke of burning explosives. The vapors are toxic if inhaled. Additionally, the smoke will penetrate ordinary clothing and may result in severe dermatitis. When placing charges underground, do not bury blasting caps (instead use detonating cord). Carry blasting caps in approved containers and keep them out of the direct rays of the sun. Within 100 feet of an area in which explosives are being handled or used, do not permit: o Smoking o Matches o Other sources of fire or flame

Never kink a time fuse. Before investigating non-electric misfires, wait 30 minutes. Before firing any charge, always sound off, Fire in the hole! three successive times. Use only crimpers to crimp blasting caps. Do not store or transport caps with high explosives. Before unwinding your electrical reel, always be sure the person in charge has the power source.

21

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Summary
Handling explosives requires responsibility and knowledge. They must be treated with respect and never abused. If an explosive charge is not prepared correctly and an attempt to initiate the explosive fails someone now has to approach the explosive to render it safe for others and/or to accomplish the mission.

References
Reference Number or Author FM 20-32 FM 5-100 FM 5-101 FM 5-102 FM 5-103 FM 5-250 FM 5-34 MCWP 3-17 Reference Title Mine/Countermine Operations Engineers in Combat Operations Mobility Counter-mobility Survivability Explosives and Demolitions Engineer Field Data MAGTF Engineer Operations

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym Explosives Definition or Identification Explosives are substances that, through chemical reaction, violently change to a gaseous form. In doing so, they release pressure and heat equally in all directions. Change from solid to gaseous state slowly over a sustained period (1300 feet/second) and are ideal when a pushing or shoving effect is required Change from solid to gaseous state almost instantaneously (3280 to 28,880 feet/second) and produce a shattering effect on the target A non-electric system is one in which an explosive charge is prepared for detonation by means of a non-electric blasting cap. An electric firing system is one in which electricity is used to fire the primary initiating element. An electric impulse supplied form a power source, usually an electric blasting machine, travels through the firing wire and cap lead wires to fire an electric blasting cap. Explosive Ordinance Disposal

Low Explosives

High Explosives

Non-Electric Firing System Electric Firing System

EOD

22

Basic Officer Course

B3L4258

Engineering Field Firing Exercise

Notes

23

Basic Officer Course

Notes

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

INTRODUCTION TO CREW SERVED WEAPONS B3M4078 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons


Introduction The purpose of this class is to introduce you to the task organization and mission of the weapons platoon within a rifle company and the task organization of the weapons company within a battalion. This class will give you a basic understanding of the task organization of the weapons company and platoon prior to receiving instruction and evaluation of the crew served weapons within an infantry battalion. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Weapons Platoon Weapons Company Scout Sniper Platoon M224 60 mm LWCMS Mortar M240B Medium Machine Gun MK153 SMAW M252 81 MM Mortar Javelin M220E4 TOW M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun MK19 MOD3 Automatic Grenade Launcher M40A3 Sniper Rifle M82A3 Special Application Scoped Rifle Summary References Glossary Notes Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objectives 0302-DEF-1302 Given a machinegun unit, a mission, and commander's intent, employ machineguns in support of defensive operations to achieve desired effects of machinegun fires in support of the ground scheme of maneuver in accordance with the Principles of Machinegun Employment PICMDEEP (Pairs, Interlocking, Coordinating, Mutual Support, Defilade, Enfilading Fire, Economy of Fire, Protection). 0302-DEF-1303 Without the aid of references, describe mortars unit employment in support of defensive operations to support mission accomplishment. Page 5 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18

Importance

In This Lesson

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons (Continued)


Learning Objectives (continued) Terminal Learning Objectives (Continued) 0302-DEF-1304 Without the aid of references, describe assault unit employment in support of defensive operations to support mission accomplishment. 0302-DEF-1305 Without the aid of references, describe anti-armor unit employment in support of defensive operations to support mission accomplishment. 0302-OFF-1202 Given a machinegun unit, a mission, and commander's intent, employ machineguns in support of offensive operations to achieve desired effects of machinegun fires in support of the ground scheme of maneuver in accordance with the Principles of Machine Gun Employment PICMDEEP (Pairs, Interlocking, Coordinating, Mutual Support, Defilade, Enfilading Fire, Economy of Fire, and Protection). 0302-OFF-1203 Without the aid of references, describe mortars unit employment in support of offensive operations to support mission accomplishment. 0302-OFF-1204 Without the aid of references, describe assault unit employment in support of offensive operations to support mission accomplishment. 0302-OFF-1205 Without the aid of references, describe anti-armor unit employment in support of offensive operations to support mission accomplishment. Enabling Learning Objectives 0302-DEF-1302a Without the aid of reference, describe the capabilities of machineguns without omission. 0302-DEF-1302b Without the aid of reference, describe the structure of the medium machinegun section in the weapons platoon without omission. 0302-DEF-1302c Without the aid of reference, describe the structure of the heavy machinegun platoon in the weapons company without omission. 0302-DEF-1303a Without the aid of reference, describe the capabilities of mortars without omission.
3 Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

Learning Objectives (continued)

Enabling Learning Objectives (continued) 0302-DEF-1303b Without the aid of reference, describe the structure of the 60mm mortar section in the weapons platoon without omission. 0302-DEF-1303c Without the aid of reference, describe the structure of the 81mm mortar platoon in the weapons company without omission. 0302-DEF-1304a Without the aid of reference, describe the capabilities of assault weapons without omission. 0302-DEF-1304b Without the aid of reference, describe the structure of the assault section in the weapons platoon without omission. 0302-DEF-1305a Without the aid of reference, describe the capabilities of anti-armor weapons without omission. 0302-DEF-1305b Without the aid of reference, describe the structure of the anti-armor platoon in the weapons company without omission. MCCS-ATFP-2103a Without the aid of reference, describe sniper assets available in the infantry battalion without omission.

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

Weapons Platoon
Mission To provide fire support coordination, light mortar, antimechanized assault, and medium machine gun support for the infantry company and its subordinate elements. Platoon Headquarters: Platoon Commander, First Lieutenant, 0302 Platoon Sergeant, Gunnery Sergeant, 0369 Platoon Messenger, Pvt-Cpl, 03XX Total: 3 Marines. LWCMS Section: Section Leader, Staff Sergeant, 0369 Three squads per section, one M224 Mortar per squad, squad leader/gunner, Sergeant 0341 o Assistant gunner, Lance Corporal, 0341 o Ammoman, Private, 0341 Table of Equipment (T/E): There are three M224 LWCMS mortars within the section and one per squad. Total: 10 Marines. Machine Gun Section: Section Leader, Staff Sergeant, 0369 Three squads per section, squad leader, Sergeant, 0331 Two machine gun teams per squad o Team leader, Corporal, 0331 o Gunner, Lance Corporal, 0331 o Ammoman, Private, 0331 T/E: There are six M240B medium machine guns per section, two per squad, and one per machine gun team. Total: 22 Marines. Assault Section Section Leader, Sergeant, 0351 Three squads per section, Squad leader/Gunner, Corporal, 0351 (total 4 Marines) Assault team two teams per squad Team leader/gunner, Lance Corporal, 0351 Assistant Gunner, Lance Corporal, 0351 T/E: There are six MK153 SMAWs per section, two per squad, one per team. Total: 13 Marines. Total for the Platoon: 48 Marines.

Task Organization, Platoon Headquarters

Task Organization, Light Weight Crew Served Mortar System (LWCMS) Section

Task Organization, Machine Gun Section

Task Organization, Assault Section

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

Weapons Company
Mission To provide fire support coordination, medium mortar, antimechanized assault, and heavy machine gun, support for the infantry battalion and its subordinate elements. Company Headquarters Company Commander, Major, 0302 Executive Officer, Captain, 0302 First Sergeant, First Sergeant, 8999 Operations Chief, Master Sergeant, 0369 Property NCO, Sgt, 0311 Messenger/Driver, Corporal, 0311 Messenger/Driver, Corporal, 0311 Total: 7. 81MM Mortar Platoon Platoon Headquarters o Platoon commander, First Lieutenant, 0302 o Platoon sergeant, Gunnery Sergeant, 0848 o Ammo tech, Lance Corporal, 2311 o Ammo man/Driver, Lance Corporal, 0341 Sections (2) o Section headquarters Section Leader Two Ammomen, Lance Corporal, 0341 Plotter Sergeant, 0341 Recorder Corporal, 0341 Recorder/Driver, Lance Corporal, 0341 Forward Observer, Corporal, 0341 Forward Observer, Corporal, 0341 o Mortar Squad (4) Squad leader, Sergeant 0341 Gunner, Corporal, 0341 Assistant Gunner, Lance Corporal, 0341 Ammoman Private First Class, 0341 Ammoman Private First Class, 0341 Ammoman Private First Class, 0341 T/E: There are eight 81MM Mortars per platoon broken down into four mortars per section, and one per squad. Total for the Platoon: 68.

Task Organization, Company Headquarters

Task Organization, 81MM Mortar Platoon

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

Weapons Company (Continued)


Task Organization (Continued) Anti-Armor Platoon Anti-Armor Platoon Platoon Headquarters o Platoon commander, First Lieutenant, 0302 o Platoon sergeant, Gunner Sergeant, 0369 o Messenger/Driver, Private, 0331 Javelin Section o Section Leader, Staff Sergeant, 0369 o Two Squads, Squad leader, Sergeant, 0352 Four Teams, Gunner, Corporal 0352, Assistant gunner Lance Corporal 0352 o There are eight Javelins per section, one per team Antitank Section o Section Leader Staff Sergeant, 0369 o Four Squads Squad leader, Sergeant, 0352 TOW Gunner, Corporal, 0352 TOW Gunner, Corporal, 0352 Assistant TOW Gunner, Lance Corporal 0352 Assistant TOW Gunner, Lance Corporal 0352 o There are eight M220E4 TOWs per section, two per squad T/E: The platoon is equipped with eight Javelin Missile systems located in the Javelin section and eight M220E4 TOW missile systems located in the Antitank section. Total for the Platoon: 41.

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

Weapons Company (Continued)


Task Organization (Continued), Heavy Machine Gun Platoon Heavy Machine Gun Platoon Platoon Headquarters o Platoon commander First Lieutenant, 0302 o Platoon sergeant Gunner Sergeant, 0369 o Messenger, Private 0331 o Messenger/Driver Private 0331 Sections (3) o Two squads per section, Section Leader/1st Squad Leader, Sergeant 0331 Squad leader, Sergeant 0331 Gunner, Lance Corporal 0331 Assistant Gunner, Private 0331 Ammo man/driver Private 0331 T/E: The platoon is equipped with six M2 .50 cal Browning Machine Guns and six MK19 mod 3 40MM Automatic Grenade Launchers. This is divided into two M2s and two MK19s per section, with each squad having one M2 and one MK 19. Total for the Platoon: 28.

Scout Sniper Platoon


Task Organization Scout Sniper Platoon Platoon Headquarters o Platoon commander First Lieutenant, 0203 o Platoon sergeant Gunnery Sergeant, 0317 -Section (2) 2 teams per section, senior team leader is section leader Teams (4) o Six Marines per Team T/E: The platoon is equipped with eight M40A3 7.62 Sniper Rifles and four M82A3 SASRs. Total for the Platoon: 26.

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

M224 60 MM LWCMS Mortar

The 60mm mortar, M224 Lightweight Crew Served Mortar (LWCMS), is a smoothbore, muzzle loaded, high angle of fire weapon. The components of the mortar consist of a canon, sight, mount, and baseplate. The 60mm mortar section is located in the weapons platoon of the rifle company, is armed with three 60mm mortars, and is immediately responsive to commanders need for fire. Effective use and employment of the 60mm mortar depends upon the training and knowledge of the company leaders since there is no forward observer or fire direction center in the 60mm Mortar Section. Computation of fire commands and fire adjustment must be understood by platoon commanders, squad leaders, and others in the company. Accordingly, the principle of indirect fire and the methods of employing the 60mm mortar must be mastered by all hands.

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

M224 60 MM LWCMS Mortar (continued)


Characteristics M225 Cannon M170 Bipod M64 Sight M8 Baseplate M7 Baseplate SL-3 Complete Types of Ammunition 14.15 lbs 15.21 lbs 2.5 lbs 14.41 lbs 3.6 lbs 76.6 lbs

Rates of Fire/Range

Maximum rate of fire is 30 rounds per minute for four minutes. Sustained rate is 20 rds per minute. Maximum effective range: 3500m.

There are five types of ammunition: High explosive. White phosphorus. Illumination. Practice. Training.

M240B Medium Machine Gun

10

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

M240B Medium Machine Gun (continued)


Description. The M240B machine gun is an belt-fed, air-cooled, gas-operated, fully automatic machine gun that fires from the open bolt position. The M240B machine gun is found in the machine gun section of the weapons platoon of every rifle company in the Marine Corps. Six of these machine guns are in each section, divided into three, two-gun squads. Specifications. Machine gun Spare barrel case, SL-3 complete Tripod, flex mount, and T&E Total system Length of machine gun Rifling Sustained rate of fire Rapid rate of fire Cyclic rate of fire Muzzle velocity Maximum Range Effective range (suppression) Grazing fire

27.6 pounds 12.9 pounds 20 pounds 47.6 pounds 49 inches 4 grooves with a uniform right-hand twist. One turn in 12 inches. 100rpm 200 rpm 650 rpm 2,800 fps 3,725 meters 1,800 meters 600 meters

MK153 Shoulder Launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon (SMAW)

Description. The MK153 SMAW is a one-man operable, 83 mm smooth bore, shoulder-fired, rocket launcher with a spotting rifle attached to the right side of the launcher tube. The encased rocket is fitted into the aft end of the launcher, and the fiberglass encasement is discarded after use. The spotting rifle, which improves firstround hit probability, is fed 9 mm tracers by a magazine, which holds six rounds. The 9 mm round is ballistically matched to the 83mm rocket.

11

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

MK153 Shoulder Launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon (SMAW) (continued)


The weapon is aimed by using the: Iron sights Telescopic sight The AN/PEQ-2A can also effectively be used on this weapon system in conjunction with night vision goggles. The SMAW fires a: Practice Rocket. HEDM (High Explosive Dual Mode) Rocket which is employed against bunkers and field fortifications. HEAA (High Explosive Anti Armor) rocket, which is employed against armor vehicles. NE (Novel Explosive) rocket, which is a thermobaric explosive and is employed against large field fortifications and structures.
__________________________________________________________________

SMAW Ammunition

Specifications

Rocket launcher Length Weight Encased rocket (as carried) Length Weight Caliber Spotting rifle Length Weight Caliber Telescopic sight (MK 42 MOD 0) Length Weight Magnification Field of view Weapon ready to fire Length Weight Range Minimum Maximum Maximum effective (HEDM) Maximum effective (HEAA) Time of flight to 250 m

29.9 inches 16.9 pounds 27.3 inches 12.7 pounds 83 mm 27.3 inches 3.74 pounds 9 mm 7.9 inches 1.99 pounds 3.8 times 6 degrees 53.1 inches 29.0 pounds 17 m 1800 m 250 m 500 m 1.6 sec

__________________________________________________________________

12

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

MK153 Shoulder Launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon (SMAW) (continued)


Specifications (continued) Penetration capabilities Bunker, sandbag, with wood reinforcements Brick Concrete Steel armor Anti-armor round 7 feet 12 inches 8 inches 1 inch 23 inch/steel

__________________________________________________________________

M252 81 MM Mortar

The 81mm mortar, M252, is a smoothbore, muzzle loaded, and high angle of fire weapon. The components of the mortar consist of a cannon, sight, mount, and baseplate. The 81mm mortar platoon is located in the weapons company of the infantry battalion and is organized into a platoon headquarters and two 81mm mortar sections with four mortars per section for a total of 8 Mortars per platoon. The weapons company commander has administrative control (feeding, billeting, clothing, etc.), but tactical control is directly in the hands of the battalion commander working through the 81mm mortar platoon commander. The 81mm mortar is the infantry battalion commanders organic indirect fire weapon in the same manner as the 60mm mortar is the rifle company commanders organic indirect fire weapon. Characteristics Cannon M253 Mount M177 Base-plate M3A1 Sight M64A1 SL-3 Complete: 35 lbs 27 lbs 25.5 lbs 2.25 lbs 89.75 lbs

13

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

M252 81 MM Mortar (continued)


Rates of Fire/Range Types of Ammunition Maximum rate of fire is 30 rounds per minute for two minutes Sustained rate of fire is 20 round per minute Maximum Effective Range: 5700m High explosive White phosphorus Red phosphorus Illumination Practice Training

Javelin
The Javelin is a fire-and-forget weapon system (increases gunner survivability), soft launch (very small backblast), dual mode (top attack or direct fire), man-portable, medium antitank weapon. The Javelin missile has an increased capability to engage and defeat tanks and other armored vehicles. The command launch unit (CLU) consists of the: Day sight. Night sight. Controls. Indicators.

The round is sealed in a launch tube assembly that is composed of the: Propulsion section. Guidance and control section. Warhead and fuse section. Control surfaces and seeker section.

Ranges: Maximum 2000 meters + Maximum effective 2000 meters Minimum 65 meters Penetration capabilities are classified. The Javelin penetrates all known armor, well in excess of 30 inches of rolled homogeneous steel.

14

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

M220E4 TOW Saber System


The tube launched, optically tracked, wire command link (TOW 1) is a heavy antitank/assault weapon that can be fired from a tripod or an armored high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles (HMMWV) with a special mount. The TOW 2 is located in the infantry battalion, tank battalion, Light Armored Reconnaissance (LAR) and with the AH-1W helicopters. Unlike its predecessor, which was restricted during periods of limited visibility, the TOW 2 weapon system has all weather capability. Specifications: Weight TOW weapon system complete Missile Ground mounted ready to fire Range Minimum Maximum Ammunition: TOW 2A

265 pounds 50 pounds 300 pounds

65 meters 3750 meters Round has a 10-inch probe in front of the warhead. Purpose of the probe is to detonate any reactive armor found on enemy armored vehicles Round is a fly-over shoot down missile Once missile flies over the vehicle, the missile will shoot down two warheads on top of the vehicle In excess of 36 inches of homogeneous steel In all weather conditions in which the gunner can see the target through the day or night sight tracker In temperature of 32 degrees to +60 Celsius (-25 degrees to +140 degrees Fahrenheit) At altitudes up to 3050 meters (10,000 feet). Cold weather (<0 degrees Fahrenheit) range decreases to 3000 meters

TOW 2B

Penetration Operates

15

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun

The Browning machine gun caliber .50 HB, M2 (see picture below) is a belt-fed, recoiloperated, air-cooled, crew-served machine gun. The gun is capable of single shot, as well as automatic fire, and operates on the short recoil principle. More information on the M2 will be presented in B3M4238 Heavy Machine Guns.

MK19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher

The MK19 is a belt-fed, air-cooled, blowback-operated, crew-served, fully automatic 40 mm grenade launcher. More information on the MK 19 will be presented in B3M4238 Heavy Machine Guns.

16

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

M40A3 Anti-personnel

The M40A3 is a 7.62mm sniper rifle with a maximum effective range of 1000 meters. It has a 10x scope and a five round magazine.

M82A3 Special Application Scoped Rifle (SASR)- Anti-Material

The SASR is an semi-automatic, 50 cal rifle that weighs about 32 pounds. It has a max effective range of 1800 meters and a 10 round box magazine.

Summary
In this class you received a basic instruction of the task organization of the weapons company and platoon and a brief introduction to the weapons found in each. Further instruction and evaluation of the crew served weapons within an infantry battalion is in upcoming classes, practical application events, and live fire exercises.

17

Basic Officer Course

B3M4078

Introduction to Crew Served Weapons

References
Reference Number or Author FM 7-90 FM 23-90 FM23-91 MCWP 3-11.1 TM 9-1425 TM 09397B MCI 0351 MCWP 3-15.1 FMFM 2-11 FM 23-34 Reference Title Tactical Employment of Mortars Ch1 Infantry Mortars Ch1-5 Mortar Gunnery Ch 1 Rifle Platoon and Company Technical Manual for the Javelin, Army Technical Manual for the Javelin, Marine Corps SMAW and LAW gunner Machine Guns and Machine Gunnery Anti-Armor Operations TOW Missile System

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym LWCMS MK 153 SMAW M220E4 TOW T/E Definition or Identification Light weight crew served mortar system Shoulder Launched Multi Purpose Assault Weapon located in the assault section Tube Launched Optically Tracked Weapon System located in the anti Armor platoon Table of Equipment

Notes

18

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

M240B MEDIUM MACHINE GUN B3M4178 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

M240B Medium Machine Gun


Introduction From the invention of the Gatling Gun in the 1860s the machine gun has been the device that has broken the back of many attacks or has been the key support asset that has suppressed the enemy to allow the maneuver unit to close with and destroy the enemy. The M240B is the backbone of the machine gun section within the weapons platoon of a rifle company. By understanding the operating procedures of this weapon, you will be prepared to employ this asset in the platoon (reinforced) offense or the defense. In this lesson, we will cover the history, characteristics, nomenclature, assembly and disassembly of the M240B medium machine gun. We will also cover immediate and remedial action, barrel change procedures, mounts and accessories, loading and unloading, weapons conditions, and weapons commands of the M240B medium machine gun. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic History Characteristics Functioning Ammunition Unloading/Clearing General Disassembly Detailed Disassembly Detailed Assembly General Assembly Care and Cleaning Mounts and Accessories Mounting the Gun Barrel Changing Procedures Malfunctions Immediate Action Remedial Action Weapons Conditions Weapons Commands Summary References Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Notes Page 4 5 8 10 11 12 17 20 21 24 26 32 33 34 35 38 39 39 41 41 41 42

Importance

In This Lesson

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

M240B Machine Gun


Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objectives MCCS-CSW-1001 Given a medium machine gun and ammunition, while wearing a fighting load, perform weapons handling procedures for the medium machine gun without endangering personnel or equipment. MCCS-CSW-1002 Given a medium machine gun requiring a barrel change during target engagement, change a barrel on a medium machine gun to return the weapon to service. MCCS-CSW-1003 Given a medium machine gun loaded with ammunition, with a malfunction or stoppage, while wearing a fighting load, perform immediate action on a medium machine gun to return the weapon to action. MCCS-CSW-1004 Given a medium machine gun loaded with ammunition, with a malfunction or stoppage that immediate action has failed to remedy, while wearing a fighting load, perform remedial action on a medium machine gun to return the weapon to action. MCCS-CSW-1005 Given a medium machine gun, cleaning gear, and lubricants, maintain a medium machine gun to ensure the weapon is complete, clean, and serviceable. Enabling Learning Objective 0302-DEF-1302a Without the aid of reference, describe the capabilities of machineguns without omission

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

History
The M240B medium machine gun (see diagram below) is a result of a Marine Corps search for a weapon that could fire at an extended range with greater dependability and accuracy than the M60E3. The search was not long, for the machine gun chosen was already in the Marine Corps inventory. The M240C and E series machine guns are found on the light armored vehicle (LAV) and the M-1 Abrams main battle tanks. The M240B is the first ground variant, made by Fabrique Nationale of Herstal, Beligum, (the same manufacturer of the M249 squad automatic weapon). A European version, called the FN MAG 58, is used by over 100 different nations throughout the world and is the premier machine gun used in NATO. The M240B is fitted with improvements for ground mounting such as a forward heat shield, ammunition adapter, and a hydraulic buffer. The M240B is a battle-proven machine gun that has demonstrated many times the highest possible performance levels in combat throughout the world.

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Characteristics
Description. The M240B machine gun is a belt-fed, air-cooled, gas-operated, fully automatic machine gun that fires from the open bolt position. The M240B machine gun is found in the machine gun section of the weapons platoon of every rifle company in the Marine Corps. Six of these machine guns are in each section, divided into three, two-gun squads. Specifications. Machine gun 27.1 pounds Spare barrel case, SL-3 complete 12.9 pounds Tripod, flex mount, and T&E 20 pounds Total system 47.1 pounds Length of machine gun 49 inches Rifling 4 grooves with a uniform right-hand twist. One turn in 12 inches. Sustained rate of fire 100 rpm Rapid rate of fire 200 rpm Cyclic rate of fire 650 rpm Muzzle velocity 2,800 fps Maximum Range 3,725 meters Effective range (suppression) 1,800 meters Grazing fire 600 meters

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Characteristics (Continued)
Component Groups (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) Eight Main Components (see diagram below). Barrel assembly Butt-stock and buffer assembly Driving spring rod assembly Bolt and operating rod assembly Trigger-housing assembly Cover assembly Feed tray Receiver assembly

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Characteristics (Continued)
Safety The safety (see diagram below) is located in the trigger-housing group. Push the safety from left to right (S visible) to render the weapon safe. When the safety is engaged, the cutaway portion of the safety bar is not aligned with the safety lug of the sear. When the trigger is pulled, the sear cannot rotate downward and the bolt cannot be released to go forward.

Safety

Push the safety from right to left (F visible) to render the weapon ready to fire. When the safety is not engaged, the cutaway portion of the safety bar is aligned with the safety lug on the sear. The sear is allowed to move downward when the trigger is pulled. Note: The weapon cannot be placed on safe when the bolt is forward.

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Functioning
Feeding When the bolt is to the rear, the outer feed pawls are outside the first round of ammunition. The inner feed pawls are between the first and second rounds. As the bolt moves forward to fire the round in the feed tray groove, the belt feed pawl moves to the left. It moves up and over the second round in the belt of ammunition and is now in position to drag the second round into the feed tray groove. As the bolt moves to the rear after firing, the belt feed pawl moves to the right, dragging the second round into the feed tray groove. Inside the cover, the cam roller, feed arm with control spring, feed arm fork, and pivot arm exist only so the feed pawls can move back and forth, dragging rounds into position to be chambered. Chambering is the process of stripping a round from the belt and seating it in the chamber. As the bolt travels forward, the upper locking lug of the bolt contacts the base of the cartridge. The bolt strips the round from the belt link. The chambering ramp angles downward and forces the round toward the chamber along with the spring tension of the cartridge guide pawl. The cartridge guide pawl also holds back the belt link. When the round is fully seated in the chamber, the extractor snaps over the extractor rim of the cartridge, and the ejector is depressed. During chambering, the bolt enters the barrel socket as the drive spring drives the operating rod forward. The locking lever, on which the bolt is riding, swings forward pushing the bolt forward and locking it to the barrel socket. Although the term, locking, is used here, note that in the M240B the bolt and barrel do not physically inter-lock. This is why the barrel can be removed even when the bolt is forward. After the bolt reaches its locked position, the operating rod moves forward, independent of the bolt. The operating rod carries the striker of the fixed firing pin through the aperture in the face of the bolt, striking and detonating the primer of the cartridge.

Chambering

Chambering

Firing

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Functioning (Continued)
Unlocking After the cartridge ignites and the projectile passes the gas port, part of the gases enter the gas cylinder. The rapidly expanding gases enter the hollow end cap of the gas piston and force the operating assembly to the rear, providing the power for the last four steps in the cycle of functioning. The operating rod now moves rearward, independent of the bolt, for a short distance. At this point, the locking lever begins to swing toward the rear, carrying the bolt with it into its unlocked position, and clears the barrel socket. The extractor grips the rim of the cartridge as the bolt and operating rod pull the case from the chamber. As the case is withdrawn from the chamber, the ejector exerts a push from the top, and the extractor exerts a pull from the bottom. The casing falls from the gun as soon as it reaches the cartridge ejection port. At approximately the same time, the empty link is forced out of the link ejection port between the cartridge stops on the feed tray by the next round moving into the feed tray groove. Cocking is the process of placing the parts of the gun in position to fire the next round. During the rearward independent movement of the operating rod, the firing pin striker is withdrawn from the face of the bolt. When the bolt has moved far enough to the rear to pick up the next round for chambering, cocking is completed.

Extracting

Ejecting

Cocking

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Ammunition
The ammunition is issued in 100-round bandoleers. Weight of a 100 round assault pack (2 per can) is 7 pounds. Basic allowance per gun is 400 rounds. The five types of ammunition are listed below with their characteristics. Type M172 Dummy Description Plain Fluted cartridge No primer or propellant Double tapered neck No bullet Plain Full metal jacketed bullet Orange tip Purpose Training (loading/unloading) Gun drills Simulated firing Field firing Personnel Light material vehicles Observing fire Incendiary effects Signaling Marking (900m burnout) Light armored targets

M82 Blank M80 Ball

M62 Tracer

M61/M993 Armor-piercing

Black tip on the bullet

10

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Unloading/Clearing
The following is the unloading and clearing procedures for the M240B:

Step 1

Determine if the barrel is hot (200 rounds in 2 minutes or less). A hot barrel may cause the round to cook off. CAUTION: If the barrel is hot and a round is still chambered, Keep the cover closed Ensure the weapon is pointed in a safe direction Wait until the barrel cools

Step 2

If the bolt is not already locked to the rear, pull the bolt to the rear and lock it. Place the weapon on SAFE. Raise the cover and remove the belted ammunition. Lift the feed tray and inspect the chamber. Close the cover. Place the weapon on FIRE. While holding the cocking handle to the rear, pull the trigger and ease the bolt forward.

Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8

11

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

General Disassembly
General disassembly (field stripping) is the separation of the M240B into five main groups. Before beginning ensure the weapon is pointed in a safe direction and is clear.

Step 1 Step 2

With the bolt forward, raise the cover. Depress the butt-stock latch located on the underside of the butt-stock where it joins the receiver (see diagram below).

12

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

General Disassembly (Continued)


Step 3 To remove the drive spring rod assembly (see diagram below), First push in against its base Then lift up and outward so that it clears its retaining studs inside the receiver.

13

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

General Disassembly (Continued)


Step 4 Pull the cocking handle to the rear to start the rearward movement of the bolt and operating assembly inside the receiver With the index finger, reach inside the top of the receiver and push rearward on the face of the bolt until the bolt and operating rod assembly are exposed at the rear of the receiver (see diagram below).

Step 5

Grasp the bolt and operating rod assembly and remove them from the rear of the receiver. To separate the operating rod and bolt, remove the spring-loaded pin that holds them together Then, pull the bolt forward until it is clear of the firing pin, thus disengaging the bolt from the operating rod.

14

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

General Disassembly (Continued)


Step 6 Remove the trigger housing assembly spring pin.

Step 7

Rotate the rear of the trigger housing assembly down (see diagram below).

Step 8

Disengage the holding notch at the front of the assembly from its recess on the bottom of the receiver.

15

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

General Disassembly (Continued)


Step 9 Step 10 Remove the trigger assembly from the receiver. Depress the barrel-locking latch located on the left side of the receiver where the barrel joins the receiver. Grasp the carrying handle and rotate it to an upright position. Then push forward and pull up, separating the barrel from the receiver.

16

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Detailed Disassembly
Detailed disassembly involves removal of component parts of some of the main groups.

Step 1

Detailed Disassembly of the Operating Group. Remove the spring-loaded pin that holds the bolt and operating rod together (see diagrams below).

Step 2

Hold the barrel at the point where the gas system attaches to it.

17

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Detailed Disassembly (Continued)


Step 3 Grasp and rotate the collar clockwise until it releases from the gas plug. Remove the collar from the gas plug and separate the plug and collar from the barrel. Remove the heat shield by pulling up on the rear of the heat shield, releasing the spring tension around the barrel.

18

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Detailed Disassembly (Continued)


Step 4 Pull the hinge spring pin out and lift the cover and feed tray from the receiver (see diagrams below).

19

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Detailed Assembly
Step 1 To replace the Feed tray, lay the feed tray on the receiver so the feed tray guides are aligned with the receiver brackets Place the cover onto the receiver aligning its mounting holes with the mounting brackets on the receiver. Push the cover down into its closed position. Then, insert the cover hinge spring pin into the holes to affix the cover and feed tray to the receiver Snap the heat shield on top of the barrel, engaging the front hinges before snapping the rear of the shield in place. Insert the gas plug into the gas regulator. Place the collar over the forward end of the plug. Push against face of the collar while rotating counterclockwise until it locks into place. Pull on the collar to ensure it is in the locked position. To join the bolt and operating rod, hold the rod in one hand, then position the rear of the bolt and slide it over the firing pin. Align the holes on the bolt with those on the operating rod. Push the spring-loaded pin (inserted from the left or right) through them to secure the two assemblies together.

Step 2

Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6

Step 7 Step 8

Step 9 Step 10

20

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

General Assembly
Step 1 Insert the barrel socket into the receiver forward of the cover and align the rear of the gas plug with the gas cylinder tube in front of the bipod.

Step 2

Fully seat the barrel in the receiver. Rotate the carrying handle down to its lowered position to lock the barrel in place. Check for proper headspace by rotating the barrel-changing handle while counting the number of clicks heard. You should hear a minimum of two clicks but not more than seven. CAUTION: If this is not the case, do not fire the weapon; turn it in for higher echelon maintenance/inspection. Insert the holding notch on the front of the trigger housing into its recess on the bottom of the receiver (see diagram below).

Step 3

Step 4

21

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

General Assembly (Continued)


Step 5 Step 6 Rotate the rear of the trigger housing upward. Align the hole of the trigger housing with the mounting bracket on the receiver. Insert the trigger housing assembly spring pin (from the left or right) into the hole, securing the assembly to the receiver. To join the bolt and operating rod, hold the rod in one hand, then position the rear of the bolt and slide it over the firing pin. Align the holes on the bolt with those on the operating rod. Push the spring-loaded pin (insert from the left or the right) through them to secure the two assemblies together. Insert the bolt and operating rod into the receiver, aligning the slots along their sides with the rails inside the receiver.

Step 7

Step 8

Step 9 Step 10

Step 11

Step 12

Extend the bolt to the unlocked (forward) position and then push the entire bolt and operating rod assembly inside the receiver. Pull the trigger so that the assembly can slide all the way into the receiver.

Step 13

22

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

General Assembly (Continued)


Step 14 Insert the drive spring rod assembly into the receiver, sliding it all the way forward against the recess in the rear of the operating rod. Then lower it so that its base seats against the retaining studs inside the receiver that holds it into place. Align the recessed grooves at the front of the butt-stock with the vertical rails at the rear of the receiver. Slide the butt-stock downward until it locks in place on the receiver. Function Check: Close the cover and cock the weapon. Put the weapon on safe. Attempt to fire/weapon should not fire. Put the weapon on fire. Ride the bolt forward.

Step 15

Step 16

Step 17 Step 18

23

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Care and Cleaning


Cleaning Material Cleaning, lubricant, protectant (CLP) Rifle Bore Cleaner (RBC) Dry cleaning solvent CLP Lubricant, artic weather (LAW) Lubricant, weapon, semi-fluid (LSA) Liquid solvent agent with Teflon (LSA-T)

Lubricants

Before Firing

Inspect for cleanliness, proper mechanical condition, and missing or broken parts. Press the barrel release latch and turn the barrel carrying handle clockwise while counting the number of clicks (fewer than 2 clicks or more than 7 clicks indicates a possible barrel defect) Remove excess oil from the: Bore Chamber Barrel socket Face of the bolt

Lubricate the gun by placing a light coat of CLP on the: Operating rod: Apply CLP on those recesses along the side that make contact with the receiver rails. Bolt: Place a very small amount of CLP on the o Spring pin o Roller o Other moving parts Receiver: With the bolt to the rear, apply a line of CLP on either side of the bolt. Manually pull the bolt back and forth, so that CLP is spread over the bolt and receiver rails.

During Firing

During firing, maintain a light coat of CLP on the parts listed in the general assembly section above. Ensure that the gas system's connections remain tight. Change barrels when necessary.

24

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Care and Cleaning (Continued)


After Firing After firing, clean the gun with CLP, RBC, or dry cleaning solvent. Even the most careful initial cleaning will not remove all carbon deposits; therefore, you must clean the gun for three consecutive days after firing. After cleaning each day, wipe off all cleaning materials and place a light coat of CLP on all metal parts. If the gun is fired daily, remember that repeated detailed disassembly will cause unnecessary wear. Adequate cleaning can be performed on a gun that has been disassembled into its five main groups. You must perform detailed disassembly only after prolonged firing. Ensure that cleaning materials such as CLP and RBC are not used on the nonmetallic portions of the gun, such as the buttstock. Use hot water, rags, and nonabrasive brushes to remove dirt from the nonmetallic portions of the gun. Clean the M122 tripod to remove all dirt; then apply a light coat of CLP, especially to the sleeve and sleeve latch. Clean each gun as soon after firing as possible and each time it is exposed to field conditions. In combat conditions, clean and lubricate the gun daily, whether or not it has been fired. During normal training conditions, inspect the gun daily for rust and maintain a light coat of CLP on all metal parts. In ideal conditions, when the gun is not used and is kept in a clean place, you may only have to disassemble and clean the gun every three to five days. Disassemble, clean, and lubricate the gun in a clean, dry location where it is least exposed to dirt and moisture. Always check for cleanliness. Look for broken, missing, or burred parts. Test the spring tension of appropriate parts, and perform appropriate checks to determine if the gun functions properly.

Normal Maintenance Procedures

Inspection

25

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Mounts and Accessories


Sights The M240B has a front sight post which can be adjusted using the tool, combination, front sight adjusting. This adjustment is normally only done to zero the weapon. The rear sight consists of a peep sight aperture on an adjustable sight leaf slide. This sight leaf slide rides on a range plate with a graduated scale that is attached to the weapon by a hinged mount. The gun is normally carried with the sight in its horizontal position. The gun can be used with the sight in this position to engage close in targets (800 meters or below) from the bipod or tripod. The sight can also be raised to a vertical position for sighting on targets at greater ranges (more than 800 meters). These settings are normally used only when the gun is employed on the tripod, which provides the stable platform necessary to accurately engage targets at these greater ranges. The range plate scale, located on both sides of the range plate, is marked at 100-meter intervals from 200 meters to the maximum effective range of 1,800 meters. Make range changes by: o Moving the rear sight slide horizontally along its graduated steps for range settings from 200 meters to 800 meters o Raising the sight to its upright position and moving the rear sight slide vertically for range settings from 800 meters to 1,800 meters. Bipods The bipod mount is part of the receiver group; the operator cannot remove it. The bipod is held in position by the ball joint that joins it to the bottom of the receiver.

26

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


To lower the bipod legs, push in on the bipod latch and rotate the legs down and Bipods (Continued) forward (see diagram below). Release the legs, and they will automatically spring outward into their open and locked position.

To raise the bipod legs, squeeze them together (see diagram below) and rotate the legs rearward and upward into the slot on the bottom of the receiver until the bipod latch engages, locking them in position.

The M240Bs bipod pivots on the ball joint, allowing the gunner to quickly and easily move the weapon to the right or left.

27

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


M122 Tripod The tripod assembly provides a stable and relatively lightweight base that is far superior to the bipod. The tripod may be extended and collapsed easily and consists of: A tripod head One front and two rear legs A traversing bar (see diagram below)

The traversing bar: Connects the two rear legs Is hinged on one side with a sleeve and on the other side with a sleeve latch Allows the tripod to collapse to a closed position for carrying or storage or to lock in an open extended position for use Also supports the T&E mechanism Engraved on the bar is a scale, graduated in 5 mil increments, that measures direction in mils. The scale is numbered every 100 mils from 0 in the center to 450 mils on the left side and 425 mils on the right side (see diagram below).

28

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


M122 Tripod (Continued) Pintle: The Pintle mounts the M240B to the M122 Tripod.

The purpose of the T&E mechanism (see diagram below) is to provide controlled manipulation and the ability to engage predetermined target. The traversing portion of the mechanism consists of the: Traversing handwheel Traversing screw Offset Head Traversing slide with lock lever
OFFSET HEAD

29

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


M122 Tripod (Continued) As the handwheel is turned, the offset head will appear to move along the traversing screw: 1 click = 1 mil. A total of 100 mils traverse is on the traversing screw. Notice that the traversing slide is a U-shaped projection near the bottom of the T&E. The slide locking lever locks this slide to the traversing bar. The elevating portion of the mechanism consists of the upper elevating screw with scale, elevating hand-wheel, and lower elevating screw. The scale on the upper elevating screw is graduated in 50-mil increments from 0 to +200 and 0 to -200.

Gun Bag

The complete gun bag (see diagram below) is used to carry the Machine gun Tripod Pintle Traversing and Elevating mechanism Spare barrel All user maintenance equipment Other accessories (SL-3 components)

The gun bag keeps the gun and all its components together and protected during events such as unit movements for embarkation on ships or aircraft.

30

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


Gun Bag (continued) The removable spare barrel bag is designed for field use and will carry: The spare barrel A complete set of user maintenance equipment and accessories (see diagram below)

31

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Mounting the Gun


Step 1 Prepare the tripod by extending its legs until the sleeve latch engages and locks the legs in the open position. Rotate the elevating handwheel until approximately 1 inches (two fingers) are visible on the upper elevating screw. Rotate the traversing slide until approximately 1 inches (two fingers) are visible on the lower elevating screw. Rotate the traversing handwheel until the offset head is centered on the traversing screw. Place the T&E on the rear trigger housing, aligning the holes on the T&E and trigger housing, and insert the T&E pin through the gun. Place the pintle into the pintle bushing until it locks. Place Gun in pintle and insert pintle pin. Lock traversing slide lock lever on traversing bar. Lower the traversing slide over the traversing bar with the traversing slide to the rear and the traversing wheel to the left; secure it by turning the locking lever clockwise.

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6 Step 7

32

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Barrel Changing Procedures


The ability to quickly change the M240B barrel provides a great advantage: one barrel can be used while the other is cooling, thus increasing the life of each barrel and ensuring a continuous rapid rate of accurate fire. Change barrels when they are beginning to overheat. Changing a barrel takes only a few seconds and significantly improves the rate of fire and accuracy. As a guide, a barrel change is required after firing at the: sustained rate for 10 minutes rapid rate for 2 minutes

The table below outlines the steps to change the barrel for a tripod-mounted gun; however, they are very similar to those for a bipod-mounted gun: Step 1 You may change the barrel with the bolt forward or to the rear. You do not necessarily need to unload the weapon; however, it must be placed on safe, and the gunner must maintain positive control of the cocking lever when the bolt is to the rear. The gunner depresses the barrel locking latch with the left hand and keeps it in that position (see diagram below).

Step 2

Step 3

The team leader separates the barrel from the receiver by Grasping the barrel by the changing handle Rotating the changing handle to its upright position Pushing forward Pulling up

33

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Barrel Changing Procedures (Continued)


Step 4 The gunner then releases the barrel release latch. The team leader then grasps the spare barrel by the changing handle.

Step 5

The team leader: Inserts the barrel socket into the receiver Aligns the gas plug with the gas cylinder Pulls to the rear until the barrel is fully seated

Step 6

Once the barrel is fully seated, the team leader lowers the barrelchanging handle, while counting the clicks (minimum two, maximum seven) to ensure proper headspace.

