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Carozzi

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Journal of Petroleum Geology, vol.

18 (l),January 1995, pp 29-48

29

DEPOSITIONAL MODELS AND RESERVOIR PROPERTIES OF MIOCENE REEFS, VISAYAN ISLANDS, PHILIPPINES
A. V. Carozzi"

Recent commercial discoveries offshore Palawan have propelled the Philippines into the list of oil- and gas-producing countries, and have focussed on the importance of Miocene reefs as reservoirs. This new situation has motivated the update of earlier depositional-diagenetic models for the Miocene reefs in the Visayan Islands, which is presented in this paper. These reefs consisted of an association of corals, red algae, bryozoans, and encrustingforaminifers, whichformed wave-resistant, constructed, barrierand-atoll systems along the edge of narrow shelves, with associated back-reefpatch reefs and frontal pinnacle reefs. The latter also grew on structural and depositional highs and pla forms among deeper water carbonate mudstones and shales. Reservoirs developed in all the various types of buildups by extensive burial dissolution, often preceded (withthe exception of some pinnacle reefs) b y subaerial exposure generating secondary porosity by vadose tophreatic undersaturated dissolution. Seals were generally provided by overlying basinal carbonate mudstones and shales, and by aizdesitic iwlcaniclastics and basaltic lava flows. Source beds were mature, basinal, bituminous carbonate mudstones and shales, and migration of hydrocarbons was mainly updip, complicated by local structural conditions.

INTRODUCTION
Extensive field work and subsurface exploration provided the foundation for the first depositional model for the Miocene reefs of the Visayan Islands (Carozzi et al., 1976), and portrayed the buildups as shelf-edge complex barriers along narrow shelves accompanied by atolls and by pinnacle reefs on basinal slopes. Based on additional coring and further petrographic study, this paper presents amore complete reef model, accounting for depositional and diagenetic facies development, particularly with regard to burial porosity.

* Department of Geology, 245 Natural History Building, University ofIllinois at UrbanaChampaign, 1301 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois, 61801-2999, USA.

30

A . V. Cnro::i

GEOLOGIC SETTING
The Philippine archipelago (Fig. 1) developed into an active volcanic island-arc system as a result of Late Cretaceous to Early Oligocene orogenic movements controlled by regional plate tectonics. Early Miocene sedimentary sequences of shallow-marine clastics with incipient reef development are transgressive over a variety of older rocks with an unconformable contact. In continental environments, coal deposition was widespread. Middle Miocene shallow-marine coarse- to medium-grained clastics, grading into deepwater shales, overlay these lithologies. Acid volcanic intrusions and extrusions were common at that time, as well as andesitic volcaniclastic sediments. Typical barrier reefs developed extensively in Middle Miocene times along the margins of major basins, and controlled the pattern of sedimentation over widespread areas (Fig. 2), although redeposited andesitic volcaniclastics interfered constantly with reef growth. Intense differential vertical movements caused Middle Miocene carbonates locally to overlap much older formations. It is not uncommon to observe Middle Miocene reefs growing over PermoCarboniferous metasediments and Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic ophiolitic flysch sequences, but in general they overlie Middle Miocene clastics, coal beds, and basaltic lava flows. I n the Late Miocene, the intrusion of more andesitic volcanic rocks accompanied folding. widespread thrusting. rifting and transcurrent faulting related to collision events. The Plio-Pleistocene transgression was extensive in most basins, draping older structures with reefal carbonates, while uplifted areas generated fluvial conglomerates and sandstones associated with renewed andesitic volcanism. The paleogeographic map of the Miocene reef trends in the Visayan Islands (Fig. 2) is a simplified presentation of the results of field investigations, extending over a period of seven years, and conducted under adverse logistic conditions of “island-hopping”, using means of transportation ranging from primitive outriggers to helicopters. The map shows the complex pattern of the Miocene reef barriers, and the important fact that, with the exception of some basinal facies which still correspond to present-day narrow marine inter-island basins, Miocene paleogeography was a direct function of contemporaneous plate tectonics, and is as a whole largely independent of the present-day distribution and shape of the Visayan Islands. This paleogeography was characterized by a repeated polarity, consisting of the constant juxtaposition basinwards of the following depositional environments: 1. emerged land; 2. back-reef lagoon with patch reefs; 3. main reef barrier; 4. fore-reef slope grading to inter-barrier shelves and basins with pinnacle reefs.

