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61177240 Ancient Kemet and the Immortal Black Soul

61177240 Ancient Kemet and the Immortal Black Soul

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PRINCETON,

N.

J.

Wiedemann, Alfred, 1856Shelf

BL 2450

.15 W5

1895

1936. The ancient Egyptian doctrine of the immortality

.

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF IMMORTALITY .

.

.

a .

THE Ancient Egyptian OF THE Doctrine Immortality of the Soul ALFRED WIEDEMANN. PROFESSOR OF ORIENTAL LANGUAGES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BONN •'.PH. COVENT GARDEN. GREVEL & W. 1895 H. CO. AUTHOR OF D. KING STREET." " HERODOT'S ZVVEITES EUCH " Saith %\otni^-ont EUustmtions LONDON 33. .C.EGYPTISCHE GESCHICHTE." "DIE RELIGION DER ALTEN ^GYPTER.

.Printed by Hazell. London and Aylesbury.. Watson. Ld. & Viney.

was bound . only one This particular form of the doctrine was of many different ones that were held. latter. stelae are devoted is the symbolism of nearly it all the amulets connected practice of in with it .PREFACE. were but occasional manifesta- whereas the system here treated of was the popular belief people. By far the texts greater part of the religious papyri and tomb and of the inscriptions of funerary to it . IN writing this treatise my object has been to give a clear exposition of the most important shape which the doctrine of immortality assumed in Egypt. . the most popular of the gods of Egypt. up with and it the mummifying the dead centred all the person of Osiris. among early to all classes of the Egyptian from Coptic times. however. The tions.

name. and wherever that his w^orship spread. its fall. entered life into the religious of the Greeks . tality it doctrine his of immor- which was associated with doctrine . w^e find traces of it the writings of Christian apologists and the older fathers of the Church. Throughout Empire.C. From the fourth century together with his companion deities. Osiris had already attained pre-eminence he maintained this position throughnational life. Rhine. and through their agency the thoughts and opinions of our it has affected time. in Even Pyramid times . both the doctrine which was at once the most the teachings profound and the most attractive of of the Egyptian religion . out the whole duration of Egyptian and even survived B. to his wife to his son it and Harpocrates carried with . lies own The cause in of this far-reaching influence itself. all and also in the comfort . he. even the the length and breadth of the Roman to the remotest provinces of the Danube and Isis.Vlll PREFACE. This Osirian influenced the systems of Greek the teachings of in philosophers the Gnostics it made itself felt in . altars were raised to him. and homage was paid to him by imperial Rome.

had sojourned upon earth and bestowed civilisation. life nature on every hand presented images of the of Osiris. human story of founder. his name should endure. on dying he had passed into the world to come. devices of the evil Wicked One. founded with the Sun god the two deities b . tween the fertilising Nile and the encroaching no less than in the daily and yearly courses of the was occasionally conlater. To the Egyptian. and consolation to be derived its IX from the pathetically Osiris. He. and of death and was But the triumph of : was only apparent the work of Osiris endured. . and his son followed in his footsteps and broke the power of for evil. sun. the son of the gods. over the dead as " henceforth to reign Being. the contest bedesert. To him that life was in reflected in the struggle between good and evil. so must each man his life no matter how noble and how godly never- theless his deeds should be established for ever.PREFACE. and the life which is eternal awaited him beyond the tomb. Even as Osiris. Neither had his being ended with death. upon men the blessings of he fell At length a prey to the slain. In earlier times Osiris ." The Good die.

All the Osirian doctrines were readily apprehended in spite of their deep import^ and they steadily tended towards the evolution of a high form of monotheistic belief. concurrently with the dying of the Sun of the Old Year and the rising of the Sun of to bird. at the winter solstice. and the this although associated of Osiris. recognise his old beliefs in The Egyptian could many a Christian theme. To no close student of these doctrines can the fact seem strange that the first Egypt should have been country in which Christianity permeated the whole body of the people. his The new phoenix was supposed ance in make appearusually March with . overcoming His enemies.X PREFACE. The death end of the and resurrection of Osiris occurred at the is month Khoiak — that to say. the demons and the wicked. Sun. and so much did the of Osiris figure of Christ remind him and his son Horus. that to him Christ valley even became a hero who traversed the Nile as evil Horus had done. In Egypt the Osirian . was often representative And the epithets and titles of the Sun god were similarly bestowed upon -j Osiris. the New. in were habitually merged one another.

.PREFACE. and. I am gratefully indebted to my ALFRED WIEDEMANN. altogether apart from their intrinsic worth and far-reaching influence. Bonn. faith XI Christianity. as well as for English translator. and dogma were the precursors of it the foundations upon which was able to build . it is this which constitutes their significance in the history of the world. For the choice of the the illustrations. March 1895. version.