Malfunctions
A malfunction is a failure of the gun to function satisfactorily; the gun will fire but fires improperly. Defective ammunition or improper operation of the gun by a crewmember is not considered a malfunction. Two of the more common malfunctions are sluggish operation and runaway gun. Sluggish Operation Instead of firing at its normal rate (approximately 9 to 10 rounds per second), a sluggish gun fires very slowly due to excessive: Friction usually due to lack of lubrication excessive dirt/carbon in the gas system or on the bolt and receiver rails loose connections in the gas system

Loss of gas, usually due to To remedy continued sluggish operation, clean, lubricate, tighten, or replace parts as required.

34

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Malfunctions (continued)
Runaway Gun Runaway gun is when a gun continues to fire after the trigger is released; firing is uncontrolled. A runaway gun is usually caused by a worn, broken, or burred sear; the sear shoulder is unable to grab the operating rod and hold it to the rear also cause by an excessively worn sear notch on the operating rod

To stop a runaway gun, for both tripod and bipod-mounted guns, the team leader twists and breaks the belt of ammunition. The remedy for runaway gun is to replace worn parts. Stoppages A stoppage is any interruption in the cycle of functioning caused by faulty action of the gun defective ammunition

In short, the gun stops firing. Stoppages must be cleared quickly and firing resumed.

Immediate Action
Immediate action is action that the gunner/crew performs to reduce a stoppage, without investigating its cause, and quickly return the gun to action. Hang fire and cook off are terms that describe the ammunition condition and should be understood in conjunction with immediate action procedures. Hang Fire A hang fire occurs when the cartridge primer detonates after being struck by the firing pin but some problem with the propellant powder causes it to burn too slowly and delays the firing of the projectile. Wait five seconds before investigating a stoppage further because if the round goes off with the cover of the weapon open: personnel could be injured equipment could be damaged

35

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Immediate Action (continued)


Cook Off A cook off occurs when the heat of the barrel is high enough to cause the propellant powder inside the round to ignite even though the primer is not struck. Immediate action is completed in a total of 10 seconds to ensure that the round is extracted before the heat of the barrel affects it. If the round fails to extract/eject, delay further action for 15 minutes if the barrel is hot; the gunner must assume that a round is still in the chamber and could cook off before the barrel cools down. More than 200 rounds fired within a 2 minute period A long continuous burst or repeated firing of the weapon even though 200 rounds were not fired If the unit leader determines the weapon is hot for any reason.

Classification of a Hot Gun/Immediate Action

WARNING: Climate affects the rate at which a machinegun barrel heats and cools. For example, a machinegun employed in a hot, arid climate will heat up and likely cause a cook-off much sooner than one employed in a cold, damp climate. Conversely, a machinegun barrel will cool off much more quickly in a colder climate. To mitigate the risk of a hot gun, barrels should be interchanged whenever possible to allow them to cool off when not in use. The table on the following page lists the steps for immediate action for the M240B.

36

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Immediate Action (Continued)


Classification of a Hot Gun/Immediate Action

Step
1 2

Action
Shout, Misfire! Wait 5 seconds after the misfire to guard against a hang fire. Within the next 5 seconds (to guard against a cook off), pull the charging handle to the rear and observe the ejection port. If brass: was seen ejecting, attempt to fire again did not eject, place the weapon on S, and determine if the barrel is: o Hot (200 rounds or more fired in the last 2 minutes) o Cold

3 Step 1 2 3 Hot Barrel Assume a live round is in the chamber. Wait until the barrel has reached air temperature (15 minutes). Proceed with cold barrel procedures. Cold Barrel Raise the feed cover. Remove ammo belt and links. Inspect the chamber. If the chamber Is clear: o Reload. o Attempt to fire. Has brass present: o Execute clear gun (use a cleaning rod to punch the bore). o Reload. o Attempt to fire.

In either case, if the weapon fails to fire repeat cold barrel procedures a second time. If the weapon fails to fire again, execute remedial action.

37

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Remedial Action
When immediate action fails to reduce the stoppage, take remedial action. Remedial action involves investigating the cause of the stoppage which may involve some disassembly of the weapon and replacement of parts to correct the problem. Two common causes of stoppage that may require remedial action are failure to extract due to either a stuck cartridge or ruptured cartridge.

Stuck Cartridge

Some swelling of the cartridge occurs when it fires. If the swelling is excessive, the cartridge will be fixed tightly in the chamber. If the extractor spring has weakened and does not tightly grip the base of the cartridge, it may fail to extract the round when the bolt moves to the rear. Once the bolt is locked to the rear: Weapon is placed on S, Barrel has been allowed to cool Insert a length of cleaning rod into the muzzle to push the round out through the chamber

Ruptured Cartridge

Sometimes a cartridge is in a weakened condition after firing. In addition, it may swell (as described in stuck cartridge above). In this case, a properly functioning extractor may sometimes tear the base of the cartridge off as the bolt moves to the rear, leaving the rest of the cartridge wedged inside the chamber. In this case, the ruptured cartridge extractor must be used to remove it: remove the barrel insert the extractor into the chamber where it can grip and remove the remains of the cartridge

38

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Weapons Conditions
Condition 1 Ammunition in position on feed tray Bolt locked to the rear Weapon on safe Not applicable to the M240B Ammunition in position on feed tray Chamber empty Bolt forward Safety not engaged Feed tray clear of ammunition Chamber empty Bolt forward Safety not engaged

Condition 2 Condition 3

Condition 4

Weapons Commands
These are the commands to bring a Condition 4 weapon to Condition 1.

Step 1

Raised Cover. Ensure the weapon is in condition 4 (bolt forward; weapon on F). Cover Closed. Ensure the weapon is in condition 4 (bolt forward; weapon on F). Raised Cover. Place the first round of the belt in the feed tray groove against the cartridge stop with the open side of the link down (Brass to the Grass). Cover Closed. Insert the first round of a belt of ammunition with the open side of the links down into the feed way until the holding pawl engages it and holds it in place.

Step 2

39

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Weapons Commands (continued)


Step 3 Close the cover (see diagram below).

Step 4

To bring the weapon from condition 3 to condition 1 you must: Pull the cocking handle fully to the rear Place the weapon on S. Push the cocking handle fully forward to the locked position. Place the weapon on F. Engage target.

Step 5

These are the procedures used to bring a Condition 1 weapon to Condition 4.

Step 1

If the bolt is forward, pull the cocking handle fully to the rear until the bolt locks. Place the weapon on safe while maintaining positive control of the cocking handle. Lower head. Raise the cover and clear the feed tray of ammunition. CAUTION: If the barrel is hot and a round is still chambered, immediately close the cover and feed mechanism assembly. Ensure the weapon is pointed in a safe direction and wait until the barrel cools. A hot barrel may cause the round to cook-off.

Step 2

40

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Weapons Commands (continued)


Step 3 Lift the feed tray and inspect the chamber. Have a second individual check to ensure no ammunition is present. Close the cover. Place the weapon on F. While holding the cocking handle to the rear, pull the trigger and ease the bolt forward

Step 4 Step 5 Step 6

Summary
In this lesson we covered the history, characteristics, nomenclature, assembly and disassembly of the M240B medium machine gun. We will also cover immediate and remedial action, barrel change procedures, mounts and accessories, loading and unloading, weapons conditions, and weapons commands of the M240B medium machine gun.

References
Reference Number or Author MCWP 3-15.1 TM 1005-01-412-3129 Reference Title Machine Guns and Machine Gun Gunnery M240 Technical Manual

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym CLP Elevating hand wheel LSA LSA-T LAV LAW RBC T&E Traversing hand wheel Definition or Identification Cleaning, Lubricant, Protectant Hand wheel located on the elevating screw used to make adjustments in elevation Lubricant, semifluid Lubricant, semifluid , Teflon Light armored vehicle Lubricant, Artic, Weather Rifle, Bore, Cleaner Traverse and Elevation Mechanism Hand wheel on the traversing screw used to make adjustments for deflection up to 100 mils

41

Basic Officer Course

B3M4178

M240B Medium Machine Gun

Notes

42

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

HEAVY MACHINE GUNS B3M4238 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Heavy Machine Guns


Introduction The following lesson will cover the description, general characteristics, and operation of the M19 MOD3 40mm grenade launcher and the Browning M2 HB .50 caliber heavy Machine Gun For some, this block of instruction will be the last formal education on these weapons systems, though a large majority of you will be employing these assets in real world operations in the near future. Understanding the capabilities and having a working knowledge of these weapons systems is an important skill to maintain. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic History and Description of M2 .50 cal Characteristics M2 .50 cal Ammunition M2 .50 cal Nomenclature M2 .50 cal Operating Procedures M2 .50 Disassembly and Assembly M2 .50 cal Care and Maintenance M2 .50 cal Headspace and Timing M2 .50 cal Cycle of Operations M2 .50 cal Mounts and Accessories M2 .50 cal Review Questions Review Question Answers Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Characteristics Ammunition Nomenclature Operation Disassembly and Assembly Cleaning and Inspection Cycle of operations Page 5 7 8 9 10 14 28 31 37 45 50 53 55 56 57 59 61 68 76 77

Importance

In This Lesson

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mounts and Accessories Review Questions Review Question Answers Summary References Glossary Notes Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objectives

80 89 92 94 94 94 95

Given a M2 heavy machinegun, mount, and ammunition, while wearing a fighting load, perform weapons handling procedures for the M2 heavy machinegun without endangering personnel or equipment. (MCCS-CSW-2101) Given a mounted M2 heavy machine gun, and a headspace and timing gauge, while wearing a fighting load, set headspace and timing on the M2 heavy machinegun in order to bring the weapon into service. (MCCS-CSW-2102) Given a M2 heavy machinegun, loaded with ammunition, with a malfunction or stoppage, while wearing a fighting load, perform immediate action on the M2 heavy machinegun to return the weapon to action. (MCCS-CSW-2103) Given a M2 heavy machinegun, loaded with ammunition, with a malfunction or stoppage not corrected by immediate action, while wearing a fighting load, perform remedial action on the M2 heavy machinegun to return the weapon to action. (MCCSCSW-2104) Given a heavy machinegun, a tripod, a cradle, cleaning gear, and lubricants, maintain heavy machineguns to ensure the weapon is complete, clean, and serviceable. (MCCS-CSW-2106) Given a Mk19 heavy machinegun, mount, and ammunition, while wearing a fighting load, perform weapons handling procedures for the Mk19 heavy machinegun without endangering personnel or equipment. (MCCS-CSW-2107)

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Terminal Learning Objectives (continued) Given a Mk19 heavy machinegun and ammunition, while wearing a fighting load, perform immediate action on the Mk19 heavy machinegun in order to return the weapon to action. (MCCS-CSW-2108) Given a Mk19 heavy machinegun, loaded with ammunition, with a malfunction or stoppage not corrected by immediate action, while wearing a fighting load, perform remedial action on the Mk19 heavy machinegun to return the weapon to action. (MCCSCSW-2109) Enabling Learning Objective Without the aid of reference, describe the capabilities of machineguns without omission. (0302-DEF-1302a)

Basic Officer Course

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun History and Description


History. The M2 is undoubtedly the worlds best-known .50 caliber heavy machine gun. John M. Browning developed the M2 heavy machine gun at the end of World War I. After a series of early water-cooled, aircraft, and tank models were tested in the 1920s, an improved version was adopted in 1933 as the Browning M2 water-cooled machine gun. Subsequent models, using the same receiver, were adopted by the various services. During World War II, nearly two million M2 machine guns of all variations were produced. The M2 is the mainstay of all Marine Corps heavy machine gun platoons.

Description. The Browning machine gun caliber .50 HB, M2 (see picture below) is a belt-fed, recoil-operated, air-cooled, crew-served machine gun. The gun is capable of single shot, as well as automatic fire, and operates on the short recoil principle. The machinegun is capable of being fed from either the right or left by repositioning certain parts. The weapon has nonfixed headspace that must be set. Timing must also be adjusted to cause the gun to fire slightly out of battery to prevent damage to moving parts. The force for recoil operation is furnished by expanding powder gases, which are controlled by various springs, cams, and levers. Maximum surface of the barrel and receiver are exposed to permit air-cooling. Perforations in the barrel support allow air to circulate around the breach end of the barrel and help cool the parts. A heavy barrel is used to retard early overheating.

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun History and Description (Continued)


Sights. The M2 .50 caliber machine gun has a leaf-type rear sight (see diagram below), graduated in both yards and mils. The scale ranges from 100 to 2,600 in yards and from 0 to 62 in mils.

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Sights The windage knob permits deflection changes to right or left of center. The front sight is a fixed blade type with cover (see diagram below).

Front Sight Blade

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Characteristics


The table below lists the characteristics of the M2 .50 caliber machine gun. Characteristic Weight Receiver Barrel Tripod Total Length Receiver with barrel installed Barrel Rifling Muzzle velocity M2 Ball Specification 60 pounds 24 pounds 44 pounds 128 pounds 65 inches 45 inches Eight lands and grooves with a right-hand twist One turn in 15 inches 3050 feet per second

The table below lists the rates of fire and ranges for the M2 .50 caliber machine gun. Rates of Fire Sustained Rapid Cyclic Range Maximum Maximum Effective Grazing fire

Less than 40 rounds per minute (rpm) 40 or more rpm 450-550 rpm 7400 meters 1830 meters 700 meters

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Ammunition


The table below lists the ammunition (see diagram below) used in the M2 .50 caliber machine gun. Type M2 Dummy M1, M1A1 Blank M2, M33 Ball M1, M10, M17 Tracer M1, M23 Incendiary M2 Armor piercing M8 Armor-piercing incendiary M20 Armor-piercing incendiary-tracer M903 Sabot light armor penetrator M962 Sabot light armor penetrator-tracer Identifying Characteristics Plain Holes in cartridge No bullet, crimped cartridge Plain Red, orange, or brown tip Blue tip Black tip Aluminum tip Aluminum tip with red ring Amber tinted round Red tinted round

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Ammunition

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Nomenclature


The major components of the 50 caliber HMG (see diagram below) and their purposes are shown in the table below:

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Components Diagram Number 1 2 Component Barrel group Carrier assembly Purpose Houses cartridges for firing Directs projectile Provides handle to: Carry barrel Remove barrel from the receiver Houses the: Trigger Bolt latch releases lock Buffer tube sleeve Left and right spade grips Feeds linked belt ammunition Positions and holds cartridges in position for extracting, feeding, and chambering Provides feeding, chambering, firing, and extracting, using the propellant gases and recoil spring for power

Backplate group

Cover group

Bolt group

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Nomenclature (Continued)


6 Receiver group 7 8 9 10 Bolt stud Barrel extension group Barrel buffer body Driving spring rod assembly Serves as support for all major components Houses action of weapon, which controls functioning of weapon Provides a means to move the bolt to the rear with the retracting slide handle Secures the barrel to the recoiling parts Assists in recoil and counter-recoil of the bolt group Drives the bolt forward when the bolt latch release is depressed

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Operating Procedures


Weapon Conditions: The M2 .50 caliber machine gun has no safety. Therefore, take extra care when operating this weapon. The table below lists the weapon conditions for the M2 .50 caliber machine gun. Condition 1 Description Bolt forward A round in the chamber This condition is also referred to as full load Bolt forward on an empty chamber Rounds all the way against the cartridge stop This condition is also referred to as half load. Bolt forward on an empty chamber Rounds inserted and held in place by the belt feeding pawl Bolt forward on an empty chamber No source of ammunition

3 4

Again, it is important to remember the lack of a safety when manipulating this weapon system. Unloading & Clearing: The table below lists the steps for unloading/clearing the M2 .50 caliber machine gun. Ensure the weapon is pointed in a safe direction. Step Action Ensure the barrel is cold. If hot (150 rounds in 2 minutes or less), let the 1 weapon sit for 15 minutes. Place weapon in single shot mode. Lock the bolt to the rear by pulling 2 the retracting slide handle to the rear while maintaining positive control. Open the top cover and remove the source of ammunition. Inspect the 3 chamber to ensure it is clear.

10

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Operating Procedures (Continued)


Weapon Commands. The table below lists the steps to execute "LOAD" taking the M2 .50 caliber machine gun from condition 4 to condition 2. 1 2 Point the weapon in a safe direction. Ensure weapon is in single shot mode. Ensure the weapon is in condition 4: No rounds inserted anywhere in the weapon Bolt forward An empty chamber Raise cover, lift extractor ejector, and slightly pull bolt to the rear. Insert the double loop end of the belt in the feedway until the rounds meet the cartridge stop and place the extractor ejector between the first and second rounds. Close cover. Weapon is now half-loaded.

3 4

The table below lists the steps to execute "MAKE READY" taking the M2 .50 caliber machine gun from condition 2 to condition 1. 1 2 3 Point the weapon in a safe direction. Ensure the bolt latch release is locked down. Ensure the weapon is on automatic. Pull the retracting slide handle to the rear and release it. CAUTION: The weapon is fully loaded.

The table below lists the steps to execute "UNLOAD/CLEAR GUN" taking the M2 .50 caliber machine gun to condition 4. Step Action 1 Ensure the barrel is cold. If hot (150 rounds in 2 minutes or less), let the weapon sit for 15 minutes. 2 Point the weapon in a safe direction and ensure weapon is in single shot mode 3 Unlock the bolt latch release. 4 Raise the cover. 5 Remove the ammunition from the feedway. 6 Pull the retracting slide handle to the rear until it locks. 7 Examine the chamber and T-slot to ensure they are clear of ammunition. 8 Insert a cleaning rod in the muzzle end of the barrel and push it through the bore until it can be seen in the receiver ensuring that the weapon is clear. 9 Return the retracting slide handle forward and depress the bolt latch release sending the bolt forward. Close the cover.

11

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Operating Procedures (Continued)


Malfunctions. A malfunction is any failure of the gun to function satisfactorily. Examples of malfunctions are: Failure to function freely: Sluggish operation is usually due to human failure to eliminate excessive friction caused by o Dirt o Lack of proper lubrication o Burred parts o Incorrect headspace adjustment o Incorrect timing Uncontrolled Automatic Fire: Uncontrolled automatic fire (runaway gun) is when fire continues even when the trigger or trigger control mechanism is released. If the cause is present before the gun is fired, the gun will start to fire when the recoiling groups move into battery the second time. If the defect occurs during firing, the gun will continue firing when the trigger control mechanism is released. A runaway gun may be caused by o A bent trigger lever, forward end of the trigger lever sprung downward o Burred beveled contacting surfaces of the trigger lever and sear o A jammed or broken side-plate trigger To stop the uncontrolled automatic fire, o Keep the gun laid on target. o Twist the belt, causing the gun to jam. CAUTION: Do not unlatch the cover. Wait 15 minutes to guard against cook off. Clear weapon. Replace broken, worn, or burred parts. Check the side-plate trigger and trigger control mechanism, when applicable.

12

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Operating Procedures (Continued)


Stoppage. A stoppage is any interruption in the cycle of operation caused by the faulty action of the gun or ammunition. Stoppages are classified as follows: Failure to Feed: Prevents the round from being properly positioned in the receiver group. Failure to Chamber: Prevents the complete chambering of the round. Failure to Lock: Prevents the breech lock from correctly entering its recess in the bolt. Failure to Fire: Prevents the ignition of the round. Failure to Unlock: Prevents the breech lock from moving out of its recess in the bolt. Failure to Extract: Prevents the extraction of the expended cartridge from the chamber. Failure to Eject: Prevents the ejection of the expended cartridge from the receiver. Failure to Cock: Prevents the firing pin extension from being engaged with the sear.

Immediate Action: Immediate action is the prompt action taken by the gunner without investigating the cause. The gunner performs immediate action; however, every crewmember must be trained to apply immediate action. The table below lists the steps to follow to reduce most stoppages without analyzing their cause in detail. Step Action 1 Yell, Misfire! to inform the gun line that you have a stoppage or malfunction. 2 Wait 5 seconds for the possibility of a hang fire. 3 Within the next 5 seconds, pull the bolt to the rear and watch for feeding and ejecting. 4 If feeding and ejecting occur, aim in and attempt to fire. If weapon Fires continue mission. Fails to fire, determine whether or not you have a hot barrel. If so, wait 15 minutes for barrel to reach air temperature. NOTE: You have a hot barrel if it has fired 150 rounds or more in 2 minutes or less. 5 Once the barrel cools, proceed to remedial action.

13

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Operating Procedures (Continued)


Remedial Action: Remedial action is the detailed examination of the weapon and ammunition to determine the cause of the stoppage. Removal of a cartridge from the T-Slot: If the cartridge does not fall out during immediate action: Put the weapon on single shot and pull the bolt to the rear. Hold the bolt to the rear With the extractor raised, use a cleaning rod to push the cartridge out the bottom of the receiver, or reach under the gun and push the round up out of the T-slot. Removal of a ruptured cartridge: You may remove a ruptured (separated) cartridge case with a cleaning rod or ruptured cartridge extractor. When using the ruptured cartridge extractor: Raise the cover and pull the bolt to the rear. Place the ruptured cartridge extractor in the T-slot of the bolt in the same manner as that of a cartridge, so that it is held in line with the bore by the ejector of the extractor assembly of the gun. With the extractor aligned with the bore and held firmly in the T-slot, let the bolt go forward into the ruptured case; the shoulders will spring out in front of the case. Pull the bolt to the rear and remove the ruptured case and extractor.

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly


Disassembly: Take the precautions below when working with the M2 .50 caliber machine gun: 1. Ensure the weapon is clear prior to further handling of the weapon. 2. Before allowing the bolt to go forward, ensure that the cover, once raised, remains in the raised position with the barrel remaining in the gun. CAUTION: If the cover is lowered when the bolt is to the rear, the belt feed lever lug will not fit into its proper groove in the bolt; parts may be damaged as the bolt goes forward. In the cover assembly, the action of the shoulder headless pin and spring just above the pivot holds the belt feed lever lug to the left. To allow the bolt to go forward with the barrel out of the gun, pull the retracting slide handle to the rear, engaging the bolt stud in the notch in the rear of the retracting slide. Maintain a steady pressure to the rear on the retracting slide handle. Press the bolt latch release and allow the bolt to ride slowly forward.

14

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)

CAUTION: If the bolt is allowed to go forward with the barrel out of the gun, parts may be damaged when the bolt slams forward. The added weight and cushioning effect of the barrel act as a buffer and protect the parts from damage. General Disassembly: General disassembly consists of removing the major groups and assemblies (see diagram below) for inspection and cleaning. The table below lists the eight major groups that must be disassembled in the order they should be removed. Sequence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Major Group Barrell Group Back-Plate Group Driving Spring Rod Assembly Bolt Group Barrel Extension Barrel Buffer Assembly Barrel Buffer Assembly Receiver Group
BACKPLATE GROUP

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Major Component Groups

15

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Barrel Group: Follow the steps in the table below to remove the barrel group. Step Action Turn the cover latch and raise the cover group (see diagram below). 1

Grasp the retracting slide handle with the right hand, palm up, and pull the recoiling parts to the rear until the lug on the barrel locking spring aligns with the 3/8-inch hole in the right sideplate of the receiver (just below the feedway exit). The barrel can be turned only when the lug is aligned with the 3/8-inch hole. Unscrew the barrel from the receiver (see diagram below). CAUTION: Be careful not to damage the threads or barrel locking notches when setting the barrel down.

Pull back slightly on the retracting slide handle and remove the link or spacer from the receiver.

16

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Back-plate Group: Follow the steps in the table below to remove backplate group: Action Ensure that the bolt latch release is up, free of the bolt latch release lock. If it is not, push down on the bolt latch release and turn the buffer tube sleeve to the right to free it (see diagram below).

Step 1

The bolt must be forward before the backplate is removed. If the bolt is to the rear, push down on the bolt latch release, place palm up on the retracting slide handle, and ease the bolt forward. CAUTION: Take care to prevent the bolt from slamming forward with the barrel removed. The backplate latch lock and latch are below the buffer tube. Pull out on the lock and up on the latch; remove the backplate by lifting it straight up.

WARNING: Never attempt to cock the gun while the backplate is off and the driving spring assembly is in place. If the backplate is off and the driving spring assembly is compressed, the retaining pin on the driving spring rod can slip from its seat in the sideplate and seriously injure anyone behind the gun.
17
Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Driving Spring Rod Assembly: Follow the steps on the next page to remove the driving spring rod assembly. Step Action The inner and outer driving springs and driving spring rod are located 1 inside the receiver next to the right sideplate (see diagram below).

Push in on the head of the driving spring rod and push to the left to remove the driving spring rod retaining pin from its seat in the right sideplate. Pull the driving spring assembly to the rear and out of the receiver.

18

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Bolt Stud: Follow the steps in the table below to remove the bolt stud. Step Action Grasp the retracting slide handle and give it a quick jerk, freeing the bolt 1 from the barrel extension. 2 Align the collar of the bolt stud with the clearance hole in the bolt slot on the right sideplate and remove the bolt stud (see diagram below).

If the bolt is accidentally moved all the way to the rear, the bolt latch will engage in the bolt latch notches in the top of the bolt. If this occurs, raise the bolt latch (left of the trigger lever) and push the bolt forward to align the bolt stud with the clearance hole (see diagram below).

19

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Bolt Group: Follow the steps in the table below to remove the bolt group. Step Action After freeing the bolt, slide it to the rear and out of receiver (see diagram 1 below).

Place the bolt down on its right side (with the extractor arm up), so that the extractor will not fall from the bolt.

20

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Barrel Buffer Body Group and Barrel Extension Group: Follow the steps on the next page to remove the barrel buffer body and barrel extension groups.

Step Action Insert the drift of a combination tool, or other pointed instrument, through 1 the hole in the lower rear corner of the right sideplate. 2 Push in on the barrel buffer body lock. At the same time, place one hand in the receiver and push the barrel extension group and barrel buffer group to the rear (see diagram below).

Remove the barrel buffer group and barrel extension group from the receiver. Separate the two groups by pushing forward on the tips of the accelerator (see diagram below).

21

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Barrel Buffer Assembly: Follow the steps in the table below to remove the barrel buffer assembly and complete general disassembly. Step Action Pull the barrel buffer assembly from the rear of the barrel buffer body 1 group. 2 The barrel buffer assembly will not be disassembled (see diagram below).

General Assembly: To assemble the gun, replace the groups and assemblies in reverse order of their removal in disassembly.

22

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Barrel Buffer Assembly and Barrel Buffer Body Group: Follow the steps in the table below to assemble the barrel buffer assembly and barrel buffer body groups. Step Action Replace the barrel buffer assembly in the barrel buffer body group, with 1 the key on the spring guide to the right. NOTE: This key must fit in its slot in the right side of the barrel buffer body. 2 Turn the barrel buffer tube until the screwdriver slot (in the rear of the tube) is vertical and the arrow is pointing to the right (see diagram below). The stud on the tube lock will now engage the serrations in the barrel buffer tube to keep the tube from turning.

Push the barrel buffer assembly fully forward (see diagram below).

23

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Barrel Buffer Group and Barrel Extension Group: Follow the steps in the table below to assemble the barrel buffer and barrel extension groups. Step Action To join the two groups together, hold the barrel buffer group in the right hand, 1 with the index finger supporting the accelerator. Join the notch on the shank of the barrel extension group with the cross-groove in the pistol rod of the barrel buffer assembly. At the same time, align the breech lock depressors with their guideways in the sides of the barrel extension, ensuring that the tips of the accelerator are against the rear end of the barrel extension (claws against the shank) (see diagram below).

2 3

Push the groups together. As the accelerator rotates to the rear, press down on its tips to ensure positive locking of groups. Slide the bolt group back on to the barrel extension group. Place the groups in the receiver, and push them forward until the barrel buffer body spring lock snaps into position. NOTE: When the parts are properly locked in place, the barrel buffer tube should protrude about 1 1/8 inches from the rear of the barrel buffer body group.

24

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Bolt: Place the bolt in the receiver, with the top of the cocking lever forward and the extractor down. The barrel extension, barrel buffer, and bolt groups may be assembled and returned to the receiver together (see diagram below). Press up on the bolt latch in the receiver to slide the bolt, barrel extension and buffer body groups into the receiver.

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Bolt

Bolt Stud: Follow the steps in the table below to assemble the bolt stud. Step Action Align the stud hole in the bolt with the clearance hole. 1 2 Replace the bolt stud, ensuring that the collar of the stud is inside the sideplate (see diagram below).

Push forward on the bolt stud until the bolt is fully forward.

25

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Driving Spring Group: Follow the steps in the table below to assemble the driving spring group. Step Action Press up on the bolt latch and push the bolt all the way forward by 1 pushing on the bolt stud only. 2 Place the end of the driving spring rod in its hole in the rear of the bolt and push forward on the driving spring group and the barrel buffer tube. Press in and to the right on the head of the driving spring rod and place the retaining pin in its seat in the right sideplate.

NOTE: At this time, the barrel buffer tube should be completely inside the receiver. If not, the barrel buffer body spring is not properly seated. Backplate Group: Follow the steps in the table below to assemble the backplate group. Step Action Hold the backplate with the latch down and the trigger up; place the 1 backplate guides in their guideways. 2 Hold out on the latch lock and tap the backplate into position until the latch snaps into place (see diagram below).

Release the latch lock and pull up on the backplate group to ensure it is firmly seated.

CAUTION: Do not use the driving rod to drive the bolt forward from the rear position, or you may damage the driving spring group and cause a stoppage.

26

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Assembly and Disassembly (Continued)


Barrel: Follow the steps in the table below to assemble the barrel and complete general assembly of the M2 .50 caliber machine gun. Step Action Pull the retracting slide handle to the rear until the lug on the barrel locking 1 spring is visible through the 3/8-inch hole in the right sideplate. 2 Screw the barrel all the way into the barrel extension; then unscrew the barrel two notches.

Function Check: Perform a function check as soon as the weapon is assembled to ensure that it has been assembled correctly. Follow the steps in the table below to check the function of the weapon. Step Action Place the weapon in the single-shot mode. 1 2 With the cover closed, lock the bolt to the rear (bolt should stay to rear while in the single-shot mode). Return retracting slide handles to full forward position and press the bolt latch release. Press down on the trigger; weapon should fire. (Check T-slot to ensure that firing pin does protrude.) Open the cover. Place the weapon in the automatic-fire mode. Pull the retractor slide handle to the rear and release. (Bolt should not lock to rear.) Make sure firing pin does not protrude. Press trigger; weapon should fire. Make sure firing pin does protrude.

5 6

7 8 9

27

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Care and Maintenance


Care and Cleaning: To ensure proper care of the M2 .50 caliber machine gun, follow a system of maintenance or an SOP for the frequency of cleaning. Clean each gun: As soon after firing as possible Each time it is exposed to field conditions Combat conditions, clean and oil the gun daily Extreme climatic and combat conditions, you may have to clean and lubricate it more frequently o Ideal conditions, where the gun is not used and is stored in a clean, dry place, you may only have to inspect, clean, and lubricate every five days o o o o Disassemble, clean, and oil the gun in a clean, dry location. If possible, when not in use, keep the gun covered with a: o o o o Gun cover Canvas Tarpaulin Poncho

Routine Care and Cleaning: Before firing (when the situation permits), follow the steps in the table below to ensure efficient functioning of the machine gun. Step Action 1 Disassemble the gun into its major groups or assemblies. 2 Clean the bore and chamber, and lightly oil them. 3 Clean all metal parts thoroughly with CLP. Care and Cleaning Under Unusual Conditions: Extreme cold, hot, dry, and tropical climates affect the gun and its functioning. Take care under these climatic conditions to ensure that the gun is: o Cleaned daily with the prescribed lubricants o Protected from the elements by some sort of cover if possible TM 9-1005-213-10 provides further information on care and cleaning of the gun under unusual climatic conditions.

28

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Care and Maintenance (Continued)


Care and Cleaning of M3 Mount and Accessories: Keep the mount, accessories, and spare parts clean and lubricated. Spot paint surfaces when necessary. Inspect moving surfaces and oil them with the prescribed lubricant. Keep all external surfaces of the mount clean and lightly oiled. Be particularly careful to keep the pintle bushing clean and lightly oiled and ensure that the pintle lock release cam is well lubricated and free from grit. Clean and lubricate the sleeve lock indexing levers and telescopic legs enough for ease in use. Clean and oil the mount with the same regularity and in the same manner as the gun. Lubrications: Use CLP to clean the machine gun. As its name implies, it cleans, lubricates, and preserves all in one application. After cleaning the gun with CLP, wipe it dry and reapply a thin coating. Allow this thin coat to dry on the parts for a short time before reassembly. CLP deposits a thin coating on the metal, which minimizes carbon buildup and prevents foreign material from sticking. The CLP coating provides the frictionless operation of the weapon parts, not liquid oil deposited on them. A gun treated with CLP will operate better and remain clean longer than one treated with any other cleaning material. Use of CLP will reduce maintenance costs and extend the life of the weapon. Rifle bore cleaner (RBC) is a cleaning solvent, which can be used to clean powder residue, carbon, and dirt from weapons. RBC does not preserve or lubricate a weapon. If you clean a weapon with RBC, dry the weapon and lubricate it with: o Lubricating oil semifluid (LSA) o Lubricating oil, special purpose (PL-S) o Lubricating oil, general purpose (PL-M) The use of these oils will cause sand or grit to stick to the weapon. NOTE: Use RBC and oil only when CLP is not available.

29

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Care and Maintenance (Continued)


Inspection: When you inspect the machine gun, it should be completely disassembled. Look for dirt, cracks, burrs, and rust. The table below is an inspection checklist to for crewmembers or inspecting personnel to ensure that the gun and equipment are properly maintained. Barrel Be sure that the bore and chamber are: Free of rust Clean Lightly oiled. Be sure moving parts are clean and lightly oiled. Operate the retracting slide handle and bolt latch release several times to see that the parts function without excessive friction. Using the gauges, check to ensure that headspace and timing are correct. Be sure the sight: Is in good condition Clean Free of grease or dirt Lightly oiled Elevation is set at 1000 Windage is set at zero The sight is down Be sure that the mount Is clean and lightly lubricated Is complete Functions properly Be sure all clamps are securely tightened Be sure spare parts are clean and lightly oiled Be sure spare parts kits are complete and in good condition. Requisition replacement parts. Examine newly drawn parts. Be sure it is clean and lightly lubricated. Be sure both hand wheels work properly. Be sure ammunition is properly stored. Ensure boxes and ammunition are in good condition and not oiled.

Moving parts

Headspace and timing Rear sight and windage knob

Mount (M3, MK64, M36, or M4)

Spare parts and tools

T&E Ammunition

30

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Headspace and Timing


Headspace is the distance between the face of the bolt and the base of the cartridge case, fully seated in the chamber. Timing is the adjustment of the gun so that firing takes place when the recoiling parts are in the correct position for firing Because the cartridge is held by the T-slot of the bolt, headspace with the M2 .50 caliber machine gun is measured as the distance between the rear of the barrel and the face of the bolt. This occurs when the recoiling parts are forward and there is positive contact between the breech lock recess in the bolt and the lock in the barrel extensions. Periodically check the calibration of the gauge; check the gauge at least annually. WARNING: Firing a weapon that has improperly set headspace and timing could damage the machine gun or injure the gunner. Damage may also occur in the trunnion block, base of the barrel, or face of the bolt. This warning applies whether the gun is firing service ammunition or M1E1 blanks. (The weapon has improper early timing when two rounds are fired-and firing stops.) Gauges: The headspace and timing gauge consists of a headspace gauge and two timing gauges (see diagram below) that provide an accurate means of checking the adjustment of headspace and timing.

Headspace and Timing Gauge Headspace: Check and set headspace: o Before firing o After assembling the gun o After replacing the barrel or receiver group

31

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Headspace and Timing (Continued)


Follow the steps in the table below to set headspace. 1 2 Raise the cover all the way up. Grasp the retracting slide handle (see diagram below).

Using the retracting slide handle, retract the bolt until the barrel-lockingspring lug is centered in the 3/8-inch hole on the right side of the receiver directly under the feed tray (see diagram below).

32

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Headspace and Timing (Continued)

Hold the bolt in this position and screw the barrel fully into the barrel extension (see diagram below).

WARNING: When resetting the headspace and timing of a gun that has been fired, use an asbestos mitt to avoid burns. 5 With the barrel-locking-spring lug centered in the 3/8-inch hole on the right side of the receiver, unscrew the barrel two notches (clicks). Release the retracting slide handle and allow the bolt to go forward. NOTE: At this point, check the barrel for rotation. Attempt to turn the barrel in either direction; the barrel should not turn. If the barrel does turn, stop and check barrel notches and the barrel locking spring for damage. Pull the bolt to the rear with the retracting slide handle and hold, thus cocking the weapon. Otherwise, the headspace gauge will not fit. Ensure retracting slide handle is in full forward position; depress bolt latch release to release the bolt. Pull the bolt 1/16 to the rear and insert the no-fire gauge between the barrel extension and the trunnion block.

33

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Headspace and Timing (Continued)


9 Raise the extractor out of the way to clear the top of the T-slot and try both ends of the go/no-go gauge (see diagram below).

10

11 12 13 14 15

16

17

Insert the go end of the gauge between the face of the bolt and the end of the barrel all the way up to the ring. If the go end of the gauge Enters the T-slot freely to the center ring of the gauge and the no-go end will not enter, headspace is correct. Remove gauge. Headspace setting is now complete. Will not enter the T-slot freely, headspace is too tight. Continue with step 11. Retract the bolt, so you can see the barrel-locking lug in the center of the 3/8th-inch alignment hole on the right side of the receiver. Unscrew the barrel one notch (click). Return the bolt fully forward. Recheck headspace (step 10). Repeat steps 10 through 13 until the go gauge fits but the no-go gauge does not fit. NOTE: You should not have to unscrew the barrel more than five notches (clicks) beyond the first setting of two clicks. If this condition does occur, turn in the machine gun to your unit armorer for inspection. If the no-go end of the gauge enters the T-slot, headspace is too loose. Adjust it using the same procedures as above, screwing the barrel into the barrel extension rather than out. Repeat steps 10 through 14, one click at a time, until the no-go gauge does not fit but the go gauge does fit.

34

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Headspace and Timing (Continued)


Timing: Timing is the adjustment of the weapon so that firing takes place when the recoiling parts are between .020 and .116 inch out of battery to prevent contact between the front end of the barrel extension and the trunnion block. Follow the steps in the table below to set timing. WARNING: Be sure the gun is clear of ammunition before starting. Step Action Check headspace first as previously described. 1 Pull the bolt to the rear with the retracting slide handle and release to cock the 2 machine gun. Grasp the retracting slide handle and retract the bolt just enough (1/16-inch) to 3 insert the no-fire gauge between the barrel extension and the trunnion block. Release the retracting slide handle (see diagram below). NOTE: Insert the timing gauge with bevel against barrel notches.

Depress the trigger; gun should not fire. NOTE: If the gun Does not fire, go to step 5. Does fire, you have early timing. Go to steps 7 through 14 Grasp the retracting slide handle and retract the bolt just enough to remove the no-fire gauge and insert the fire gauge in the same place (see diagram below). Release the retracting slide handle.

35

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Headspace and Timing (Continued)


Step Action Depress the trigger; gun should fire. If it: 6 Does, timing adjustment is now complete. Does not fire, you have late timing. Go to steps 7 through 14. Remove the gauge, cock the gun, and return the bolt forward. 7 Insert the fire gauge. 8 Remove the backplate. 9 NOTE: Weapon must be in single-shot mode to remove backplate. Always place the backplate on the ground with the spade handles down to avoid damaging the trigger mechanism. 10 Screw the timing adjustment nut all the way down until it touches the trigger lever (see diagram below). NOTE: The timing nut will come off the timing post if it is depressed too many clicks. If this happens, apply upward pressure to the timing nut while screwing it back on to the timing post.

11 12

13 14 15

WARNING: Never cock the gun or insert the gauge with the backplate off. Try to fire the machine gun by pushing up on the rear of the trigger lever located directly underneath the timing nut; gun should not fire. Screw the timing adjustment nut up (to the right) one click at a time. Push up on the trigger lever after each click. Keep doing this until the gun fires. NOTE: You must apply firm pressure to the trigger lever. Turn the timing adjustment nut an additional two clicks to compensate for heat expansion. Replace the backplate, remove the gauge, and cock the machine gun. Repeat steps 3 through 6 to ensure timing is set correctly.

36

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Cycle of Operations


The cycle of operations is consists of these basic steps: Feeding - The act of placing a cartridge in the receiver, approximately in back of the barrel, ready for chambering. Chambering - Placing the cartridge into the chamber of the weapon. Locking - The bolt is locked to the barrel and barrel extension. Firing - The firing pin is released, igniting the primer of the cartridge. Unlocking - The bolt is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension. Extracting - The empty cartridge case is pulled from the chamber. Ejecting - The empty cartridge case is expelled from the receiver. Cocking - The firing pin is withdrawn into the cocked position.

Some of these steps may occur at the same time. Feeding: When the bolt is fully forward and the top is closed, the belt-holding pawl holds the ammunition belt in the feed-way (see diagram below).

37

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Cycle of Operations (Continued)


As the bolt is moved to the rear, the belt-holding pawl moves the belted ammunition over and then holds it in a stationary position. At the same time, the belt-feed pawl rides up and over the link, holding the first round in place. When the bolt is all the way to the rear, the belt-feed slide moves out far enough to allow the belt-feed pawl spring to force the pawl up between the first and second rounds (see diagram below).

As the bolt moves forward, the belt-feed slide is moved back into the receiver, pulling with it the next linked cartridge. When the bolt reaches the fully forward position, the belt-holding pawl will snap into place behind the second linked cartridge (see diagram below), holding it in place.

38

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Cycle of Operations (Continued)


The extractor will then grasp the rim of the first cartridge, preparing to release it from the belt on the next rearward motion (see diagram below).

As the bolt then moves to the rear, the extractor will pull the cartridge with it, releasing it from the belt. As the extractor moves to the rear, the extractor cam forces it down, causing the cartridge to be moved into the T-slot in the bolt face, preparing the cartridge to be chambered (see diagram below). The extractor is connected under the extractor switch on the side of the receiver until the forward movement of the bolt repositions it, and pressure of the cover extractor spring forces it over the next round.

39

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Cycle of Operations (Continued)


Chambering: (See diagram below.) During this cycle, the bolt moves forward, carrying the cartridge in the T-slot in a direct route to the chamber of the weapon. At the same time, the extractor rides up the extractor cam and when the bolt is fully forward, the extractor grasps the next linked cartridge.

Chambering

Locking: Initially, the energy stored in the driving spring assembly and the compressed buffer disks forces the bolt forward in counter-recoil. At the start of counter-recoil, the barrel buffer body tube lock keeps the accelerator tips from bounding up too soon and catching in the breech lock recess in the bolt. After the bolt travels forward about 5 inches, the lower rear projection of the bolt strikes the tips of the accelerator, turning the accelerator forward. This unlocks the barrel extension from the barrel buffer body group and releases the barrel buffer spring. The barrel buffer spring expands, forcing the piston rod forward. Since the cross groove in the piston rod engages the notch on the barrel extension shank, the action of the barrel buffer spring also forces the barrel extension and barrel forward. Some of the forward motion of the bolt is transmitted to the barrel extension through the accelerator. As the accelerator rotates forward, the front of the accelerator speeds up the barrel extension; at the same time, the accelerator tips slow down the bolt. Locking begins 1 1/8 inches before the recoiling groups (bolt, barrel extension, and barrel) are fully forward. The breech lock in the barrel extension rides up the breech lock cam in the bottom of the receiver into the breech lock recess in the bottom of the bolt, locking the recoiling groups together. The recoiling groups are completely locked together three-fourths of an inch before the groups are fully forward (see diagram on the next page).