GEOLOGIC AGE OF THE REEFS
Based on the occurrence of large benthonic foraminifera, the reefs of the Visayan Islands began to develop in the Early Miocene (Lepidocyclina eulepidirza, Lepidocycliriu rirphrolepidina, Spiroclypeus orbitoideus, Spiroclypeirs Irupoldi, and Austrotrillina hondiirii). Depending on the location of particular islands. the reefs reached their final and maximum development either in the Middle or Middle-Late Miocene (Miogypsina rrid~)rie.sierisis, Lepidocyclirza ferreroi, Cycloclypeus kutucycloclypeus. associated with the pelagic forms Sphuerodinellopsis subdekiscens and Globoqriadriria altispira).

DESCRIPTION OF MICROFACIES
The proposed depositional model was derived from detailed petrographic analysis of microfacies and their shallowing-upwards sequences in outcrops and cores, and can be best visualized by combining the plan view of Fig. 3 with the field photographs of Plate 1. Miocene reefs of the Visayan Islands formed along the edges of narrow shelves, and consisted of an association of corals, red algae, bryozoans and encrusting foraminifera

9- 120' 122. CELEBES 122' BEA 124' 126. central Philippines. 20' 50 18. Fig. . Location map of the Visayan Islands. Philippines I 1 11.8. ' SULU SEA cj BORNEO 120. Visayan Islands. 1.Miocene reefs. t 0 50 100 150 2 0 0 U 7 31 JAPAN 0 OOP S C A L E 16' AUSTRALIA V .

u . (2) large benthonic foraminifera1 Holimedu packstones.to fine-grained clastics predominate over carbonates. and large benthonics). and altered mafics. they consist of: (1) finger-coral boundstones (Plate I A and C). it displays at least three types of buildups or banks resulting from the localized accumulation of. deposited i n estuarine.vteRiIicr. deposited in a shoreface me en 1. D and E).i I-on n t . and lithoclasts of altered intermediate-to-basic volcanics. Microfacies 2: argillaceous foraminiferal packstone. and estuarine deposits. These shelf facies display an ecologically zoned succession of small buildups. Major bioclasts are orbitoids.to fine-grained foraminifcral packstone with an interstitial argillaceous lime mud or a bioclastic matrix. Microfacies 1 (Plate 2 A ) is a poorly-sorted and weakly-bioturbated arenaceous skeletal packstone. V. textularids. coarse. or construction by. In a landwards direction. In thih association ot‘environments. beach. constructional barriers of coral encrusting-redalgal boundstones/wackestoiies (Plate 1 D). These deposits are distributed in a general seawards direction as follows: Mic. red algae. rotdiids.ic~s3 r r : a variety of closely-related packstone lithofacies. which connected e4tuarine and shoreface areas across the entire lagoon with carbonate turbidite submarine fans prograding into deep-water pelagic argillaceous mudstones and shales of the basinal en v iron mcn t . and (3) small arenaceous foraminifera] packstones and gastropod red-algal packstones (Plate 1 B). deposited behind the barrier reef in shallow-water lagoons. highly-broken Cyc1orIypm. with an interstitial matrix of argillaceous and pyritic lime mud. arenaceous foraminiferal packstones. these then interfingered with deep-water (pelagic) argillaceous lime mudstones and shales. Microfacies 3: skeletal wackestone. The. The entire reef system was cut in a transverse manner by tidal passes. hornblende. non-carbonate fraction consists of lithoclusts of altered volcanics. and beach environments. Microfacies 2 (Plate 2. gastropods. gastropods. This en\~ironment by far the most variable.s.i-o$ic. plagioclases. Bioclasts and intraclasts derived froin these baniers were shed as frontal aprons of fore-reef talus. Low-energy skeletal-pelletal wackestones. mangrotre tidal flat. This envii-onnient represents the major transition between clastic and carbonate deposition. Carbonate grains include ostracods. feldspars. Tidal-pass sediments graded seawards into carbonate turbidites of graded skeletal grainstones. which includes small benthonic foraminifera1 packstones. which forms the shorewards limit of the depositional model. deposited in lagooiial environments. entire individu~ils Aiiii’/ii.32 A. opaque minerals. and rare foraminifera (miliolids. Within an extensive background of fineis grained skeletal mxkestones. 3): hlicrofacies 1: calcareous siltstones grading to arenaceous skeletal packstones. Shoreface deposits consisted of mixed carbonates and andesitic greywackes (Plate 1 H). and grains of quart/. B) is a poorly-sorted. Non-carbonate sand-size components include abundant grains of deti-ital quartz. together of ii~i. forming coral rudstones (Plate 1 E) and skeletal intraclastic grainstones (Plate 1 F and G). ostracods and small arenaceoiis for a m i n i fe ra. thin-shelled pelecypods. Microfacies are described in terms ofjuxtaposed environments numbered consecutively from the coastline in a seawards direction (Fig. with O p c r ~ ~ / t / i rotaliids. medium. sponge spicules. which locally supported pinnacle coralline buildups of branching-coral encrusting-red-algal boundstones/wackestones. Tidal passes filled with skeletal grainstones and intraclasts intersected these aprons. echinoids. were intersected by numerous tidal channel deposits of wellsorted skeletal grainstones. and gastropod branching-I-ed-algal packstones (Plate 2 C . grading landwards into mangrove tidal flat. a variety of organisms. Cnro:zi that formed complex wave-resistant. wlcanic glass.