40

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Cycle of Operations (Continued)

Locking Firing: (See diagrams below and on next page.) As the trigger is pressed down, it pivots on the trigger pin so that the trigger cam on the inside of the backplate engages and raises the rear end of the trigger lever. This in turn pivots on the trigger lever pin assembly, causing the front end of the trigger lever to press down on the top of the sear stud. The sear is forced down until the hooked notch of the firing pin extension is disengaged from the sear notch. The firing pin spring drives the firing pin and firing pin extension forward; the striker of the firing pin hits the primer of the cartridge, firing the round.

Firing
41
Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Cycle of Operations (Continued)


For automatic firing, the bolt-latch release must be locked or held depressed so that the bolt latch will not engage the notches in top of the bolt, holding the bolt to the rear as in single-shot firing. The trigger is pressed and held down. Each time the bolt travels forward in counter-recoil; the trigger lever depresses the sear, releasing the firing pin extension assembly and the firing pin. This automatically fires the next round when the forward movement of the recoiling groups is nearly completed. The gun should fire about one-sixteenth of an inch before the recoiling groups are fully forward. Only the first round should be fired with the parts fully forward. The gun fires automatically as long as the trigger and bolt latch are held down and ammunition is fed into the gun. Unlocking: (See diagram on the next page.) At the instant of firing, the breech lock, which is on top of the breech lock cam and in the breech lock recess in the bottom of the bolt, locks the bolt to the barrel extension and against the rear end of the barrel. When the cartridge explodes, the bullet travels out of the barrel; the force of recoil drives the recoiling groups rearward. During the first three-fourths of an inch, the recoiling groups are locked together. As this movement takes place, the breech lock is moved off the breech lock cam stop, allowing the breech lock depressors (acting on the breech lock pin) to force the breech lock down, out of its recess from the bottom of the bolt. At the end of the first three-fourths of an inch of recoil, the bolt is unlocked, free to move to the rear independent of the barrel and barrel extension. As the recoiling groups move to the rear, the barrel extension causes the tips of the accelerator to rotate rearward. The accelerator tips strike the lower rear projection of the bolt, accelerating the movement of the bolt to the rear. The barrel and barrel extension continue to travel to the rear an additional threeeighths of an inchapproximately a total distance of 1 1/8 inchesuntil the barrel buffer assembly stops them (see diagram below).

Unlocking

42

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Cycle of Operations (Continued)


During the recoil of 1 1/8 inches, the barrel extension shank compresses the barrel buffer spring, since the notch on the shank is engaged in the cross groove in the piston rod head. The claws of the accelerator, which engage the shoulders of the barrel extension shank, lock the spring in the compressed position. After its initial travel of three-fourths of an inch, the bolt travels an additional 6 3/8 inches to the rear, after it is unlocked from the barrel and barrel extension, for a total of 7 1/8 inches. During this movement, the driving springs are compressed. The rearward movement of the bolt is stopped as the bolt strikes the buffer plate. The driving spring rod assembly stores part of the recoil energy of the bolt, and the buffer disks in the backplate absorbs part of it (see diagram below).

Unlocking

Extracting: The force of the explosion has expanded the empty case, which is held by the T-slot; therefore, it fits snugly in the chamber. If the case is withdrawn from the chamber too rapidly, it may be torn. To prevent this, and to ensure slow initial extraction of the case, the top forward edge of the breech lock and the forward edge of the lock recess in the bolt are beveled. As the breech lock is unlocked, the initial movement of the bolt away from the barrel and barrel extension is gradual. The slope of the locking faces facilitates locking and unlocking and prevents sticking. The leverage of the accelerator tips on the bolt speeds extraction after it is started by kicking the bolt to the rear to extract the empty case from the chamber. Ejecting: As the bolt starts its forward movement (counter-recoil), the extractor lug rides below the extractor switch, forcing the extractor assembly farther down until the round is in the center of the T-slot of the bolt. The round, still gripped by the extractor, ejects the empty case from the T-slot. The ejector pushes the last empty case of an ammunition belt out.

43

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Cycle of Operations (Continued)


Cocking: When the recoiling groups are fully forward, the top of the cocking lever rests on the rear half of the V-slot in the top plate bracket. As the bolt moves to the rear, the top of the cocking lever is forced forward. The lower end pivots to the rear on the cocking lever pin. The rounded nose of the cocking lever, which fits through the slot in the firing pin extension, forces the extension to the rear, compressing the firing pin spring against the sear stop pin (accelerator stop). As the firing pin extension is pressed to the rear, the hooked notch of the extension rides over the sear notch, forcing the sear down. The sear spring forces the sear back up after the hooked notch of the firing pin extension has entered the sear notch. The pressure of the sear and firing pin springs holds the two notches locked together. The firing pin extension slightly over travels in its movement to the rear to ensure proper engagement with the sear. As the bolt starts forward, the overtravel is taken up and completed when the cocking lever enters the V-slot of the top plate bracket and is caromed toward the rear. Pressure on the cocking lever is relieved as the bolt starts forward.

44

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Mounts and Accessories


Tripod Mount, M3: The M3 mount is the standard ground mount of the M2 HB machine gun (see diagram below). The M3 mount is a folding tripod with three, telescopic, tubular legs connected at the tripod head.

Tripod Mount M3 Each leg ends in a metal shoe that can be stamped into the ground for greater stability. The two trail legs are joined together by the traversing bar. The traversing bar serves as a support for the traversing and elevating mechanism, which in turn supports the rear of the gun. The tripod head furnishes a front support for the mounted gun that is further supported by the short front leg. When the tripod is emplaced on flat terrain with all extensions closed, the adjustable front leg should form an angle of about 60 degrees with the ground. This places the gun on a low mount about 12 inches above the ground. To raise the tripod farther off the ground, extend the telescopic front and trail legs enough to keep the tripod level and maintain the stability of the mount. To set the tripod trail legs: 1. Unscrew the leg-clamping handle, press down on the indexing lever, and extend the leg to the desired length. 2. Align the indexing lever stud with one of the holes in the tripod leg extension. 3. Release the pressure on the indexing lever, allowing the stud to fit the desired hole. 4. Tighten the leg-clamping handle.

45

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


To set the front leg of the tripod: 1. Turn the front leg clamp handle counterclockwise to loosen the front leg. 2. Adjust the leg to the desired angle. 3. Tighten the front leg clamp. To secure the tripod legs: 1. Stamp the metal shoe on each tripod leg into the ground 2. Sandbag each leg to stabilize the M2 for firing. Traversing and Elevating (T&E) Mechanism: The T&E mechanism (see diagram below) is used to engage preselected target areas at night or during limited visibility conditions. Record direction and elevation readings from the traversing bar and T&E mechanism. Record all readings in mils.

Traversing and Elevating (T&E) Mechanism The traversing mechanism consists of a Traversing bar Slide Screw assembly

46

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


The traversing bar, graduated in 5-mil increments, fits between the trail legs of the tripod. The traversing slide lock lever clamps the traversing slide and screw assembly in place on the traversing bar. When the traversing slide is locked to the traversing bar, the traversing handwheel should be centered. The traversing slide is properly mounted when the Lock lever is to the rear Traversing handwheel is positioned to the left

To make changes in direction, loosen the traversing slide lock lever and move the slide along the traversing bar; this permits traverse of 400 mils left or right of the zero index in the center of the traversing bar. Readings on the traversing bar are taken from the left side of the traversing slide. For changes of 50 mils or less in deflection, turn the traversing handwheel of the screw assembly; this allows a traverse of 50 mils left or right of center. One click in the traversing handwheel signifies 1 mil change in direction. The elevating mechanism consists of an upper and lower elevating screw. The elevating mechanism is connected to the gun by inserting the quick release pin assembly through the holes in the upper elevating screw yoke and the rear mounting lugs of the receiver. A scale, graduated in mils, is fitted to the upper screw to indicate elevation. This scale is marked to show 250 mils in depression and 100 mils in elevation from the zero setting. The elevating handwheel is graduated in l-mil increments up to 50 mils and is fastened to the elevating screw by a screw lock. This synchronizes the handwheel graduations with those on the upper elevating screw. A springactuated index device produces a clicking sound when the handwheel is turned. Each click equals 1 mil change in elevation. The handwheel is turned Clockwise to depress the barrel Counterclockwise to elevate the barrel

47

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


Pintle: A pintle (see diagram on the next page) connects the gun to the tripod mount, M3. A pintle bolt through the front mounting hole in the receiver semipermanently attaches the pintle to the machine gun. The tapered stem of the pintle seats in the tripod head; a pintle lock and spring holds it securely. To release the pintle, raise the pintle lock, thus releasing the cam.

Pintle The weight of the pintle and traversing and elevating mechanism are considered as part of the total weight of the tripod mount, M3 (44 pounds). Truck Mount, M36: The truck mount, M36 (see diagram below) consists of a cradle with a roller carriage on a circular track. The cradle can be Rotated in the pintle sleeve of the carriage Adjusted for elevation

Truck Mount, M36 The carriage is guided on the track by rollers. The track is secured to the vehicle by supports.

48

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


To move the gun in elevation on the M36 mount: Remove the cradle locking pin and place it in the carriage handle Grasp the spade grips and elevate or depress as desired

The gun is also moved in traverse by pressure on the spade grips. To move the gun on the track, raise the brake handle lever until the brake detent plungers retain it. Then you may move the cradle on the track by applying pressure on the carriage handle. MK64 Gun Cradle Mount: The MK64 gun cradle mount (see diagram below) is a vehicle mount primarily designed for the M2. However, because of its versatility, the MK64 will accept the MK19 also (using the M2 mounting adapter assembly). The MK64 is used when mounting the gun on a HMMWV.

MK64 Gun Cradle Mount

49

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Review Questions


Short Answer: Write your answer in the space provided. 1. What must you do before you disassemble the M2? _________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the sustained rate of fire for the M2? _________________________________________________________________ 3. What is condition 1 for the M2? ________________________________________________________________ 4. In what position should the bolt be to unscrew the barrel? _________________________________________________________________ 5. What is condition 3 for the M2? _________________________________________________________________ 6. When checking headspace and timing, what must be done first? _________________________________________________________________ 7. When checking timing, which gauge is used first? ________________________________________________________________ 8. Must the M2 be cocked to check timing? _________________________________________________________________ 9. If you have a failure to fire, how can you prevent a cook off from occurring? _________________________________________________________________

50

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Review Questions (Continued)


10. If a stoppage occurs and the barrel is hot and a round cannot be extracted within 10 seconds, how long must the round remain locked in the chamber? _________________________________________________________________ 11. How many mils of traverse are there on the traversing bar? _________________________________________________________________ 12. Which tripod is used with the M2? _________________________________________________________________ 13. What is the maximum effective range of the M2? ________________________________________________________________

Matching: For questions 14 through 21, use the illustration below to identify parts of the M2 .50 caliber machine gun.

51

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Review Questions (Continued)


14. Which part is the barrel group? __________________________________________________________________ 15. Which part is the bolt stud? __________________________________________________________________ 16. Which part is the backplate group? __________________________________________________________________ 17. Which part is the receiver group?
________________________________________________________________________________________

18. Which part is the bolt group? __________________________________________________________________ 19. Which part is the barrel buffer body? __________________________________________________________________ 20. Which part is the barrel extension? __________________________________________________________________ 21. Which part is the cover group? __________________________________________________________________

True or False:
22. It is okay to allow the bolt to slam forward when the barrel is out of the gun. True / False 23. The M2 must be cocked in order to check headspace. True / False

24. If the no-go end of the headspace gauge enters the T-slot, headspace is too tight. True / False 25. The cover should never be closed with the bolt to the rear. True / False

52

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Review Answers


1. What must you do before you disassemble the M2? Clear the weapon. 2. What is the sustained rate of fire for the M2? Less than 40 rpm. 3. What is condition 1 for the M2? Rounds inserted all the way to the cartridge stop, bolt forward, round in the chamber, weapon on automatic. 4. In what position should the bolt be to unscrew the barrel? Retracted until the barrel-locking-spring lug is centered in the 3/8-inch hole on the right side of the receiver. 5. What is condition 3 for the M2? Rounds inserted to the cartridge stop, bolt forward on an empty chamber. 6. When checking headspace and timing, what must be done first? Headspace 7. When checking timing, which gauge is used first? No fire 8. Must the M2 be cocked to check timing? Yes 9. If you have a failure to fire, how can you prevent a cook off from occurring? By applying immediate action within 10 seconds. 10. If a stoppage occurs and the barrel is hot and a round cannot be extracted within 10 seconds, how long must the round remain locked in the chamber? Five minutes 11. How many mils of traverse are there on the traversing bar? 800 12. Which tripod is used with the M2? M3 13. What is the maximum effective range of the M2? 1830 meters

53

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun Review Answers (Continued)


Matching: For questions 14 through 21, use the illustration below to identify parts of the M2 .50 caliber machine gun.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Which part is the barrel group? Which part is the bolt stud? Which part is the backplate group? Which part is the receiver group? Which part is the bolt group? Which part is the barrel buffer body? Which part is the barrel extension? Which part is the cover group?

1 7 3 6 5 9 8 4

True or False:
22. It is okay to allow the bolt to slam forward when the barrel is out of the gun? False 23. The M2 must be cocked in order to check headspace. True 24. If the no-go end of the headspace gauge enters the T-slot, headspace is too tight. False 25. The cover should never be closed with the bolt to the rear. True

54

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher


Development of the MK19 began in 1963. The first version was a hand-cranked multiple grenade launcher called the MK-18. In 1966, the need for more firepower inspired the development of a self-powered 40-mm machine gun called the MK19 MOD 0. This model was neither reliable enough nor safe enough for use as a military gun. Product improvements begun in 1971 resulted in the 1972 MOD 1, of which only six were produced. The MOD 1 performed effectively in Navy riverine patrol craft, and broader applications for the MK19 were found. In 1973, the Navy developed the MOD 2, which featured improved reliability, safety, and maintainability. In 1976, a complete redesign resulted in the MK19 MOD 3 (see diagram below).

MK19 MOD 3

55

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Characteristics


Description: The MK19 is a belt-fed, air-cooled, blowback-operated, crew-served, fully automatic 40 mm grenade launcher. Six of these machineguns are in each heavy machine gun platoon of the Weapons Company. They are divided into two gun sections. Specifications: The table below lists the specifications for the MK19. Gun Cradle (MK64 MOD 5) Tripod Total System Weight Length Rifling Muzzle Velocity 75.6 pounds 21 pounds 44 pounds 140.6 pounds 43.1 inches Right-hand, uniform twist One turn in 48 inches 790 feet per second

The table below lists the rates of fire for the MK19. Sustained Rapid Cyclic 40 rounds per minute (3- to 5-round burst) 60 rounds per minute 325 to 375 rounds per minute

The table below lists the maximum ranges and minimum safe distances for the MK19. Maximum Maximum effective Minimum safe distance (training) Minimum safe distance (combat) 2212 meters 1500 meters 310 meters 75 meters

56

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Ammunition


The table below describes the ammunition (see diagram below) for the MK19. Ammunition Highexplosive, dual-purpose (HEDP) M430/M430A1 Description Joined with M16A2 links Is standard round for MK19 Is impact-type round Penetrates 2 inches of steel armor at 0 degree obliquity Has a PIBD, M549 fuze and Comp B filler Arms between 18 to 40 meters Inflicts personnel casualties in the target area Has a casualty radius of 15 meters M430 rounds are linked in a 48-round M548 ammunition container M430A1 rounds are linked in a 32-round container DODIC B542 Is olive drab with a yellow ogive and yellow markings Two types whose fillers and body materials differ, but performance traits are same HE M383 or M383E1: linked with M16A2 links, DODIC B571 HE M384: Linked with M16A2 links, DODIC B470 Inflicts personnel casualties in the target area with ground burst effects Doesnt have armor penetrating ability of the HEDP M430 round Round is packed in an M548 ammunition container (48 rounds linked in each container)

High-explosive (HE)

Training practice

M385A1 Joined with M16A1 or M16A2 links Consists of a one-piece solid inert aluminum projectile body Packed the same as HEDP rounds, 48 rounds to a box DODIC B576 Is blue with black markings M918 Joined with M16A1 or M16A2 links Is a fixed round of ammunition consisting of a one-piece steel projectile body which is fitted to a cartridge case assembly Aluminum ogive contains a firing pin plate assembly and an aluminum insert that contains the flash charge Contains one gram of flash charge composition Is packed the same as the HEDP rounds, 48 rounds to a box DODIC B584 Is blue with black markings, brown band, and blue ogive
57
Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Ammunition (Continued)

M922 Dummy

Joined with M16A2 links Used to check weapon function and for crew training Each MK19 is allowed one 10-round belt, which is packed in an M2A1 metal box DODIC B472 Is gold with black markings

MK19 Ammunition

58

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Nomenclature


The major components of the MK19 are shown in the diagram below:

59

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Nomenclature (Continued)


Sights: The MK19 has a blade-type front sight attached to the top cover assembly.

MK-19 Front Sight

The MK19 has a leaf-type rear sight (with an adjustable range plate) (see diagram below) mounted on a spring dovetail base, which should be folded forward to a horizontal position when the weapon is moved, and which has, on the sight leaf, a range plate incremented in 100-meter intervals from 300 to 1500 meters. Range changes may be made using either the slide release or the elevation wheel: The slide release is used to make major changes in elevation The elevation wheel is used to make fine adjustments The rear sight is adjustable for windage; turning the windage screw Clockwise moves the sight to the right Counterclockwise moves the sight to the left One click equals a 1-mil change.

MK-19 Rear Sight

60

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Operation


Weapon Conditions: The table below describes the four weapon conditions for the MK19. Condition 1 2 Description Bolt to the rear A round on the face of the bolt Weapon on SAFE Bolt forward on an empty chamber Round is up against the round positioning block and grasped by the bolt extractors Weapon is on SAFE Bolt Forward on an empty chamber Rounds inserted and held in place by the secondary positioning pawls Weapon is on SAFE Bolt forward on an empty chamber No source of ammunition Weapon is on SAFE

Unloading/Clearing: The table below lists the steps for unloading/clearing the MK19. Step 1 Action Lower and pull both charger handles to the rear maintaining positive control (see diagram below). Put the weapon on safe. Inspect the face of the bolt through the receiver rail. If a round is present on the face of the bolt, insert a section of the cleaning rod through either side of the receiver rail, place it on top of the live round or cartridge case as close to the bolt face as possible, and push down to force the round out of the MK19. The team leader should place his hands under the cradle to catch the round.

61

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Operation (Continued)

Step 2

Action Open the top cover assembly (see diagram below).

Take the ammunition from the feed tray by reaching beneath the feed tray and pressing the primary and secondary positioning pawls (see diagram below). At the same time, slide the linked rounds out of the MK19 through the feed throat. Ensure that the bolt face, chamber, and feed tray are clear of ammunition. Insert a cleaning rod through the barrel to verify that it is free of any blockages.

4 5 6 7

Close the top cover assembly. Place the safety switch on FIRE (F) (see diagram in step 1). While maintaining rearward pressure on the charging handle, press the trigger and ease the bolt forward. Place the safety switch on SAFE.

62

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Operation (Continued)


Weapon Commands. o Load: The table below lists the steps to execute LOAD taking the MK19 from condition 4 to condition 3. Step Action 1 Point the weapon in a safe direction. 2 Ensure the weapon is in condition 4. 3 Be sure the cover is raised, the bolt is forward, and the weapon is on SAFE. 4 Insert the first round into the feeder, female link first (see diagram below).

5 6

Push the round across the first feed pawl. Move the feed slide assembly to the left by pushing the secondary drive lever to the right (see diagram below).

NOTE: To close the cover, the bolt must be forward and the feed slide assembly must be to the left. Close the cover.

63

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Operation (Continued)


o Make Ready: The table below lists the steps to execute MAKE READY taking the MK19 from condition 3 to condition 1. Step Action 1 Point the weapon in a safe direction. 2 Grasp the charger handles with the palms down (see diagram below). Press in on the charger handle locks. Rotate the handles down and pull them sharply to the rear. After locking the bolt to the rear, return the charger handles forward to their original upright position.

3 4 5 6

CAUTION: Failure to completely pull the bolt to the rear may result in the misalignment of the M16A2 links on the round, causing the round to feed improperly. Place the safety on FIRE and press the trigger. The bolt slams forward and grasps the first round in the bolt extractors. Grasp, unlock, and turn downward on the charger handles and lock the bolt to the rear again. Ensure the safety switch is on SAFE. Return the charger handles to their original upright position. NOTE: Charger handles must be in this position in order for the MK19 to fire. The MK19 is ready to fire.

64

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Operation (Continued)


o Unload/Clear Weapon: The table below lists the steps to execute taking the MK19 from condition 3 to condition 4. Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Action Point the weapon in a safe direction. Ensure the weapon is on SAFE. Raise the cover. Press the primary and secondary pawls; slide the linked rounds out of the feed tray. Rotate the handles down and pull the bolt to the rear. Keep both charger handles to the rear. Visually inspect the chamber and the face of the bolt. Ride the bolt forward and return the weapon to the SAFE position. Close the cover.

o Unload/Clear Gun: The table below lists the steps to take the MK19 from condition 1 to condition 4: Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Action Point weapon in a safe direction. Do not raise the cover. Ensure the weapon is on SAFE. Rotate the charger handles down and pull the bolt to the rear. Return one charging assembly forward. Insert a length of cleaning rod through the right hand receiver rail. Push down on the round, forcing it off the face of the bolt and out the bottom of the receiver. Catch the round as it falls. Open the cover. Press the primary and secondary pawls; slide the linked rounds out of the feed tray. Visually inspect the chamber and the face of the bolt. Ride the bolt forward and return the weapon to the SAFE position. Close the cover.

Malfunctions and Stoppages: A malfunction is a failure of the weapon to function properly. Neither defective ammunition nor improper operation of the gun by a crewmember is considered a malfunction of the MK19. The two most common MK19 malfunctions are o Sluggish Action: Excessive friction from dirt, carbon buildup, lack of lubrication, or burred parts usually cause sluggish action. Inspect the MK19 for worn and damaged parts and replace them as necessary. To remedy continued sluggish operation, clean, lubricate, tighten, or replace parts as required.

65

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Operation (Continued)


o Runaway Gun: A runaway weapon continues to fire after the trigger has been released. Worn parts or short recoil of the bolt assembly may cause runaway gun. Consider the amount of ammunition left and the type of MK19 mount used when finding the best way to stop the weapon.

If ammunition is not a factor and the MK19 is being employed in the free gun mode, keep rounds on target until the all the rounds on the belt have been fired. If the MK19 is mounted on either the M3 tripod or on a vehicle with the T&E (traversing and elevating) mechanism attached, hold the grip with one hand. At the same time, press the charger handle locks and lower one charger handle. This action interrupts the cycle of function causing the MK19 to cease firing. CAUTION: Do not try to break the ammunition belt. o Immediate Action: The table below lists the steps to perform immediate action. Step Action 1 Shout Misfire! 2 Wait 10 seconds. 3 Place the weapon on SAFE. Pull bolt to the rear maintaining positive control of the charger handles (the team leader catches the round as it is ejected). If the round (with ogive) ejects, push the charger handles forward and up to their locked position and continue to fire. If no round ejects (or round but no ogive), go to step 4. 4 Unload and clear the weapon, begin remedial action, and inspect for bore obstruction. o Remedial Action: When immediate action fails to reduce a stoppage, its cause must be investigated, usually by disassembling the weapon and inspecting the appropriate parts. Parts may have to be replaced before the gun can be returned to action. Another problem may be detected and corrected without the need for disassembly: Bore obstruction. Bore obstruction means that part of the previous round may be lodged in the barrel and could possibly prevent the next ogive from passing safely through it. The gunner/crew should be alert for: A muffled report from the gun when it fires Smoke and debris from the bottom of the receiver Failure of the ogive to leave the muzzle

66

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Automatic Grenade Launcher Operation (Continued)


The table below lists the safety procedures for clearing a projectile lodged in the bore. Step 1 2 3 4 Action Cease fire immediately. Place the weapon on SAFE. Clear the area around the gun of personnel and ammunition. Clear the weapon. If spent cartridge is extracted, take subsequent action for a suspected obstruction of the bore: Pull the bolt to the rear maintaining positive control of the charging handles. Clear the bore using a round removal tool. The round removal tool is to be used only with the M430 HEDP, M385 TP, and M918 TP ammunition; do not use it with the M383 HE or M384 HE ammunition. Place the round removal tool collar over the end of the flash suppressor and screw the five cap screws into slots in the flash suppressor. Attach the handle to the end of the threaded rod. Position the cup of the threaded rod over the ogive. Screw the threaded rod into the barrel and push out the projectile into the hands of the team leader. Carefully carry projectile to designated area and notify EOD. Notify an armorer.

67

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Disassembly and Assembly


Disassembly: Disassembly of the MK19 includes removal of parts to the extent explained in this text. Only qualified ordnance personnel are authorized to conduct further disassembly. To ensure that parts are not lost and are replaced properly, place them in the order in which they are taken off on a clean flat surface. Before you begin disassembly of the MK19, clear the weapon.
o

Removing the Secondary Drive Lever: The table below lists the steps to remove the secondary driver lever: Step Action Raise the top cover assembly and push the secondary drive lever pivot 1 post from the outside of the top cover assembly (see diagram below).

2 3

Separate the secondary drive lever from the top cover assembly. Take the secondary drive lever from the slide assembly and allow the feed slide and tray assembly to close.

o Removing the Top Cover Assembly: The table below lists the steps to remove the top cover assembly. Step Action Hold the top cover straight up with one hand and pull the top cover pins 1 from both sides (see diagram below).

Lift the top cover assembly straight up and off.

68

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Disassembly and Assembly (Continued)


o Removing the Feed Slide Assembly and Feed Tray: The table on the next page lists the steps to remove the feed slide assembly and feed tray. Step Action Align the tabs on the feed slide assembly with the slots in the feed tray 1 and lift them straight up (see diagram below).

Take out the feed tray (see diagram below) by lifting it straight up.

69

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Disassembly and Assembly (Continued)


o Remove the Bolt and Backplate Assembly: The table below lists the steps to remove the bolt and backplate assembly. Step Action 1 Place the safety switch in the FIRE position. CAUTION: Before removing the back-plate pin, be sure the bolt is in the forward position. 2 Take out the backplate pin (see diagram below) using the rim of a spent cartridge case or metal link. Pry outward on the pin lip and remove the pin with your fingers.

Grasp the control grips with both hands and lift up slightly to disengage the backplate from the locking lugs in the receiver. Pull the bolt and backplate assembly to the rear (see diagram below). Once the bolt clears the sear, catch the bolt in one hand to prevent damage to the backplate assembly.

70

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Disassembly and Assembly (Continued)


o Remove the Primary Drive Lever and Vertical Cam: The table below lists the steps to remove the primary drive lever and vertical cam. Step Action 1 Reach under the top of the receiver and locate the drive lever lock. Slide the lock a quarter inch to the rear. 2 Press down on the primary drive lever pivot post, which releases both the primary drive and vertical cam. 3 Pull the primary driver lever from the front of the weapon and the vertical cam from the back (see diagram below).

o Remove the Sear Assembly: The table below lists the steps to remove the sear assembly. Step Action 1 Turn the MK19 on it side or upside down. 2 Use the rim of a spent cartridge case to lift up on the sear lock plunger (see diagram below). At the same time, squeeze the sear and rotate the assembly 90 degrees to the right or left.

3 4

Take off the sear assembly by pulling it away from the weapon. Keep pressure on the sear until the assembly comes off. Place the safety switch in the SAFE position.

71

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Disassembly and Assembly (Continued)


o Remove the Alignment Guide: The table below lists the steps to remove the alignment guide. Step Action Depress the tip of the alignment guide spring with your finger. 1

Slide the alignment guide out of the receiver, pulling the assembly slightly rearward.

o Remove the Ogive Plunger and Round Positioning Lock: The table below lists the steps to remove the ogive plunger and the round positioning lock. Step Action Remove the ogive plunger by pulling the ogive plunger assembly out 1 through the inside wall of the receiver.

Remove the round positioning block by pushing it into the side of the gun, sliding it forward, and releasing it from the key slots in the receiver wall.

72

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Disassembly and Assembly (Continued)


o Remove the Charger Assemblies: The table below lists the steps to remove the charger assemblies from both sides. Step Action 1 Place the charger assemblies in the upright position. 2 Using a metal link or spent cartridge case, retract the lock plunger (see diagram below) at the base of the charging arm.

Slide the charger housing rearward to disengage the lugs from the key slots in the receiver (see diagram below).

Lift the charger assembly away from the receiver.

NOTE: Qualified ordnance personnel must do further disassembly.

73

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Disassembly and Assembly (Continued)


Assembly: To assemble the MK19, replace the groups in the reverse order from which they were removed. The table below lists the steps to assemble the MK19. Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 Action Replace the charger assemblies. Replace the round-positioning block. Replace the ogive plunger. Replace the alignment guide. Replace the primary drive lever and vertical cam. Attach the sear assembly, depress the sear spring, and turn the assembly 90 degrees toward the barrels center line until the assembly locks into position. Insert the bolt and backplate assembly: Be sure the cocking lever is forward. Insert the bolt and backplate assembly into the receiver (see diagram below).

8 9 10 11 12 13

Be sure the safety switch is in the FIRE position so the sear can be easily depressed. Press the receiver sear and slide the bolt assembly forward until the retainer pin holes in the backplate and receiver are aligned. Insert the backplate retainer pin to lock the assembly in position. Place the feed tray assembly on the receiver. Place the feed slide assembly into the cutout slots on the feed tray. Attach the top cover assembly: Align the pinholes in the top cover assembly with the pinholes in the feed tray. Hold the cover straight up and insert the pins into both sides of the cover. CAUTION: Insert the top cover pins using only your hand. Forcing the pin will break the welded crosspin.

74

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Disassembly and Assembly (Continued)


Step 14 Action Replace the secondary drive lever: Lift the feed slide assembly and feed tray. Place the forked end of the secondary drive lever on the inner feed slide pin (see diagram below). Press the raised pivot post through the hole in the top cover assembly. Press the secondary drive lever firmly against the top cover assembly.

CAUTION: If secondary drive lever is not properly engaged with inner feed slide pin, the weapon will not fire properly and may damage the weapon. Function Check: After disassembly and assembly and before operating the MK19, conduct a function check. The table below lists the steps to conduct a function check. Step Action 1 Open the feed tray cover and inspect the feed tray assembly and chamber to ensure the gun is clear. 2 With the cover closed and the bolt to the rear and one charging assembly down and to the rear, place the safety on SAFE (S). 3 Pull the trigger; the bolt should not go forward. 4 Place the safety on FIRE (F). 5 Pull the trigger and ride the bolt forward. 6 Open the feed tray cover. 7 Inspect the firing pin and bolt face for sings of worn or damaged parts. 8 Move secondary drive lever back and forth to ensure that it moves freely. 9 Press the feed pawls to check for spring pressure. 10 Ensure that the secondary drive lever is to the right and engaged under the feed tray. 11 Slide the feed slide to the left; before closing the cove, ensure that the bolt is forward.

75

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Cleaning and Inspection


The table below lists the cleaning materials and lubricants authorized for the MK19. Cleaning Materials Cleaning, lubricant, protectant (CLP) Rifle bore cleaner (RBC) Dry cleaning solvent: Not authorized for the Bolt Backplate assembly Ogive plunger Sear assembly Lubricants Cleaner, Lubricant and Protectant (CLP) Lubricant, arctic weather (LAW) Lubricant, weapon semi-fluid (LSA)

Lubricant Semi-Fluid Teflon (LSA-T) To inspect the MK19, mount it on the M122 tripod and place it on a poncho with the spare barrel case. NOTE: The inspecting officer, or the unit leader, may specify the exact position of the gun and contents of the spare barrel case. Always check for cleanliness. Look for broken, missing, or burred parts. Test the spring tension of appropriate parts Perform appropriate checks to determine if the gun functions properly.

76

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Cycle of Operations


The MK19 cycle of operation includes six steps: Feeding Chambering Firing Extracting Ejecting Cocking

More than one step may be done at the same time. Feeding: (See diagram below.) The gases from the burning powder force the bolt, with a new round in its extractors, to the rear. During this blowback, several things happen at once: o The curved rail of the vertical cam de-links and forces down the new round on top of the spent case, forcing the spent case out of the bolt fingers and ejecting it out the bottom of the gun o The feed slide assembly pulls the rounds to the right in the receiver ammunition-feed area, where a new round is ready to pick up (automatic feed). o During the bolt's travel to the rear, the cocking lever is pushed forward, which cocks the firing pin. o When the bolt reaches the limit of its rearward travel, the recoil springs (24) are completely compressed. The bolt buffers (25) absorb over-travel, reducing trunnion load (recoil force) at the gun-mount attaching points. The bolt sear will not engage the receiver sear if the trigger is still depressed, and another firing cycle occurs. Release of the trigger causes the bolt sear to engage the receiver sear, which prevents the bolt from going forward, and firing stops.

Feeding

77

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Cycle of Operations (Continued)


Chambering Once the trigger is depressed, the sear is depressed, permitting the recoil springs to drive the bolt forward on the rails. As the bolt nears the forward end of the rail, the nose of the round enters the rear of the chamber. The round is fully chambered when the leading edge of the casing comes into contact with the rear of the chamber and the bolt is in the forward-most position. Firing: Pressing the trigger depresses the tip of the receiver sear (21). The receiver sear disengages the bolt sear (22), which releases the bolt forward under spring pressure with a round in the blot fingers. The cocking lever hits the forward end of the left receiver rail slot, forcing the lever to the rear. The bolt sear hits a plate in the bottom of the receiver, which pushes the firing pin sear up to release the firing pin. A combination of the bolt's inertia and pressure from the firing pin spring drive the firing pin forward. The tip of the firing pin detonates the primer. The round is not completely inside the chamber at the moment the weapon is fired. The cartridge case, held by the bolt fingers, protrudes from the chamber (23). The explosion forces the projectile down the bore.

Firing

78

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Cycle of Operations (Continued)


Extracting (Delinking): (See diagram below.) When a round is stripped from the belt, it is extracted or "delinked". This happens, after the MK19 has been charged once, when the trigger (10) is pressed. The bolt slams forward and the bolt's extractors (11) snap over the rim of the cartridge case. When the MK19 is charged again, the extractor pulls the leading round to the rear and separates the male and female links. The curved edge of the vertical cam (12) forces the lead round out of the extractors and into the bolt fingers (13). With the bolt completely to the rear, the round lines up with the chamber (14) and is ready to fire. As the original leading round chambers, the next round aligns with the bolt extractors.

Extracting

Ejecting: The vertical cam forces a new round into position on the face of the bolt and ejects the spent casing out through the ejection port. Cocking: The rearward movement of the bolt (see diagram below) causes the cocking lever (15) to retract the firing pin (16). When the cocking lever hits the rear end of the left receiver rail slot (17), the cocking lever is forced forward. The cocking lever retracts the firing pin, which the firing pin sear holds to the rear (18).

Cocking

79

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Mounts and Accessories


The MK19 is used in either the ground- or vehicle-mount mode. The most often-used ground mount is the M3 tripod. The MK19 may be mounted on any vehicle equipped for the M2 .50 caliber machine gun. The MK64 MOD 7 gun cradle, issued with the MK19, gives the MK19 its mounting flexibility. MK64, MOD 7, Gun Cradle: Use the MK-67 MOD 7 gun cradle to mount the MK19 to the tripod or ring mount. Attach the ammunition container bracket to the side plate of the cradle. In the center of the cradle is a pintle bushing and lock in which the M2 may be mounted. The front of the MK19 is mounted on the two forward lugs of the gun cradle. The retainer pin secures the rear. Insert the cradle stow pin to hold the cradle in a horizontal position during travel (see diagram below).

MK64 MOD 7 Gun Cradle

80

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


Ground Mount: Mount the MK19 as close to the ground as possible and lock the tripods trail legs open. Set the adjustable front tripod leg to an angle of about 60 degrees to the ground.

Ground Mount In flat terrain with the extensions closed, for example, follow the steps in the table below to place the MK19 about 12 inches above the ground. Step Action 1 Set the tripod trail legs: Unscrew the leg-clamping handle; press down on the indexing lever, and extend the leg to the desired length. Align the indexing lever stud with one of the holes in the tripod leg extension. Release pressure on the indexing lever allowing the stud to fit the desired hole. Tighten the leg-clamping handle. 2 Set the front leg of the tripod: Turn the front leg clamp handle counterclockwise to loosen the front leg. Adjust the leg to the desired angle and tighten the front leg clamp. Sandbag each leg to stabilize the MK19 for firing.

81

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


Step 4 Action Mount the MK64 MOD 7 gun cradle onto the M3 tripod: Unlock the tripod pintle lock release cam. Insert the gun cradle's pintle into the tripod pintle bushing. Lock the pintle lock release cam to secure the gun cradle. Check the gun cradle, by pulling up on it slightly, to ensure that it is seated and locked.

Attach the T&E mechanism (see diagram below):

82

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Mounts and Accessories (Continued)

Step 5 (cont.)

Action Center the elevating handwheel between the upper and lower elevating screws. Center the traversing handwheel on the upper elevating screw yoke. Remove the stow pin from the gun cradle (see diagram below).

Align the holes in the upper elevating screw yoke of the T&E mechanism with the rear holes in the gun cradle (see diagram below).

NOTE: The stow pin locks the cradle in a horizontal position, preventing it from depressing or elevating.

83

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Mounts and Accessories (Continued)

Step 5 (cont.)

Action Lock the elevating sleeve mechanism onto the center of the traversing bar. Insert the quick-release pin from the right (see diagram below).

Mount the MK19: o Lift the MK19 into the gun cradle. Align the grooves on the receiver with the lugs in the gun cradle, and slide the receiver forward (see diagram below).

84

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Mounts and Accessories (Continued)

Step 6 (cont.)

Action Align the sear mounting holes with the gun cradle mounting holes (see diagram below)

Secure the rear of the weapon by inserting the retaining pin through the cradle and sear assembly and rotate it until it locks in place (see diagram below). If a safety clip is attached, use it to secure the retaining pin.

85

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


Step Action 7 Attach the feed throat to the MK19 by squeezing together each set of grip pins (see diagram below) and attaching the feed throat to the front lefthand side of the receiver assembly.

The pins of the feed throat must line up with the pinholes in the receiver (see diagram below).

Relax pressure on the spring-loaded grip pins so they will snap into place (see diagram below).

86

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


Vehicle Mounts: The table below describes the vehicle mounts for the MK19. Type of Mount Pintle adapter Description Is needed to mount the MK19 to vehicles Upper end accepts the gun cradle pintle, which is secured by a quick-release pin Lower end fits the Mounting wells of the HMMWV weapon platform M36A2 ring- mount with the M66 ring

Train and elevating assembly

Secures the MK64 MOD 7 gun cradle to the HMMWV weapon platform pedestal Allows mechanical fire control adjustments A train lock clamp attaches the lower end of the train and elevating assembly to the pedestal; clamp may be released or locked in position by a train lock handle. When used on the HMMWV weapon platform pedestal, only one clamp is needed above the train lock clamp. Upper end of the train and elevating assembly is a standard caliber .50 T&E mechanism

87

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Mounts and Accessories (Continued)


Bracket mounting assembly Supplies a mount for the M548 metal ammunition container Has a metal frame that attaches to the gun cradle and a retaining pin that inserts through the top-inner end of the M548 ammunition container

HMMWV Weapon Platform

M66 ring mount

To mount the MK19 on the HMMWV weapon platform, Loosen the locking bolts on the side of the HMMWV pedestal with a 9/16-inch wrench. Insert the pintle adapter into the pedestal and tighten the bolts with the wrench. Pull up on the pintle adapter to ensure it is installed securely. Attach the train and elevating assembly to the HMMWV pedestal. Mount the MK19 and attach the bracket mounting assembly. Attach the empty case catch bag. For 2 1/2- to 5-ton cargo trucks To mount the MK19 on the M66 ring mount, Insert the pintle adapter into the M36A2 ring mount with M66 ring receptacle. Install the gun cradle and mount the MK19. Attach the bracket mounting assembly and the empty case catch bag.

88

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Review Questions


Short Answer: Write your answer in the space provided. 1. What must you do first before you disassemble the MK19? ________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the sustained rate of fire for the MK19? ________________________________________________________________ 3. Where is the weapon safety located? ________________________________________________________________ 4. What is condition 1 for the MK19? ________________________________________________________________ 5. When closing the top cover, in what position must the feed slide assembly be; and in what position must the bolt be to ensure proper alignment of the primary and secondary drive levers? ________________________________________________________________ 6. How much armor plating, in inches, is the weapon capable of penetrating, when firing ammunition at zero degree obliquity? ________________________________________________________________ 7. Within how many meters must the 40-mm HE round impact to cause casualties to exposed enemy personnel? ________________________________________________________________ 8. To stop a runaway weapon, what step(s) must be taken? ________________________________________________________________ 9. What is condition 3 for the MK19? ________________________________________________________________

89

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Review Questions (Continued)


10. If a stoppage occurs, how long must you wait before pulling the bolt to the rear? ________________________________________________________________ 11. How many rounds per burst should the gunner fire when engaging targets at the sustained rate? ________________________________________________________________ 12. What is the maximum effective range of the MK19? ________________________________________________________________ 13. Which tripod is used with the MK19? ________________________________________________________________

Matching: For questions 14 through 18, use the illustration below.