Fig. estimated at 70 km since the Miocene. 2. Philippines 33 4 /‘ // ’ 1j I BACK-REEF LAGOONS WITH INVESTIGATED PATCH REEFS EMERGED LAND IN MIOCENE TIMES PRESENT-DAY ISLAND COASTLINES WITH MIOCENE LEFT LATERAL 7 0 k m OFFSET OF PHILIPPINE TRANSCURRENT FAULT /I. Paleogeographic map of Miocene reef trends in the Visayan Islands.’/”/ . .Miocene reefs. . This map takes into account the left-lateral offset of the Philippine transcurrent fault. Vistrynn Islaiids.

to more openmarine conditions along its boundary with back-reef environments.34 MICROFACIES ESTUARIES MANGROVE TIDAL FLATS BEACHES 1 2 SMALL ARENACEOUS FORAMINIFER BANKS AND GASTROPOD 1I 1 LAGOONAL iF0E::ER LARGER TiI 3b FINOER CORAL PATCH REEFS 3c 4 FINGER CORAL PATCH REEFS MAIN CORAL-= ALGAL REEF B A R R I E R 4a 5 6 ORE-REEF A P X WITH PINNACLE REEF OPEN MARINE CARBONATE AND SHALES - 7 7a 7b 8 8a TURBlDlTE FANS Fig. Micrqfcicies 3c: finger-coral boundstones with a lime mud matrix. The most seaward type of buildup of the lagoonal environment consists of tnud mounds with finger corals of Microfacies 3c (Plate 3 Bj. mainly Spiroclypeusand Lepidocvrlirin. Plan view of ideal depositional model. deposited together with Halimrdn in a packstone texture.rofiic. forming buildups (Plate 2 F. Mic.ies 3b: large benthonic foraminifera. . 3. G and H). The general juxtaposition of these buildups or banks indicates a gradual change of the lagoonal environment from restricted-marine conditions on its landward side.