90

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Review Questions (Continued)


14. Which component is the ogive plunger assembly? ________________________________________________________________ 15. Which component is the feed slide assembly? ________________________________________________________________ 16. Which component is the secondary drive lever assembly? ________________________________________________________________ 17. Which component is the round positioning block? ________________________________________________________________ 18. Which component is the sear assembly? ________________________________________________________________

True or False
19. When loading the weapon, place the female link end of the ammunition belt through the feed throat and draw the ammunition into the weapon feed area. True / False 20. The MK64, MOD 7 gun cradle is used with the tripod and ring mounts. True / False

91

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Review Question Answers


1. What must you do first before you disassemble the MK19? Clear the weapon. 2. What is the sustained rate of fire for the MK19? 40 rpm (3-5 round bursts) 3. Where is the weapon safety located? On the sear assembly at the bottom rear of the receiver assembly 4. What is condition 1 for the MK19? Rounds inserted all the way to the round positioning block Bolt to the rear Round on the face of the bolt Weapon on safe 5. When closing the top cover, in what position must the feed slide assembly be; and in what position must the bolt be to ensure proper alignment of the primary and secondary drive levers? Left; forward

6. How much armor plating, in inches, is the weapon capable of penetrating, when firing ammunition at zero degree obliquity? 2 7. Within how many meters must the 40-mm HE round impact to cause casualties to exposed enemy personnel? 15 8. To stop a runaway weapon, what step(s) must be taken? Unlock and lower one charging handle while keeping control of the weapon 9. What is condition 3 for the MK19? Rounds inserted past the primary feed pawl, bolt forward, no rounds on its face, weapon on safe. 10. If a stoppage occurs, how long must you wait before pulling the bolt to the rear? 10 seconds 11. How many rounds per burst should the gunner fire when engaging targets at the sustained rate? 3 to 5 12. What is the maximum effective range of the MK19? 13. Which tripod is used with the MK19? M3 1500 meters

92

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Mk 19 MOD 3 Review Question Answers (Continued)


Matching: For questions 14 through 18, use the illustration below:

14. Which component is the ogive plunger assembly? 15 15. Which component is the feed slide assembly? 20 16. Which component is the secondary drive lever assembly? 2 17. Which component is the round positioning block? 16 18. Which component is the sear assembly? 11

True or False. 19. When loading the weapon, place the female link end of the ammunition belt through the feed throat and draw the ammunition into the weapon feed area. True 20. The MK64, MOD 7 gun cradle is used with the tripod and ring mounts. True

93

Basic Officer Course

B3M4238

Heavy Machine Guns

Summary
During this lesson we discussed the characteristics, nomenclature, ammunition types, operation and capabilities of both the MK19 MOD 3 40 MM Automatic Grenade Launcher and the M2 .50 caliber heavy machine gun, the two weapons systems that make up the heavy machine gun platoon of the Marine Corps.

References
Reference Number or Author MCWP 3-15.1 FM 23-27 MCRP 3-0B Reference Title Machine Guns and Machine Gun Gunnery MK19 40-MM Grenade Machine Gun MOD 3 How to Conduct Training

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym CLP HE Headspace High-explosive Distance between face of the bolt and the base of the cartridge case when fully seated in the chamber on the M2 .50 cal. High-explosive, dual-purpose Lubricant, arctic weather Lubricant, weapon semi-fluid Lubricant, semi-fluid teflon The mainstay weapon system of the Marine Corps Heavy Machine Gun Platoon. 40mm grenade launcher also found in the Heavy Machine Gun Platoon of the Weapons Company. Rifle bore cleaner Traversing and elevating Adjustment of the weapon so that firing takes place when the recoiling parts are between .020 and .116 inch out of battery to prevent contact between the front of the barrel extensions and the trunion block. Definition or Identification Cleaner, lubricant, preservative

HEDP LAW LSA LSA-T M2 .50 caliber heavy machine gun Mk 19 MOD 3 RBC T&E Timing

94

Basic Officer Course

Notes

Basic Officer Course

Notes

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

MACHINE GUN EMPLOYMENT B3N4478 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Machine Gun Employment


Introduction This lesson will cover the basic principals and definitions surrounding Machine Gun Employment. Also discussed will be offensive and defensive considerations, to include the support relationships that will be used when dealing with supporting elements such as machine gun units. The class will be based around the three Machine Guns found in an infantry battalion, the M240G, M19 MOD3 and the M2 HB .50 cal heavy machine gun. We have already been introduced to the organization of the weapons platoon and weapons company and the individual machine-gun units within. Individual classes on the M240G, M2, and MK19 will also be given. You will be expected to be familiar with these organizations and the capabilities of these weapons prior to familiarization with this material. The focus of this class will be centered upon the introduction of the employment of machine guns. For some, this handout in conjunction with the practical application will be the last formal instruction received on the employment of these weapons. But the likelihood of these weapons being employed by all MOSs, from the Marine Wing Support Squadron to the Truck Platoon, is highly likely. The basic principles, definitions and operating guidelines of machine guns will be outlined in this text. More specific details in relation to the individual weapons systems mentioned above will be covered in their respective classes. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Page Definitions 5 Classifications of Machine Gun Fire 6 Eight Principles of Machine Gun Employment 9 Machine Gun Fighting Positions 11 Support Relationships 14 Classification of Offensive Fires 15 Displacement Considerations 16 Defensive Considerations 18 Employment Considerations 19 Fire Commands 20 Range Cards 21 MG Tasking Statements 23 Summary / References / Glossary 24 Notes 25

Importance

In This Lesson

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Learning Objectives

Terminal Learning Objectives Given a machinegun unit, a mission, and commander's intent, employ machineguns in support of offensive operations to achieve desired effects of machinegun fires in support of the ground scheme of maneuver in accordance with the Principles of Machine Gun Employment PICMDEEP (Pairs, Interlocking, Coordinating, Mutual Support, Defilade, Enfilading Fire, Economy of Fire, and Protection). (0302-OFF-1202) Given a machinegun unit, a mission, and commander's intent, employ machineguns in support of defensive operations to achieve desired effects of machinegun fires in support of the ground scheme of maneuver in accordance with the Principles of Machinegun Employment PICMDEEP (Pairs, Interlocking, Coordinating, Mutual Support, Defilade, Enfilading Fire, Economy of Fire, Protection). (0302-DEF1302 ) Given the requirement, an assistant gunner, a tripod mounted M240B, M2, or MK19 machinegun, a sector of fire, selected firing position, and entrenching tools, construct a machinegun position in order to provide cover and concealment without restricting effective fire. (MCCS-CSW2111) Given a defensive fighting position, a tripod mounted machinegun with components, a designated sector of fire with recognizable targets, principle direction of fire (PDF) or final protective line (FPL), paper, pencil, and lensatic compass, prepare a range card in order to recall the data to fire on predetermined targets and as an aid in estimating ranges to other targets during regular visibility. (MCCSCSW-2112) Given machinegun team(s) or a squad with tripod mounted M240B, M2, or MK19 machinegun(s), entrenching tools, selected firing positions and sectors of fire, supervise construction of machinegun positions in order to provide cover and concealment without restricting effective fire. (MCCS-CSW-2113)

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Learning Objectives (continued)

Enabling Learning Objectives Given a machinegun unit, a mission and a commander's intent, determine method of support to best support the ground scheme of maneuver. (0302-OFF-1202a) Given a machinegun unit, a mission, and a commander's intent, determine target precedence to best support the ground scheme of maneuver. (0302-OFF-1202b) Given a machinegun unit, a mission, and a commander's intent, determine target reference points (TRP), to best support the ground scheme of maneuver. (0302-OFF1202c) Given a machinegun unit, a mission, and a commander's intent, plan ammunition/rates of fire relative to the attack to best support the ground scheme of maneuver. (0302-OFF1202d) Given a machinegun unit, a mission, and a commander's intent, determine displacement criteria/plan to best support the ground scheme of maneuver. (0302-OFF-1202e) Given a machinegun unit, a mission and a commander's intent, direct positioning of machinegun units to best observe and support scheme of maneuver. (0302-OFF1202f) Given a machinegun unit, a mission and a commander's intent, determine engagement criteria to best support the ground scheme of maneuver. (0302-DEF-1302d)

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Definitions
Trajectory Ordinate Maximum Ordinate The arching flight path of the round from the muzzle of the weapon to the target. Elevation of the flight path of the round above the line of sight The maximum elevation of that round above the line of sight along its flight path. This distance is reached at 2/3 the distance to the target.

Cone of Fire

Beaten Zone

Each round fired from a machine gun travels a different path. Vibration, tolerances of the ammunition and weapon, and shooter positions all play a role in these differences. The pattern of these rounds is called the cone of fire. For an M240G the cone of fire is always 2 mils wide. Now, the actual measurement may differ at 600m and 1800m due to the factor of what 2 mils is at that distance, but it will always be 2 mils wide. The beaten zone is defined as the elliptical pattern formed by the impact of the rounds. Again, because the cone of fire is always 2 mils wide, the beaten zone as well is two mils wide out to the maximum effective range of the gun. There are, however, differences in the length based on the following: Uniform terrain: At short ranges the beaten zone will be longer because of the initial trajectory and narrow because of the relatively short distance the bullet travels before it strikes the ground. As range increases, the beaten zone decreases in length because the bullets will be falling at a steeper angle and increases in width as the rotation of the bullet further affects dispersion.

Rising terrain: Terrain rising in the path of the cone of fire has the effect of abruptly stopping the rounds and creates a small beaten zone which nearly duplicates the pattern of the cone of fire on steeply rising terrain.

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Definitions (Contd)
Falling terrain: When the terrain falls away before the gun, the beaten zone becomes longer and depending on the range, either long and narrow or long and wide.

Classifications of Machinegun Fires


We will next discuss the classifications of machinegun fires. We will describe the fires of a machinegun in relation to the ground, the target and the gun. In Relation to the Ground Dead Space- Dead space occurs anytime the target (or enemy) drops below the line of aim or line of sight. This is largely a product of terrain. Streams, ravines, draws and other features may cause dead space. Danger Space- When firing over terrain, any space up to 1.8 m above the deck (the height of an average man) is considered danger space; that is, within the effects of the rounds. Plunging Fire- Plunging fire is defined where the danger space is confined to the beaten zone. Plunging fire is obtained when firing from high ground to low ground or low ground to high ground and when using long range fires; an example of this when a gunner engages a target on a street from the third deck. The effects of the rounds are limited to the beaten zone where those rounds are hitting the deck. Grazing Fire- Defines fire where the center of the cone of fire does not rise more than one meter off the deck. This is the most effective type of fire we can employ, and we will always seek a position where we can bring the greatest amount of grazing fire upon the enemy.

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Classification of Fires (Contd)


In Relation to the Target Flanking Fire - Fires delivered on the flank of a target, when the target is oriented 90 or more degrees away from the firing unit. Fontal Fire - Fire delivered on the front of a target, when the target is oriented on the firing unit. Oblique Fire- Fire delivered on the oblique of a target, when the target is oriented between 0 and 90 degrees to the firing unit. Enfilade Fire- The long axis of the beaten zone coincides with or nearly coincides with the long axis of the target. This class of fire is either Frontal or Flanking and is the most desirable class of fire with respect to the target, because it maximizes the use of the beaten zone.

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Classification of Fires (Contd)


In Respect to the Gun Fixed Fire delivered on a point target. Little or no manipulation of the gun is required to obtain and maintain effect on target. Traversing - fire delivered against a wide target requiring changes in direction. The beaten zones of each successive burst should be adjacent to each other if not overlapping (may be produced from either a tripod or bipod). Searching - Fire delivered against a target in depth requiring changes in elevation. The beaten zones of each successive burst should be adjacent to each other if not overlapping (may be produced from either a tripod or bipod). Traversing and Searching - fire delivered against an oblique target requiring changes in both elevation and direction. The beaten zones of each successive burst should be adjacent to each other if not overlapping (may be produced from either a tripod or bipod). Swinging Traverse - Fire delivered against targets which require major changes in direction with little or no change in elevation. Fired at the cyclic rate of fire using the tripod. (The beaten zones of each successive burst need not be adjacent to each other.) Free Gun - Fire delivered against moving targets that require major changes in both direction and elevation. The beaten zones of each successive burst need not be adjacent to each other (can only be produced from a tripod or vehicle mount). The T&E is not used as the manipulation is done by the Gunner.

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Employment Principles
The following table represents the Eight Principles of Machine Gun Employment, abbreviated by PICMDEEP. Will we be able to execute all of these principles each and every time we employ machine guns? No, we will not. Each situation will be different, terrain may not allow us each of these considerations, or our assets may make it impossible to support. We will, however, take the time to analyze our assets, our mission and our enemy to best employ these weapons in accordance with the principles outlined below.

Pairs

We attempt to employ machine guns in pairs at all times. Guns employed in pairs should not be separated by intervening terrain. 35 meters is the optimal separation between the two weapons systems, terrain dictating. This allows us to duplicate fires to ensure continuous fire support even if one gun goes down. This also gives us talking guns, giving us constant fires on the target and uninterrupted fires during immediate action drills or if a gun goes down. A SAW can be integrated to the pairs if needed. Reinforce and double the firepower employed across the units frontage. This also ensures no area goes uncovered, especially when grazing fires intersect Dictates use of appropriate weapons to fire on appropriate targets. This allows maximum effectiveness of all weapons systems employed, to conserve ammunition, and also to mask the machine gun position until their fires are required. The weapons systems need to be able to support each other. If one weapon is overrun or fails, the other weapon needs to be able to fire the mission. Defilade allows us to fire the gun behind the mask of terrain outside the effects and observation of the enemy. This allows us to increase survivability of the position, the gun and the crew. The following diagram illustrates the types of defilade that we can attain:

Interlocking Fires

Coordination of Fires

Mutual Support

Defilade

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Defilade (Contd)

The diagram above outlines the five positions of defilade we can employ in a machine gun position. Enfilade Whenever we utilize machine guns, we attempt to achieve enfilading fires upon our enemy. By enfilade fires we mean that the long axis of the beaten zone coincides with the long axis of the target. By economy, we mean economy of our fires. We utilize the appropriate weapons systems in accordance with the threat. We will not open up with the M240 if we get attacked by a single enemy soldier. We establish engagement criteria for our crew served weapons to conserve ammunition, make sure the weapon system is appropriate to the threat and to ensure weapon system and crew survivability. Obvious considerations need to be taken in the construction of machine gun positions in order to ensure maximum survivability of the crew. Once the guns are ordered to engage, they will obviously become a focal point of the enemy. Cover and concealment are critical. The construction must be robust as well as moved frequently in order to ensure the continued support of their fires.

Economy

Protection

10

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Machine Gun Fighting Positions


Fighting positions for machineguns are an integral part of their employment. They ensure survivability for the weapon system and the crew. When properly placed, allow that supported unit leader to best accomplish the mission by having the devastating fires to defend his position. Before we discuss the physical types of fighting positions we will label the three classifications of fighting positions: Primary Position The position from which the gun will fire its primary sector of fire A secondary position from which the gun will fire its primary sector of fire Another separate prepared position from which the gun fires a secondary or alternate sector of fire. When only one sector of fire is assigned, only one half of the position is dug (L-shape) (see diagram below). The FPM must parallel either arm of the L. The L-shaped position should always be improved upon to make a T or horseshoe-shaped position.

Alternate Position Supplemental Position

L-Shape Fighting Position

11

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Machine Gun Fighting Positions (Contd)


T-Shaped Fighting Position The most preferred position to employ. This position will provide both primary and secondary sectors of fire. When employing the M240G, the tripod is used on the side covering the primary sector of fire. The bipod legs are used when covering the secondary mission. When witching from primary mission to secondary mission, the tripod stays in place and the weapon itself is moved to engage the targets.

Primary Mission

Secondary Mission

When digging a T-Shaped Position, the hole is dug armpit deep. When cover to the front is high enough, spoil is used to build up the flanks and the rear. Grenade sumps should be located at the end of each leg of the position.

12

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Machine Gun Fighting Positions (Contd)


Horse-Shoe Fighting Position The open end of the horseshoe is toward the enemy (see diagram below). This allows for easy 180-degree traverse across the frontage, but provides less frontal cover than the T-shaped position. Protection from indirect fire greater than the "T"-shaped position. The firing platform is located within the horseshoe. Spoilage is used to provide cover all around the position

Two Hole Fighting Position

Uses two one-man fighting holes at 90-degree angles (see diagram below). Provides excellent protection for the gunner and assistant gunner but allows only limited traverse of the gun. Each hole is dug as a standard oneman fighting hole. When switching from the primary to the alternate sectors of fire, the gunner and the assistant gunner switch roles.

13

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Support Relationships
When utilizing assets that are not organic to a rifle platoon, such as machine guns, we will use support relationships that define the command and control of those assets. Examples of such relationships are outlined below: General Support: A unit commander may task a subordinate unit to a general support mission. This is defined as that support which is given to the supported force as a whole and not to any particular subdivision thereof according to MCRP 5-2A. If a unit is designated to be in General Support, of another unit, it will provide fires to assist the supported units scheme of maneuver. For example, a Machine Gun Section may be placed in General Support of an Infantry Company. The Section is then responsible to provide fires in support of that Companys scheme of maneuver. Within that Company, any or all of the subordinate units may be supported; in this case priority of fires is established to indicate the order in which the support is provided such as Flanking Fires by section in support of the companys attack. Direct Support: A unit in direct support of another unit is assigned the mission of providing the support requested directly to the supported unit. The unit being supported directly (a rifle platoon, for example) is assigned fires directly supporting the platoon (Main Effort). The supported unit commander assigns the guns a mission and targets; however, tactical control still remains with the Machine Gun Section Leader. Attachment: Attachment is the placement of a unit in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. The organization to which a unit is attached assumes complete tactical and administrative control over the unit, subject to any limitations (usually time) stipulated in the attachment order. Machine guns may be attached to a rifle platoon that cannot be supported from general or direct support positions because of the terrain or other conditions. The attached command relationship gives the supported unit leader complete tactical and administrative control over the attached unit. Below, we will look at these differing command relationships in regards to a situation you may see here at The Basic School, the relationship of a machine gun section within a rifle company and the differing relationships between the Company Commander and his rifle platoons. Relationship General Support Direct Support Attached Use of Fires Company commander Supported unit leader Admin & Logistical Control Weapons platoon Weapons platoon commander commander Machine gun Weapons platoon section/squad leader commander Supported unit leader Tactical Control

14

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Classification of Offensive Fires


Close Supporting Fire Fires delivered against enemy objectives directly opposing the advance of the attacking rifle units. Some considerations to take into account when employing these types of fires include Rates of fire Location of lead trace of maneuver element Signal plan for commencing, shifting, and ceasing fires Fires that are delivered against targets to the rear of enemy forward position that may directly influence the main effort attack on the primary objective. Terrain and weapon permitting, long range fires are often assigned to machineguns when they can no longer provide close supporting fires to the attack. When the advance or location of a unit exposes their flank, the machine guns may be tasked with protecting it. Enemy counterattack should be expected following seizure of an objective. Machine guns are used to protect the unit's consolidation and reorganization. Employment of the guns on the objective should be planned and rapidly executed. Many of the machine guns will have to be displaced from SBF positions. The M249 SAW will provide immediate automatic firepower forward in support of consolidation until the medium and heavy machine guns displace. After the seizure of an enemy position or when the machine guns can no longer provide fire support from their positions, you must move them to a new location; this movement is a "displacement." Displacement must be as rapid as possible to continue the mission of fire support or protection. An acronym used to describe this displacement process is MORT. This acronym allows us to remember some of the considerations associated with a machinegun crews displacement.

Long Range Fires

Flank Protection Fires

Fires in Support of Consolidation

15

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Displacement Considerations
Once the mission of the machine guns is complete, or the position is no longer able to be occupied, that unit will need to displace to either a new firing position or to link up with the parent unit. As a unit leader, we must plan for this movement when given the asset of machine guns. The acronym we use to outline the required planning considerations is MORT, (Method, Objective, Route and Time).

Method

Echelon: By echelon, we essentially mean leap frogging those elements to the new position. An example of this would be one element displacing while the adjacent two elements provide security. Once the bounding element reached its next security position, they would then provide over-watch while the other two units move. This action is repeated until the unit as a whole reaches its final destination. By Unit: In an instance where security en-route to the objective is not as much of a factor, the machine gun element may be ordered to displace directly to the parent units position in order to provide the immediate additional firepower of the machine guns in support of consolidation.

Objective

The unit will be forced or directed to move to one of two types of locations. Once the maneuver element has completed the assault upon the tactical objective, the unit leader may task the machine gun element to move to their location in order to provide addition fires in support of consolidation. An additional consideration may be a secondary support by fire position in order to continue support of an attack after the initial position has become untenable. A route is a crucial consideration for the unit leader when planning the displacement of the machine gun element. Higher can assign these routes based on operational knowledge of the area, or it can be left to the discretion of the subordinate unit leader in charge of those Marines who may have better situation awareness of the battlefield as it now stands.

Route

16

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Displacement Considerations (Contd)


Time Careful consideration must be given to when that unit will displace. We must plan for when we will need their fires again if displacing to a secondary SBF, or how long we will be able to support consolidation while the machine gun assets displace to the rest of the unit. Another important aspect is the signal plan surrounding that displacement. We must make sure that the signal is clearly communicated in the order and is able to be executed on the battlefield. If a unit fails to receive proper communication we may not have fires when we need them or expose those Marines to unnecessary risks by unmasking and moving too early.

17

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Defensive Considerations
Principal Direction of Fire Before we discuss individual weapon systems, we will discuss the two tactical tasks a machine gun can be assigned in the defense. The first is a PDF, or a principle direction of fire. The weapons primary focus is covering a likely avenue of approach, key piece of terrain, or whatever object of interest that unit leader assigns it. Now, the weapon will also have a left and right lateral limit that will allow the gunner to engage targets of opportunity within that sector of fire, but unless that situation arises, that weapon is laid on that PDF, ready to engage on at that point. Secondly, we can assign the mission of a FPL, or final protective line. This mission dictates that the weapon is primarily in a position to employ grazing fires across a units frontage as a last effort to defend the lines. The FPL is only fired in accordance with the unit commander giving the order to fire his Final Protective Fires. Again, a sector of fire is given, with the instruction that in accordance with engagement criteria that gun can engage a target of opportunity. But again, the primary mission of that gun is to be laid on that designated FPL. M240G: Terrain is one of the biggest factors when deciding the role these weapons will play. If terrain greatly constitutes grazing fire, push the weapons out to the flank where the greatest amount of grazing fire can be achieved while interlocking the fires with adjacent guns and assign the mission of a FPL. If terrain is canalizing, allowing limited access to your position, consider assigning the guns a PDF, greatly improving the coverage on those areas most likely to be advanced upon. Again, we will strive to employ 8 principles of machine gun employment at every chance, regardless of mission. M2 .50 Caliber HMG: Its direct fire characteristics dictate employment very similar to considerations used with the M240, with the greatest considerations being its anti-armor capabilities and penetration. MK19 MOD 3: The MK19 differs most greatly in the fact that we cannot achieve grazing fires based on the nature of the ammunition. That being said, the weapon is an excellent choice to assign a PDF, such as choke points, obstacles and avenues of approach, as well as dead space.

Final Protective Line

Individual Weapon Considerations

18

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Employment Considerations
Offensive Considerations for Machineguns M240G: Best and most often used in a support by fire position to provide a heavy volume of accurate suppressive fire. If terrain is viable, consider the use of an observer in order to allow the guns to be employed from defilade. The weapon can also be taken into the assault, utilizing either the bipod or the tripod. Asset is organic to the rifle company and also found in weapons company. M2 .50 Caliber Heavy MG: This weapon can also be employed as a support by fire asset, especially when the enemy is utilizing fortified positions. Also used against mechanized or lightly armored assets, taking account the increased penetration of the rounds available. Can also be employed in indirect fire mode, utilizing terrain to mask its location and at the same time engage targets attempting to mask themselves. Commonly vehicle mounted and paired with the MK19 within the heavy machine gun platoon of the infantry battalion, providing a highly mobile, versatile combination.

MK 19 MOD 3 40mm Automatic Grenade Launcher: Extremely effective against personnel due to its 15m ECR from the 40mm round. Very effective combined with an observer to deliver indirect fires. Anti-armor capability of 2 inches of homogenous steel out to 2200 m. Like the other two weapon systems, also able to be utilized in SBF position. Some constraints to aware of include the minimum arming distance of 18 to 40 meters and the ability of vegetation or other debris to cause premature detonation. Like stated above, commonly paired with the M2, providing an excellent example of combined arms, allowing the unit leader to mix the weapons systems for desired result.

19

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Fire Commands
We have already been familiarized with the term ADDRAC in previous exercises. The same considerations apply with machine guns with a few minor considerations. Alert Mandatory part of the order. Fire Mission = Both guns fire Number One, Fire Mission- Only one gun fires Fire Mission, Number Two- Gun number two fires the mission, but gun number one tracks it and is prepared to fire on command. Only when not obvious or in an instance when firing from defilade under the direction of an observer. Given to allow the gunner and A-gunner to more accurately orient on the target. Cannot be over emphasized. Several field expedient methods that have already been discussed elsewhere in your instruction. Sooner correct range is acquired, the quicker the effects of those rounds are felt by the enemy. Assignment is only used if specific requirements are needed to divide the target, assign a class of fire, or designate a rate of fire. Mandatory in order to coordinate proper initiation and control of fires. Subsequent commands will be made by the unit leader in order make corrections on the impacts of the rounds, rates of fire, or even to shift or cease fires

Direction

Description

Range

Assignment

Control

20

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Range Cards
A range card is a diagram drawn to record the firing data and mission of that machine gun position and also serves as a document to assist in defensive fire planning. A range card is constructed of a sketch of the position and also of the terrain that lies to the front of the weapon system. Here we outline target reference points, key terrain features, dead space, and any other feature or detail to assist that gunner and further the unit leader in gaining as much situational awareness on the position as possible. One key element of creating a range card is walking the terrain we are about to document. This allows to properly annotate our dead space. This is especially important when recording our FPL. Step 1 Gunner lays himself behind the gun, sets his sights on the limit of grazing fire, and then lays the gun on an aiming point along the FPL. The A-Gunner walks along the FPL using a standard and measured pace count

Step 2

Step 3

When the gunner looses sight of the A-Gunner in defilade, he yells Mark!. The A-Gunner records the distance to properly annotate it on the range card. This process is completed until terrain denies you grazing fire, or you reach the maximum range of grazing fire for that weapon system.

Step 4

21

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Range Cards (contd)


The FPL is annotated by a heavy black solid line along the azimuth of the FPL. Dead space is signified by a break in the heavy to a thin line, turning back to a heavy line after the limit of the dead space has been reached. . The range is recorded to the near and far ends of the dead space and to the maximum extent of graze along the FPL. The firing data needed to fire this target as well as the magnetic azimuth is recorded on the range card.

22

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Machine Gun Tasking Statements


Defense: Machinegun Squad (Supporting Effort # 1), you are in General Support of the platoon. O/O destroy targets of opportunity IOT prevent the enemy from escaping the platoon engagement area. Target Precedence: Squad size elements or larger, light-skinned vehicles, command and control nodes, and CSWs. Engagement Criteria: Engage units IVO TRP1 (old barn) or south of Phase Line Blue (Aquia Creek). BPT displace to supplemental positions. O/S fire the FPL. Save 600 rounds for the FPF. Support Relationship: GS of the platoon WHO: Machinegun Squad WHEN: O/O or O/S WHAT: Destroy WHERE: Engagement Area, TRP 1, Phase Line Blue, FPL WHY: IOT prevent the enemy from escaping the platoon engagement area. Fire Control Measures: Target Reference Point, Target Precedence, Engagement Criteria

Offense: MG section (Supporting Effort #1), you are in General Support of the platoon. O/S suppress the enemy on Co Obj A IOT deny the enemy the ability to interfere with the main efforts attack. O/S commence fire at the rapid rate at TRP1 for one minute, then switch to the sustained rate for 3 minutes. O/S shift to TRP2 and fire at the sustained rate. O/S cease fire. O/S displace by unit by the most direct route to Co Obj A to support our consolidation. Save 400 rounds for consolidation.

Support Relationship: GS of the platoon WHO: Machinegun Squad WHEN: O/S WHAT: Suppress WHERE: Company Objective Alpha WHY: IOT deny the enemy the ability to interfere with the platoon main effort attack Fire Control Measures: Commence fire: O/S raid rate 1 minute then sustained rate for 3 minutes, Shift Fire: O/S, Cease Fire: O/S, Displacement: O/S displace ISO consolidation.

23

Basic Officer Course

B3N4478

Machine Gun Employment

Summary
This lesson covered the basic employment principles for the various machine gun systems found throughout the Marine Corps. Both offensive and defensive considerations were introduced, as well as planning guidelines for planning displacement of a machine-gun unit. Proper construction and descriptions of the differing machine gun positions have been outlines also. Range Cards and proper terminology surrounding machine guns were also discussed.

References
Reference Number or Author MCRP 3-15.1 FMFRP 6-15 Reference Title Machine Guns and Machine Gun Gunnery Machine Guns and Machine Gun Gunnery

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym ADDRAC Beaten Zone ECR FPL Grazing Fires Definition or Identification Alert, direction, description, range, assignment, control The beaten zone is defined as the elliptical pattern formed by the impact of the rounds. Effective casualty radius Final protective line Defines fire where the center of the cone of fire does not rise more than one meter off the deck. This is the most effective types of fire we can employ, and we will always seek a position where we can bring the greatest amount of grazing fire upon the enemy. Method, objective, route, time displacement Military occupational specialty Principle direction of fire Squad automatic weapon Support by fire

MORT MOS PDF SAW SBF

Notes

24

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

MOVEMENT TO CONTACT B3N4638 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Movement to Contact
Introduction Up to this point at The Basic School, you have been dealing with a known enemy situation. Someone has maintained contact with the enemy and provided you with detailed information on enemy composition, disposition, and strength. Unfortunately, in the disorder and friction inherent to war, intelligence will never be entirely complete or accurate. Additionally, because the enemy is constantly acting as well, intelligence may become less accurate and relevant because of events that change the situation between the time that the intelligence was collected and developed and the time that we act. One of the principals of war central to the conduct of maneuver warfare is the pursuit of the offense, even when the enemy situation is uncertain. As practitioners of maneuver warfare, we want to establish a tempo in our operations that degrades the enemys ability to operate. Maintaining this tempo in an uncertain enemy environment means developing the enemy situation through contact and committing the fewest forces necessary so that the rest of the unit can continue to seek the enemy center of gravity. A properly executed movement to contact is one of the most ruthlessly efficient forms of the offense, as demonstrated by the German Blitzkreig into France in 1940 and the Coalition invasion of Iraq in 2003. The purpose of this lesson is to allow you to operate in and understand an uncertain environment through the use of movement to contact. This handout will discuss the tactics and techniques to use in a movement to contact. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Definition Preparation Phase/Begin Planning Arrange/Make Reconnaissance Complete the Plan Issue the Order/Supervise Conduct Phase/Movement Decisive Engagement Consolidation/Reorganization Phase References Notes Page 5 5 12 12 16 17 19 19 19 20

Importance

In This Lesson

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Movement to Contact (Continued)


Learning Objectives Terminal Learning Objectives 0302-FSPT-1300 Given a scheme of maneuver, fire support available, and commanders intent, develop a fire support plan to support the ground scheme of maneuver in accordance with the commanders intent. MCCS-OFF-2102 Given a mission, implement Marine Corps Warfighting Concepts to accomplish the mission. Enabling Learning Objectives MCCS-OFF-2102k Given a mission and commander's intent in a changing situation, while serving as a leader of Marines, integrate maneuver warfare into decision-making to accomplish the mission. MCCS-OFF-2102l Given a mission and commander's intent develop a mental estimate of the situation using METT-TC to accomplish the mission. MCCS-OFF-2102m Given a mission and commander's intent and a mental estimate of the situation integrate the principles of war into tactical planning to accomplish the mission. 0311-OFF-2001c Given a unit, a mission, scheme of maneuver and a mental estimate of the situation, employ tactical control measures to support the ground scheme of maneuver. 0302-FSPT-1300c Given known, suspected, and likely enemy positions/ avenues of approach / avenues of withdrawal, a scheme of maneuver, fire support available, and commander's intent, plan targets to support the ground scheme of maneuver in accordance with commander's intent. MCCS-OFF-2103l Without the aid of reference, describe a movement to contact without omission. MCCS-OFF-2103m Given a reinforced rifle platoon, a mission, and a commander's intent, describe task organization for movement to contact to accomplish the mission. MCCS-OFF-2103n Without the aid of reference, describe movement to contact formations without omission. MCCS-OFF-2103o Without the aid of reference and given enemy contact, describe movement to contact immediate actions without omission.
3 Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Movement to Contact (Continued)


Learning Objectives (continued) MCCS-OFF-2103p Given a unit, a mission with commander's intent, lead a unit in a movement to contact to accomplish the mission. 0302-OFF-1201e Given a unit, a mission, a mental estimate of the situation, integrate a support by fire position into the ground scheme of maneuver to accomplish the mission. 0302-OFF-1201f Given a unit, a mission, a mental estimate of the situation, supporting indirect fire assets, and a support by fire position, integrate fire and maneuver into the ground scheme of maneuver to accomplish the mission. 0302-OFF-1202g Given a machine-gun unit, a mission and a commander's intent, direct positioning of machine-gun units to best observe and support the scheme of maneuver.

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Movement to Contact: Definition


Before we discuss how to conduct a movement to contact, let's first define what movement to contact is. MCDP 1-0 defines a movement to contact as: An offensive operation designed to gain or re-gain contact with the enemy and develop the situation. Movement to contact helps the commander to understand the battlespace. It allows him to make initial contact with the enemy with minimum forces, thereby avoiding an extensive engagement or battle before he is prepared for decisive action. When successfully executed, it allows the commander to strike the enemy at the time and place of his choosing.

Preparation Phase
BEGIN PLANNING Receive the order and analyze your mission. There are a few ways you may determine
that a movement to contact is an appropriate form of the offense: You are assigned an enemy-, friendly-, or terrain-oriented task as part of a larger movement to contact. Check your commanders scheme of maneuver and tasks to see if this is the case. You are assigned a terrain-oriented task in an uncertain enemy situation where time/space is a factor: o Alpha Company is conducting offensive operations 6 km to our east along Route Golden, and will need to be resupplied NLT 1800 tonight in anticipation of followon operations. Recent resupply operations along Route Golden have been disrupted by squad-sized enemy units that have infiltrated and conducted complex ambushes (to include obstacles). o At 1400, 1st Platoon clears Route Golden east to Alpha Company IOT prevent enemy ambushes against the resupply convoy. You are assigned an enemy-oriented task in an uncertain enemy situation where time/space is a factor: o Alpha Companys attacks have shattered the enemy defenses, and the remainder of the enemy (approximately platoon (-) size) is attempting to withdraw to the east. Elements of the platoon (-) appear to be fortifying Samarah, a small town 10 km to our east that sits at the intersection of several key routes. The remainder of the unit is likely preparing to delay our advance along Route Golden before falling back to Samarah. Enemy reinforcements up to company size are likely within 12 hours, and a deliberate defense in Samarahs urban terrain will be a significant obstacle to our offensive east. Bravo Company is moving east to relieve Alpha Company, but is expected to reach Samarah NET 2200 tonight. o At 1200, 1st Platoon destroys the enemy platoon (-) in Samarah IOT prevent the enemy from establishing a deliberate defense in Samarah before Bravo Companys arrival.

In each situation, movement to contact is an appropriate form of the offense. The enemy and friendly situation and the commanders intent dictate that we should use tempo as a weapon to maintain the initiative or to prevent the enemy from gaining the initiative. While reconnaissance

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

and deliberate attacks may also be able to accomplish the assigned tasks, they would be too time-consuming to accomplish the commanders purpose and intent.

Achieve a Decision.
The collective judgments and tentative plan that the platoon commander makes based off his initial estimate of the situation are what we refer to as Achieving a Decision.

Develop formations and task organization. The unit commander conducting the movement to contact considers the following criteria when selecting a formation for movement and organizing his unit for the upcoming mission:
Speed Security Control Deployability

Speed and control are obviously essential to the tempo that the commander wants to create, but the uncertain enemy environment dictates that the commander should also organize a force that can quickly react to contact from any direction. The closer to the decisive fight the unit is, the higher its security posture. The relative trade-off between speed/control and security/deployability will be based on the commanders estimate of the situation (METT-TC). To assist the commander in selecting the best organization of his forces, the Marine Corps breaks expectation of enemy contact into three levels:

Contact Remote Contact Possible Contact Imminent

The category in which the commander places his expectation of contact will greatly influence how the unit organizes for movement. When the commander feels that the chance of enemy contact is remote, he usually uses a route column. Generally, a commander judges the chance of enemy contact to be remote when

Contact Remote

A friendly unit is between him and the enemy to provide security (behind friendly lines) The greatest threat is from aircraft and long range artillery

The unit commander utilizes the route column to maximize speed and control. Grouping subordinate units administratively also facilitates control. Routes are selected that facilitate speed and reduce friction. This formation, also referred to as an administrative column, is the same one you use on your conditioning hikes. As the unit closes with the enemy and no longer has other units providing security, the commander must update his estimation of the situation. He may update the expectation of enemy contact to contact possible.

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Contact Possible

Also referred to as "contact probable," these two terms are interchangeable. Once the commander has decided that contact is possible, he must change the tactical organization of his unit. He now balances the need for speed and control with his need to develop the enemy situation and provide security/deployability. The commander task organizes the unit to facilitate the adoption of combat formations. The overall formation is the tactical column. Units within the formation may be deployed in another tactical formation based upon their mission, i.e., point element in a wedge. The formation usually adopted by subordinate units is also the tactical column. The main body travels in the center of the tactical column. The role of the main body is to accomplish the units mission, which usually entails destroying the enemy in the decisive fight. Since a threat from enemy ground activity exists, the commander deploys security elements to protect the main body. These security elements, called guards, are deployed to the front, flank, and rear. A guard is a unit used to protect the main force from attack, direct fire, and ground observation by fighting to gain time while observing and reporting. A guard should possess sufficient combat power to fix or interdict the enemy while the commander maneuvers the main body to a position from which to assault or bypass the enemy. Additionally, the guard commander must report information about the enemy (SALUTE), guard force location and actions, and relevant terrain information that will allow the unit commander to make an informed decision. Too weak a guard will only cause the unit commander to commit additional forces to protect his ability to maneuver.

Contact Possible (Continued)

Advance Party Support

(+) (+)

Company: Advance Guard

Flank Guard (-)

Flank Guard BN Main Body

Rear Guard
7 Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Diagram 1 shows battalion (-) as main body, company as advance guard, platoon as advance party, and squad as point.

Advance Party Squad

Advance Guard (-)

(-) Main Body WPNS (-) (-)

Diagram 2. Shows a rifle company in independent movement to contact; rifle platoon as advance guard, and squad as advance party.

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Contact Possible (Continued)

Advance guard: The guard unit that precedes the main body of a company or higher is called the advance guard. The advance guard: Develops the situation for the commander by initiating action and reporting the situation Maintains tempo by fixing, clearing, or destroying smaller enemy forces, allowing the main body to bypass non-decisive engagements Fixes the enemy during decisive engagements, allowing the main body to maneuver and destroy the enemy

The advance guard sends forward a security unit called an advance party, which performs the advance guard role for the advance guard commander. The advance party sends forward a security unit called a point, which performs the advance guard role for the advance party commander. The advance guard should be located far enough ahead of the main body to effectively develop the situation. The commander should have enough time to make a decision and enough space to adjust the formation based off the reporting from the advance guard. Enemy engaging the advance guard should not also be able to engage the main body since having the main body in contact limits the commanders options. The advance guard should not be located too far ahead to support if decisive contact is made. The distance that the advance guard travels ahead of the main body will depend heavily on terrain (e.g. forest or desert?), enemy (e.g. using small arms or heavy machineguns?), and friendly (e.g. footmobile or mechanized? How large and well-equipped is advance guard relative to enemy forces?). Task Organization: The advance guard should be task-organized to overcome obstacles and enemy resistance. Engineers or other obstacle clearing capability should travel with the advance guard. Machineguns may also travel with the advance party. Their support relationship will most likely be DS of the main effort or GS of the unit since, in the decisive fight, their suppression will allow the main body to close with the enemy. Machineguns with the advance guard are in the best position to gain immediate fire superiority and support by fire the main body if the decisive fight comes from the front. If the advance guard makes non-decisive contact with the enemy and the commander decides to bypass the fight with the main body, he must consider a way to link up the machineguns with the new advance guardthe limited ammunition the machineguns have should be saved for the decisive fight, and if they stay with the original advance guard then they will be in the rear of the unit formation when the fight is over, which is a poor position from which to support the unit. The commander may also choose to locate the machineguns with the main body, which gives him more direct control and more flexibility if the decisive fight comes from the flanks or rear. However, if the decisive fight comes from the front as expected, the advance guard will have a more difficult time achieving fire superiority. Additionally, to be in the best position to support the unit, the machineguns must move forward to link up with the advance guard while under enemy fire. The commander must consider tradeoffs such as these when deciding where to locate assets.

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Contact Possible (Continued)

Flank guard: is responsible for preventing the enemy from observing or using direct fires on the main body from its flank. Though the flank guard should not become decisively engaged, it must do what is necessary to provide the main body time to prepare for an attack into its flank. As with the advance guard, the flank guard must be task organized with sufficient assets to accomplish its mission (see Diagram 3 below). Flank guards may also act as connecting groups, maintaining contact with friendly units to the flanks. Flank guards can be provided by the rear unit in the main body, which will preserve the combat power of the main effort, but is very difficult for the rear unit commander to control. The main effort can provide the flank guards, which is easier to control, but means the main effort must link up its forces before committing to the decisive fight. The main effort and the rear unit can each provide a flank guard, which is a mix of the pros and cons of the other methods.

Flank

Main Body

Flank

Figure 1: Flank guard traveling constantly Figure 2: Flank guard moves in successive bounds

Flank guard

Flank guard

Figure 3: Flank guard moves in alternating bounds Diagram 3

10

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Contact Possible (Continued)

Flank Guard: The flank guard moves abreast of the main body on a parallel route and may move continuously and at the same pace as the main body (see Diagram 1) or it may bound between successive positions (Diagram 2). These positions should be located on key terrain that can control avenues of approach into the flank. Lastly, the flank guard split into two units on each flank, can travel in alternating bounds between key terrain features (Diagram 3). No matter which method the unit commander uses, he must keep in mind that the flank guard: Will probably be traveling on more difficult terrain than the main body May have trouble keeping pace with the main body because of the difficult terrain

Rear Guard: To the rear of the main body is the rear guard. Like the advance guard, the rear guard can deploy a point (called a rear point) to provide early warning. Rapid movement forward can, in and of itself, provide a measure of security to the rear. The rear guard may also serve as a connecting group with friendly units to the rear, such as when a platoon is an advance guard in a company movement to contact.

As the unit commander further closes with the enemy, he must once again update his expectation of enemy contact. When the commander determines that he is close to the enemy main body or has other reasons to believe that a significant enemy force represents a threat to his unit, he will update his expectation of contact to contact imminent. For example, if the enemy is expected to delay along a route while they attempt to fortify a town, the commander will likely assume contact imminent as he nears the town. At this time, the security units will most likely deploy into their combat formation and the unit as a whole will adopt an approach march formation. The commander may partially or fully deploy his main body. Security and deployability take precedence over speed and control. Since tempo is critical to a successful movement to contact, the commander should not deploy into the approach march until decisive contact is imminent. The final picture may have the advance guard deployed in a wedge, while the main body either remains in a column or deploys into one of the more deployable formations (wedge, line, etc). The unit commander makes all last minute details for combat that he deems necessary. Indirect fire weapon systems are positioned to provide quick and accurate support (priority targets). He further evaluates the upcoming terrain to help in making decisions on the deployment and maneuver of the main body upon contact.