Cross-section of ideal depositional model. Philippines 35 ENVIRONMENT ALGAL REF BARRlER Fig. Visayan Islaiids.Miocene reefs. 4. .

result from the redistribution of a variety of bioclasts derived from the reworking of lagoonal buildups. The dark. Microfacies 6: coral rudstones and skeletal intraclastic grainstones. the constructional framework afforded sufficient internal protection to allow deposition of fine. deposited in the fore-reef apron environment. constructed a wave-resistant barrier (Plate 3 D). deposited in forereef talus environment.36 A. interstitial matrix material. Widespread pressure-solution occurs along with interstitial cavity-filling sparite. lagoonal. The presence of large. and results from freshwater phreatic diagenesis. the main differences being large corals and a slightly coarser interstitial matrix with planktonic foraminifera (Plate 3 C ) . Microfacies 7: burrowed coral planktonic-foraminifera1 packstone/wackestone. Intraclasts of various lagoonal microfacies are associated with bioclasts of encrusting red algae. bryozoans and foraminifera (Ccirpenteria). It is a bimodal mixed-skeletal grainstone with abundant cavity-filling sparite cement and local pressure-solution features. Tidal-pass deposits (Microfacies 7a). deposited as a sand belt in the back-reef environment.which extend deep into the lagoonal environment as updip tongues. encrusting foraminifera. subangular intraclasts of Microfacies 5 and entire coral colonies detached from their substrate. Corozi Microfacies 4: finger-coral algal-plate grainstones with intraclasts. It consists of a mixture of shelf-derived material and in sitir slope deposits. indicates early submarine cementation within the barrier reef. bryozoans. this apron supported the deep-water coralline pinnacle buildups of finger-coral boundstones of Microfcicies 7b. encrusted to a variable degree by red algae. A typical example of Microfacies 6 (Plate 3 E) is a coral intraclastic grainstone/ packstone. with poorly-sorted subangular-to-subrounded fragments of coral colonies. Neomorphism of the coral framework into pseudosparite is widespread. This microfacies (Plate 3 F) is a burrowed skeletal packstone/wackestone with silt-sized lime-mud matrix material. Intraclasts and bioclasts derived from all the back-reef. bituminous interstitial matrix of silt-to clay-size lime mud displays local concentrations of bioclasts. echinoids and large orbitoids are associated with abundant planktonic foraminifera. Whenever continental sedimentyield was active. lithoclasts of volcanic and metamorphic rocks. Massive coral colonies. Microfacies 5: coral encrusting-red-algal boundstones/wackestones of the barrier reef. Such high-energy coral rudstones and coarse-grained skeletal-intraclastic grainstones result from the accumulation and slumping of shallow-water barrier-reef dCbris. and planktonic foraminifera. . the only anomalies being patch reefs of fingercoral boundstone/wackestone of Microfacies 4a. red-algal colonies. Although this microfacies represents the highest energy of the entire carbonate system. were also distributed along these major axes of communication between the back-reef lagoon and fore-reef apron. and shoreface environments (including lithoclasts of volcanics) demonstrate the important sediment-transport role played by tidal passes. ostracods and planktonic foraminifera. These deposits build a discontinuous zone along the front of the main barrier facing the open ocean. and rare patches of silt-size pelletal lime-mud matrix occur between grains locally. Bioturbation is well developed. This environment represents the distal end of bioclastic deposits shed by the mechanical destruction of the barrier reef by waves and tides. as well as grains of plagioclase and hornblende. This microfacies is similar to the finger-coral mounds of Microfacies 3c. Locally. V. echinoids. Plate 3A shows a typical tidal-pass deposit. Bioclasts of corals. red algae. such as orbitoids. encrusting foraminifera.