Contact Imminent

11

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Contact Imminent In the approach march, the advance guard may now move under the protection of an overwatching unitan element moves forward while (Continued)
another element positions itself to support-by-fire in case of enemy contact. Upon contact, the supporting element fires upon the enemy in order to assist the supported unit in either assaulting the enemy, bypassing, or falling back to better terrain. If you choose to overwatch your lead elements, do not push them out farther than the supporting unit's weapons can range. Movement to contact ends when your unit: Transitions to the defense Makes decisive contact with the enemy

ARRANGE/MAKE RECONNAISSANCE
Leaders Recon
A physical leaders recon is unlikely due to the time/space considerations of a typical movement to contact. A commander will have to rely on map recon and information given or requested during COC coordination for updated information about the enemy and terrain. Intelligence. Ground, signal, and human intelligence sources may be able to provide information on the terrain and enemy. Check debriefs from units that may have traveled the route before for information on terrain. UAVs can recon the route and provide real-time information on terrain and enemy. The intelligence officer can better support you if he or she knows what information you need to plan your mission. Fires. Aviation can recon the route and provide real-time information on terrain and enemy. Aviation and indirect fires are good economy of force and can maintain tempo if used to destroy or fix non-decisive enemy contact while the unit bypasses. Logistics. Pay attention to soldiers load in a foot-mobile movement to contact. To maintain tempo, Marines will be moving quickly over long distances, fighting as they go. To maintain tempo and preserve combat effectiveness, plan to take only mission-essential gear into the fight. Since Marines will be traveling with minimal supplies, arrange to have a resupply of chow, water, ammunition, batteries, packs, etc., on call for when the movement to contact ends. This will allow a quicker transition into follow-on operations. Communications. The unit needs a minimum of three radios to be effective: one with the unit leader, one with the advance guard leader (to develop the situation for the commander), and one with the main effort leader (who will become the new advance guard if the unit rotates). Any additional assets will further facilitate command and control.

COC Coordination

12

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

COMPLETE THE PLAN Scheme of Maneuver


The scheme of maneuver will generally be simple compared to a deliberate attack because of the uncertain enemy situation. Example: 1st Platoon will conduct a movement to contact east along Route Golden with one rifle squad as the main effort and two rifle squads and a machinegun squad as supporting efforts. From the line of departure to Phase Line Red, enemy contact will be possible. The platoon will travel in tactical column with SE 1/SE 3 as the advance party. Terrain dependent, the ME will travel approximately 400 meters behind, followed by the platoon headquarters and SE 2, which will provide the flank and rear guards. AK 3401 will be our priority target during this phase, and LZ Hawk will be our primary CASEVAC LZ. From Phase Line Red to Phase Line Black, enemy contact is imminent. The platoon will travel in a wedge, with SE 1/SE 3 as the advance party. The ME will be on the left side of the wedge and SE 2 the right side, with the platoon headquarters in the middle. At Phase Line Red, I will shift our priority target from AK 3401 to AK 3402. The primary CASEVAC LZ will shift from LZ Hawk to LZ Falcon. O/S, the platoon will consolidate facing east, with the ME from 10 to 2, SE 2 from 2 to 6, and SE 1 from 6 to 10.

Fire Support Plan

A detailed fire support plan will support the scheme of maneuver. Target areas where the enemy will likely make contact. For example, if the enemy is attempting to delay a units advance along a route, they will likely make contact where the unit has to cross choke points or danger areas and they have good standoff and withdrawal routes. The advance guard leader is usually in the best position to observe fires, since the advance guard is typically the first unit in contact. The commander will still control the fire support plan overall (e.g. rolling targets or approving the advance guard leaders use of fires). If the commander approves the advance guard leaders request for fire support, he may allow the advance guard leader to talk directly to the fire support agency IOT allow faster support.

Tasks

One of the most important aspects of tasking in a movement to contact is ensuring that each element can perform the role of the other elements. In order to maintain tempo, the commander will often bypass non-decisive engagements while the advance guard is still fighting. The main effort will move up and become the advance guard, the rear unit will become the main effort, and the previous advance guard will fall into the rear when the contact is complete. If one of the subordinate units does not understand its new role, it decreases the overall units effectiveness. Avoid overloading tasking statements with implied tasks (ensure your radios work before stepping off) or coordinating instructions (you will be first in the order of movement). Ensure that supporting effort tasking statements are worded so that supporting efforts understand how they support the main effort. In the following examples, the platoon commander has been tasked to

13

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Tasks (Continued)

clear Route Golden east to Alpha Company IOT prevent enemy ambushes against a follow-on resupply convoy. He has task-organized his force with the machineguns traveling with the advance party and the rear squad providing the flank and rear guards. 1st Squad: ME. At 1400, clear the enemy east along Route Golden to Alpha Company IOT prevent enemy ambushes against the resupply convoy. BPT assume the role of SE 1 or SE 2. 1st Squad, as the platoon ME, is the commanders bid for success and will ultimately accomplish the platoon mission.

2nd Squad: SE 1. At 1400, fix or clear enemy east along Route Golden IOT prevent enemy interference with the ME mission. BPT assume the roles of the ME or SE 2. 2nd Squad, as the advance party, is tasked to FIX (to prevent the enemy from moving any part of his forces, either from a specific location or for a specific period of time, by holding or surrounding them to prevent their withdrawal for use elsewhere) or CLEAR (the removal of enemy forces and elimination of organized resistance in an assigned zone, area, or location by destroying, capturing, or forcing the withdrawal of enemy forces that could interfere with the units ability to accomplish its mission) in order to prevent the enemy from interfering with the ME clearing Route Golden. In a non-decisive fight, fixing or clearing the enemy will allow the ME to bypass and continue its mission. In a decisive fight, fixing the enemy will prevent the enemy from effectively firing or reorienting while the ME maneuvers and destroys the enemy, thus clearing Route Golden.

3rd Squad: SE 2. At 1400, guard the flanks and rear of the platoon formation IOT prevent enemy interference with the ME mission. BPT assume the role of the ME or SE 1. 3rd Squad, providing the flank and rear guards, is given the friendly-oriented task of GUARD (to protect the main force by fighting to gain time while also observing and reporting information). This will prevent the enemy from conducting an effective surprise attack against the ME, and allow the ME to either bypass the threat or re-orient and clear it. The tasks of PROTECT (to prevent observation, engagement, or interference with a force or location) or INTERDICT (an action to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemys surface military potential before it can be used effectively against friendly forces) may also be appropriate in this case.

MG Squad: SE 3. GS of the platoon. O/O, suppress targets of opportunity along the platoons route of march IOT allow the ME to close with and clear the enemy. Target precedence is C2, fortified positions, and 4 or more enemy. Save 100 rounds per gun for consolidation.

14

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Tasks (Continued)

In the decisive fight, MG suppression will allow the ME to close with and clear the enemy. Since the commander is not sure exactly where this will be or what it will entail, this tasking statement will be more generic than a typical MG tasking statement. Briefing where the MGs will travel in the formation, what they will do on rotation, how they will link up, etc., will probably be covered in other parts of the order (SOM, Coord Inst) and are not necessary in the tasking statement.

Coordinating Instructions

The uncertain enemy situation creates a scheme of maneuver that lacks detail, at least relative to a deliberate attack. Detailed coordinating instructions are how a commander deals with likely enemy contingencies. You have seen this before in patrolling, and will see it again when you get to convoy operations. Some of the important coordinating instructions unique to movement to contact are: IA drills. The commander must have simple battle drills to react to enemy of assumed sizes and capabilities from any direction. Some of these battle drills will be discussed in detail later in the handout. Rotation Plan. The ability to smoothly rotate units is vital to maintaining tempo in a movement to contact. The decision to rotate will always lie with the commander or his guidance as laid out in the rotation plan. The rotation plan will detail rotation criteria (on order, if the advance guard loses communication for more than 10 minutes, etc.), as well as a detailed explanation of what each unit will do on rotation: As 1st Squad moves to engage the enemy, I will give the order to rotate. They will communicate the location of the machinegun squad, which will set security and remain in place. 2nd Squad will move forward and conduct link-up with the machinegun squad. 2nd Squad will assume the role of SE 1 and move forward as the new advance party. 3rd Squad will assume the role of the ME. 3rd Squad and platoon headquarters will hold in place until 2nd Squad is 400 meters ahead, and then resume movement. 3rd Squad will provide its own flank and rear security until 1st Squad rejoins the formation. When 1st Squads contact is complete or on order, 1st Squad will link up with 3rd Squad and assume the role of SE 2. Link-up Plan. A key part of the rotation plan. Marines will naturally be tense in a movement to contact; they are in an uncertain enemy environment and expecting contact at any time. With all the moving parts, there is a high potential for fratricide unless there is a good link-up plan and subordinate units are kept informed of other subordinate units locations. Responsibilities of each element. This is a chance for the commander to delineate some of the enduring tasks for each element. For example, if the platoon commander wants the platoons aid and litter team with the advance party, he cant include it in 1st Squads task because then the aid and litter team will be in the rear if 1st Squad rotates.

15

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Administration and Logistics

Plan multiple CCPs and extract points for casualties and EPWs along the route of movement. Backtracking to a CASEVAC LZ will affect the units tempo, and it may be more expedient to move a casualty or EPW forward to the next pickup sitebased on the commanders assessment of the proximity of the LZ, the likelihood of enemy contact, and the time it will take the CASEVAC helo to arrive. If the movement to contact is being conducted along a route, ground evacuations can be conducted at any point since the unit has already cleared the route to that point. If the unit is an advance guard in a larger movement to contact, it can link up and hand over casualties and EPWs to the main body following behind for evacuation. In a platoon movement to contact, the advance party will likely have most of the casualties and EPWs. They can also perform the evacuation in non-decisive contacts, since the rest of the platoon will likely bypass them while they are in the fight. The signal plan should include signals likely to be used in contact (shift, cease, displace) and signals connected to the link-up and rotation plans. Also consider that the advance guard will usually be out of the main bodys line of sight and may need to use signals if their communications are downmost likely to inform the commander that their communications are down and that they are rotating to the rear of the formation to troubleshoot.

Command and Signal

ISSUE THE ORDER


When issuing the order, ensure that each subordinate unit leader understands the responsibilities of each element. Walk the dog during IA drills and the rotation plan to ensure that the coordinating instructions and signals are understood.

SUPERVISE
Conduct rehearsals to ensure that the plan is valid and understood by subordinate leaders. When conducting rehearsals, the emphasis is not on individual actions such as fire and movement, or on overly-detailed planning for every possible contingency. The commander should run simple, generic battle drills for the enemy situations that the unit is most likely to encounter. The emphasis should be on good combat reporting from subordinate unit leaders to develop the situation for the commander, and the commanders ability to make a decision and communicate it to subordinates. The commander himself is a key participant in the rehearsal. For example, the commander tells the advance guard leader to rehearse contact with an enemy squad. The advance guard leader makes up the details of the contact (enemy SALUTE, friendly location and actions, and relevant terrain information) in his report, and the commander must make and communicate a decision based on this information.

16

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Conduct Phase
MOVEMENT A footmobile movement to contact should be conducted at approximately a hike pace. Unlike patrolling, where a unit develops the situation by applying stealth and reconnaissance techniques, movement to contact develops the situation through contact. Tempo is a weapon for the commander that allows maneuver and surprise, ultimately allowing the commander to mass on the enemy before the enemy is prepared for decisive action. The commander controls the scheme of maneuver using tactical control measures. Some of the most useful TCMs in a movement to contact are phase lines and/or checkpoints. This helps the commander track the advance guard/main body dispersion and rates of movement. If the advance guard reports crossing Phase Line Red when the main body is only 150 meters away from Phase Line Red, then the commander may halt the main body until he has more dispersion. If the advance guard is too far away, the commander may momentarily halt them while the main body closes the gap. Phase lines and checkpoints can also be useful references for controlling other aspects of the operation. If briefed in the order, the unit will know that when they reach Phase Line Red the priority target, primary CASEVAC LZ, formation, etc., will shift. If you are the advance guard commander for a larger movement to contact, you have the same responsibilities to your higher commander that your advance party does to youdeveloping the situation by initiating action and reporting. If your advance party reports crossing Phase Line Red, then that information should be passed to the company commander. If your advance party reports enemy contact, you should make a decision, initiate action, and report the information to the company commander. Good combat reporting is critical to maintaining the tempo of a movement to contact, because it develops the situation for the commander and allows him to make a decision. After initiating action, the advance guard should report: Information on the enemy (SALUTE). Example: There is an enemy fireteam vicinity 874 381 engaging us with small arms. Friendly location and actions. Example: We are vicinity 873 382 moving southeast to destroy the enemy. Relevant terrain information. Example: Theres a ridgeline on our north flank; if you stay north of it you should be able to bypass the enemy fireteam without them seeing you.

Incomplete information may delay the commanders decision and slow the tempo of the operation while he attempts to pull more information from the subordinate unit or develop the situation on his own.

17

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Immediate Actions

Immediate action drills in the movement phase maintain tempo by using the minimum force necessary to fix, interdict, destroy, or clear enemy in order to allow the main effort to bypass non-decisive engagements. For a platoon, non-decisive engagements are generally defined as fireteam or smaller sized elements, since squad or larger enemy will require deploying the whole platoon. These example immediate action drills assume contact to the front. Contact to the flanks and rear will be handled in the same basic mannerflank guard or rear guard initiates action and reports; platoon commander decides and communicates further actionbut may slow the unit more. Remember that these immediate actions are only guidelines for what will happen in most cases, not hard and fast rules. If the advance party is easily clearing an enemy squad, there is no need to deploy the platoon; likewise, if the advance party is getting bogged down by heavy fire from an enemy fireteam, the platoon commander may need to deploy some support. The platoon commanders estimate of the situation is what will ultimately dictate the platoons actions. Depending on the distance to the sniper, the accuracy of his fire, and the availability of supporting arms, the commander has several options. If the sniper is 800 meters away, it is probably a waste of time and combat power to send a squad to destroy him, especially since he will likely displace before they get there. The platoon commander can obscure and bypass (with smoke grenades or smoke from supporting agencies), fix and bypass (using direct fires from the advance party or indirect fires), destroy with indirect fires or aviation fires, or clear with the advance party. Using indirect fires or aviation fires is the best economy of force, since it does not disrupt the units formation or significantly slow the unit. If the sniper is too close to safely employ supporting arms, or supporting arms are not available in a timely manner, then the platoon commander may decide to employ his organic units. If the platoon commander decides not to destroy (obscure and bypass or fix and bypass), then he needs to relay this information to any following units so they are aware of the threat. If the platoon commander decides to clear or destroy the enemy, he will send the advance party while he rotates the squads and bypasses with the main body. Once the platoon commander has made a decision and initiated the platoons action, he reports the situation to the company commander. The platoon commander has the same options for an enemy fireteam as for a sniper; however, if the platoon commander is considering bypass he needs to think about how large an enemy force he can bypass and still successfully accomplish the mission. If the platoon has been tasked to clear a route for a convoy, a fireteam may be too large to bypass; if the platoon has been tasked to quickly destroy a withdrawing enemy, the platoon commander may bypass the fireteam to pursue the enemy main body.

Sniper

Fire Team

18

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

DECISIVE ENGAGEMENT
Squad
When engaged by an enemy squad, the advance party (and machineguns, if located with the advance party) will perform a support by fire role for the main body. The advance party fixes and suppresses the enemy and reports the situation to the platoon commander (including terrain details such as if it is more advantageous for the platoon to flank from the left or the right). The platoon commander decides, initiates action and reports to the company commander. The platoon performs a hasty flanking attack and destroys or clears the enemy. In a platoon movement to contact, this ends the movement to contact (see Consolidation Phase). In a company or larger movement to contact, the platoon will rotate to the rear of the company. When engaged by an enemy platoon or larger, the advance party will suppress until the rest of the platoon can deploy. The platoon commander will assess the situation, take action, and report to the company commander. The platoon will perform a support by fire role for the company, or suppress until the company arrives to provide a support by fire for the battalion, etc. Contact with an enemy platoon will end a company movement to contact or rotate the company to the rear in a battalion movement to contact, etc.

Platoon or Larger

Consolidation/Reorganization Phase
Movement to contact ends when the unit is decisively engaged or transitions to the defense. If the unit reaches its limit of advance with no enemy contact and transitions to the defense, the movement to contact has ended. If the unit makes decisive contact, the movement to contact has endedthis does not mean that the unit will not quickly continue offensive operations, just that the decisive engagement has either accomplished the mission or developed the enemy situation to the point that the unit can conduct an attack. The unit conducts the same consolidation procedures as it would in an attack. The unit prepares for follow-on offensive, defensive, or retrograde operations. Follow-on offensive operations may include immediately rotating to the rear of the formation in a larger movement to contact.

References
Reference Number MCDP 1-0 MCRP 5-12A MCWP 3-1 MCWP 3-11.1 FM 3-90 FM 7-8 Reference Title Marine Corps Operations Operational Terms and Graphics Ground Combat Operations Marine Rifle Company / Platoon Tactics Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad

19

Basic Officer Course

B3N4638

Movement to Contact

Notes

20

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

MILITARY LAW B3O4818 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Military Law
Introduction The Supreme Court has characterized the armed forces as a "society apart." They are a society within a society, with special societal needs, norms, and mores. That society also needs, and has, its own distinct legal system established by Congress to satisfy the needs of a society whose principal purpose is "to win wars." The courts have consistently recognized that some restraints on liberty and some legal procedures that would not be acceptable in American society generally, (e.g., inspection procedures), are permissible in the military community. Military law consists of the following: Statutes governing the military establishment and regulations issued there under. Constitutional powers of the President and regulations issued there under. Inherent authority of military commanders. Importance The purpose of military law is to: Promote justice. Assist in maintaining good order and discipline in the armed forces. Promote efficiency and effectiveness in the military establishment, and thereby strengthen the national security of the United States (US). This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Creation of Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) Page Error! Bookmark not defined. Regulations 7 Manual for Courts-Martial 8 Levels of Military Justice System 11 Summary Court Martial 18 Special (SPCM) and General (GCM) Courts21 Martial Evidentiary Seizures 23 Apprehension 26 Search and Seizures 29 Inspections 38 Types of Discharges 39 Involuntary Discharge Procedures 44

In This Lesson

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Military Law (Continued)


In This Lesson (Continued) This lesson covers the following topics (Continued):

Topic Summary References Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Notes Appendix A, USMJ Punitive Articles Appendix B, Nonjudicial Maximum Punishment Chart Appendix C, Suspects Rights Acknowledgement/Statement Appendix D, Military Suspects Acknowledgement and Waiver of Rights Appendix E, Record or Authorization for Search Appendix F, Military Police Receipt of Property (Chain of Custody)

Page 45 45 45 46 47 72 73 74 76 77

Learning Objectives

Terminal Learning Objectives MCCS-UCMJ-1001. Without the aid of reference, describe Article 15, Non-judicial Punishment (NJP) without error. MCCS-UCMJ-1002. Without the aid of reference, describe Article 31, Rights of the Accused without error. MCCS-UCMJ-1004. Without the aid of references, describe the Military's Justice System without error. MCCS-UCMJ-1005. Without the aid of references, identify the five types of discharges without omission. MCCS-UCMJ-1006. Without the aid of references, identify punitive articles of the UCMJ without omission. MCCS-UCMJ-1007. Without the aid of references, identify the forms of punishment for violations of the UCMJ without omission MCCS-UCMJ-1008. Without the aid of references, identify the types of courts-martial without omission.

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Military Law (Continued)


Learning Objectives (Continued) Terminal Learning Objectives (Continued) MCCS-UCMJ-2203. Given a service member suspected of violating an offense covered by the UCMJ and a UCMJ Article 31 warning card, advise a suspect of Article 31 Rights without error. MCCS-UCMJ-2204. Given an individual suspected of committing an offense covered by the UCMJ, apprehend a suspect without violating the suspect's rights. MCCS-UCMJ-2205. Given a situation covered by the UCMJ and under direction of competent authority, conduct a lawful search and seizure to obtain lawful evidence in accordance with the UCMJ. MCCS-UCMJ-2206. Given a situation covered by the UCMJ and under direction of competent authority, conduct a lawful inspection without violating individual right. MCCS-UCMJ-2309. Given a situation covered by the UCMJ and under direction of competent authority, supervise a lawful search and/or seizure to obtain lawful evidence in accordance with the JAG Manual. Enabling Learning Objectives MCCS-UCMJ-1007a. With the aid of reference, identify who has the authority to impose punishment under the UCMJ in accordance with the UCMJ. MCCS-UCMJ-1007b. With the aid of reference, identify the justification to impose punishment under the UCMJ in accordance with the UCMJ. MCCS-UCMJ-2203a. With the aid of reference, describe the elements of an offense with out omission MCCS-UCMJ-2205a. Without the aid of reference, describe the procedures for safeguarding evidence to ensure the proper chain of custody.

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Creation of Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)


Prior to 1950, each service had its own punitive regulations. In 1950, Congress drafted and enacted a UCMJ, which constitutes the military law of the US. The UCMJ, found in Title 10, US Code: Was passed by Congress and signed into federal law by the President. Has 146 subsections, referred to as "Articles." These 146 articles are further divided into two groups: o Articles 1 through 76 and 135 through 146 are procedural in nature. o Articles 77 through 134 are the punitive articles that detail the criminal law applicable to the armed forces.

Manual for CourtsMartial (MCM, 2002 or "The Manual")

The Manual for Courts-Martial is the document that implements the UCMJ. Issued by executive order signed by the President in his capacity as commander-in-chief, subsections of the MCM, 2002 are referred to as either: "Rules for Courts-Martial" (RCM) Military Rules of Evidence" (MRE) "Paragraphs"

Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction is the power to execute the laws and administer justice. The UCMJ applies to all active duty service members, anytime, anywhere. The Marine Corps has jurisdiction over all service members on active duty. Jurisdiction commences with a valid enlistment and ends with delivery of valid discharge papers. The UCMJ also applies to: Reservists on active duty, including drill weekends. Military retirees.

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Regulations
Congress authorizes service secretaries to issue regulations governing the conduct of their respective services. The Secretary of the Navy (SecNav) has promulgated US Navy Regulations (Navy Regs) as the controlling authority for Department of Navy regulations. Navy Regs cover numerous subjects including: The role of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC). Ceremonial details and protocol. Various prohibitions on relationships between members of the Department of the Navy (e.g., Navy Regs define and prohibit fraternization and sexual harassment).

Other Regulations o JAGINST 5800.7C. Manual of the Judge Advocate General (JAGMAN). While the JAGMAN covers numerous matters concerning legal administration, chapter II is the primary reference for administrative (vice criminal) investigations. o Marine Corps Manual. Senior Marine Corps Regulation. o MCO P5800.8C. Marine Corps Manual for Legal Administration (LEGADMINMAN). Covers the administration of many legal situations including: Nonjudicial punishment. Officer misconduct. Unauthorized absences. Details of Marine Corps policy on topics such as: Paternity. Child support. Indebtedness.

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Manual for Courts-Martial


Punitive Articles (77-134). Set out in Part IV of the Manual, each punitive article is in the same format; including the fifty-two separate offenses listed under Article 134 (see Appendix A for samples of some common offenses). Each punitive article consists of: Text of the article. Elements of the offense. Facts the government must prove beyond a reasonable doubt to convict a service member at court-martial. Explanation. A narrative discussion of the offense with definitions of key terms. Lesser included offenses. Maximum punishment. Note: Offenses addressed at nonjudicial punishment, summary court-martial, and special court-martial have jurisdictional limits that may affect the maximum punishment possible. Sample specification(s).

Finding the Proper Charge and Specification. Step Action 1 2 Get all of the facts. Review them and make sure you understand them. Identify the potential charge(s) by reviewing the contents of Part IV, Manual for Courts-Martial, 2005 to determine the applicable article(s). (See MCM, 2005, Table of Contents, Page xxiv.) Examine the elements and all explanation paragraphs in Part IV, MCM, 2005, for each article you think may be applicable. Match the facts as you know them with the elements and explanation paragraphs. There must be evidence, direct or circumstantial, establishing each element. Draft the specification(s) using the sample specifications contained in Part IV, MCM, 2005. Use the exact wording that is contained in the sample specification. Do not hesitate to call the trial counsel (prosecutor) who supports your unit.

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Manual for Courts-Martial (Continued)


Initiating and Preferring Charges. Initiate. To bring or report an allegation concerning an offense to the attention of military authorities. Charges may be initiated by any: o Person, civilian or military. o Means: letter, hotline complaint, telephone call, log book entry, etc. Prefer. To formally accuse a military member, under oath, of an offense under the UCMJ. When the accuser swears to charges, he or she is said to have "preferred" charges. The accuser: o Swears that there is sufficient information available to believe there is a factual basis for the charges. o Must be a person subject to the UCMJ. o Signs the charges and specifications under oath before a commissioned officer of the armed forces authorized to administer oaths.

Charges and Specifications. Charge. What article of the UCMJ (by number) has allegedly been violated? Specifications. A statement of how the accused is supposed to have violated the article.

Example: Charge: Violation of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, Article 121. Specification: In that Private John D. Dillinger, US Marine Corps, Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 314, Marine Aircraft Group 11, Third Marine Aircraft Wing, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, did, at Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, California, on or about 2 January 2006, steal a wrist watch, of a value of about $75.00, the property of Sergeant J. E. Hoover, US Marine Corps. Lesser Included Offenses (LIO). An offense other than the one charged, which contains some, but not all, of the elements of the offense charged, and no elements different from the offense charged. An attempt to commit the charged offense is always an LIO of the charged offense (for example, attempted larceny). An attempt to commit an LIO of the charged offense is a lesser included offense of the charged offense. Because an LIO is a necessarily included offense within the original charge, there is no requirement to list it as a separate charge and specification. Examples of LIOs: Unauthorized absence (UA) is an LIO of desertion. Wrongful appropriation is an LIO of larceny.

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Manual for Courts-Martial (Continued)


Intent. Intent is that state of mind required to commit an offense. To be criminally liable, an accused must: Have committed an act. Also have had a "guilty mind" while doing the act. It is presumed that one intends for the logical consequences of his actions to occur.

A general intent offense exists when the article does not indicate that a specific state of mind or element of knowledge is part of the offense. (In other words, if the article does not mention "intent" in the elements, it is normally a general intent offense.) Since it is presumed the accused intended the act, the government has no obligation to prove general intent. Examples of general intent offenses include: UA. Simple assault.

A specific intent offense exists when the article requires a specific state of mind or element of knowledge to exist in order for an offense to be committed. (In other words, the government must affirmatively prove state of mind.) To determine if a specific state of mind or knowledge is required to commit an offense, examine the text of the article and the elements of the offense appearing in Part IV, MCM, 2005. Examples of specific intent offenses include: Desertion. Larceny. Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm.

Defenses. There are various types of defenses to charged misconduct. Defenses involve special rules and do not apply to all situations. Examples of some defenses are Lack of requisite criminal intent. Alibi. Impossibility. Ignorance or mistake of fact. Self-defense. Coercion or duress. Accident.

Refer questions about possible defenses to a charge to your staff judge advocate.

10

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Levels of the Military Justice System


Here is a list, from least to most severe, of the different levels of the Military Justice System: Nonpunitive measures. Nonjudicial punishment (NJP). Summary court-martial (SCM). Special court-martial (SPCM). General court-martial (GCM).

Nonpunitive Corrective Measures. Nonpunitive corrective measures are corrective measures that are designed to overcome noted deficiencies in a unit or an individual and are not imposed as a punishment. Nonpunitive administrative actions include: Informal and formal counseling. Exhortation. Disapproval. Criticism. Administrative withholding of privileges.

A commander, (including a platoon commander), may withhold privileges, so long as an individual is not deprived of normal liberty. For example, if a Marine becomes drunk and causes a disturbance at the base theater, the commander may put the base theater off-limits to the Marine for a limited period of time. Extra Military Instruction (EMI). EMI is not meant to be punishment and measures utilized must: Logically relate to the deficiency. Serve a valid training purpose.

EMI may be performed after normal working hours, but only: After approval of the commanding officer. Under supervision.

EMI is never to be performed: For more than two hours a day. On Sunday.

Chapter I of the JAGMAN details the specific requirements for EMI. For examples, Extra drill for drill failures is permissible. Cleaning the head is not allowed for drill failure; this constitutes a punishment.

11

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Levels of the Military Justice System (Continued)


Nonpunitive Letter of Caution (NPLOC). A NPLOC is a written censure that is considered a personal matter between the individual receiving it and the superior issuing it. Censure is criticism of one's conduct or performance of duty. Once issued, a NPLOC ceases to exist from an official standpoint. Although the underlying facts giving rise to the NPLOC may be mentioned on a fitness report, the letter itself cannot. Because the measures described above are nonpunitive, any small unit leader (down to fire team leader) may use them. Platoon commanders must closely monitor the use of such measures by enlisted subordinates to ensure that illegal punishment is not inadvertently imposed. Nonjudicial Punishment (NJP). The lowest level of military justice, NJP is imposed by commanding officers and officers-in-charge on members of their commands for minor offenses. The object of NJP is to quickly correct minor offenses without resort to trial by court-martial. Nonjudicial punishment is known by several titles: NJP. Office hours (Marine Corps). Captain's mast (Navy/Coast Guard). Article 15 punishment (Army/Air Force).

Authority to Impose NJP

Who may impose NJP? The power to impose punishment is an aspect of command; rank alone does not confer NJP authority. Company commanders and higher may impose punishment on commissioned and warrant officers and enlisted members of their commands. (By custom, officer punishment is usually reserved to general officers, although commanders down to battalion/squadron level sometimes exercise it.) Officers-in-charge who are specifically detailed as such by Table of Organization (T/O), commanding general's orders, or other such authority, may impose punishment on enlisted members of their units only.

Delegation of Authority

Only a flag or general officer-in-command may delegate the power to impose NJP. If the second-in-command assumes command, he or she also assumes NJP authority. This is succession to command, not a delegation of authority.

12

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Levels of the Military Justice System (Continued)


NJP (Continued) Punishable Offenses Minor offenses under the UCMJ are properly punishable at NJP. What constitutes a "minor offense" depends on the facts and circumstances surrounding its commission; commanding officers have wide discretion in determining which offenses are "minor." Prior to the imposition of NJP, a preliminary inquiry must be conducted. The accused has the right to know: The nature of the offense(s) of which suspected. That the Commanding Officer is contemplating office hours.

Rights of the Accused at NJP

The accused has an absolute right to refuse NJP. Unless attached to or embarked on a vessel. Even during the proceeding, until punishment is imposed. The punishment is considered imposed when it is announced by the commanding officer.

If an accused refuses NJP, the commanding officer has several options: Refer the case to trial by court-martial (or, if he or she is not a court-martial convening authority, forward the case to a senior commanding officer recommending such referral). Decide to take no further action. Use administrative/nonpunitive measures to dispose of the case.

Right to Confer with Counsel

An accused has no right to detailed defense counsel at NJP. Before deciding whether or not to accept NJP, an accused has the right to confer with an independent lawyer to help make that decision. Note: Counsel merely assists the accused in deciding whether or not to accept NJP; counsel does not normally represent the accused at NJP. As a practical matter, always provide the opportunity to talk to counsel. An accused may also waive the right to talk to counsel.

13

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Levels of the Military Justice System (Continued)


NJP (Continued) Hearing Rights The accused has an absolute right to remain silent and to make no statement at all. The accused has the right to ask questions of any witness who makes a statement at the hearing and to present evidence in his or her behalf (including a statement of his or her own). The accused has the right to end the hearing and refuse NJP at any time before punishment is actually announced. The accused has an absolute right to appeal any punishment imposed.

Appeal Rights

Procedure at NJP Step Action 1 The individual who conducted the preliminary inquiry submits a report (oral or written) to the commanding officer, who decides whether or not to hold office hours. Report may be based on a Criminal Investigation Command (CID) or Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS) report. 2 If office hours are to be held, the: Unit punishment book (UPB) is prepared. Accused is informed of: o The charges. o His or her Article 31 rights. o His or her right to refuse NJP. If the accused so desires, he or she may request to see an attorney prior to accepting or refusing NJP. 3 If the accused elects to accept NJP, the unit will: Schedule the office hours. Arrange for the presence of observers and witnesses. 4 Immediately before the office hours, the accused is again informed of all of his or her rights under Articles 15 and 31. 5 At: Company-level office hours, the company commander and first sergeant are usually present, as are the platoon commander and platoon sergeant in all but the most extraordinary circumstances. Battalion-level office hours, the battalion commander, sergeant major, company commander, and first sergeant would normally expect to be present. 6 During the NJP hearing, the commanding officer again reminds the accused of his or her rights under Articles 15 and 31. 7 Options available to the commanding officer: Dismiss the charge(s). Impose nonpunitive corrective measures. Impose NJP. Refer the case to trial by court-martial, or if not empowered to do so, refer the case to higher authority with a recommendation for trial by court-martial.
14 Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Levels of the Military Justice System (Continued)


NJP (Continued) UPB The UPB is the document the unit uses to record the imposition of NJP on enlisted personnel. When officers receive NJP, the imposition of punishment is reported by naval correspondence to the CMC. A UPB page is not prepared. Even if the accused signs the UPB indicating that he or she will accept office hours, NJP may still be refused at any time before punishment is announced. Authorized Punishments Authorized punishment depends on the rank of the: Commander who imposes punishment. Marine who receives it.

Authorized punishments are described in the chart in Appendix B (page 72). Suspension Part or all of the punishment imposed at NJP may be suspended for up to six months. If the accused: Stays out of trouble during the period of suspension, the suspended punishment is remitted (goes away). Is involved in further misconduct during the period of suspension, then the suspension can be vacated, and the suspended punishment takes effect.

An officer-in-charge (OIC), no matter what his rank, may never award: Punishment to an officer. More than that punishment imposable by a company-grade company commander.

In addition to the punishments described in Appendix B (page 72) commanders and OICs may always award punitive letters of admonishment or reprimand. (Punitive letters always become part of the recipient's official record.)

15

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Levels of the Military Justice System (Continued)


NJP (Continued) Special Consideration -- In the naval service, reduction authority is limited to one grade. Only commanders who have authority to promote to Reduction the grade from which the accused is being reduced may award reduction. Only battalion/squadron commanders or higher may reduce sergeants and below. Staff noncommissioned officers may not be reduced at NJP. Only the Commandant of the Marine Corps has that authority. Appeal of NJP If punishment is awarded, the accused may appeal to the next senior commander in his or her chain of command. Nonpunitive corrective measures cannot be appealed. Referral to trial cannot be appealed. The punishment was: Unjust (i.e., the accused maintains that he or she did not commit the offense for which punishment was imposed). Disproportionate to the offense (i.e., the punishment imposed was too harsh). Appeal must be made in writing. A standard naval letter is sent from the accused to the appeal authority via the officer who actually imposed the punishment. The platoon commander or first sergeant should assist the Marine in writing his or her appeal (i.e., format, grammar, etc.). The appeal must be timely. An appeal must be submitted within five days (calendar days, not working days) of the imposition of punishment. In the absence of good cause shown, a late appeal can be denied solely on the basis that it was not submitted within the five day "window." However, a late appeal must be forwarded because it is the appeal authority's decision to consider it or not. A service member who has filed a timely appeal must still undergo the punishment imposed while awaiting action on the appeal, subject to one exception. If action is not taken on an appeal within five days of its submission and the service member so requests, any un-served punishment involving restraint or extra duties will be stayed until the appeal is acted upon.

Grounds for Appeal

Appeal Procedures

16

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Levels of the Military Justice System (Continued)


NJP (Continued) Appeal Authority The next commander in the chain of command senior to the officer who imposed NJP is the appeal authority and the options available to the appeal authority are to Approve the punishment in whole. Set aside the punishment (remit). Suspend all or any part of the punishment, for a period not to exceed six months. Change to a lesser form of punishment (mitigate).

The appeal authority cannot increase the punishment. Corrective Action after NJP If NJP was executed, action may be taken within a reasonable time (usually four months) to set aside the NJP. Such action may be taken by: Officer (billet) who initially imposed the NJP. Successor in command. Commanding officer or OIC of a command to which accused is properly transferred after the imposition of NJP.

Courts-Martial Definitions. The table below defines terms pertinent to courts-martial.

Term Convene Convening authority (CA)

Refer

Definition To create, appoint, and bring into existence The commander who creates, appoints, and brings into existence a court-martial. In the Marine Corps, the lowest level commander authorized to convene a court-martial (summary or special court-martial) is a battalion or squadron commander. In the air wings, however, it is common practice for air group commanders to withdraw courtmartial convening authority from squadron commanders, thereby making themselves the sole convening authority within their respective groups To send a specific case to a specific, previously convened courtmartial for trial

17

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Summary Court-Martial
Generally: SCM is the lowest, least severe form of court-martial under the UCMJ. Although called a court-martial, like NJP this is not a judicial proceeding. It is not a "criminal prosecution" like a SPCM or GCM. Only enlisted personnel can be tried by SCM.

Composition of the SCM

SCM is composed of one commissioned officer: Usually in the grade of captain (O-3) or above (this is not an absolute requirement). Who acts as prosecutor, defense counsel, and judge.

The convening authority may restrict the power of the court to award a particular punishment. Rights of the Accused at SCM The accused has no right to a detailed military defense counsel, but may retain civilian counsel at his own expense. The accused does have to right to: Refuse SCM, even if embarked upon or attached to a vessel. Be present and to hear all the evidence against him or her. Cross-examine all witnesses who testify against him or her, and to examine all documentary and real evidence introduced at trial. Remain silent or to testify in his or her own behalf. Call witnesses and present evidence in his or her own behalf, both on the merits (guilt or innocence) and in extenuation and mitigation (appropriate sentence).

Duties of the SCM

Obtain all of the: Witnesses. Evidence. Conduct a pretrial conference with the accused to go over: Rights. Administrative details pertaining to the court-martial.

18

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Summary Court-Martial (Continued)


Trial Procedure Unlike the informal NJP hearing, the SCM is a formal proceeding. All witnesses testify under oath: The only exception the accused may make an unsworn statement during the sentencing phase of the trial. If the accused testifies on the merits (guilt or innocence), he or she must be placed under oath just like any other witness. The SCM officer summarizes all testimony; the summary is attached to the record of trial.

The military rules of evidence apply. Evidence is marked as exhibits and attached to the record of trial. Order of Proceedings Rights advisement of the accused Entry of pleas by the accused Evidence presented on the merits (if there is any plea of "not guilty") Findings ("guilty" or "not guilty" of each offense before the court) Evidence presented that is relevant to sentencing (aggravation, extenuation and mitigation) if there is a finding of "guilty" Sentencing (if "guilty")

The SCM prepares a record of trial, which must be promptly provided to the accused for use in preparation of any clemency submission he or she desires to make. The record includes: A summary of the hearing, to include a fairly detailed summary of all testimony pertaining to charges for which there was a plea of "not guilty" but a finding of "guilty". The original charge sheet. All exhibits the SCM considered.

19

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Summary Court-Martial (Continued)


Authorized Punishments. The table below lists authorized punishments for an SCM. The SCM officer may recommend suspension of all or part of the sentence, but only the convening authority has the power to suspend SCM punishment.

Maximum Punishment

Confinement for one month Forfeiture of two-thirds (2/3) of one month's pay for a period of one month (based on pay of rank to which reduced, if applicable) Reduction to the lowest enlisted pay grade (E-1)

Other Authorized Punishments (Imposed Instead of Confinement) If the accused is a sergeant (E-5) or above, he or she may not be

Hard labor without confinement for 45 days Restriction for 60 days

Reduced more than one pay grade Confined Awarded hard labor without confinement

20

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

The Special (SPCM) and General (GCM) Courts-Martial


Generally, SPCMs and GCMs are formal, adversarial trial proceedings. They consist of: A military judge. Trial counsel (prosecutor). Defense counsel. The accused. There may or may not be a panel of members (jury). The accused has a choice of composition: Military judge alone. Panel of officers. Court with enlisted membership. An enlisted accused may request that at least one-third (1/3) of the composition of the court include enlisted members. Enlisted members: Must be senior to the accused, either by rank or date of rank. May not be from the same unit as the accused. Formal rules of evidence apply. A court reporter records testimony, and a summarized or a verbatim transcript (depends upon the sentence adjudged) is prepared.

Special Court-Martial (SPCM). Battalion or squadron commanders or higher convene SPCMs. An SPCM requires a minimum of three members (if not military judge alone). Maximum sentence at an SPCM includes: Confinement for 12 months. Forfeiture of two-thirds (2/3) base pay per month for 12 months. Reduction to the lowest enlisted grade (E-1). Bad conduct discharge (BCD). Note: If the maximum possible punishment in the Article for that offense is less than the above listed punishments, then the limits in the Article apply. For example, punishment for a simple assault (Article 128) may not include a BCD, or confinement for more than 3 months, or forfeiture for more than three months. Officers can be tried by SPCM, but in practice rarely are because an SPCM may not award the following punishments to an officer: Dismissal. Confinement. Hard labor without confinement. A finding of guilty at a SPCM constitutes a federal misdemeanor conviction.

21

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

The Special (SPCM) and General (GCM) Courts-Martial (Continued)


General Court-Martial (GCM). A commanding general after formal pretrial investigation under Article 32, UCMJ, convenes a GCM. Before charges may be referred to a GCM, a pretrial investigation is required. It is a thorough, impartial investigation to inquire into the truth of the matters set forth in the charges, the form of the charges and to recommend an appropriate disposition. The pretrial investigation serves a function similar to the grand jury in civilian proceedings. The accused: Is entitled to detailed counsel. May waive the Article 32 investigation.

The investigating officer (IO), usually an O-4 or above or a judge advocate, prepares a report to the officer who directed the investigation, who must be an SPCM or GCM convening authority. The IO's recommendations are not binding on the convening authority.

A GCM requires a minimum of five members (if not military judge alone).

At a GCM, the maximum sentence is whatever is specified under Part IV, Manual for Courts-Martial, for the offenses of which a Marine is found guilty. Possible punishments include: Death. Punitive discharge: o Bad Conduct Discharge (BCD) (for enlisted persons only). o Dishonorable discharge (DD) (for enlisted persons only). o Dismissal (this is the commissioned officer equivalent of a DD). Confinement (for both officers and enlisted persons). Reduction in rank (for enlisted persons only. Total forfeiture of all pay and allowances.

A finding of guilty at a GCM generally constitutes a federal felony conviction.