DEPOSITIONAL MODEL A tranverse cross-section of the depositional model (Fig. as well as monaxon sponge spicules and ostracods. miliolids. Globoquadrina. orbulinids. Miogypsina. This microfacies is interrupted locally by prograding submarine fans of graded-bedded skeletal grainstones of Microfacies 8a (Plate 3 H). The matrix is argillaceous. and distribution of potential secondary porosity created at depth. textularids and ostracods. which consists of a normal sequence of diagenetic environments . Pyrite concentrations and rare silt-size grains of detrital quartz are scattered throughout the groundmass. Accessory mineral grains include quartz. DIAGENETIC SEQUENCE All the Middle Miocene reefs of the Visayan Islands investigated have undergone a diagenetic evolution. variations of the general grain-size of the microfacies. dark-coloured bands. together with common grains of hornblende. altered hornblende. Lepidocyclina. The curve of potential secondary porosity indicates that dissolution is concentrated in barrier reef and adjacent back-reef and fore-reef lithofacies. and volcanic glass. and separated by thicker. echinoid plates and spines and ostracods. weathered hornblende. This microfacies becomes a mature source rock under burial conditions in inter-island troughs. containing a great variety of reworked bioclasts: Amphistegina. Globoquadrina. Orbulina and Globigerinoides.Miocene reefs. argillaceous planktonic-foraminifera1 wackestones with pyrite (Plate 3G). plagioclases. 4) illustrates its main characteristics: variations of the relative energy level of the variousjuxtaposed environments. The distribution of organic constituents indicates three distinct communities: the first is characteristic of the lagoon. Cycloclypeus. Halimeda. together with abundant very-fine grained detrital quartz. and abundant muscovite flakes. plagioclases. The light-coloured laminae are argillaceous skeletal mudstones. distribution of the organic and mineral constituents. The darker bands are similar in composition to the lighter-coloured laminae. except that argillaceous matrix is more abundant than bioclasts and mineral grains. and opaque minerals. muscovite flakes. The basal skeletal grainstone grades upwards into a finer-grained skeletal packstone. volcanic glasses. Abundant planktonic foraminifera include globigerinids. consisting mostly of pelagic foraminifera. echinoids. The middle and upper parts of the turbidite sequence display light-coloured laminae gradually decreasing in importance upwards. with small grains of quartz. Cementation is by pressure-solution combined with patches of cavity-filling sparite. common ostracods and silt-size debris of benthonic constituents. deposited as carbonate turbidites at the mouth of major tidal passes. Visayan Islands. whereas the presence of intraclasts identifies major areas of intra-basinal reworking processes. Microfacies 8: this microfacies consists of argillaceous lime mudstones with pyrite. Sphaerodinellopsis and Globorotalia. Associated with these highly-fragmented benthonic constituents are the following pelagic foraminifera: Sphaerodinellopsis. and the third of the fore-reef talus and apron -with partial overlap between adjacent communities. Philippines 31 large orbitoids. deposited in deep-water open-marine environments. A complete graded sequence (Plate 4) begins at the base with a fine-grained mixed-skeletal planktonic-foraminifera1 grainstone. silt-size lime mud. plagioclases. dasyclad algae. The distribution of mineral constituents and plant debris emphasizes the extra-basinal supply from volcanic terranes. Operculina. the second of the back-reef and main reef barrier. and shales with pyrite. The middle part of the turbidite sequence commonly displays concentrations of flat intraclasts of argillaceous lime mudstone. rotaliids.