22

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Evidentiary Seizures
Article 31 Warnings -- Apprehension -- Search & Seizure. Introduction. Courts-martial are federal criminal proceedings. As in all criminal proceedings, significant constitutional, legal, and regulatory substantive and procedural protections exist which regulate the conduct of those proceedings and the use of evidence at those proceedings. The military rules of evidence (MREs) (Part III, Manual for Courts-Martial) are patterned after the federal rules of evidence that are applicable in federal district courts. The MREs have been, in some cases, modified to accommodate the military's special operational circumstances and needs of good order and discipline. Company grade officers commonly experience the following situations on a regular basis; these situations are by no means exhaustive. Understanding your authority and the limits thereof and the proper procedures for dealing with these situations directly impacts the court-martial process. Article 31 Warning Interrogation. What is an Article 31 Warning? The rights advisement required before questioning a suspect or an accused regarding the commission of an offense. Article 31 warning requirements began with the adoption of the UCMJ in 1950. Article 31, UCMJ: Prohibits compulsory self-incrimination or questioning of a suspect or an accused without first providing specific warnings. Appears in Appendix 2 of the Manual for Courts-Martial, 2000 (MCM, 2000). o Military Rule of Evidence 305, found in Part III of the MCM, 2000, discusses warnings about rights. Current warnings provide greater protection to a suspect or accused than required under the 5th Amendment to the US Constitution. Specific warnings currently required are: o You are suspected of the offense(s) of o You have the right to remain silent o Any statement you make may be used against you in a trial by courtmartial o You have the right to consult with a lawyer before any questioning. This lawyer may be a civilian lawyer retained by you at your own expense, a military lawyer appointed to act as your lawyer without cost to you, or both o You have the right to have such retained civilian lawyer and/or appointed military lawyer present during this interview o If you decide to answer questions now without a lawyer present, you will have the right to stop this interview at any time. You also have the right to stop answering questions at any time in order to obtain a lawyer.

23

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Evidentiary Seizures (Continued)


Article 31 Warnings (Continued) Why must the warning To protect a Marine's right against compulsory selfbe given? incrimination To preserve evidence for trial For an incriminating statement by the accused to be admitted in a court-martial as evidence against him or her, a proper Article 31 rights advisement is required. Incriminating statements include: Confession. Oral or written statement by the accused, which admits complete guilt of a crime. Admission. Oral or written statement by the accused, which implicates the accused in regard to an offense, but is not a complete admission of guilt. Before any interrogation or questioning of a suspect or an accused about an offense. Article 31 does not apply to spontaneous remarks (i.e., statements made before questioning is initiated); however, follow-up questioning without warnings is not permissible.

When must the warning be given?

Who must give the warning?

Anyone subject to the UCMJ must give Article 31 warnings if: An offense has been committed, and That person intends to ask the suspect questions about the offense.

To whom must the warning be given?

Persons subject to the UCMJ who are either suspected or accused of having committed an offense and are going to be questioned about that offense. Suspect - a person you have reason to believe has committed an offense. Accused - a person who has been informed of sworn charges against him or her or who is facing disciplinary proceedings. All persons on active duty in the Armed Forces are subject to the UCMJ regardless of their geographic location.

By definition, Article 31 warnings are not given to civilians.

24

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Evidentiary Seizures (Continued)


Article 31 Warnings (Continued) Read the complete text of the Article 31 warning to the How to Give the suspect or accused, using Appendix C (page 73). Warning You may explain or add to the warning, but do not: Leave anything out. Attempt to paraphrase. Question an individual who is represented by a lawyer unless the lawyer agrees to the interrogation.

Waiver of Rights

The suspect or accused must freely, voluntarily, knowingly and intelligently waive his or her rights before any statement that he or she makes in response to questioning will be admissible at a court-martial. The suspect or accused may understand his or her rights but not waive them; therefore it is not sufficient to simply ask, "Do you understand your rights?" You must ask three questions of the individual to be interrogated for a valid waiver: 1. Do you want a lawyer? 2. Do you understand that if you should decide to answer questions, you may stop answering questions at any time? 3. Do you want to answer questions and make a statement? Get verbal responses to the three questions identified above. Do not be satisfied with nodding of the head, grunts, or similar nonverbal responses. Do not attempt to interrogate a person who is Drunk. Under the influence of drugs.

Use a format that permits the suspect or accused to acknowledge receipt of the warning and an understanding of his or her rights in writing whenever possible.

25

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Evidentiary Seizures (Continued)


Article 31 Warnings (Continued) Waiver of Rights A Suspect's Rights Acknowledgment/Statement is (Continued) available in Appendix A-1-m (1) of the JAGMAN, and a copy is attached as Appendix C (page 73) to this handout. A Military Suspect's Acknowledgment and Waiver of Rights is another commonly used form for obtaining a waiver of rights, and a copy is attached as Appendix D (page 74). Coercing a suspect or accused into giving a waiver of rights or making unlawful promises in exchange for such a waiver is prohibited. Exercise of Rights Questioning must cease immediately upon the exercise of the: Privilege against self-incrimination. The suspect or accused refuses to talk or states that he or she does not desire to talk or make a statement. Right to seek counsel. The suspect or accused indicates he or she desires to talk with a lawyer. If a suspect or accused is willing to make a statement, you should first ask whether he or she has made a statement about the suspected offense to anyone prior to the present interview. If a prior statement has been made, you should determine whether a proper warning was given to the suspect or accused prior to that statement. If a suspect or accused has been questioned without a proper Article 31 rights advisement, special precautions are required: You must first advise the suspect or accused as follows: o The statement you gave to __________ before is not admissible at a court-martial and cannot be used against you. o Regardless of the fact that you have talked about the offense before, you still have the right to remain silent now. Then proceed with the standard rights advisement; that is, warn them again.

Cleansing Warning

26

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Apprehension
Definition Taking an individual into custody. The military equivalent of civilian "arrest".

Authority to apprehend

Authority may be exercised on- or off-base by: Commissioned, warrant, and noncommissioned officers. Military personnel or civilians performing law enforcement, guard, police, or investigative duties. Military police or CID agents regardless of rank. Civilian law enforcement personnel such as NCIS agents or contract security guards. Sentries on post, when authorized to apprehend by their special orders.

Grounds for Apprehension

A person subject to the UCMJ may be apprehended for an offense under the UCMJ based on probable cause. Probable cause to apprehend exists when there are reasonable grounds to believe both that: An offense has been or is being committed. The person to be apprehended committed it.

A person may also be apprehended in order to quell: Quarrels. Affrays. Disorders.

Civilians are not apprehended. They are "detained" until turned over to civilian law enforcement authorities. Military dependents are civilians and are to be treated as such.

27

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Apprehension (Continued)
How to Apprehend Identify yourself to the person being apprehended. If in civilian attire, the best method is to display your armed forces identification card. Clearly notify the person who is being apprehended that he or she is in custody. Even though the fact of apprehension may be implied from the circumstances, do not rely on implication to affect an apprehension tell the person why he or she is being apprehended. Reasonable force may be used to affect an apprehension. If possible under the circumstances, an individual equal or senior in rank to the individual to be apprehended should execute the apprehension. Always search the individual apprehended immediately after taking him or her into custody.

28

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Search and Seizure


Introduction. The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution protects the right of people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures. The Fourth Amendment requires that no search "warrants" be issued except on the basis of probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. Although the military has its own justice system, protections guaranteed under the Constitution apply to the military just as they do in civilian society. The military law regarding search and seizure, therefore, has generally been drawn from decisions of the Supreme Court and other judicial interpretations of the Fourth Amendment.

Exclusionary Rule

Generally, illegally obtained evidence may not be admissible at a court-martial. In addition to evidence that is itself obtained illegally, evidence that is derived from illegal government activities may be subject to the exclusion sanction. Search. Looking for evidence by an agent of the government (see Appendix E (page 76), Record or Authorization for Search) Seizure. Taking physical control of evidence. Real. o o o Physical, tangible item: Pistol. Knife. Drugs.

Definitions

Types of Evidence

Documentary. Written statement, logbook, ledger, or other written record. Testimonial. The testimony of a witness in open court.

29

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Search and Seizure (Continued)


Requirements for Admissibility Each of the three types of evidence must also be: Relevant. Related to the issues being tried. Competent. Conform to the rules of evidence. Authentic. Shown to be what the party offering the evidence claims it to be.

For example, drugs admitted at trial to prove the offense of possession must be demonstrated to be the same drugs actually seized from the accused. To prove authenticity requires: Identification by a unique characteristic. Chain of custody.

Identification

Used when there is an easily recognizable piece of evidence: o Serialized weapons. o Items indelibly marked by the person seizing the evidence. o Items with peculiar individual characteristics. Does not require a chain of custody, although a chain of custody will always be of assistance.

Chain of Custody

The party offering the evidence must account for every person having custody of the evidence between the time it was seized and the time it is admitted into evidence at trial. (Appendix F [page 77] is a sample chain of custody document.) The party offering the evidence must demonstrate that the evidence was safeguarded and properly handled. Any break in the chain of custody may render the evidence inadmissible. A chain of custody can be as short as one link (i.e., a single custodian).

30

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Search and Seizure (Continued)


Duties of an Officer with The best policy is to establish a chain of custody in every Regard to Safeguarding case. Document each person who comes into possession of the evidence after seizure. After you obtain the Evidence evidence, you should: As soon as possible, note the time, date, place, from whom or where the evidence was seized, and describe the evidence. Safeguard the evidence in your possession until you can turn it over to proper authorities. o You must be able to testify that the evidence was not tampered with. o Keep the evidence on your person if possible. o You may lock it up in an area in which only you have access. o Under no circumstances leave the evidence unattended in an unsecured area. o Promptly deliver the evidence to law enforcement personnel.

Items that may be Seized

Instrumentalities of a crime (e.g., burglar tools). Fruits of a crime (e.g., stolen money, stereo). Weapons that could be used to attempt escape. Contraband (any property the possession of which is illegal).

Two Types of Searches

Requiring probable cause. Not requiring probable cause. Probable cause is a reasonable belief that the person, property, or evidence sought, is located in the place or on the person to be searched. Essentially, to search an area where an individual has a reasonable expectation of privacy, you need to have probable cause and proper authorization or permission. If there is any question whether authorization is required to search a particular place, the best policy is to get authorization first if the circumstances permit (example: unlocked personal gear locker in a government office). Authorization to search is an express permission, written or oral, issued by the commanding officer, to search a person or an area for specified property or evidence and to seize such property, evidence, or person.

Searches Requiring Probable Cause

31

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Search and Seizure (Continued)


Who may authorize searches? The convening authority or OIC who has control over the place where the property or person to be searched is situated or found; if that place is not under military control, the Commanding Officer or OIC having control over the person of anyone subject to military law or the law of war. Power to authorize searches may not be delegated. Power to authorize searches is an inherent, non-delegable attribute of command. Basis for Search Authorizations (Probable cause determination) Reasonable Person Test Probable cause to search exists when there is a reasonable belief that the person, property, or evidence sought is located on the person or in the place to be searched.

Based on what you know, would a reasonable person believe what you are looking for is located where you are looking for it? Before a person may conclude that probable cause to search exists, he or she must first have a reasonable belief that the information giving rise to the intent to search is reliable and has a factual basis. Is the source of the information worthy of belief? The commanding officer must be informed of the source of the information presented so that he or she may independently determine the reliability of the informant or information. Indications of reliability are: Prior reliability of source Detail of information provided Amount of time that has passed since information came into hands of informant A determination of probable cause may be based on any or all of the following: Written sworn statements communicated to the commanding officer Sworn oral statements communicated to the commanding officer o In person o Via telephone o By other appropriate means of communication Such information that the commanding officer may already know.

32

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Search and Seizure (Continued)


Reasonable Person Test (Continued) An authorization to search may be based upon hearsay evidence, in whole or part. Any information provided to the commanding officer should be given under oath. The commanding officer must independently evaluate the evidence presented to determine if probable cause exists. The determination that probable cause exists also must be from a "neutral and detached" official. If the commanding officer is personally involved in the prosecution or investigation of a case or has some other personal bias or involvement, then a superior authority should make the probable cause determination. Be sure to give all the information you have to the authorizing officer. Do not assume that the officer already knows any of the information. If the determination of probable cause becomes an issue at a subsequent trial, the court will only consider that information that was actually presented to or known by the authorizing officer. Best Policy: Obtain the authorization in writing. Once the search is authorized, the person granting the authorization should not go to the search area. The search order must: Describe with some degree of particularity the evidence being sought. Clearly define the person and/or place to be searched.

The search authorization's direction concerning the area to be searched must not be exceeded. Example: "1992 blue Mazda pickup truck. Virginia license plate IOU-20K, located in parking lot 14 at Camp Barrett, TBS, MCCDC, Quantico, Virginia for cocaine." If you are not sure you have probable cause to search, do not rush into it. Isolate the area and request assistance (e.g., duty judge advocate, legal officer).

33

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Search and Seizure (Continued)


Scope of the Authorization (What can be searched?) The person of anyone subject to military law or the law of war wherever found. Military property of the US or of non-appropriated fund activities of armed forces of the US wherever found. Persons and property within military control wherever located, including: o Military installations o Military encampments o Military vessels, aircraft, and vehicles o Any other location under military control Does not include a military member's off-base quarters. Commissioned officers Warrant officers Noncommissioned officers When in the execution of guard or police duties, o NCIS agents. o CID agents. o Military Police (MPs). o Other persons properly designated to perform guard or police duties.

Who may conduct a search or seize evidence found (after an authorization has been granted)?

Execution of the Search Authorization

If the person whose property is to be searched is present during a search conducted pursuant to a search authorization, the person conducting the search should, when possible, notify him or her of the act of authorization and its general substance before or contemporaneously with the search. Before performing any search, ask yourself two questions: Can I perform this search without further authorization? If not, what must I do to obtain authorization?

Test

34

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Search and Seizure (Continued)


Exigent Search Although this search must be based on probable cause, a search authorization is not required when there is insufficient time. That is, a reasonable belief exists that the delay necessary to obtain a search authorization would result in the removal, destruction, or concealment of the property or evidence sought. Example: The Officer of the Day smells burning marijuana emanating from a room in the barracks. If it is possible to isolate the area or person without affecting the property or evidence sought, then exigent circumstances probably do not exist. You should wait until authorization is obtained from the commanding officer. Searches Not Requiring Probable Cause The most common searches that dont require probable cause are: Searches of Government Property Searches of government property. Consent searches. Searches incident to lawful apprehension. Emergency searches. Searches of open fields or woodlands.

No consent or probable cause is required unless the person to whom the property is issued or assigned has a reasonable expectation of privacy therein at the time of the search. One does not usually have an expectation of privacy in that which is not issued for personal use. Example: Wall lockers or footlockers in living quarters that are issued for the purpose of storing personal possessions normally are issued for personal use. In that case, there is an expectation of privacy. Example: Office desks or government brief cases are issued for official business purposes; therefore, no recognized expectation of privacy exists. However, if there is any question about expectation of privacy, the safest course of action is to obtain authorization.

35

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Search and Seizure (Continued)


Consent Searches A search of any person or property may be conducted with lawful consent. Who may consent? Any person may consent to a search of his or her own body and any property over which he or she exercises control (ownership is not necessary). Scope: The person granting the consent may limit the consent in any way and may withdraw consent at any time. The search must not exceed the limitations placed upon the search by the individual giving consent (for example: "You may search my house, except for the hall closet"). To be valid, the consent must be voluntary. No coercion or promises can be made to induce an individual to consent to a search. Consent to search, given after the statement that a warrant can/will be obtained, is usually not voluntary. There is no requirement to tell an individual that he or she can refuse to give consent, unless asked. Searches Incident to a Lawful Apprehension A full search of the individual being apprehended. (Always conduct this search.) Usually need more than just apprehension to obtain bodily fluids. The area within the immediate control of the person being apprehended, for weapons and destructible evidence. o "Immediate control" is that area the person being apprehended could reach by lunging. o If an individual is apprehended while driving a vehicle, the entire passenger compartment, glove compartment (locked or not), and any containers therein. When an apprehension occurs at a location in which other persons might reasonably be present who could interfere with the apprehension or endanger those effecting the apprehension, a reasonable examination (a "sweep," or walk-through, but nothing more) may be made of the general area in which such other persons might be located.

36

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Search and Seizure (Continued)


Searches Incident to a Lawful Apprehension (Continued) A search incident to a lawful apprehension is conducted to discover weapons and destructible evidence, with a view toward: Protecting the person making the apprehension. Discovering instrumentalities that might assist in an escape attempt. Preventing the destruction of evidence. Even if you find some evidence that you did not suspect the accused had during a search incident to a lawful apprehension, it is admissible in judicial proceedings. Emergency Searches This type of search may be conducted of persons or property in a good faith effort to: Searches of Open Fields or Woodlands Render immediate medical aid. Obtain information that will assist in the rendering of such aid. Prevent immediate or ongoing personal injury. Outside the immediate vicinity of a home, mere ownership of property does not give rise to an expectation of privacy. May be conducted by anyone, at any time, for any reason

Apprehension is the taking of a person into custody. It is the military equivalent of the civilian term "arrest." What can be searched incident to an apprehension?

37

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Inspections
Definition. The examination of the whole or part of a: Unit. Organization. Installation. Vessel. Aircraft. Vehicle. including an examination made at entrance and exit points, conducted as an incident of command, the primary purpose of which is to determine and ensure the: Security. Military fitness. Good order and discipline.

of the unit, organization, installation, vessel, aircraft, or vehicle. Scope. An inspection may include, but is not limited to, an examination to determine and to ensure that any or all of the following requirements are met: That the command is properly equipped, functioning properly, maintaining proper standards of readiness, sea or airworthiness, sanitation, and cleanliness. That personnel are present, fit, and ready for duty. o Urinalysis testing - Primary purpose is to ferret out illegal drugs as a means of protecting the health of the unit and assuring its fitness to accomplish its mission. o An inspection also includes an examination to locate and confiscate unlawful weapons and other contraband when such property would adversely affect the security, military fitness, or good order and discipline of the command and when the facts and circumstances of the inspection establish that the inspection was not ordered to gather evidence concerning a specific crime or a specific individual. The legality of such a "contraband search" would be closely examined at a trial.

The best policy is to schedule the inspection of the command. This does not mean that the date of the examination must be published to the command as a whole. An inspection made for the primary purpose of obtaining evidence for use in a trial by court-martial or in other disciplinary proceedings is not an inspection, it is a search (this is called a subterfuge). Evidence discovered during a subterfuge search is not admissible at trial. Conducting the Inspection Must be conducted in a reasonable fashion. May use any reasonable natural or technological aid, such as drug detection dogs.

38

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Inspections (Continued)
Results Any unlawful weapons, contraband, or other evidence of crime located during a lawful inspection may be seized and may be admissible at trial. Any unit leader, including a platoon commander, squad leader, or fire team leader may order an inspection for the security, military fitness, or good order and discipline of his or her unit. Such "health and welfare" inspections are generally designed to: Ascertain the health, welfare, morale, state of readiness and living conditions of unit members. Check the state of physical repair or disrepair of buildings and equipment of the unit.

Authority

Article 31 warnings are not required in order to inspect because you are not asking a suspect or an accused to make a statement. Plain View Doctrine While in the course of a lawful activity, if a person who has the authority to seize reasonably observes evidence that is subject to seizure, he or she may seize the evidence. In other words, if the government official was legitimately situated when he or she saw an item and if the government official reasonably believed that the item seen was connected with criminal activity, then the item can be seized. Example: A company commander (a person with the authority to seize), during a routine personnel inspection (lawful activity), notices a switchblade knife protruding from the pocket of a PFC. (Reasonable observation of an item subject to seizure.) Inventories Items connected with criminal activity that are discovered during the course of a bona fide inventory, may be seized under the plain view doctrine. For impounded vehicles, inventories are permissible because they protect: The owner from loss. The government against claims. Protect police from possible dangerous contents.

39

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Types of Discharges
Introduction. The majority of Marines, officer and enlisted, separate or leave our Corps at the end of an enlistment or contract; regular officers submit a resignation. There are other circumstances, both voluntary and involuntary, under which Marines may leave active duty, prior to the completion of their obligated service. Regardless of the circumstances under which a Marine leaves the service, he or she will be issued a DD Form 214 that will reflect the basis (reason) for discharge and a characterization of their service. Your role is primarily to counsel and educate. You will make the initial recommendation for characterization of discharge. You are the starting point for the Marine's "paper" or admin record. You may also sit as a member of an administrative separation board. When a Marine separates from the service he or she is entitled to certain federal benefits. However, should that Marine receive anything but an honorable discharge, his or her benefits may be affected. As part of your counseling program you should advise your Marines of these facts. Note: A Marine must get an honorable discharge to be eligible for the G.I. bill.

Basis for Separation. Voluntary. A Marine may shorten or revoke his or her enlistment. The CMC will normally approve the request if criteria are met. Possible basis for voluntary separation are: o If a Marine determines that his or her enlistment contract is defective because: Of a material misrepresentation. The enlistment was not voluntary. There is a change in service obligation for reservists on inactive duty. o For a change in service obligation of an active duty Marine, such as to receive a commission or appointment. o If elected to a statewide or national public office. o To further his or her education (request must fall within 90 days of the Marine's remaining service). o For dependency or hardship that: Cannot be a temporary condition. Must have come about since the Marine entered active duty. o If the Marine is pregnant (not normally approved unless extenuating circumstances). o For a conscientious objection to further service (see MCO 1306.16). o When a Marine is the surviving family member of his or her generation (see DOD Directive 1315.15).

40

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Types of Discharges (Continued)


Basis for Separation, Voluntary (Continued).
When there is an intra- or inter-service marriage. Officer candidates may disenroll at any time. Sergeants who twice fail selection and reduced SNCOs may separate. Marines may transfer to the Navy to serve as corpsmen or religious program specialists. o Reservists may separate to become ministers. o Marines may separate in lieu of trial by court martial (normally this will warrant an other than honorable discharge). o o o o Involuntary. The Marine Corps takes action to end a Marine's service. Possible basis for involuntary separation are: o If a change in a Marine's service obligation is directed by the CMC as part of a demobilization or reduction in force. o At the convenience of the government, for reasons such as: Parenthood. Physical conditions not a disability. Personality disorder. o When a defective enlistment or induction is determined to have occurred, such as underage or fraud. o For poor entry level performance or conduct. o For unsatisfactory performance (including weight control failure (generally due to lack of effort), unsanitary habits, or poor performance of assigned duties or tasks). o For homosexual conduct. o For drug or alcohol rehabilitation failure: level II, III, or aftercare. o For misconduct: Minor disciplinary infractions. Has a documented series of at least three minor disciplinary infractions during current enlistment of a nature that could have been or would have been appropriately disciplined at NJP. Pattern of misconduct. Where a pattern of two or more instances of conduct prejudicial to good order and discipline occur within one enlistment. Drug abuse. Commission of serious offense. Civilian conviction. o When a Marine is determined to be a security risk. o For unsatisfactory participation in the Ready Reserve. o When company grade officers twice fail selection. o When enlisted Marines reach high tenure marks for their MOS. o For weight control failure, exceeding the height and weight standards or body fat content, only for otherwise solid performers. o New entrant drug and alcohol testing (voids the entrance contract; normally an uncharacterized discharge). o Catchall - Best interests of the service (SECNAV Plenary Authority).

41

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Types of Discharges (Continued)


Characterizations of Discharges. The standards for performance and conduct in the Marine Corps are established by the: UCMJ. MCM. Marine Corps Separation and Retirement Manual (MARCORSEPMAN), MCO P1900.16. Performance Evaluation System (PES), MCO P1610.7. Individual Records Administration Manual (IRAM), MCO P1070.12. Time-honored customs and traditions of the Marine Corps and the naval service.

How discharges are characterized depends upon the: Type of discharge. Basis for discharge. Quality of the Marine's service.

Punitive Discharge. Issued as punishment for misconduct. The table below describes the three types of punitive discharge.

Discharge Bad conduct discharge (BCD)

Description Characterizes a Marine's service as other than honorable Can only be awarded as punishment by a special or general court-martial Characterizes a Marine's service as dishonorable Can only be awarded as punishment by a general court-martial Applies only to officers Is the equivalent of a dishonorable discharge Can only be awarded as punishment by a general court-martial

Dishonorable discharge (DD)

Dismissal

42

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Types of Discharges (Continued)


Administrative Discharge. The table below describes administrative discharge.

Discharge Honorable

Description Earned by a Marine who meets or exceeds the high standards of the Corps. Issued to a Marine if that Marine's service is determined to have significant negative aspects. Though characterized as "under honorable conditions," may impact a Marine's future because a future employer will know that the Marine's service did not meet the high standards of the Corps. Associated with a Marine who has earned conduct and proficiency marks less than 4.0/3.0. Issued to a Marine when that Marine's service can be characterized as a significant departure from accepted standards or practices. Associated with a Marine who: o Commits misconduct. o Requests and receives a separation in lieu of trial by court-martial. No characterization of service given. Within the first six months of service, a Marine who cannot complete entry-level training may be given an entry-level discharge. A Marine with a fraudulent enlistment may be ordered released from the control of the Marine Corps, called an order of release from custody.

General (under honorable conditions)

Other than Honorable (OTH)

Uncharacterized

43

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Involuntary Discharge Procedures


Notification Marine Notified in writing Has opportunity to respond

Board

Special court-martial authorities convene involuntary discharge boards to review and recommend the disposition of certain cases: Involving involuntary separation Where Marines have been recommended for discharges which are less than honorable

The board: Must be composed of at least three officers, at least one of whom must be O-4 or greater. Will recommend both the: o Category of separation o Characterization of the discharge

The separation authority makes the final decision. Not every Marine is entitled to an administrative discharge board.

44

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Summary
In the near future you will be in a leadership position from which you will influence the lives of Marines. You must be prepared to counsel them about the benefits and consequences of the various discharges they can receive. You may have to recommend them for administrative separation. You could be called upon to sit on an administrative discharge board. While you may not make the final decisions, your actions will have a significant effect upon the outcome.

References
Reference Number or Author UCMJ MCM JAGMAN Reference Title Uniform Code of Military Justice Manual for Courts-Martial Manual of the Judge Advocate General

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym BCD CA CID CMC DD EMI GCM IO JAGMAN LEGADMINMAN LIO Definition or Identification Bad conduct discharge Convening authority Criminal Investigation Command Commandant of the Marine Corps Dishonorable discharge Extra military instruction General Courts Martial Investigating officer Manual of the Judge Advocate General Marine Corps Manual for Legal Administration Lesser included offenses

45

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms (Continued)


Term or Acronym MCM MP MRE Navy Regs NCIS NJP NPLOC OIC OTH RCM SecNav SCM SPCM T/O UA UCMJ UPB US Definition or Identification Manual for Courts-Martial (or "The Manual") Military Police Military Rules of Evidence Navy Regulations Naval Criminal Investigative Service Nonjudicial punishment Nonpunitive Letter of Caution Officer-in-charge Other than Honorable Rules for Courts-Martial Secretary of the Navy Summary court-martial Special Courts Martial Table of Organization Unauthorized Absence Uniform Code of Military Justice Unit punishment book United States

Notes

46

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Appendix A, UCMJ Punitive Articles


The following excerpts taken from Manual For Courts-Martial United States (2000 Edition). 9. Article 85Desertion a. Text. (a) Any member of the armed forces who (1) without authority goes or remains absent from his unit, organization, or place of duty with intent to remain away there from permanently; (2) quits his unit, organization, or place of duty with intent to avoid hazardous duty or to shirk important service; or (3) without being regularly separated from one of the armed forces enlists or accepts an appointment in the same or another one of the armed forces without fully disclosing the fact that he has not been regularly separated, or enters any foreign armed service except when authorized by the United States [Note: This provision has been held not to state a separate offense by the United States Court of Military Appeals in United States v. Huff, 7 U.S.C.M.A. 247, 22 C.M.R. 37 (1956)]; is guilty of desertion. (b) Any commissioned officer of the armed forces who, after tender of his resignation and before notice of its acceptance, quits his post or proper duties without leave and with intent to remain away there from permanently is guilty of desertion. (c) Any person found guilty of desertion or attempt to desert shall be punished, if the offense is committed in time of war, by death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct, but if the desertion or attempt to desert occurs at any other time, by such punishment, other than death, as a court-martial may direct. b. Elements. (1) Desertion with intent to remain away permanently. (a) That the accused absented himself or herself from his or her unit, organization, or place of duty; (b) That such absence was without authority; (c) That the accused, at the time the absence began or at some time during the absence, intended to remain away from his or her unit, organization, or place of duty permanently; and (d) That the accused remained absent until the date alleged. [Note: If the absence was terminated by apprehension, add the following element] (e) That the accuseds absence was terminated by apprehension. (2) Desertion with intent to avoid hazardous duty or to shirk important service. (a) That the accused quit his or her unit, organization, or other place of duty; (b) That the accused did so with the intent to avoid a certain duty or shirk a certain service; (c) That the duty to be performed was hazardous or the service important; (d) That the accused knew that he or she would be required for such duty or service; and (e) That the accused remained absent until the date alleged. (3) Desertion before notice of acceptance of resignation. (a) That the accused was a commissioned officer of an armed force of the United States, and had tendered his or her resignation; (b) That before he or she received notice of the acceptance of the

47

Basic Officer Course

resignation, the accused quit his or her post or proper duties; (c) That the accused did so with the intent to remain away permanently from his or her post or proper duties; and (d) That the accused remained absent until the date alleged. [Note: If the absence was terminated by apprehension, add the following element] (e) That the accuseds absence was terminated by apprehension. (4) Attempted desertion. (a) That the accused did a certain overt act; (b) That the act was done with the specific intent to desert; (c) That the act amounted to more than mere preparation; and (d) That the act apparently tended to effect the commission of the offense of desertion. c. Explanation. (1) Desertion with intent to remain away permanently. (a) In general. Desertion with intent to remain away permanently is complete when the person absents himself or herself without authority from his or her unit, organization, or place of duty, with the intent to remain away there from permanently. A prompt repentance and return, while material in extenuation, is no defense. It is not necessary that the person be absent entirely from military jurisdiction and control. (b) Absence without authority inception, duration, termination. See paragraph 10c. (c) Intent to remain away permanently. (i) The intent to remain away permanently from the unit, organization, or place of duty may be formed any time during the unauthorized absence. The intent need not exist throughout the absence, or for any particular period of

time, as long as it exists at some time during the absence. (ii) The accused must have intended to remain away permanently from the unit, organization, or place of duty. When the accused had such an intent, it is no defense that the accused also intended to report for duty elsewhere, or to enlist or accept an appointment in the same or a different armed force. (iii) The intent to remain away permanently may be established by circumstantial evidence. Among the circumstances from which an inference may be drawn that an accused intended to remain absent permanently or; that the period of absence was lengthy; that the accused attempted to, or did, dispose of uniforms or other military property; that the accused purchased a ticket for a distant point or was arrested, apprehended, or surrendered a considerable distance from the accuseds station; that the accused could have conveniently surrendered to military control but did not; that the accused was dissatisfied with the accuseds unit, ship, or with military service; that the accused made remarks indicating an intention to desert; that the accused was under charges or had escaped from confinement at the time of the absence; that the accused made preparations indicative of an intent not to return (for example, financial arrangements); or that the accused enlisted or accepted an appointment in the same or another armed force without disclosing the fact that the accused had not been regularly separated, or entered any foreign armed service without being authorized by the United States. On the other hand, the following are included in the circumstances which may tend to negate an inference that the accused intended to remain away permanently: previous long and excellent service; that

the accused left valuable personal property in the unit or on the ship; or that the accused was under the influence of alcohol or drugs during the absence. These lists are illustrative only. (iv) Entries on documents, such as personnel accountability records, which administratively refer to an accused as a deserter are not evidence of intent to desert. (v) Proof of, or a plea of guilty to, an unauthorized absence, even of extended duration, does not, without more, prove guilt of desertion. (d) Effect of enlistment or appointment in the same or a different armed force. Article 85a(3) does not state a separate offense. Rather, it is a rule of evidence by which the prosecution may prove intent to remain away permanently. Proof of an enlistment or acceptance of an appointment in a service without disclosing a preexisting duty status in the same or a different service provides the basis from which an inference of intent to permanently remain away from the earlier unit, organization, or place of duty may be drawn. Furthermore, if a person, without being regularly separated from one of the armed forces, enlists or accepts an appointment in the same or another armed force, the persons presence in the military service under such an enlistment or appointment is not a return to military control and does not terminate any desertion or absence without authority from the earlier unit or organization, unless the facts of the earlier period of service are known to military authorities. If a person, while in desertion, enlists or accepts an appointment in the same or another armed force, and deserts while serving the enlistment or appointment, the person may be tried and convicted for each desertion. (2) Quitting unit, organization, or place of duty with intent to avoid

hazardous duty or to shirk important service. (a) Hazardous duty or important service. Hazardous duty or important service may include service such as duty in a combat or other dangerous area; embarkation for certain foreign or sea duty; movement to a port of embarkation for that purpose; entrainment for duty on the border or coast in time of war or threatened invasion or other disturbances; strike or riot duty; or employment in aid of the civil power in, for example, protecting property, or quelling or preventing disorder in times of great public disaster. Such services as drill, target practice, maneuvers, and practice marches are not ordinarily hazardous duty or important service. Whether a duty is hazardous or a service is important depends upon the circumstances of the particular case, and is a question of fact for the court-martial to decide. (b) Quits. Quits in Article 85 means goes absent without authority. (c) Actual knowledge. Article 85 a(2) requires proof that the accused actually knew of the hazardous duty or important service. Actual knowledge may be proved by circumstantial evidence. (3) Attempting to desert. Once the attempt is made, the fact that the person desists, voluntarily or otherwise, does not cancel the offense. The offense is complete, for example, if the person, intending to desert, hides in an empty freight car on a military reservation, intending to escape by being taken away in the car. Entering the car with the intent to desert is the overt act. For a more detailed discussion of attempts, see paragraph 4. For an explanation concerning intent to remain away permanently, see subparagraph 9c(1)(c). (4) Prisoner with executed punitive discharge. A prisoner whose dismissal

or dishonorable or bad-conduct discharge has been executed is not a member of the armed forces within the meaning of Articles 85 or 86, although the prisoner may still be subject to military law under Article 2(a)(7). If the facts warrant, such a prisoner could be charged with escape from confinement under Article 95 or an offense under Article 134. d. Lesser included offense. Article 86 absence without leave e. Maximum punishment. (1) Completed or attempted desertion with intent to avoid hazardous duty or to shirk important service. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years. (2) Other cases of completed or attempted desertion. (a) Terminated by apprehension. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 3 years. (b) Terminated otherwise. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 2 years. (3) In time of war. Death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. f. Sample specifications. (1) Desertion with intent to remain away permanently. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, on or about ____________20____________, (a time of war) without authority and with intent to remain away there from permanently, absent himself/herself from his/her (unit) (organization) (place of duty), to wit: ____________, located at (____________), and did remain so absent in desertion until (he/she was apprehended) on or about ____________ 20____________.

(2) Desertion with intent to avoid hazardous duty or shirk important service. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, on or about ____________ 20____________, (a time of war) with intent to (avoid hazardous duty) (shirk important service), namely: ____________, quit his/her (unit) (organization) (place of duty), to wit: ____________, located at (____________), and did remain so absent in desertion until on or about ____________ 20____________. (3) Desertion prior to acceptance of resignation. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data) having tendered his/her resignation and prior to due notice of the acceptance of the same, did, on or about ____________ 20____________, (a time of war) without leave and with intent to remain away there from permanently, quit his/her (post) (proper duties), to wit: ____________, and did remain so absent in desertion until (he/she was apprehended) on or about ____________ 20 ____________. (4) Attempted desertion. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did (at/onboardlocation), on or about ____________ 20____________, (a time of war) attempt to (absent himself/herself from his/her (unit) (organization) (place of duty) to wit: ____________, without authority and with intent to remain away there from permanently) (quit his/her (unit) (organization) (place of duty), to wit: ______________, located at ______________, with intent to (avoid hazardous duty) (shirk important service) namely ____________) (____________). 10. Article 86Absence without leave

a. Text. Any member of the armed forces who, without authority (1) fails to go to his appointed place of duty at the time prescribed; (2) goes from that place; or (3) absents himself or remains absent from his unit, organization, or place of duty at which he is required to be at the time prescribed; shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. b. Elements. (1) Failure to go to appointed place of duty. (a) That a certain authority appointed a certain time and place of duty for the accused; (b) That the accused knew of that time and place; and (c) That the accused, without authority, failed to go to the appointed place of duty at the time prescribed. (2) Going from appointed place of duty. (a) That a certain authority appointed a certain time and place of duty for the accused; (b) That the accused knew of that time and place; and (c) That the accused, without authority, went from the appointed place of duty after having reported at such place. (3) Absence from unit, organization, or place of duty. (a) That the accused absented himself or herself from his or her unit, organization, or place of duty at which he or she was required to be; (b) That the absence was without authority from anyone competent to give him or her leave; and (c) That the absence was for a certain period of time. [Note: if the absence was terminated by apprehension, add the following element] (d) That the absence was

terminated by apprehension. (4) Abandoning watch or guard. (a) That the accused was a member of a guard, watch, or duty; (b) That the accused absented himself or herself from this or her guard, watch, or duty section; (c) That absence of the accused was without authority; and [Note: if the absence was terminated by apprehension, add the following element] (d) That the accused intended to abandon his or her guard, watch, or duty section. (5) Absence from unit, organization, or place of duty with intent to avoid maneuvers or field exercises. (a) That the accused absented himself or herself from his or her unit, organization, or place of duty at which he or she was required to be; (b) That the absence of the accused was without authority; (c) That the absence was for a certain period of time; (d) That the accused knew that the absence would occur during a part of a period of maneuvers or field exercises; and (e) That the accused intended to avoid all or part of a period of maneuvers or field exercises. c. Explanation. (1) In general. This article is designed to cover every case not elsewhere provided for in which any member of the armed forces is through the members own fault not at the place where the member is required to be at a prescribed time. It is not necessary that the person be absent entirely from military jurisdiction and control. The first part of the articlerelating to the appointed place of dutyapplies whether the place is appointed as a rendezvous for several or for one only. (2) Actual knowledge. The offenses of failure to go to and going from

appointed place of duty require proof that the accused actually knew of the appointed time and place of duty. The offense of absence from unit, organization, or place of duty with intent to avoid maneuvers or field exercises requires proof that the accused actually knew that the absence would occur during a part of a period of maneuvers or field exercises. Actual knowledge may be proved by circumstantial evidence. (3) Intent. Specific intent is not an element of unauthorized absence. Specific intent is an element for certain aggravated unauthorized absences. (4) Aggravated forms of unauthorized absence. There are variations of unauthorized absence under Article 86(3) which are more serious because of aggravating circumstances such as duration of the absence, a special type of duty from which the accused absents himself or herself, and a particular intent which accompanies the absence. These circumstances are not essential elements of a violation of Article 86. They simply constitute special matters in aggravation. The following are aggravated unauthorized absences: (a) Unauthorized absence for more than 3 days (duration). (b) Unauthorized absence for more than 30 days (duration). (c) Unauthorized absence from a guard, watch, or duty (special type of duty). (d) Unauthorized absence from guard, watch, or duty section with the intent to abandon it (special type of duty and specific intent). (e) Unauthorized absence with the intent to avoid maneuvers or field exercises (special type of duty and specific intent). (5) Control by civilian authorities. A member of the armed forces turned over to the civilian authorities upon request

under Article 14 (see R.C.M. 106) is not absent without leave while held by them under that delivery. When a member of the armed forces, being absent with leave, or absent without leave, is held, tried, and acquitted by civilian authorities, the members status as absent with leave, or absent without leave is not thereby changed, regardless how long held. The fact that a member of the armed forces is convicted by the civilian authorities, or adjudicated to be a juvenile offender, or the case is diverted out of the regular criminal process for a probationary period does not excuse any unauthorized absence, because the members inability to return was the result of willful misconduct. If a member is released by the civilian authorities without trial, and was on authorized leave at the time of arrest or detention, the member may be found guilty of unauthorized absence only if it is proved that the member actually committed the offense for which detained, thus establishing that the absence was the result of the members own misconduct. (6) Inability to return. The status of absence without leave is not changed by an inability to return through sickness, lack of transportation facilities, or other disabilities. But the fact that all or part of a period of unauthorized absence was in a sense enforced or involuntary is a factor in extenuation and should be given due weight when considering the initial disposition of the offense. When, however, a person on authorized leave, without fault, is unable to return at the expiration thereof, that person has not committed the offense of absence without leave. (7) Determining the unit or organization of an accused. A person undergoing transfer between activities is ordinarily considered to be attached to the activity to which ordered to report. A person on temporary additional duty

continues as a member of the regularly assigned unit and if the person is absent from the temporary duty assignment, the person becomes absent with out leave from both units, and may be charged with being absent without leave from either unit. (8) Duration. Unauthorized absence under Article 86(3) is an instantaneous offense. It is complete at the instant an accused absents himself or herself without authority. Duration of the absence is a matter in aggravation for the purpose of increasing the maximum punishment authorized for the offense. Even if the duration of the absence is not over 3 days, it is ordinarily alleged in an Article 86(3) specification. If the duration is not alleged or if alleged but not proved, an accused can be convicted of and punished for only 1 day of unauthorized absence. (9) Computation of duration. In computing the duration of an unauthorized absence, any one continuous period of absence found that total not more than 24 hours is counted as 1 day; any such period that totals more than 24 hours and not more than 48 hours is counted as 2 days, and so on. The hours of departure and return on different dates are assumed to be the same if not alleged and proved. For example, if an accused is found guilty of unauthorized absence from 0600 hours, 4 April, to 1000 hours, 7 April of the same year (76 hours), the maximum punishment would be based on an absence of 4 days. However, if the accused is found guilty simply of unauthorized absence from 4 April to 7 April, the maximum punishment would be based on an absence of 3 days. (10) Terminationmethods of return to military control. (a) Surrender to military authority. A surrender occurs when a person presents himself or herself to any military authority, whether or not a

member of the same armed force, notifies that authority of his or her unauthorized absence status, and submits or demonstrates a willingness to submit to military control. Such a surrender terminates the unauthorized absence. (b) Apprehension by military authority. Apprehension by military authority of a known absentee terminates an unauthorized absence. (c) Delivery to military authority. Delivery of a known absentee by anyone to military authority terminates the unauthorized absence. (d) Apprehension by civilian authorities at the request of the military. When an absentee is taken into custody by civilian authorities at the request of military authorities, the absence is terminated. (e) Apprehension by civilian authorities without prior military request. When an absentee is in the hands of civilian authorities for other reasons and these authorities make the absentee available for return to military control, the absence is terminated when the military authorities are informed of the absentees availability. (11) Findings of more than one absence under one specification. An accused may properly be found guilty of two or more separate unauthorized absences under on specification, provided that each absence is included within the period alleged in the specification and provided that the accused was not misled. If an accused is found guilty of two or more unauthorized absences under a single specification, the maximum authorized punishment shall not exceed that authorized if the accused had been found guilty as charged in the specification. d. Lesser included offense. Article 80-attempts e. Maximum punishment.

(1) Failing to go to, or going from, the appointed place of duty. Confinement for 1 month and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 1 month. (2) Absence from unit, organization, or other place of duty. (a) For not more than 3 days. Confinement for 1 month and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 1 month. (b) For more than 3 days but not more than 30 days. Confinement for 6 months and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 6 months. (c) For more than 30 days. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year. (d) For more than 30 days and terminated by apprehension. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 18 months. (3) From guard or watch. Confinement for 3 months and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 3 months. (4) From guard or watch with intent to abandon. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months. (5) With intent to avoid maneuvers or field exercises. Bad conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months. f. Sample specifications. (1) Failing to go or leaving place of duty. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did (at/on board location), on or about ____________20____________, 28. Article 104Aiding the enemy a. Text. Any person who (1) aids, or attempts to aid, the enemy with arms, ammunition, supplies, money, or other things; or

without authority, (fail to go at the time prescribed to) (go from) his/her appointed place of duty, to with: (here set for the appointed place of duty). (2) Absence from unit, organization, or place of duty. In that _____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, on or about ___________20____________, without authority, absent himself/herself from his/her (unit) (organization) (place of duty at which he/she was required to be), to wit: ____________, located a ____________, and did remain so absent until (he/she was apprehended) on or about ____________20____________. (3) Absence from unit, organization, or place of duty with intent to avoid maneuvers or field exercises. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, on or about ___________20____________, without authority and with intent to avoid (maneuvers) (field exercises), absent himself/herself from his/her (unit) (organization) (place of duty at which he/she was required to be), to wit: ____________ located at (____________), and did remain so absent until on or about ____________20____________. (4) Abandoning watch or guard. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), being a member of the ____________ (guard) (watch) (duty section), did, (at/on boardlocation), on or about _____________20____________ without authority, go from his/her (guard) (watch) (duty section) (with intent to abandon same).

(2) without proper authority, knowingly harbors or protects or gives intelligence to or communicates or corresponds with or holds any intercourse with the enemy, either directly or indirectly; shall suffer death or such other punishment as a court-

martial or military commission may direct. b. Elements. (1) Aiding the enemy. (a) That the accused aided the enemy; and (b) That the accused did so with certain arms, ammunition, supplies, money, or other things. (2) Attempting to aid the enemy. (a) That the accused did a certain overt act; (b) That the act was done with the intent to aid the enemy with certain arms, ammunition, supplies, money, or other things; (c) That the act amounted to more than mere preparation; and (d) That the act apparently tended to bring about the offense of aiding the enemy with certain arms, ammunition, supplies, money, or other things. (3) Harboring or protecting the enemy. (a) That the accused, without proper authority, harbored or protected a person; (b) That the person so harbored or protected was the enemy; and (c) That the accused knew that the person so harbored or protected was an enemy. (4) Giving intelligence to the enemy. (a) That the accused, without proper authority, knowingly gave intelligence information to the enemy; and (b) That the intelligence information was true, or implied the truth, at least in part. (5) Communicating with the enemy. (a) That the accused, without proper authority, communicated, corresponded, or held intercourse with the enemy, and;

(b) That the accused knew that the accused was communicating, corresponding, or holding intercourse with the enemy. c. Explanation. (1) Scope of Article 104. This article denounces offenses by all persons whether or not otherwise subject to military law. Offenders may be tried by court-martial or by military commission. (2) Enemy. For a discussion of enemy, see paragraph 23c(1)(b). (3) Aiding or attempting to aid the enemy. It is not a violation of this article to furnish prisoners of war subsistence, quarters, and other comforts or aid to which they are lawfully entitled. (4) Harboring or protecting the enemy. (a) Nature of offense. An enemy is harbored or protected when, without proper authority, that enemy is shielded, either physically or by use of any artifice, aid, or representation from any injury or misfortune which in the chance of war may occur. (b) Knowledge. Actual knowledge is required, but may be proved by circumstantial evidence. (5) Giving intelligence to the enemy. (a) Nature of offense. Giving intelligence to the enemy is a particular case of corresponding with the enemy made more serious by the fact that the communication contains intelligence that may be useful to the enemy for any of the many reasons that make information valuable to belligerents. This intelligence may be conveyed by direct or indirect means. (b) Intelligence. Intelligence imports that the information conveyed is true or implies the truth, at least in part. (c) Knowledge. Actual knowledge is required but may be proved by circumstantial evidence.

(6) Communicating with the enemy. (a) Nature of the offense. No unauthorized communication, correspondence, or intercourse with the enemy is permissible. The intent, content, and method of the communication, correspondence, or intercourse are immaterial. No response or receipt by the enemy is required. The offense is complete the moment the communication, correspondence, or intercourse issues from the accused. The communication, correspondence, or intercourse may be conveyed directly or indirectly. A prisoner of war may violate this Article by engaging in unauthorized communications with the enemy. See also paragraph 29c(3). (b) Knowledge. Actual knowledge is required but may be proved by circumstantial evidence. (c) Citizens of neutral powers. Citizens of neutral powers resident in or visiting invaded or occupied territory can claim no immunity from the customary laws of war relating to communication with the enemy. d. Lesser included offense. For harboring or protecting the enemy, giving intelligence to the enemy, or communicating with the enemy. Article 80attempts e. Maximum punishment. Death or such other punishment as a court-martial or military commission may direct. f. Sample specifications. (1) Aiding or attempting to aid the enemy. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/onboard location), on or about ____________20____________, (attempt to) aid the enemy with (arms) (ammunition) (supplies) (money) (____________), by (furnishing and delivering to ____________, members of the enemys armed forces____________) (____________).

(2) Harboring or protecting the enemy. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on board location), on or about ____________20____________, without proper authority, knowingly (harbor) (protect)____________, an enemy, by (concealing the said ____________in his/her house) (____________). (3) Giving intelligence to the enemy. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on board location), on or about ____________20____________, without proper authority, knowingly give intelligence to the enemy, by (informing a patrol of the enemys forces of the whereabouts of a military patrol of the United States forces) (_____________). (4) Communicating with the enemy. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on board location), on or about ____________20____________, without proper authority, knowingly (communicate with) (correspond with) (hold intercourse with) the enemy (by writing and transmitting secretly through the lines to one ____________, whom he/she, the said ____________, knew to be (an officer of the enemys armed forces) (____________) a communication in words and figures substantially as follows, to wit: ____________)) ((indirectly by publishing in ____________, a newspaper published at ____________, a communication in words and figures as follows, to wit: _____________, which communication was intended to reach the enemy)) ((____________)).

31. Article 107False official statements

a. Text. Any person subject to this chapter who, with intent to deceive, signs any false record, return, regulation, order, or other official document, knowing it to be false, or makes any other false official statement knowing it to be false, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. b. Elements. (1) That the accused signed a certain official document or made a certain official statement; (2) That the document or statement was false in certain particulars; (3) That the accused knew it to be false at the time of signing it or making it; and (4) That the false document or statement was made with the intent to deceive. c. Explanation. (1) Official documents and statements. Official documents and official statements include all documents and statements made in the line of duty. (2) Status of victim of the deception. The rank of any person intended to be deceived is immaterial if that person was authorized in the execution of a particular duty to require or receive the statement or document from the accused. The government may be the victim of this offense. (3) Intent to deceive. The false representation must be made with the intent to deceive. It is not necessary that the false statement be material to the issue inquiry. If, however, the falsity is in respect to a material matter, it may be considered as some evidence of the intent to deceive, while immateriality may tend to show an absence of this intent. (4) Material gain. The expectation of material gain is not an element of this offense. Such expectation or lack of it, however, is circumstantial evidence

bearing on the element of intent to deceive. (5) Knowledge that the document or statement was false. The false representation must be one which the accused actually knew was false. Actual knowledge may be proved by circumstantial evidence. An honest, although erroneous, belief that a statement made is true, is a defense. (6) Statements made during an interrogation. (a) Person without an independent duty or obligation to speak. A statement made by an accused or suspect during an interrogation is not an official statement within the meaning of the article if that person did not have an independent duty or obligation to speak. But see paragraph 79 (false swearing). (b) Person with an independent duty or obligation to speak. If a suspect or accused does have an independent duty or obligation to speak, as in the case of a custodian who is required to account for property, a statement made by that person during an interrogation into the matter is official. While the person could remain silent (Article 31(b)), if the person chooses to speak, the person must do so truthfully. d. Lesser included offense. Article 80attempts e. Maximum punishment. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years. f. Sample specification. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on board location), (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________20____________, with intent to deceive, (sign an official (record) (return) (____________), to wit: ____________) (make to _______________, an official statement, to wit: ______________), which (record) (return) (statement)

(____________) was (totally false) (false in that _____________), and was

then known by the said ____________to be so false.

32. Article 108Military property of the United Statessale, loss, damage, destruction, or wrongful disposition a. Text. Any person subject to this chapter who, without proper authority (1) sells or otherwise disposes of; (2) willfully or through neglect damages, destroys, or loses; or (3) willfully or through neglect suffers to be lost, damaged, destroyed, sold, or wrongfully disposed of, any military property of the United States, shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. b. Elements. (1) Selling or otherwise disposing of military property. (a) That the accused sold or otherwise disposed of certain property (which was a firearm or explosive); (b) That the sale or disposition was without proper authority; (c) That the property was military property of the United States; and (d) That the property was of a certain value. (2) Damaging, destroying, or losing military property. (a) That the accused, without proper authority, damaged or destroyed certain property in a certain way, or lost certain property; (b) That the property was military property of the United States; (c) That the damage, destruction, or loss was willfully caused by the accused or was the result of neglect by the accused; and (d) That the property was of a certain value or the damage was of a certain amount. (3) Suffering military property to be lost, damaged, destroyed, sold, or wrongfully disposed of. (a) That certain property (which was a firearm or explosive) was lost, damaged, destroyed, sold, or wrongfully disposed of; (b) That the property was military property of the United States; (c) That the loss, damage, destruction, sale, or wrongful disposition was suffered by the accused, without proper authority, through a certain omission of duty by the accused; (d) That the omission was willful or negligent; and (e) That the property was of a certain value or the damage was of a certain amount. c. Explanation. (1) Military property. Military property is all property, real or personal, owned, held, or used by one of the armed forces of the United States. If is immaterial whether the property sold, disposed, destroyed, lost, or damaged had been issued to the accused, to someone else, or even issued at all. If it is proved by either direct or circumstantial evidence that items of individual issue were issued to the accused, it may be inferred, depending on all the evidence, that the damage, destruction, or loss proved was due to the neglect of the accused. Retail merchandise of service exchange stores is not military property under this article.

B3O4818

Military Law

(2) Suffering military property to be lost, damaged, destroyed, sold, or wrongfully disposed of. To suffer means to allow or permit. The willful or negligent sufferance specified by this article includes: deliberate violation or intentional disregard of some specific law, regulation, or order; reckless or unwarranted personal use of the property; causing or allowing it to remain exposed to the weather, insecurely housed, or not guarded; permitting it to be consumed, wasted, or injured by other persons; or loaning it to a person, known to be irresponsible, by whom it is damaged. (3) Value and damage. In the case of loss, destruction, sale, or wrongful disposition, the value of the property controls the maximum punishment which may be adjudged. In the case of damage, the amount of damage controls. As a general rule, the amount of damage is the estimated or actual cost of repair by the government agency normally employed in such work, or the cost of replacement, as shown by government price lists or otherwise, whichever is less. d. Lesser included offenses. (1) Sale or disposition of military property. (a) Article 80attempts (b) Article 134sale or disposition of non-military government property (2) Willfully damaging military property. (a) Article 108damaging military property through neglect (b) Article 109willfully damaging non-military property (c) Article 80attempts (3) Willfully suffering military property to be damaged. (a) Article 108through neglect suffering military property to be damaged (b) Article 80attempts (4) Willfully destroying military property. (a) Article 108through neglect destroying military property (b) Article 109willfully destroying non-military property (c) Article 108willfully damaging military property (d) Article 109willfully damaging non-military property (e) Article 108through neglect damaging military property (f) Article 80attempts (5) Willfully suffering military property to be destroyed. (a) Article 108through neglect suffering military property to be destroyed (b) Article 108willfully suffering military property to be damaged (c) Article 108through neglect suffering military property to be damaged (d) Article 80attempts (6) Willfully losing military property. (a) Article 108through neglect, losing military property (b) Article 80attempts (7) Willfully suffering military property to be lost. (a) Article 108through neglect, suffering military property to be lost (b) Article 80attempts (8) Willfully suffering military property to be sold. (a) Article 108through neglect, suffering military property to be sold (b) Article 80attempts (9) Willfully suffering military property to be wrongfully disposed of. (a) Article 108through neglect, suffering military property to be wrongfully disposed of in the manner alleged (b) Article 80attempts

59

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

e. Maximum punishment. (1) Selling or otherwise disposing of military property. (a) Of a value of $100.00 or less. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowance, and confinement for 1 year. (b) Of a value of more than $100.00 or any firearm or explosive. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 10 years. (2) Through neglect damaging, destroying, or losing, or through neglect suffering to be lost, damaged, destroyed, sold, or wrongfully disposed of, military property. (a) Of a value or damage of $100.00 or less. Confinement for 6 months, and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 6 months. (b) Of a value or damage of more than $100.00. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year. (3) Willfully damaging, destroying, or losing, or willfully suffering to be lost, damaged, destroyed, sold, or wrongfully disposed of, military property. (a) Of a value or damage of $100.00 or less. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year. (b) Of a value or damage of more than $100.00, or of any firearm or explosive. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 10 years. f. Sample specifications. (1) Selling or disposing of military property. In that ____________(personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ___________ 20____________, without proper authority, (sell to ____________) (dispose of by ____________)____________, ((a firearm) (an explosive)) of a value of (about) $ ____________, military property of the United States. (2) Damaging, destroying, or losing military property. In that _____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about _____________ 20 ____________, without proper authority, ((willfully) (through neglect)) ((damage by _____________) (destroy by ____________)) (lose)) ____________ (of a value of (about) $ ____________,) military property of the United States (the amount of said damage being in the sum of (about) $ ____________). (3) Suffering military property to be lost, damaged, destroyed, sold, or wrongfully disposed of. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________ 20 ____________, without proper authority, (willfully) (through neglect) suffer, ((a firearm) (an explosive)) (of a value of (about) $ ____________) military proper t y of the United States, to be (lost) (damaged by ____________) (destroyed by ____________) (sold to ____________) (wrongfully disposed of by ____________) (the amount of said damage being in the sum of (about $ _____________).

46. Article 121Larceny and wrongful appropriation a. Text. (a) Any person subject to this chapter who wrongfully takes, obtains, or withholds, by any means, from the possession of the owner or of any other person any money, personal property, or article of value of any kind

60

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

(1) with intent permanently to deprive or de-fraud another person of the use and benefit of property or to appropriate it to his own use or the use of any person other than the owner, steals that property and is guilty of larceny; or (2) with intent temporarily to deprive or de-fraud another person of the use and benefit of property or to appropriate it to his own use or the use of any person other than the owner, is guilty of wrongful appropriation. (b) Any person found guilty of larceny or wrongful appropriation shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. b. Elements. (1) Larceny. (a) That the accused wrongfully took, obtained, or withheld certain property from the possession of the owner or of any other person; (b) That the property belonged to a certain person; (c) That the property was of a certain value, or of some value; and (d) That the taking, obtaining, or withholding by the accused was with the intent permanently to deprive or defraud another person of the use and benefit of the property or permanently to appropriate the property for the use of the accused or for any person other than the owner. [Note: If the property is alleged to be military property, as defined in paragraph 32c(1), add the following element] (e) That the property was military property. (2) Wrongful appropriation. (a) That the accused wrongfully took, obtained, or withheld certain property from the possession of the owner or of any other person; (b) That the property belonged to a certain person; (c) That the property was of a certain value, or of some value; and (d) That the taking, obtaining, or withholding by the accused was with the intent temporarily to deprive or defraud another person of the use and benefit of the property or temporarily to appropriate the property for the use of the accused or for any person other than the owner. c. Explanation. (1) Larceny. (a) In general. A wrongful taking with intent permanently to deprive includes the common law offense of larceny; a wrongful obtaining with intent permanently to defraud includes the offense formerly known as obtaining by false pretense; and a wrongful withholding with intent permanently to appropriate includes the offense formerly known as embezzlement. Any of the various types of larceny under Article 121 may be charged and proved under a specification alleging that the accused did steal the property in question. (b) Taking, obtaining, or withholding. There must be a taking, obtaining, or withholding of the property by the thief. For instance, there is no taking if the property is connected to a building by a chain and the property has not been disconnected from the building; property is not obtained by merely acquiring title thereto without exercising some possessory control over it. As a general rule, however, any movement of the property or any exercise of dominion over it is sufficient if accompanied by the requisite intent. Thus, if an accused enticed anothers horse into the accuseds stable without touching the animal, or procured a railroad company to deliver anothers trunk by changing the check on it, or obtained the delivery of anothers goods to a person or place designated by the accused, or had the funds of another transferred to the

61

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

accuseds bank account, the accused is guilty of larceny if the other elements of the offense have been proved. A person may obtain the property of another by acquiring possession without title, and one who already has possession of the property of another may obtain it by later acquiring title to it. A withholding may arise as a result of a failure to return, account for, or deliver property to its owner when a return, accounting, or delivery is due, even if the owner has made no demand for the property, or it may arise as a result of devoting property to a use not authorized by its owner. Generally, this is so whether the person withholding the property acquired it lawfully or unlawfully. See subparagraph c(1)(f) below. However, acts which constitute the offense of unlawfully receiving, buying, or concealing stolen property or of being an accessory after the fact are not included within the meaning of withholds. Therefore, neither a receiver of stolen property nor an accessory after the fact can be convicted of larceny on that basis alone. The taking, obtaining, or withholding must be of specific property. A debtor does not withhold specific property from the possession of a creditor by failing or refusing to pay a debt, for the relationship of debtor and creditor does not give the creditor a possessory right in any specific money or other property of the debtor. (c) Ownership of the property. (i) In general. Article 121 requires that the taking, obtaining, or withholding be from the possession of the owner or of any other person. Care, custody, management, and control are among the definitions of possession. (ii) Owner. Owner refers to the person who, at the time of the taking, obtaining, or with-holding, had the superior right to possession of the property in the light of all conflicting interests therein which may be involved in the particular case. For instance, an organization is the true owner of its funds as against the custodian of the funds charged with the larceny thereof. (iii) Any other person. Any other person means any personeven a person who has stolen the propertywho has possession or a greater right to possession than the accused. In pleading a violation of this article, the ownership of the property may be alleged to have been in any person, other than the accused, who at the time of the theft was a general owner or a special owner thereof. A general owner of property is a person who has title to it, whether or not that person has possession of it; a special owner, such as a borrower or hirer, is one who does not have title but who does have possession, or the right of possession, of the property. (iv) Person. Person, as used in referring to one from whose possession property has been taken, obtained, or withheld, and to any owner of property, includes (in addition to a natural person) a government, a corporation, an association, an organization, and an estate. Such a person need not be a legal entity. (d) Wrongfulness of the taking, obtaining, or withholding. The taking, obtaining, or withholding of the property must be wrongful. As a general rule, a taking or withholding of property from the possession of another is wrongful if done without the consent of the other, and an obtaining of property from the possession of another is wrongful if the obtaining is by false pretense. However, such an act is not wrongful if it is authorized by law or apparently lawful superior orders, or, generally, if done by a person who has a right to the possession of the property either equal to or greater than the right of one from whose possession the property is taken, obtained, or withheld. An owner of property who takes or withholds it from the possession of another, without the consent of the other, or who obtains it there from by false pretense, does so wrongfully if the other has a superior rightsuch as a liento possession of the property. A person who takes, obtains, or withholds property as the agent of another has the same rights and

62

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

liabilities as does the principal, but may not be charged with a guilty knowledge or intent of the principal which that person does not share. (e) False pretense. With respect to obtaining property by false pretense, the false pretense may be made by means of any act, word, symbol, or token. The pretense must be in fact false when made and when the property is obtained, and it must be knowingly false in the sense that it is made without a belief in its truth. A false pretense is a false representation of past or existing fact. In addition to other kinds of facts, the fact falsely represented by a person may be that persons or anothers power, authority, or intention. Thus, a false representation by a person that person presently intends to perform a certain act in the future is a false representation of an existing factthe intentionand thus a false pre-tense. Although the pretense need not be the sole cause inducing the owner to part with the property, it must be an effective and intentional cause of the obtaining. A false representation made after the property was obtained will not result in a violation of Article 121. A larceny is committed when a person obtains the property of another by false pretense and with intent to steal, even though the owner neither intended nor was requested to part with title to the property. Thus, a person who gets anothers watch by pretending that it will be borrowed briefly and then returned, but who really intends to sell it, is guilty of larceny. (f) Intent. (i) In general. The offense of larceny requires that the taking, obtaining, or withholding by the thief be accompanied by an intent permanently to deprive or defraud another of the use and benefit of property or permanently to appropriate the property to the thiefs own use or the use of any person other than the owner. These intents are collectively called an intent to steal. Although a person gets property by a taking or obtaining which was not wrongful or which was without a concurrent intent to steal, a larceny is nevertheless committed if an intent to steal is formed after the taking or obtaining and the property is wrongfully withheld with that intent. For example, if a person rents anothers vehicle, later decides to keep it permanently, and then either fails to return it at the appointed time or uses it for a purpose not authorized by the terms of the rental, larceny has been committed, even though at the time the vehicle was rented, the person intended to return it after using it according to the agreement. (ii) Inference of intent. An intent to steal may be proved by circumstantial evidence. Thus, if a person secretly takes property, hides it, and denies knowing anything about it, an intent to steal may be inferred; if the property was taken openly and returned, this would tend to negate such an intent. Proof of sale of the property may show an intent to steal, and therefore, evidence of such a sale may be introduced to support a charge of larceny. An intent to steal may be inferred from a wrongful and intentional dealing with the property of another in a manner likely to cause that person to suffer a permanent loss thereof. (iii) Special situations. (A) Motive does not negate intent. The accuseds purpose in taking an item ordinarily is irrelevant to the accuseds guilt as long as the accused had the intent required under subparagraph c(1)(f)(i) above. For example, if the accused wrongfully took property as a joke or to teach the owner a lesson this would not be a defense, although if the accused intended to return the property, the accused would be guilty of wrongful appropriation, not larceny. When a person takes property intending only to return it to its lawful owner, as when stolen property is taken from a thief in order to return it to its owner, larceny or wrongful appropriation is not committed.

63

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

(B) Intent to pay for or replace property not a defense. An intent to pay for or replace the stolen property is not a defense, even if that intent existed at the time of the theft. If, however, the accused takes money or a negotiable instrument having no special value above its face value, with the intent to return an equivalent amount of money, the offense of larceny is not committed although wrongful appropriation may be. (C) Return of property not a defense. Once a larceny is committed, a return of the property or payment for it is no defense. See subparagraph c(2) below when the taking, obtaining, or withholding is with the intent to return. (g) Value. (i) In general. Value is a question of fact to be determined on the basis of all of the evidence admitted. (ii) Government property. When the stolen property is an item issued or procured from Government sources, the price listed in an official publication for that property at the time of the theft is admissible as evidence of its value. See Mil. R. Evid. 803(17). However, the stolen item must be shown to have been, at the time of the theft, in the condition upon which the value indicated in the official price list is based. The price listed in the official publication is not conclusive as to the value of the item, and other evidence may be admitted on the question of its condition and value. (iii) Other property. As a general rule, the value of other stolen property is its legitimate market value at the time and place of the theft. If this property, because of its character or the place where it was stolen, had no legitimate market value at the time and place of the theft or if that value cannot readily be ascertained, its value may be determined by its legitimate market value in the United States at the time of the theft, or by its replacement cost at that time, whichever is less. Market value may be established by proof of the recent purchase price paid for the article in the legitimate market involved or by testimony or other admissible evidence from any person who is familiar through training or experience with the market value in question. The owner of the property may testify as to its market value if familiar with its quality and condition. The fact that the owner is not an expert of the market value of the property goes only to the weight to be given that testimony, and not to its admissibility. See Mil. R. Evid. 701. When the character of the property clearly appears in evidencefor instance, when it is exhibited to the court-martialthe court-martial, from its own experience, may infer that it has some value. If as a matter of common knowledge the property is obviously of a value substantially in excess of $100.00, the court-martial may find a value of more than $100.00. Writings representing value may be considered to have the valueeven though contingentwhich they represented at the time of the theft. (iv) Limited interest in property. If an owner of property or someone acting in the owners behalf steals it from a person who has a superior, but limited, interest in the property, such as a lien, the value for punishment purposes shall be that of the limited interest. (h) Miscellaneous considerations. (i) Lost property. A taking or withholding of lost property by the finder is larceny if accompanied by an intent to steal and if a clue to the identity of the general or special owner, or through which such identity may be traced, is furnished by the character, location, or marketing of the property, or by other circumstances. (ii) Multiple article larceny. When a larceny of several articles is committed at substantially the same time and place, it is a single larceny even though the articles belong to different persons. Thus, if a thief steals a suitcase containing the property of

64

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

several persons or goes into a room and takes property belonging to various persons, there is but one larceny, which should be alleged in but one specification. (iii) Special kinds of property which may also be the subject of larceny. Included in property which may be the subject of larceny is property which is taken, obtained, or withheld by severing it from real estate and writings which represent value such as commercial paper. (iv) Services. Theft of services may not be charged under this paragraph, but see paragraph 78. (v) Mail. As to larceny of mail, see also paragraph 93. (2) Wrongful appropriation. (a) In general. Wrongful appropriation requires an intent to temporarily as opposed to permanentlydeprive the owner of the use and benefit of, or appropriate to the use of another, the property wrongfully taken, withheld, or obtained. In all other respects wrongful appropriation and larceny are identical. (b) Examples. Wrongful appropriation includes: taking anothers automobile without permission or lawful authority with intent to drive it a short distance and then return it or cause it to be returned to the owner; obtaining a service weapon by falsely pretending to be about to go on guard duty with intent to use it on a hunting trip and later return it; and while driving a government vehicle on a mission to deliver supplies, withholding the vehicle from government service by deviating from the assigned route without authority, to visit a friend in a nearby town and later restore the vehicle to its lawful use. An inadvertent exercise of control over the property of another will not result in wrongful appropriation. For example, a person who fails to return a borrowed boat at the time agreed upon because the boat inadvertently went aground is not guilty of this offense. d. Lesser included offenses. (1) Larceny. (a) Article 121wrongful appropriation (b) Article 80attempts (2) Larceny of military property. (a) Article 121wrongful appropriation (b) Article 121larceny of property other than military property (c) Article 80attempts (3) Wrongful appropriation. Article 80attempts e. Maximum punishment. (1) Larceny. (a) Military property of a value of $100 or less. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year. (b) Property other than military property of a value of $100 or less. Badconduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months. (c) Military property of a value of more than $100 or of any military motor vehicle, aircraft, vessel, firearm, or explosive. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 10 years. (d) Property other than military property of a value of more than $100 or any motor vehicle, air-craft, vessel, firearm, or explosive not included in subparagraph e(1)(c). Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for five years. (2) Wrongful appropriation.

65

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

(a) Of a value of $100.00 or less. Confinement for 3 months, and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 3 months. (b) Of a value of more than $100.00. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months. (c) Of any motor vehicle, aircraft, vessel, firearm, or explosive. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 2 years. f. Sample specifications. (1) Larceny. In that ____________(personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________20____________, steal _____________, (military property), of a value of (about) $ ____________, the property of ____________. (2) Wrongful appropriation. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation) (subject matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________20____________, wrongfully appropriate ____________, of a value of (about) $ _____________, the property of ____________.

78. Article 134(False pretenses, obtaining services under) a. Text. See paragraph 60. b. Elements. (1) That the accused wrongfully obtained certain services; (2) That the obtaining was done by using false pretenses; (3) That the accused then knew of the falsity of the pretenses; (4) That the obtaining was with intent to defraud; (5) That the services were of a certain value; and (6) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces. c. Explanation. This offense is similar to the offenses of larceny and wrongful appropriation by false pretenses, except that the object of the obtaining is services (for example, telephone service) rather than money, personal property, or articles of value of any kind as under Article 121. See paragraph 46c. See paragraph 49c(14) for a definition of intent to defraud. d. Lesser included offense. Article 80attempts e. Maximum punishment. Obtaining services under false pretenses. (1) Of a value of $100.00 or less. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months. (2) Of a value of more than $100.00. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years. f. Sample specification. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________20____________, with intent to defraud, falsely pretend to ____________ that ____________, then knowing that the pretenses were false, and by means thereof did wrongfully obtain from ____________ services, of a value of (about) $ ____________, to wit: ____________.

66

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

79. Article 134(False swearing) a. Text. See paragraph 60. b. Elements. (1) That the accused took an oath or equivalent; (2) That the oath or equivalent was administered to the accused in a matter in which such oath or equivalent was required or authorized by law; (3) That the oath or equivalent was administered by a person having authority to do so; (4) That upon this oath or equivalent the accused made or subscribed a certain statement; (5) That the statement was false; (6) That the accused did not then believe the statement to be true; and (7) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces. c. Explanation. (1) Nature of offense. False swearing is the making under a lawful oath or equivalent of any false statement, oral or written, not believing the statement to be true. It does not include such statements made in a judicial proceeding or course of justice, as these are under Article 131, perjury (see paragraph 57). Unlike a false official statement under Article 107 (see paragraph 31) there is no requirement that the statement be made with an intent to deceive or that the statement be official. See paragraphs 57c(1), c(2)(c) and c(2)(e) concerning judicial proceeding or course of justice, proof of the falsity, and the belief of the accused, respectively. (2) Oath. See Article 136 and R.C.M. 807 as to the authority to administer oaths, and see Section IX of Part III (Military Rules of Evidence) concerning proof of the signatures of persons authorized to administer oaths. An oath includes an affirmation when authorized in lieu of an oath. d. Lesser included offense. Article 80attempts e. Maximum punishment. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 3 years. f. Sample specification. In that _____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________20____________, (in an affidavit) (in ____________), wrongfully and unlawfully (make) (subscribe) under lawful (oath) (affirmation) a false statement in substance as follows: ____________, which statement he/she did not then believe to be true. 80. Article 134(Firearm, dischargingthrough negligence) a. Text. See paragraph 60. b. Elements. (1) That the accused discharged a firearm; (2) That such discharge was caused by the negligence of the accused; and

67

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

(3) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces. c. Explanation. For a discussion of negligence, see paragraph 85c(2). d. Lesser included offenses. None e. Maximum punishment. Confinement for 3 months and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 3 months. f. Sample specification. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________20_____________, through negligence, discharge a (service rifle) (____________) in the (squadron) (tent) (barracks) (____________) of _____________.

81. Article 134(Firearm, dischargingwillfully, under such circumstances as to endanger human life) a. Text. See paragraph 60. b. Elements. (1) That the accused discharged a firearm; (2) That the discharge was willful and wrongful; (3) That the discharge was under circumstances such as to endanger human life; and (4) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces. c. Explanation. Under circumstances such as to endanger human life refers to a reasonable potentiality for harm to human beings in general. The test is not whether the life was in fact endangered but whether, considering the circumstances surrounding the wrongful discharge of the weapon, the act was unsafe to human life in general. d. Lesser included offenses. (1) Article 134firearm, dischargingthrough negligence (2) Article 80attempts e. Maximum punishment. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year. f. Sample specification. In that_____________ (personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________20____________, wrongfully and willfully discharge a firearm, to wit: _____________, (in the mess hall of _____________) (_____________), under circumstances such as to endanger human life.

82. Article 134(Fleeing scene of accident) a. Text. See paragraph 60. b. Elements. (1) Driver. (a) That the accused was the driver o f a vehicle; (b) That while the accused was driving the vehicle was involved in an accident;

68

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

(c) That the accused knew that the vehicle had been in an accident; (d) That the accused left the scene of the accident without (providing assistance to the victim who had been struck (and injured) by the said vehicle) or (providing identification); (e) That such leaving was wrongful; and (f) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces. (2) Senior passenger. (a) That the accused was a passenger in a vehicle which was involved in an accident; (b) That the accused knew that said vehicle had been in an accident; (c) That the accused was the superior commissioned or noncommissioned officer of the driver, or commander of the vehicle, and wrongfully and unlawfully ordered, caused, or permitted the driver to leave the scene of the accident without (providing assistance to the victim who had been struck (and injured) by the said vehicle) (or) (providing identification); and (d) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces. c. Explanation. (1) Nature of offense. This offense covers hit and run situations where there is damage to property other than the drivers vehicle or injury to someone other than the driver or a passenger in the drivers vehicle. It also covers accidents caused by the accused, even if the accuseds vehicle does not contact other people, vehicles, or property. (2) Knowledge. Actual knowledge that an accident has occurred is an essential element of this offense. Actual knowledge may be proved by circumstantial evidence. (3) Passenger. A passenger other than a senior passenger may also be liable under this paragraph. See paragraph 1 of this Part. d. Lesser included offense. Article 80attempts e. Maximum punishment. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months. f. Sample specification. In that ____________ (personal jurisdiction data), (the driver of) (a passenger in*) (the senior officer/noncommissioned officer in) (____________ in) a vehicle at the time of an accident in which said vehicle was involved, and having knowledge of said accident, did, at-____________ (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________ 20____________ (wrongfully leave) (by _____________, assist the driver of the said vehicle in wrongfully leaving*) (wrongfully order, cause, or permit the driver to leave) the scene of the accident without (providing assistance to ____________, who had been struck (and injured) by the said vehicle) (making his/her (the drivers) identity known). [Note: This language should be used when the accused was a passenger and is charged as a principal. See paragraph 1 of this part.] 83. Article 134(Fraternization) a. Text. See paragraph 60.

69

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

b. Elements. (1) That the accused was a commissioned or warrant officer; (2) That the accused fraternized on terms of military equality with one or more certain enlisted member(s) in a certain manner; (3) That the accused then knew the person(s) to be (an) enlisted member(s); (4) That such fraternization violated the custom of the accuseds service that officers shall not fraternize with enlisted members on terms of military equality; and (5) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces. c. Explanation. (1) In general. The gist of this offense is a violation of the custom of the armed forces against fraternization. Not all contact or association between officers and enlisted persons is an offense. Whether the contact or association in question is an offense depends on the surrounding circumstances. Factors to be considered include whether the conduct has compromised the chain of command, resulted in the appearance of partiality, or otherwise undermined good order, discipline, authority, or morale. The acts and circumstances must be such as to lead a reasonable person experienced in the problems of military leadership to conclude that the good order and discipline of the armed forces has been prejudiced by their tendency to compromise the respect of enlisted persons for the professionalism, integrity, and obligations of an officer. (2) Regulations. Regulations, directives, and orders may also govern conduct between officer and enlisted personnel on both a service-wide and a local basis. Relationships between enlisted persons of different ranks, or between officers of different ranks may be similarly covered. Violations of such regulations, directives, or orders may be punishable under Article 92. See paragraph 16. d. Lesser included offense. Article 80attempts e. Maximum punishment. Dismissal, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 2 years. f. Sample specification. In that ____________(personal jurisdiction data), did, (at/on boardlocation), on or about _____________, 20 _____________, knowingly fraternize with ____________, an enlisted person, on terms of military equality, to wit: _____________, in violation of the custom of (the Naval Service of the United States) (the United States Army) (the United States Air Force) (the United States Coast Guard) that officers shall not fraternize with enlisted persons on terms of military equality. 84. Article 134(Gambling with subordinate) a. Text. See paragraph 60. b. Elements. (1) That the accused gambled with a certain service member; (2) That the accused was then a noncommissioned or petty officer; (3) That the service member was not then a non-commissioned or petty officer and was subordinate to the accused; (4) That the accused knew that the service member was not then a noncommissioned or petty officer and was subordinate to the accused; and (5) That, under the circumstances, the conduct of the accused was to the prejudice of good order and discipline in the armed forces or was of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces.

70

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

c. Explanation. This offense can only be committed by a noncommissioned or petty officer gambling with an enlisted person of less than noncommissioned or petty officer rank. Gambling by an officer with an enlisted person may be a violation of Article 133. See also paragraph 83. d. Lesser included offense. Article 80attempts e. Maximum punishment. Confinement for 3 months and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 3 months. f. Sample specification. In that _____________(personal jurisdiction data), did (at/on boardlocation) (subject-matter jurisdiction data, if required), on or about ____________20____________, gamble with ____________, then knowing that the said ____________ was not a noncommissioned or petty officer and was subordinate to the said ____________.

71

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Appendix B, Maximum Nonjudicial Punishments


IMPOSED IMPOSED Conf on Correctional Arrest in Forfeitures Reduction Extra Restriction BY ON B&W/ Custody Quarters Duties to Limits DimRats (3) (3) (3) (7) (2)(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) General Officer No No 30 days 1/2 mo x 2 No No 60 days Officers E-4 to E-9 No No No 1/2 mo x 2 1 Grade 45 days 60 days in E-1 to E-3 3 days 30 days No 1/2 mo x 2 1 Grade 45 days 60 days Command Field Officer No No No No No No 30 days Grade E-4 to E-9 No No No 1/2 mo x 2 1 Grade 45 days 60 days Officers E-1 to E-3 3 days 30 days No 1/2 mo x 2 1 Grade 45 days 60 days Company Officer No No No No No No 15 days Grade E-4 to E-9 No No No 7 days 1 Grade 14 days 14 days and OICs (1) E-1 to E-3 3 days 7 days No 7 days 1 Grade 14 days 14 days Admonition /Reprimand (6) (8)

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Notes: (1) Officers-in-charge, regardless of rank, have company grade NJP authority over only enlisted members (2) May be imposed only if member is embarked on or attached to a vessel (3) May not be imposed in combination with other forms of deprivation of liberty (4) Amount of forfeiture calculated from the pay grade to which reduced, if any Reduction authority limited to commanding officers with the authority to promote to grade from which reduced. *See handout* Reduction limited to one pay grade by JAGMAN (6) May be imposed in combination with, or in lieu of, any other permissible punishment (7) Extra duties and restrictions may be imposed concurrently, but only to maximum imposed for extra duties (8) When imposed on officers, must be in writing

72

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Appendix C, Suspects Rights Acknowledgements/Statement

73

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Appendix D, Military Suspects Acknowledgement and Waiver of Rights


Suspect's Rights and Acknowledgement/Statement (See JAGMAN 0170) Full Name (Accused/Suspect) SSN Rate/Rank Service (Branch)

Activity/Unit

Date of Birth

Name (Interviewer)

SSN

Rate/Rank

Service (Branch)

Organization

Billet

Location of Interview

Time

Date

Rights I certify and acknowledge by my signature and initials set fort below that, before the interviewer requested a statement from me, he warned me that: (1) I am suspected of having committed the following offense(s): ______________________________________________________________________ (2) I have the right to remain silent: ____________________________________ (3) Any statement I do make may be used as evidence against me in trial by court-martial: ___________________________________________________________ (4) I have the right to consult with lawyer counsel prior to any questioning. This lawyer counsel may be a civilian lawyer retained by me at my own expense, a military lawyer appointed to act as my counsel without cost to me, or both; and _____________________________________________________________________ (5) I have the right to have such retained civilian lawyer and/or appointed military lawyer present during this interview. __________________________________

74

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Appendix D, Military Suspects Acknowledgement and Waiver of Rights (Continued)


Waiver of Rights I further certify and acknowledge that I have read the above statement of my rights and fully understand them, and that, ___________________________________________ (1) (2) I expressly desire to waive my right to remain silent. ________________ I expressly desire to make a statement. __________________________

(3) I expressly do not desire to consult with either a civilian lawyer retained by me or a military lawyer appointed as my counsel without cost to me prior to any questioning. __________________________________________________________ (4) I expressly do not desire to have such a lawyer present with me during this interview, and ______________________________________________________ (5) This acknowledgment and waiver of rights is made freely and voluntarily by me and without any promises or threats having been made to me pressure or coercion of any kind having been used against me. _____________________________

Signature (Accused/Suspect)

Time

Date

Signature (Interviewer)

Time

Date

Signature (Witness)

Time

Date

The statement, which appears on the following ________________________ pages, all of which are signed by me, is made freely and voluntarily without any promises or tretas having been made or pressure or coercion of any of any kind having been used against me.

__________________________ Signature (Accused/Suspect)

75

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Appendix E, Record or Authorization for Search

76

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Appendix F, Military Police Receipt of Property (Chain of Custody)

77

Basic Officer Course

B3O4818

Military Law

Appendix F, Military Police Receipt of Property (Chain of Custody) (Continued)

78

Basic Officer Course

Notes

Basic Officer Course

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS THE BASIC SCHOOL MARINE CORPS TRAINING COMMAND CAMP BARRETT, VIRGINIA 22134-5019

MOTORIZED CONVOY OPERATIONS B3P4878 STUDENT HANDOUT

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Motorized Convoy Operations


Introduction Missions can be conducted via different methods of movement, such as airborne/heliborne, mechanized/armored, foot-mobile, or motorized. Motorized operations refer to missions in which vehicles are the method of movement. While the tactical task of that specific mission will not change, the introduction of vehicles into the operation will demand additional planning considerations and details in the execution. Several types of operations you have already learned about can be executed as motorized operations: offensive operations, defensive operations, and patrols. One subcategory of motorized operations is tactical convoy operations. A tactical convoy is a deliberate planned combat operation to move personnel and/or cargo via ground transportation in a secure manner under the control of a single commander. Tactical convoys must have access to the current common operational picture and maintain an aggressive posture that is both agile and unpredictable. The notion that convoys travel in safe rear areas after assault forces have cleared the way is not valid. The front lines have ceased to exist in a clear, linear fashion and the enemy may often seek to target our lines of communication and our resupply efforts rather than directly engage our ground combat forces. The term convoy refers to a broad spectrum of missions ranging from a four-vehicle convoy of High Mobility Multi-Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) tasked to resupply an infantry platoon to a fifty-vehicle convoy made up of military, civilian contractor, local nationals (LN), and third-country national (TCN) vehicles. Any Marine officer could potentially command a convoy. The tactical fundamentals you have learned thus far at TBS still apply to convoys; however, the introduction of vehicles as the key element in motorized operations makes planning and executing convoys more complex than previous missions. In this class you will learn the planning considerations, principles, and tactics of convoys as an element of motorized operations. Vehicles are a critical component in any Marine Corps command, both in peacetime and in a combat environment. Vehicles bring much to the fight in terms of mobility, flexibility, and firepower. However, they also add complexity in terms of planning and logistics. For example, command and control, geometry of fires, coordination, and immediate actions become more complicated with vehicles. Actions often happen more quickly and forces are dispersed over greater distances compared to foot-mobile operations. In
2 Basic Officer Course

Importance

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Importance (Continued)

this class, you will learn how to plan and execute a convoy, and be introduced to specific planning requirements for the employment of vehicles in motorized operations. The movement of Marines and supplies is a continuous requirement whether in support of air, ground, or combat logistics units. All convoys must provide their own security and be prepared for contact with the enemy. However, convoy commanders must balance their security considerations and offensive-mindset against logistical requirements and their overall mission, often with limited resources. Convoy operations demand deliberate, thoughtful planning, keen METT-TC analysis, thorough training/rehearsals, and decisive execution. In order to be successful, it is necessary to understand the unique considerations of convoy operations. In this lesson, you will learn how to apply METT-TC and the five paragraph order format to convoy operations. The class will introduce: the two convoy movement formations, suggested task organization for a convoy, and the responsibilities of key personnel. The class will also discuss immediate action drills and general considerations. A sand table exercise follows the class and reinforces the concepts and principles in preparation for the convoy field exercise. This lesson covers the following topics: Topic Convoy Planning The Convoy Order Formations Key Personnel Tasking Statements Coordinating Instructions Immediate Action Drills Pre-Combat Actions Communications Summary References Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Notes Page 5 8 13 15 20 21 21 32 35 36 38 38 39

In This Lesson

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Motorized Convoy Operations (Continued)


Learning Objectives Without the aid of reference, define key convoy billets, without error. (MCCS-OFF-2103p) Without the aid of reference, describe convoy task organization, without omission. (MCCS-OFF-2103q) Without the aid of reference, describe convoy immediate actions without omission. (MCCS-OFF-2103r) Without the aid of reference, describe convoy actions on enemy contact without omission. (MCCS-OFF-2103s) Given motorized assets, a unit, attached crew served weapons assets, a mission with commanders intent, plan convoy routes to accomplish the mission. (MCSS-OFF2103t) Given motorized assets, a unit, attached crew served weapons assets, a mission with commanders intent and higher, adjacent and supporting units, conduct convoy coordination to complete planning. (MCSS-OFF-2103u) Given motorized assets, a unit, attached crew served weapons assets, a mission with commanders intent, coordinate convoy execution with higher headquarters to accomplish the mission. (MCSS-OFF-2103v) Given motorized assets, a unit, attached crew served weapons assets, a mission with commanders intent, perform the duties of a convoy commander to accomplish the mission. (MCSS-OFF-2103w) Given a unit, a mission and a mental estimate of the situation, employ movement formations to ensure command and control. (T&R 0311-OFF-2001a) Given motorized assets, a unit, attached crew served weapons assets, a mission with commanders intent, debrief convoy execution to report information to higher and capture lessons learned for future operations. (T&R 0302OFF-1XXXa) Perform individual actions from a vehicle. (T&R 0300-PAT1010)

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Convoy Planning
Motorized operations are defined as the application of combat power from motorized vehicles, which is characterized by the ability to alternate rapidly between fighting from vehicles and fighting on foot and also to combine these two methods of combat. These operations rely upon mobility to maximize speed and firepower in the execution of operations. A tactical convoy is a deliberate planned combat operation to move personnel and/or cargo via ground transportation in a secure manner under the control of a single commander. Tactical convoys must have access to the current common operational picture and maintain an aggressive posture that is both agile and unpredictable. All Marine Corps convoys are tactical in nature and assume that enemy contact is probable or imminent. Therefore, security considerations must be planned commensurate with the threat. As discussed below, METT-TC analysis should determine the appropriate security posture. Tactical convoys are combat operations and should be planned and executed as such. The convoy and its personnel must be able to defend themselves, prepared to inflict harm and damage on the enemy if the opportunity arises, and must always keep in mind its assigned mission. Several measures, both active and passive, contribute to the security of a convoy: Dispersion. Speed. Vehicle hardening. Aggressive, alert security posture. Crew-served weapons. Supporting arms.