followed by commercial reservoirs which were discovered in the same general area. The bur-icil empironment is characterized by dissolution processes which. for example. in places generated the first subcommercial reservoirs of the Philippines. displaying a marginal bladed texture. and G). the interstitial mud remained unaffected (Plate 5 G). . 1992). The demonstration of the burial nature of the above-described extensive secondary porosity is afforded. The final stage of dissolution is vuggy. Secondary burial porosity can be classified in temporal order of development as follows: microporosity in red-algal bioclasts and colonies. biomouldic porosity. enlarged to vuggy porosity. immediately-adjacent frontal aprons and back-reef bioclastic carbonates. or by fabric-selective dissolution of neomorphosed coral labyrinthine frameworks (Plate 6C) and the outside walls and septae of horn corals (Plate 6 D).38 A. grading into mosaic at the centre of voids (Plate 5A to E). such as endolithic algal perforations (Plate 5A). Large-scale neomorphism occurred in the sutirrtrtedfresh\. POROSITY DEVELOPMENT Refervoir facies were mainly developed in complex constructional barriers and atolls. b). highly-developed fascicularoptic calcite cement (Plate 5C and D). and appreciable amounts of the predominant. at the expense of all types of bioclasts. which are constituents generated in the overlying and earlier saturated freshwater phreatic environment. 1 C</ro. 197 I . and burial. Freshwater vcidose rind irndersutinrcrted phrentic eri~iror~rnents followed the marine phreatic environment. where most secondary porosity was generated. Cavity-filling sparite. biomouldic porosity created by fabric-selective dissolution of sparite or silt-size lime-mud fillings of chambers of benthonic foraminifera such as Lepidocyclinids and Lenticulinids (Plate 6A and B). occluded voids developed during previous diagenetic stages. as in the Nido reef. For all practical purposes.8%) and permeability (reaching 146 md) result from a locally-variable combination of the effects of subaerial exposure introducing secondary porosity by minor vadose to freshwater-phreatic undersatured dissolution. interstitial carbonate mud into dark pseudomicrosparite (Plate 5F and H). micritization of bioclasts (Plate 5B). In some instances. cavity-filling sparite.veit4rplzreutic eriviroiinteiit. red algae. Hatley.8%. Samples from cores in the Panay Basin investigated in this study indicated a maximum measured porosity of 32. The rricirine phreatic eni*ironrnentis recorded by a number of characteristic textural features. and corals (Plate 6E. except for some Lrriric~uliritrand Amphistegirici. Porosity (reaching 32. freshwater phreatic (undersaturated and saturated). such as large benthonic foraminifera. 1978 a. isopachous fibrous rim cement (Plate 5A and B).Freshwater phreatic sparite cement subsequently occluded most dissolution porosity developed in these stages.xr ’ . Hcilirnedci. porosity in Visayan reef-related lithofacies was completely occluded in this diagenetic environment. as follows: marine phreatic. followed by extensive burial dissolution. neomorphosed or not. by the fact that it developedat the expense of neomofphosed biogenic debris and cavity-filling sparite cement. and dark. as well as in pinnacle reefs on basinal slopes. Dissolution channels partially filled with vadose silt resulted from these freshwater environments (Plate 5 E). in which non-fabric dissolution involved all biogenic constituents. F. offshore Palawan (Durkee and Hatley. changing aragonitic coral frameworks into clear pseudosparite mosaics. and geopetal deposits of fine pelletal and bioclastic internal sediments (Plate 5 C and D). freshwater vadose (with occasional subaerial exposure). as a result of a surge in offshore exploration (Shirley. and maximum permeability of 146 md.interstitia1 silt-size lime-mud matrix (Plate 6 H).

Effective seals were generally provided by basinal shales. The main difference in Barbados is the presence of an older. and locally by andesitic volcaniclastics and basaltic flows. Although the available study (Mesolella et al. 1970) is more concerned with facies geometries within these reefs and their relationship with eustatism and tectonics than detailed microfacies and diagenesis. COMPARISON WITH PLEISTOCENE ANALOGUES The closest analogue to the depositional model of the Middle Miocene reefs of the Philippines is represented by the uplifted Pleistocene reef tract of Barbados. and migration of hydrocarbons was generally in an updip direction complicated by local structural conditions. Depositional model of Pleistocene uplifted reef tract of Barbados. Philippines 39 Fig. inactive carbonate shoreline and the lack of contemporaneous andesitic volcanism. and in pinnacle reefs on deeper basinal slopes by the effect of extensive burial dissolution. . 5. in frontal bioclastic talus. mature pelagic carbonate and bituminous shales deposited in deep inter-island troughs. the two models display striking similarities. 1970). Visnycm Islands. Source beds consist of contemporaneous or older.Miocerre reefs. West Indies (Fig.. West Indies (modified from Mesolella et aL. OIL AND GAS CONSIDERATIONS Commercial reservoirs developed mainly within the complex barrier systems and atolls. 5 ) .

J. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Author is grateful to Milagros V. . 80 pp. P.. G. DURKEE. C. Carrollton. A. Finger-coral buildup with abundant carbonate mud matrix in back-reef to lagoonal environments (Ticao Island. MESOLELLA. HATLEY. S p x i d Pcrbliccrfio/z 1. V... D. G.. West Indies. for their devoted collaboration for many yea-s. Red-algal packstone bank in lagoonal setting (Dinagat Island). H.1917. bryozoans. A. consisting of coarse. Oil ctrzd Grrs Jourrr. K. 197821. with tightly juxtaposed coral colonies (Tablas Island). REYES. Andesitic volcanic seals between superposed barrier reefs. F. 76. A. Gratitude is expressed to Clif Jordan (independent consultant. 1976. 1971 .. The Philippines: is a second exploration cycle warranted? Oil mid Grrr J o i i r . G. 19 plates. Field photographs. its significance. Distal portion of fore-reef apron. Upper part of fore-reef talus. skeletal grainstones with primary dip (Leyte Island). of Philippine Oil Development Co. Panay Island). Philippines Oil Development Company. and HATLEY. Oil o/zdGo. A. 1970. 13-16. SHIRLEY.The Nido reef discovery in the Philippines. 54. Plate 1 (page 41). K . Main barrier reef of coral encrusting-red-algal boundstone. REFERENCES CAROZZI. K. and the company itself for permission to publish. north of Masbate). and of pinnacle reefs developed on basinal slopes.. 20-22. AAPG Esplorer. his former associates. Manilla. and encrusting foraminifera along the edges of narrow shelves surrounding active volcanic island arcs. B. Reyes and Victoriano P.. with completely overturned coral colonies (lower right) and scattered black pebbles of basalt and andesitic volcanics (Iloilo Basin. V.CONCLUSIONS Middle Miocene reefs ofthe Visayan Islands consist of wave-resistant complex barriers and atolls built by an association ofcorals.r i . E. F. Texas) for his invaluable help during updating and revision of the data on which this paper is based. Ocampo. H.Facies geometries within Pleistocene reefs in Barbados. and MAITHEWS. red algae. and OCAMPO. consisting of weakly-bedded to massive skeletal grainstones (Iloilo Basin. A. V. 1899. Panay Island). 69.112-1 18. . formed by poorly-sorted epiclastic greywackes with smectitic clays and shales (Negros Island). Activity heats up in the Philippines.. 86-90. November Issue. Palawan oil spurs Philippine action. M. Many thanks are owed to Jessie Knox for drafting the figures. R. . Low-energy and ecologically-zoned lagoons with patch reefs behind the barriers graded into mangrove tidal flats and estuaries and communicated with the open sea through numerous tidal passes cutting across the barrier systems. E. 1991. AAPG Bull. SEALY. Proximal portion of well-bedded fore-reef apron.. Conical patch reef of finger-coral boundstones in lagoonal setting (Dinagat Island).. 1978b.s5011171. Microfacies and microfossils of the Miocene reef carbonates of the Philippines. . 24.

Miocrrie reefs. Philippiries 41 . Visayari Zsltrr7ds.

major bioclasts are. shoreface environment. foraminiferal-bank deposit. in decreasing order of importance: small arenaceous foraminifera. G. All photomicrographs: plane-polarized light. echinoids. Microfacies 3b: Hafimeda-foraminifera1 packstone. rotaliids. with interstitial silt-size lime-mud matrix and local pressure-solution features and subordinate constituents of Amphistegina. V. echinoids. lagoonal environment. D. algal-bank deposit. textulariids. textulariids. ostracods. lagoonal environment. foraminiferal-bank deposit. echinoids. foraminiferal bank deposit. dasyclad algae. Microfacies 3b: Spirocfypeus packstone. lagoonal environment. foraminiferal bank deposit. Photomicrographs of Microfacies 1-3b: A. Microfacies 3a: burrowed Amphistegina packstone with a bituminous silt-size pelletal limemud matrix and with a mixture of bioclasts: rotaliids. Operculina. and rare finger corals. Microfacies 3a: branching-red-algal packstone with bituminous silt-size pelletal lime-mud matrix with red-algal colonies (commonly encrusted by bryozoans) and associated pelecypods. estuary to tidal-flat environments. F. pelecypods. lagoonal environment. Microfacies 3a: burrowed Operculina packstone/grainstone. H. Caror5 Plate 2 (page 43). ostracods. textulariids. Microfacies 3b: Lepidocycfina grainstone. lagoonal environment. miliolids. echinoids and ostracods. lagoonal environment. miliolids.32 A. algal-bank deposit. C. Microfacies 2: argillaceous foraminifera1 packstone. B. Microfacies 1: arenaceous skeletal packstone. . E. and rare planktonic foraminifera. and bryozoans. miliolids. gastropods.