Warning Order

As with any other operation, as soon as the convoy commander receives the mission, he or she should issue a warning order to subordinates so that they can also begin preparations. The convoy commander should continuously update subordinates on the enemy situation, immediate logistical requirements pertaining to the mission, and route and weather conditions.

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Convoy Planning (Continued)


METT-TC Like any other military operation that involves numerous pieces of equipment and personnel, the convoy must be task-organized to accomplish its specific mission. The convoy commander applies BAMCIS to manage his or her time and delegate tasks. The convoy commander must conduct a thorough estimate of the situation for each mission in order to identify and plan for the unique circumstances of each mission. Using METT-TC, the convoy commander should consider the following items: Mission states the desired convoy objective or endstate. Implied tasks may apply, such as: o Intelligence collection: Similar to a patrol, every Marine on that convoy is an intelligence collector and the convoy can observe and gain valuable intelligence on the enemy situation, atmospherics, and the route. o Route clearing: Each convoy has a responsibility to make the road safer for the friendly military forces that may follow it. The convoy is responsible for dealing with any improvised explosive devices (IEDs) it finds. o Snap Vehicle Checkpoints (VCPs): The convoy may be ordered to conduct snap VCPs or hasty vehicle and personnel searches if they come in contact with, or gain intelligence about, a potential enemy. Enemy should be analyzed using SALUTE, DRAW-D, and EMLCOA. The analysis of the enemy has to cover the entire length of the chosen route as well as that of any potential alternate route. Due to the vast distances covered during any mounted mission, the enemies composition, disposition, and strength, capabilities and limitations, and TTPs may vary by route or throughout the length of one route. Because of this, the convoy commanders analysis may often result in an EMLCOA with multiple elements. Intelligence data compiled over time can give a good picture of the tactics and locations the enemy uses. The convoy commander must pay attention to the types of enemy contact and ensure his or her Marines can properly execute the appropriate immediate action (IA) drills.
6 Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Convoy Planning (Continued)


Troops and Fire Support available means the convoy commander must determine what fire support agencies are available along the route. Convoys often cross into other units battlespace and can quickly outdistance any organic fire support their unit might have. The convoy commander needs to find out not only what firing agencies can support him or her, but also how to contact them. Troops available extends beyond the convoys organic Marines and attached security personnel. Quick reaction forces (QRF), Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) personnel, CASEVAC capabilities, and recovery assets are all things the convoy commander should be considering while he or she plans the route. Again, these resources are often available when traveling in other units areas of operations, but the convoy commander must know how to request them. - Aviation Support: Aircraft can provide a wide range of capabilities to support convoy operations. The most common capabilities used for convoys are: - ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance): Aircraft can fly ahead and to the flanks of the convoy and report on enemy and route conditions. - Show of Force: Aircraft make their presence known to enemy forces making the convoy a hard target. - CAS (Close Air Support): Destroy enemy through fires from the aircraft. The Joint Terminal Air Controller (JTAC) or Convoy Commander will be required to provide information to aircraft checking in to support the convoy, much like dismounted forces must provide information to pilots in support of their operations. The specific information a convoy must provide to aircraft is: Number of vehicles in convoy, Vehicle number JTAC/Convoy Commander are in, Convoy route, Concerns, and Named Areas of Interest (NAI). Terrain and Weather must be carefully considered. One of the most important aspects of terrain is the road itself. What is the condition of the road surface? How wide is it? Are there bridges and/or overpasses and will they be able to handle the vehicles in the convoy? What can be expected for civilian and military traffic along the route? What is the terrain, vegetation, and infrastructure/ buildings like along the route? Weather conditions such as rain, fog, snow, and sandstorms affect the routes, the
7 Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

performance of your vehicles, and your Marines. Time is an important planning factor in mission preparation. Clearly, the amount of time available will determine the level of detail in the planning and preparation process. Additionally, the convoy commander may have time restraints pertaining to the arrival time at the objective, return time, or travel restrictions along certain routes.

The Convoy Order


The convoy order is the method by which the convoy commander conveys his or her plan to the rest of the convoy. Since convoy operations are complex undertakings, the order is often detailed and lengthy. Several individuals have specific responsibilities, and there are a number of additional details involved in a successful convoy. A good convoy order will include extensive and detailed coordinating instructions and tasking statements, similar to a patrol order. The convoy commander will give his or her order to all hands, including attachments and passengers. Again, this is the opportunity for the convoy commander to ensure everyone knows what the plan is and what their specific responsibilities are. Commanders intent The Commanders Intent will only address that situation which would most likely prevent you from accomplishing your mission of personnel and/or cargo delivery. Though the enemy can induce significant friction on the accomplishment of your mission, a blocked ambush can most likely prevent mission accomplishment. The CG/CV is derived from the convoy commanders enemy analysis but the exploitation plan and desired end state will likely be as follows: Exploitation plan efficient execution of the blocked ambush/hasty attack IA drill End State the convoy breaks the ambush, reconsolidates, and continues its mission. Convoy SOM Once a thorough METT-TC analysis has been conducted and the convoy commander has determined the EMLCOA and Commanders Intent, it is time for the convoy commander to devise his scheme of maneuver. At a minimum, the following elements should be included in the scheme of maneuver for a convoy: Route Tactical Control Measures Task Organization Formations for movement Actions on the objective

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Route

Route selection. This is one of the most important elements of the convoy commanders planning process. Often times, the convoy commander wont get to choose a route, instead it will be dictated by higher headquarters. However, when feasible, the convoy commander should always plan for both a primary and alternate route that considers both speed and security. Route Reconnaissance. The convoy commander should strive to conduct a route reconnaissance. The convoy commander should ask the S-2 for overhead imagery or footage from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flights. At a minimum, the convoy commander must conduct a map reconnaissance. This map reconnaissance will help determine the appropriate speed, dispersion, and order of march for the convoy as well as identify alternate routes, danger areas, or potential targets for indirect fires.

Tactical Control Measures

Checkpoints As with a patrol, the convoy commander should use designated checkpoints along the route in order to help both the convoy commander and higher headquarters keep track of the convoys location at all times. Often in large convoys, the convoy commander will have the lead and rear vehicle call when they have passed each checkpoint. Rally Points Rally points are also useful to control the convoy if there is enemy action, if part of the convoy becomes separated, or if there is some type of breakdown or vehicle accident. In the event of enemy contact, the convoy commander may establish a floating rally point a set distance ahead of or behind the kill zone. This information must be passed in the convoy order brief: In the event of enemy contact, I will set a rally point 1km ahead of the kill zone. All non-essential vehicles will push through the kill zone and provide security at the rally point until the rest of the convoy joins you.

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Unit Boundaries Along with designating his or her own control measures, the convoy commander must pay particular attention to those of adjacent units. The convoy commander must be aware of unit boundaries the convoy will cross through and other important control measures in that units area of operations (AO), such as phase lines. It is imperative that the convoy commander check in and out with each unit as the convoy crosses its battlespace. The convoy is essentially a guest in another units territory and must inform that unit of its presence to de-conflict any current operations and avoid friendly fire incidents. Also, that unit may be able to provide assistance to the convoy if needed in the form of fire support, CASEVAC, recovery support, or QRF. Coordination with other units is one of the most important tasks of the convoy commander during the execution of the convoy.

10

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Task Organization

Convoys are task organized to meet the requirements of the assigned mission. The task organization should consist of the following: Lead Security, Main Body Security, and Rear Security. Within the security units vehicles should be organized into buddy pairs for tactical employment. The Lead and Rear Security Units need to be prepared to rotate based on the convoy commander SOM and IA Drills.

Vehicle Employment/Capabilities:

There are several variants of vehicles that can be found in Marine Corps convoys, ranging from tracked and wheeled tactical vehicles to civilian tractor-trailers. Below are some of the Marine Corps wheeled vehicles that are commonly used in convoy operations today: MAS MTVR (7-Ton): Marine Armor System Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement. This vehicle is the most common cargo and personnel carrying vehicle in the Marine Corps. It is commonly found in the Main Body Security Unit, as a cargo or personnel carrier. Additionally, it can be used in the Lead Security Unit as a lead vehicle due to its survivability against IEDs. Below are specific characteristics of the MTVR: Employment: Troop/Cargo carrier, Lead convoy vehicle Payload: 7.1 tons off-road, 15 tons on improved surfaces Personnel: 17 troops (including Machine Gunner) Weight: 36,000-42,000 lbs Armor: Flank protection from 7.62, 360-degree protection from frag/blast Pros: Armor and ground clearance provide good protection from undercarriage blasts (IEDs) Cons: Limited maneuverability due to height/weight

11

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


UAH (Up-Armor HMMWV): The UAH is common throughout all elements of the MAGTF, and is a highlyversatile vehicle that can be used for everything from providing security for convoys to conducting mounted patrols. The UAH is commonly fitted with increased communication capabilities making it an ideal command and control vehicle. Its smaller size and lighter weight make it significantly more maneuverable than MTVRs and MRAPs both on and off-road. Below are specific characteristics of the UAH: Employment: Security Element, C2, and mounted patrols Personnel: 5 (including Machine Gunner) Weight: 9,800 lbs Armor: Flank protection from 7.62 Pros: Maneuverable and capable of improved C2 capabilities Cons: High center of gravity (increased roll-over risk), vulnerable to undercarriage blasts (IEDs) MRAP (Mine Resistant Ambush Protected): MRAPs are some of the newest vehicles to the Marine Corps fleet, and are built to survive both direct fire weapons and blasts. Their V-shaped hull, ground clearance and weight make them the most survivable wheeled vehicles currently used in convoy operations. They are commonly used as C2 and security vehicles, as well as for special missions such as Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD). However, while it is very survivable, its trafficability and maneuverability are severely restricted. Below are specific characteristics of MRAPs: Employment: Lead Vehicle, C2, Security Element, EOD Personnel: 6 (4x4 variant), 10 (6x6 variant) Weight: 34,000 lbs (4x4), 42,000 (6x6) Armor: Flank Protection from 7.62-12.7mm (variant dependent), 360 degree blast/frag protection Pros: Most survivable vehicle due to V-shaped hull Cons: Poor off-road capability (6x6 is almost incapable of any off-road employment)

12

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Convoy SOM (Continued)

Formations of Movement:

The column utilized will be determined through METT-TC analysis and may vary throughout the route. When determining which column to use, the convoy commander must balance the requirement for dispersion as a passive security measure along with his or her ability to command and control the convoy. Although an infinite variety of intervals exist, there are two basic formations for the column: Open Column Distance between vehicles is approximately 100m-200m. This formation works best in open terrain and on roads that allow for travel at higher rates of speed. The advantages of the open column are: Greater dispersion provides greater protection against enemy indirect fire, IEDs, and air attack. The farther the vehicles are spread out, the less chance more than one vehicle will be caught in a kill zone. An IED utilizing a 155 round would only have effects on one vehicle vice two or three. The increased intervals provide the drivers more stopping distance and greater room to maneuver, thus reducing the chance of accidents.

The disadvantages of the open column are: Larger footprint Difficult command and control Intervals can be hard to maintain Harder for vehicles to keep visual contact with vehicles to their front and rear.

13

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Closed Column Distance between vehicles is approximately 50m-100m. This formation works best at night, in urban areas, or in high traffic areas. The advantages of the close column are: Smaller footprint Greater control Vehicles can mutually support one another more effectively/mass fires More difficult for civilian traffic to enter convoy The disadvantages of the close column are: More vulnerable to indirect fire and IEDs More vehicles may be caught in the kill zone Less stopping and maneuvering distance between vehicles Exhausting for drivers to maintain interval for long periods of time Actions on Objective The convoy commander must also consider what actions need to occur on the objective. A few considerations: Has the objective been cleared and is secure, or are we doing it? Who is the unit receiving the convoys cargo on the objective and what is the plan for link-up? How will the convoy occupy the objective? What is the plan for offloading/onloading the convoys cargo? How long will the members of the convoy remain on the objective and is there billeting?

14

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Key Personnel There is a tremendous amount of work to do during both the preparation and execution of a convoy. The convoy commander must have a keen understanding of what needs to be accomplished and then must properly guide, task, and supervise subordinates to make sure it happens. Below well discuss the roles and responsibilities of key personnel. Convoy Commander

The convoy commander must be focused outward and on the overall picture and mission. While the convoy commander may delegate a number of tasks, he or she must also take time to supervise actions, such as doing a final inspection of the vehicles and personnel once they are staged. Some responsibilities of the convoy commander include: Overall command of the convoy Assess enemy situation; plan the convoy: formation, route, fire support plan Develop and issue the convoy order (and warning orders) Conduct COC and cross-boundary coordination (both during preparation and execution) Coordinate actions on the objective (link up plan, offload/upload plan, destination of cargo and personnel, return cargo/personnel) Develop IA drills, ensure Marines are trained to standard, constantly evaluate IA drills and change if necessary

Submit a detailed manifest (name, rank, SSN, blood type, and location in the convoy of all personnel to include attachments; type, serial number, and order of vehicles, all serialized gear, type and location of cargo)

15

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Key Personnel (Continued) Assistant Convoy Commander

The assistant convoy commander is more focused inward on details that ensure the unit is properly prepared and able to respond to the convoy commanders orders. The assistant convoy commander strives to assume many of the more routine items in preparation and execution in order to allow the convoy commander to maintain an outward focus. Some responsibilities of the assistant convoy commander include: Second in command Responsible for vehicle preparation, loading, and staging Conduct rehearsals prior to execution Assess and attempt to repair or recover down vehicles or ones with maintenance problems Maintain formation, dispersion, and order of march Make recommendations to the convoy commander as appropriate Compile detailed manifest for convoy commander

Lead Security Unit Leader Controls all vehicles and personnel that make up the lead security unit Responsible for forward security Performs convoy navigation duties Communicate checkpoints, turns, danger areas, etc. to Convoy Commander Maintains convoy speed/interval for the Lead Security Unit Understand and rehearse convoy commanders IA drills and contingency plans for that specific mission, to include vehicle unloading drill. Train and rehearse with rest of convoy if required. Analyze the route and make recommendations to the convoy commander on potential danger areas or critical points. Accompany the convoy commander on any route reconnaissance if possible Tactically control and employ the Lead Security Unit vehicles in accordance with IA drills Secure landing zone (LZ) for CASEVAC Provide security at the objective if required

16

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Key Personnel (Continued) Main Body Security Unit Leader Controls all vehicles and personnel that make up the main body security unit Responsible for outboard security Communicate checkpoints, turns, danger areas, etc., to Convoy Commander

Maintains convoy speed/interval for the Main Body Security Unit Understand and rehearse convoy commanders IA drills and contingency plans for that specific mission, to include vehicle unloading drill. Train and rehearse with rest of convoy if required. Analyze the route and make recommendations to the convoy commander on potential danger areas or critical points. Accompany the convoy commander on any route reconnaissance if possible Tactically control and employ the Main Body Security Unit vehicles in accordance with IA drills Provide security at the objective if required Rear Security Unit Leader Controls all vehicles and personnel that make up the rear security unit Responsible for rear security Maintains rear security for the convoy Communicate the convoys passing of checkpoints, turns, danger areas, etc., to Convoy Commander Maintains convoy speed/interval for Rear Security Unit Understand and rehearse convoy commanders IA drills and contingency plans for that specific mission, to include vehicle unloading drill. Train and rehearse with rest of convoy if required. Analyze the route and make recommendations to the convoy commander on potential danger areas or critical points. Accompany the convoy commander on any route reconnaissance if possible Tactically control and employ the Trail vehicles in accordance with IA drills Secure landing zone (LZ) for CASEVAC Provide security at the objective if required Vehicle Commanders Because the traditional fire team, squad, platoon task
17 Basic Officer Course

Key Personnel (Continued)

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

organization does not easily translate to convoy operations in which small groups of Marines are spread across several vehicles, the convoy commander must put a Marine in charge of each vehicle. The vehicle commander is responsible for all aspects of that vehicle including C2, individuals, weapons, and tactical employment. Some responsibilities of the vehicle commander include: As the senior individual in the vehicle, take charge of the vehicle Know the route Defend the driver and the vehicle; ensure 360 degree security is maintained Ensure the vehicle follows IA drills and commands of the convoy commander Account for all personnel and equipment in that vehicle Handle communications within the vehicle and between the vehicle and the convoy commander Gunners A convoy must maintain 360 degree security at all times. The convoy commander must put serious thought into how to best employ organic fires and, like a fire plan sketch in the defense; the convoy commander must assign sectors of fire to maximize fire power while ensuring security. Some responsibilities of gunners include: Maintain assigned sectors of fire Positively identify and engage targets per Rules of Engagement (ROE) Ensure weapons are manned at all times Properly maintain and employ weapons

18

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Key Personnel (Continued) Drivers

All drivers must be licensed operators and, in many cases, they are professional motor transport operators per their Military Occupation Specialty (MOS). The convoy commander must ensure that the drivers know their responsibilities. Some of the responsibilities of drivers include: Drive the vehicles. That is their primary duty. If at all possible, other tasks like talking on the radio or returning fire should be assigned to someone else. Maintain correct interval and speed. Always keep vehicle to the front and rear in sight. Know vehicles capabilities and limitations and employ it accordingly Conduct all required checks and service on vehicles. Ensure vehicles are roadworthy. Follow directions of the vehicle commanders.

19

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Tasking Statements In a tactical convoy there are a number of key personnel who make the convoy function. However, the convoy commander does not task all key personnel but only the billet holders who report to the convoy commander, ensuring that those Marines understand their mission and responsibilities. Lead Security Unit Leader You are a supporting effort 1. Screen forward of convoy IOT allow the convoy to travel unimpeded along its route. BPT act as a maneuver element. BPT SBF. BPT conduct ground CASEVAC. BPT secure an LZ. BPT provide security on objective. Main Body Security Unit Leader You are the main effort. Protect the main body IOT provide CSS on objective. BPT SBF. BPT conduct ground CASEVAC. BPT secure an LZ. BPT provide security on objective. Rear Security Unit Leader You are a supporting effort 2. Screen to rear of convoy IOT allow the convoy to travel unimpeded along its route. BPT assume mission of Lead Security Unit. BPT act as a maneuver element. BPT SBF. BPT conduct ground CASEVAC. BPT secure an LZ. BPT provide security on objective.

Additional Duties

As with other operations, the convoy commander may choose to task some of the Marines that have been assigned additional duties within the convoy. Some examples are: Aid and litter team LZ marking team Guardian angels Recovery team Secondary Vehicle Commanders Secondary Drivers

Attachments

The convoy may have attachments with unique roles or capabilities, and the convoy commander must understand what these attachments bring to the fight and how to properly task them. Some attachments include: Interpreter

20

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Coordinating Instructions

Corpsman Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Forward Air Controller (FAC) Military Working Dogs (MWD)

As you learned in your Combat Orders class, coordinating instructions are pieces of information that apply to two or more units/personnel in your order. Because convoy operations involve so many moving parts, the coordinating instructions are often lengthy. This subparagraph of the order gives the convoy commander the opportunity to lay out some specific details about the operation or provide amplifying information. The list below is far from exhaustive, but it suggests some common coordinating instructions: IA drills Formation Task organization Vehicle order Route Route reconnaissance Control measures Speeds Dispersion Vehicle preparation Link up plan Bump plan Fuel/refuel plan Immediate action drills are an important element of convoy operations. Immediate action drills are pre-planned actions in response to common and anticipated events and enemy action. The key to successful execution of immediate action drills is that everyone knows them. IA drills are briefed and rehearsed numerous times prior to execution. The tactical principles you have learned thus far apply to convoy operations as well; however, introducing multiple vehicles separated over distance adds a layer of complexity to any coordinated action. This handout will cover the most common enemy threats and IA drills to counter them. However, the convoy commander must constantly evaluate the enemy threat and the validity of current IA drills to counter it. We must always be prepared to effectively counter the threat posed by a thinking, adaptive enemy who will change his tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Immediate Action Drills

21

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Immediate Action Drills (Continued)

Short security halt

Short security halts are defined as quick stops that are for 10 minutes or less. Examples of short security halts are as follows: stops to tighten a load, allow another convoy or traffic to pass, conduct a quick vehicle fix, allow the Lead Security Unit to deal with a situation, or refocus the drivers. The following steps should be taken when executing a short security halt: Set up road blocks at the front and rear of the convoy to warn traffic the convoy has stopped Maintain 360 degree security throughout the convoy and for each vehicle Maintain situational awareness and aggressive posture Identify at least one route of egress Conduct 5 and 25 meter checks and continually scan sector Dismounts protect vehicles from third party personnel/vehicle approach Drivers may do a quick check to tighten the load or check vehicle, but otherwise remain in the vehicles ready to drive. Crew-served weapons remain manned and have interlocking fields of fire

22

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Immediate Action drills

Long Security Halt

Long halts are longer than 10 minutes and could be situations such as: dealing with a vehicle breakdown or recovery, cordoning off an IED, or conducting actions on the objective. The longer a unit is static, the more vulnerable it is to enemy contact; therefore, the convoy commander should dictate an increased security posture during long halts. The following steps should be taken when executing a long security halt: Dismounts seek out and use hard cover, such as armored vehicles, buildings, or terrain Dismounts clear blind spots and cover adjacent alleys, streets, and buildings Crew-served weapons remain manned Drivers only dismount at a long halt when absolutely necessary, such as to conduct resupply, rig vehicle for tow, etc Dismounts push security out to establish a secure perimeter and maintain mutual support. Employ over watch and guardian angel principles. Dismounts protect vehicles from third party personnel/vehicle approach

23

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Immediate Action Drills (Continued)

Danger Area Crossing

Just as you learned in patrolling, a danger area is a specified area above, below, or within which there may be potential danger. Danger areas require additional situational awareness and control to allow a convoy to move through a point while both controlling third party traffic and remaining alert to potential threats. Examples are intersections, traffic circles, overpasses, and on/off ramps. There are several different ways to cross a danger area. The composition of the danger area, the threat, and the assets of the convoy all factors into which is the appropriate technique for crossing the danger area. One common technique is described below:

DANGER AREA CROSSING

REAR SEC

MAIN BODY

LEAD SEC

1) Lead Security identifies danger area and slows 2) Convoy slows

DANGER AREA CROSSING


REAR SEC MAIN BODY LEAD SEC

3) Rear Security accelerates from the rear to provide over watch and posts on the flanks

24

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Immediate Action Drills (Continued)

DANGER AREA CROSSING


REAR SEC

MAIN BODY

LEAD SEC

4) Lead Security and Main Body accelerate and continue through danger area

REAR SEC

REAR SEC

DANGER AREA CROSSING


MAIN BODY LEAD SEC

REAR SEC

5) Lead Security and Main Body crosses danger area 6) Rear Security maintains security to the flanks until pre planned interval is achieved

DANGER AREA CROSSING


REAR SEC MAIN BODY LEAD SEC

7) Rear Security falls in and takes its place in the convoy

25

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Immediate Action Drills (Continued) React to Sniper or harassing fire

By themselves, snipers can do little harm to a moving convoy. If, however, a sniper can cause a convoy to stop and deploy its forces, a more dangerous situation can arise. Snipers are often used as a deception to cause a convoy to stop in a larger enemy kill zone, i.e. a deliberate ambush. To properly react to a sniper:

26

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Immediate Action Drills/ Ambush Ambush Drills

There is be a clear difference between harassing fire and an ambush. An ambush will have a heavy, effective volume of fire concentrated in a specific area (the kill zone). The enemy often employs a combination of weapons, such as rifles, machine guns, and rocket-propelled grenades. Additionally, the enemy may combine his direct fire weapons with indirect fire or IEDs. Unblocked Ambush: This term refers to a situation when the convoys movement is not impeded by enemy actions and the convoy suppresses the enemy and continues on with its mission. These are the steps that should be taken in an unblocked ambush: Speed up Signal. Visually signal to indicate general direction of the enemy Return fire. Employ accurate fires within the ROE. Gun trucks within Main Body fire as they continue through the kill zone. Escort vehicles maneuver to concentrate fires on the enemy while the Main Body pushes through the kill zone Send a report. Vehicles receiving/returning fire report contact to the convoy commander, who in turn reports contact to higher Headquarters Move to a rally point away from the site based on SOP and METT-TC Send ACE report Continue the mission Blocked Ambush: If the movement is blocked by the enemys actions and the convoy is not able to execute its alternate route, the convoy may need to execute a hasty attack or a hasty defense, depending on the situation and the commanders intent.

27

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Immediate Action Drills/ Ambush (continued)

Hasty Attack o Contact reported to convoy commander o Vehicles that can get out of the kill zone do so, vehicles trapped in the kill zone return fire from crew-served weapons (if they are gun trucks) or individual weapons o Marines in kill zone execute vehicle unloading drill and seek cover and concealment while returning fire. o Vehicles clear of the kill zone suppress the enemy. o o Designated Security Unit vehicles maneuver to provide effective fires against the enemy and lay down a base of fire for dismounted assault force o Convoy commander decides whether to dismount and assault through the enemy. o Convoy regroups at rally point, assesses casualties and damage, reports updates to higher, and continues on with mission Hasty Defense o Contact reported to higher, QRF requested o Convoy is unable to execute alternate route or continue forward and is confronted with superior enemy force, thus being forced to defend convoy in place until assistance arrives o Convoy commander organizes defensive position using crew-served weapons, vehicles, personnel, and terrain in order to best repel the enemy. Depending on the situation and time, the convoy commander may set up crew-served weapons on the ground vice mounted on the vehicles. Vehicle Dismount Drill

If a vehicle is immobilized and is taking fire, or if the assault force must dismount under fire, the steps below describe how to dismount a vehicle while under fire: o Return fire with crew-served weapon (if a gun truck) and individual weapons o Throw smoke to obscure friendly movement o Hot side (side taking fire) provides suppressive fire o Cold side (side opposite fire) dismounts using vehicle as cover o Marines on the ground provide suppressive fire o Marines on the hot side of the truck dismount using the vehicle for cover o Assault the enemy using fire and maneuver

28

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Immediate Action Drills/ Ambush (Continued) Depending on the situation and disposition of the truck, the crew-served weapon may also be taken off the truck and employed from the ground.

Recovery of Down Personnel and Vehicles: There are two drills for recovering down personnel and vehicles. In one instance there is no obstacle to movement but the convoy itself is forced to stop to execute the recovery. In the second instance, there is an impediment to the convoys forward movement and the convoy commander must deal with that as well as with the recovery. o Convoy is forced to stop due to down vehicle or personnel, but there is no obstacle to movement o Convoy stops (if under fire, convoy commander may send unnecessary vehicles ahead to rally point) o Dismount o Dismounts establish 360 degree security. Maintain/scan sector of fire. Look for indications of enemy presence o Achieve fire superiority by maneuvering gun trucks and escort vehicles to support by fire positions o Report to higher headquarters and request assistance if needed o Dismounts recover casualties from cold side of vehicle o Recovery vehicle executes hasty recover with strap, chain, cable, tow bar, or have a rear vehicle push the disabled vehicle out of the kill zone o Convoy continues movement. Gun trucks/escort vehicles cover movement out of area o Convoy moves to rally point o Convoy establishes 360 degree security o Convoy commander sends ACE report o Convoy continues mission

29

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Immediate Action Drills/ IEDs IEDs are one of the greatest threats to convoys and are often used to initiate an ambush; therefore, convoy personnel should always be prepared for follow on enemy activity after an IED attack. Convoy commanders should brief convoy personnel on the latest IED threat: what types of IEDs are being used and where they have previously been emplaced along the route. The bottom line is to protect the convoy. All personnel must maintain situational awareness looking for actual IEDs and likely IED hiding places. Varying routes and times, switching lanes at random, entering overpasses on one side of the road and exiting on the other, training weapons on overpasses as the convoy passes under them, and avoiding chokepoints will reduce the risk from these devices. Once an IED has been discovered or has detonated on the convoy, the following procedure known as the 5 Cs should be used: Confirm Clear Cordon Check Control

30

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

The Convoy Order (Continued)


Immediate Action Drills/ IEDs

Confirm whether or not the suspected object is in fact a possible IED. Binoculars or other optics, including thermal sights, can greatly assist in the process. Personnel should try to confirm the IED to the best of their ability, but do so from a safe distance and without taking unnecessary risks. After confirming the presence of an IED, contact higher headquarters using the Explosive Hazard 9-line report. Clear the area surrounding the IED, attempt to clear all 360 degrees if possible and clear to a minimum of 300m. Vary distance and formation to remain unpredictable. Clear the area of all military and civilian personnel and vehicles. Remember to conduct 5 and 25 Meter Checks at all areas occupied. Cordon the area off by a minimum of 300 meters. The purpose of the cordon is to prevent unauthorized personnel and vehicles from entering the site (for their own protection and for the safety of EOD), to preserve the scene for further exploitation, and to provide outward protection and security against commandinitiated IEDs. Check the immediate area around the site and cordoned positions for secondary devices using the 5 and 25 Meter Checks. Expand the search using the detailed search methods and optics as time/threat permits, looking for indicators, secondary devices, and suspicious personnel. Control to ensure only authorized access, control the area inside the cordon. All personnel and vehicles should enter and exit the cordoned area through the ECP. All civilian and non-essential military traffic should be diverted away from the cordon. Immediately report any personnel observed approaching the IED. A 360-degree security around the cordon should be maintained until EOD has given the all-clear signal.

31

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Pre-Combat Actions
The foundation for success for any mission is the actions that are conducted prior to departing friendly lines. The Convoy Commander develops a detailed plan to support the convoy both operationally and logistically. Pre-Combat Checks and Inspections confirm that the plan is executable by verifying that all personnel and materials are present and operational. The Convoy Commander must determine which equipment to take for the mission and understand how to inspect that equipment. It will likely require subject matter experts such as mechanics, vehicle operators, and communicators to inspect specific items; however, the Convoy Commander and subordinate leaders will need to possess a basic knowledge of the inspectable items under their control. In addition to the items required for direct sustainment and accomplishment of the mission the Convoy Commander must plan for redundancy and contingency items to support the mission. The items can consist of the following: MREs, water, ammunition, medical supplies, batteries, fuels, oils, lubricant, repair parts, and spare tires. The Convoy Commander must determine how much extra can be carried, how it will be spread load on vehicles, how it will be marked, and how it should be secured for ease of access and retention. This extra equipment must be planned for in detail and briefed to the convoy to ensure that all know where to locate additional ammunition during an engagement or where to locate medical supplies for treating a casualty. For example the Convoy Commander may place additional Fragmentary Grenades in every other vehicle in the convoy. Those grenades will need to be placed in an ammo can, marked with paint or lettering, placed in a specific location, and secured by an effective method for both retention and access if needed. PCC/ PCI Pre combat checks and inspections are a crucial step in ensuring mission readiness. Both personnel and equipment (weapons, communication gear, vehicles, etc) must undergo checks and inspections prior to any mission in order to identify and correct any potential issues. Below is a sample check lists for vehicles:

32

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Pre-Combat Actions (Continued)


PCC/ PCI (Continued) Vehicle checklist (Common to all): Completed Vehicle Operator Trip Ticket Completed Preventative Maintenance Checks and Services All Hatches and Windows Secure (No Gaps) Antennas and External Items Secured Turret Function Checked With/Without Mounted Weapons Crew Served Weapons (Mounted, Function Checked, Cleaned, Lubricated, and Test Fired) Vehicle Windows/Mirrors (Cleaned) Basic Issue Items/On Vehicle Equipment/SL-3 Fire Extinguisher Charged and Secured Spare Tire Loaded, Prepped, and Secured Fuel/Fluids Topped Off Communications Gear Loaded, Checked, and Secured o Power Amp Loaded, Checked, and Secured Report Formats Checked and Posted Near Radio o CASEVAC, IED, SITREP, Etc Map/Strip Maps/Fires Overlay/Obstacles (IED/Mine Past/Possible Sites), Routes (Primary/Alternate), Boundaries, Check Points/CEOI/Signal plan Checked and Posted Near Radio Ammunition Marked and Secured o Escalation of Force/Defensive Action Kit o Pyrotechnics o Rounds o Smokes Litters Inspected, Prepped, and Secured Cargo Straps/Tow Chains/Tow Bars Prepped and Secured Vehicle Flashlight/Spotlight/Signal Devices Checked and Secured Warning Triangles and Signs Secured Cargo Secured MRE and Water Checked, Loaded, and Secured Additional Fuel/Fluids Topped Off, Marked, and Secured ECP/VCP Kit Checked, Loaded, and Secured

33

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

MTVR Passenger Configuration o Compartment Clear of Debris and Trash o Seats Checked, Operational, and Secured o Stairs Checked, Operational, and Secured o Tarpaulin Sides Rolled and Secured Cargo Configuration o Sides Checked and Secured or Removed and Stowed o Mirror Obstructions Identified and Corrected if Possible o Load Items Clearly Marked and Loaded in Order of Offload o Load Secured with Straps or Chains to Griped Points o Chains and Straps Straight with No Catches or Twists o Nothing Hanging or Caught on Load or Vehicle o Additional Chains or Straps Checked, Loaded, and Secured on Vehicle MRAP Compartment Clear of Debris and Trash Seats Checked, Operational, and Secured Turret Function Checked With/Without Mounted Weapons (Verify Clear Field of Fire) Gunner Platform Checked, Operational, and Secured Stairs Checked, Operational, and Secured Rehearsals The purpose of conducting rehearsals is to enable final reinforcement of critical habits of action/thought before departing friendly lines. Rehearsals serve as an opportunity for commanders to practice critical tactical actions that are anticipated or expected while conducting their convoy. Because time is always of the essence, convoy commanders must have their rehearsals prioritized. Rehearsals also serve as an opportunity to implement new TTPs and work on tactical elements that the unit may have executed poorly in the past.

34

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Communications
Communication is one of the most important planning considerations for the convoy commander. By the nature of a convoy, vehicles and personnel are spread out along a considerable distance, making radio communications the main method by which the convoy commander commands and controls the unit. Communications assets may be limited and the convoy commander will have to choose wisely where to position the radios. The ideal is one radio per vehicle. The convoy commander must know the capabilities and limitations of all the communications gear and how to properly employ it, keeping in mind the distance the convoy will cover and the length of the convoy itself. For example, in larger convoys, in order for the convoy commander to talk with the lead and rear vehicles there should probably be other radios positioned throughout the middle of the convoy to relay over the long distances. There are three types of communications in a convoy: External to the convoy: The convoy commander is the primary person talking to units external to the convoy in order to coordinate with higher, adjacent, and supporting units. The convoy commander talks externally to coordinate boundary crossing, keep higher headquarters informed, employ supporting arms, and call for external assets (i.e., CASEVAC, EOD, QRF, or recovery support). Vehicle to vehicle: Members within the convoy communicate with one another on the status of the convoy. The convoy commander issues orders to subordinates and members of the convoy report problems, observations, or enemy contact. Vehicle internal: Personnel inside the vehicles communicate among themselves, more often visually or by voice rather than by radio. The vehicle commander relays orders he or she received from the convoy commander over the radio to his crew. Gunners and drivers report their observations to the vehicle commander. Often times this communication is done by voice rather than radio within the vehicle.

35

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Summary
General Convoy Considerations. The spectrum of convoy operations is complex and varied. Convoy operations can range from a four-vehicle convoy of HMMWVs conducting a rapid resupply of an infantry platoon in the assault to a fifty-vehicle convoy involving military, civilian contractor, and third-country national vehicles. The mission, size, task organization, route, and enemy threat will be unique in every convoy. This class offers basic planning considerations, principles, and techniques to conduct convoy operations; however it is only a starting point. Unit SOPs and the operating environment will dictate and shape much of the convoy operations you actually execute. The principles of convoy operations only build on the tactical and planning foundations you have gained thus far. Regardless of the specific convoys you will conduct, below are overarching themes that must be considered in every convoy operation. Detailed planning and preparation: Similar to a patrol, planning a convoy requires significant thought and time. Immediately upon receipt of the mission, the convoy commander should publish a warning order to subordinate leaders in order to effectively manage preparation time. The convoy commander should also begin coordination with the COC to get questions answered and begin formulating the convoy order. The convoy order will be lengthy and detailed, with specific tasking statements for key personnel and with extensive coordinating instructions. The convoy commander must plan for myriad contingencies that could arise in the execution of the convoy as well as for the numerous responsibilities inherent with command of a convoy. Well thought-out, well rehearsed IA drills: The ability to respond to those myriad contingencies will determine the success or failure of that convoy. The convoy commander must carefully consider what potential scenarios the convoy may face and the best way to confront them. Then the convoy commander must translate that plan into action by rigorously training convoy personnel in these IA drills and conducting rehearsals. Additionally, the convoy commander must constantly update his or her METT-TC and analyze the drills to ensure they are effective. Difficult command and control: Command and control of the convoy is one of the most challenging areas for the convoy commander. The convoy commander must communicate both internally and externally. The convoy commander primarily communicates with his or her subordinate leaders and vehicles through the radio, which can be difficult due to dispersion, the size of the convoy, and limited communications assets. Externally, the convoy commander must communicate with higher headquarters, adjacent units as the convoy crosses boundaries, and with supporting units such as aviation or fire support. Often times, the convoy commander will have multiple command and control systems at his or her disposal and must know the capabilities and limitations of each one.

36

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Summary (Continued)
Battlefield geometry: Geometry of fires can become much more complicated with convoys than foot-mobile operations. The vehicles are spaced much farther apart than dismounted troops and a convoy possesses significantly more crew-served weapons (with longer ranges) than the average dismounted force. When the assault force dismounts to maneuver, coordination is imperative between gun trucks providing suppressive fire and the dismounted troops. Also, a convoy often travels through another units battle space where it may be difficult for that convoy commander to know or determine where all the friendly forces are located. The convoy commander and the Marines in the convoy must constantly be aware of the effects of their fires. End state and mission accomplishment: A convoy exists in order to tactically move supplies or personnel from one place to another in pursuit of a larger mission. Therefore, a convoy is one of the few instances in which engaging the enemy is secondary to overall accomplishment of the mission and fulfillment of the end state. Always consider the mission when making decisions during the execution of the convoy. The convoy must be able to defend itself: Convoys must be as self-sufficient as possible and must be prepared for contact with the enemy. While the bullet above stresses that engaging the enemy is secondary to mission accomplishment that does not mean that the convoy should avoid confrontation with the enemy. The convoy must be able to defend itself and if the opportunity arises, the convoy should inflict as much damage on the enemy as possible. An alert, aggressive posture and a willingness to confront and defeat the enemy will undermine the enemys perception of convoys as soft targets and reduce the likelihood of attacks. Ultimately, the convoy commander must balance this aggressive, offensive mindset with overall accomplishment of the mission.

37

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

References
Reference Number or Author MCRP 4-11.3F MCRP 4-11.3H Reference Title Convoy Operations Handbook Tactical Convoy Ops

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


Term or Acronym BAMCIS Definition or Identification Begin planning, Arrange for reconnaissance, Make reconnaissance, Complete the plan, Issue the Order, and Supervise A deliberately planned combat operation to move personnel and/or deliver cargo via a group of ground transportation assets in a secure manner to or from a destination under the control of a single commander in a permissive, uncertain, or hostile environment. Convoys should always have access to the common operational picture and be characterized by an aggressive posture, agility, and unpredictability Confirm, Clear, Call, Cordon, Control. Procedure used to deal with improvised explosive devices. Defend, Reinforce, Attack, Withdraw -- Delay Enemys Most Likely Course of Action Explosive Ordnance Disposal Forward Air Controller High Mobility Multi-Wheeled Vehicle Immediate action Improvised Explosive Device Mission, Enemy, Terrain and weather, Troops and support available --Time available, Cultural influences The application of combat power from motorized vehicles which is characterized by the ability to alternate rapidly between fighting from vehicles and fighting on foot and also to combine these two methods of combat. There operations rely upon mobility to maximize speed and firepower in the execution of operations. Military Working Dogs Quick Reaction Force Rehearsal of Concepts Rules of Engagement Size, Activity, Location, Unit, Time, Equipment Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Vehicle Checkpoint

Convoy

5 Cs DRAW-D EMLCOA EOD FAC HMMWV IA IED METT-TC Motorized operations

MWD QRF ROC ROE SALUTE UAV VCP

38

Basic Officer Course

B3P4878

Motorized Convoy Operations

Notes

39

Basic Officer Course

Notes

Basic Officer Course