Philippines 43 .Miocene reefs. Visayan Islands.

.

E. G. locally pelletal. Microfacies 3c: finger-coral boundstonelwackestone with dark. Microfacies 7a: tidal pass across lagoon. Plane-polarized light. H. D. B. . miliolids. Plate 4 (above). Microfacies 8: open-marine pelagic environment. All photomicrographs: plane-polarized light. ostracods. Microfacies 5: main coral encrusting-red-algal barrier reef. Microfacies 8a: carbonate-turbidite fan environment. in which neomorphosed coral individuals are distributed at random with accessory constituents of sponge spicules. Composite thinsection of complete turbidite unit. Microfacies 6 fore-reef talus environment. Microfacies 7: fore-reef apron environment.Miocerie reefs. Photomicrographs of Microfacies 3c-8: A. Philippines 45 Plate 3 (page 44). silt-size lime-mud matrix. and Elphidium. : F. C.skinds. Microfacies 8a: carbonate turbidite. Microfacies 4: back-reef environment with finger-coral patch reefs. Visayan 1.

by selective dissolution of neomorphosed coral framework (p). Freshwater vadose environment. Biomouldic porosity. by selectivedissolution of filling of Lepidocyclina chambers (blackarrows). Incomplete fascicular-optic calcite cement at roof of cavity. H. Diagenetic sequence. red algae. Solution crack filled with vadose silt overlain by freshwater phreatic sparite. B. separated by freshwater phreatic sparite (related to fracture) from floor of internal sediment. H. and interstitial silt-size lime-mud matrix (p). V. Biomouldic porosity. . Plate 6 (page 48). B. Micrite envelopes around various bioclasts. All photomicrographs: plane-polarized light. enlarged by dissolution of bioclasts of red algae and large benthonic foraminifera (p). C. G. Marine phreatic environment. Freshwater phreatic environment. red algae. isopachous rim cement (arrows) and freshwater phreatic sparite. Perforations by endolithic algae in alternating encrusting bryozoans and red algae. Neomorphism of aragonite coral framework into clear pseudosparite and of silt-size lime mud filling of cavities into dark pseudomicrosparite. E. corals. with remaining portion of cavity filled with freshwater phreatic sparite. with filling of cavities by bituminous silt-size lime-mud matrix left unaffected. Fascicular-optic cement developed over geopetalinternal sediment. Cn. Halimeda. filled with isopachous. A. Burial porosity types. by selective dissolution of filling of Lenticulina chambers (black arrows). F. G. enlarged to vuggy porosity by dissolution of large benthonic foraminifera. Freshwater phreatic environment. Halimeda. E. All photomicrographs: plane-polarized light. Marine phreatic environment. C. enlarged by dissolution of bioclasts of corals. and large benthonic foraminifera (p). by dissolution of all types of bioclasts and large amounts of interstitial siltsize lime mud matrix (p). by arrows or letter “p”. Biomouldic porosity. Biomouldic porosity. Porosity of thin sections impregnated with blue plastic is shown in shades of grey. D.A. Biomouldic porosity. Vuggy porosity. Incomplete neomorphism of aragonite coral framework to clear pseudosparite and of filling of cavities to pseudomicrosparite. Marine phreatic environment. by selective dissolution of horn coral septae (white arrows) and outside walls. D. Neomorphism of aragonite coral framework into pseudosparite. Marine phreatic environment. A. Biomouldic porosity. Freshwater phreatic environment. F. Biomouldic porosity.o:ri Plate 5 (page 47). fibrous rim cement followed by freshwater phreatic sparite.

Miocene reefs. Visriyuri Islmds. Philippiries 41 .

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