.

for the belief was developed among Semites. henotheism. and pantheism. true that other ancient religions attained early to a similar dogma. T -L/ ITTLE of as we know in its of the ancient Egyptian religion entirety. of superstition and true religious worship. I Indo-germanians. I . which the Egyptian religion owes unique position among all other religions of antiquity — the It doctrine of the immortality of the is human soul. one dogma stands out clearly from one article of belief to its this confusion.THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. and of its motley mixture childishly crude fetichism and deep philosophic thought. of polytheism.

all it. the stages through which this doctrine of the Egyptian religion had successively .2 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF . In these texts the doctrine of immortality appears as a completed system with a long history of development behind In that system.C. passed are preserved for the Egyptians were so immoderately conservative could not in everything that they their make up their minds to give up . when attained brought about the abandon- ment of grossly material forms of thought. Turanians. appears to be The oldest of the longer religious to us are found in the texts which have come down wall inscriptions of pyramids of kings of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties (according of the dynasties). of their reciprocal relationship. to Manetho's to scheme at least and must be dated 3000 B. Egypt we But in have the unique spectacle of one of the most elaborated forms of the doctrine of immortality side by side with the most elementary conception of higher beings ever formulated by any people. and Mongolians but in all these cases it appears as the outcome of a higher conception of man and God and and. We which do not know whether the belief in immortality is prevailed in the valley of the Nile as old as the it Egyptian religion in general. although at first sight so. to.

old ideas 3 of deity. has in itself a clear and intelligible signifi- cance . The consequence was essential that old that in Egypt there was no religious progress in our sense of the term. each religious belief. The find older ideas were all carefully retained. When we abandon the consideration of single points and try to imagine how the different detached notions were combined by the people into one belief. afterwards existing side by for There is no trace of any struggle .THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. and what picture they had . them a new doctrine could achieve no greater success than to win a place among the older conceptions of the Egyptian Pantheon. and where this is apparently otherwise it is not because the point was obscure to the Egyptian in mind. even after having advanced to higher and purer ones. however heterogeneous might be to the rest. Each single divinity. but because we have not yet succeeded making it clear to ourselves. the victory between these systems each new order of thought was taken as it arose into the circle of the it older ones. it With of us is and outworn forms with belief should be cast off. each amulet. religion and we various systems of which in point of time had soil followed each other on Egyptian side.

each smallest amulet itself must be carefully examined by in and treated of it. each idea. the Egyptians never succeeded beliefs welding their different and practices into one consistent whole. life In most religions the c^ods of are distinct from . —then Many and we have divinities ourselves task. circles of ideas yet all existed together and were accepted and believed time. any discussion of Egyptian isolated must begin by dealing with each divinity. have precisely same whole character perform the same functions are mutually exclusive . But great as must have been the expenditure of thought which produced and developed their various in religious doctrines.4 really THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF formed of set their Heaven and Pantheon an impossible the . the light of the texts specially referring to Generations of Egyptians pondered on each single point seeking priests to elucidate it. and all sought to provide themselves with every amulet possessing efficacy for the world to come and import for man's etern^^ welfare. overcome demons. in at one and the same In these circumstances religious ideas facts . and attain to bliss. With anxious fear all and laymen strove to acquire the use of the formulae by the help of which man hoped to appease the gods.

THE IMMORTALITY OF THE
the gods of death, but

SOUL.

5

such a distinction scarcely

existed at

all in

Egypt.

There the same beings who
fate of
it

were supposed to determine the
world were supposed to determine
to

man

in this

also in the world

come

;

only

in the case of certain deities

sometimes

the one and sometimes the other side of the divine
activity

was brought

into special prominence.

The

exercise of their different functions

by the gods was

not in accordance with any fixed underlying principle,

was not any

essential

outcome of

their characters, but

rather a matter of their caprice and inclination.

In

course of time the Egyptian idea of these functions

changed, and was variously apprehended in different
places.
It

seems to us
life

at first as

though the relation

of the gods to the

beyond had nearly everywhere

been regarded as more important than their relation
to this
life.

But

this impression

is

owing
the

to the fact

that

our material for the study of
is

Egyptian

religion

almost exclusively derived from tombs
tjie

and funerary temples, while

number

of Egyptian
is

monuments unconnected with
comparatively small.

the cult of the dead

On

this

account

it

has been supposed that both

in

their religion

and

in their public life the

Egyptians

turned

all

their thoughts

towards death and what lay

6

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF
it.

beyond

But a close examination of the monufull

ments has proved that they had as
of the
life

an enjoyment

here as other nations of antiquity, and that
stiff

they are not to be regarded as a
race of

and

spiritless

men whose

thoughts were pedantically turned

towards the contemplation of the next world.

Had
come

this

been the

case, the

Egyptians would have
life

to hold a pessimistic view of the

here and

hereafter something

like that prevailing in India,

and

have striven to escape from the monotony and dulness
of existence
this
is

by seeking some means

to

end

it.

But

the reverse of what happened in the valley of

the Nile.

The most

ardent wish of

its

inhabitants

was

to

remain on earth as long as possible, to attain

to the age of

one hundred and ten years, and to
death the same
life

continue

to lead after

which they
pictured

had been wont

to lead while here.

They
;

the after-life in the most material fashion

they could

imagine no

fairer existence

than that which they led

on the banks of the

Nile.

How

simple and at the
their conceptions

same time how complicated were

can best be shown by some account of their ideas

on the immortality of the soul and
as

its

constitution
set

a

combination

of

separate

parts

forth

in

ancient Egyptian documents.


THE IMMORTALITY OF THE
SOUL.
his heart his

7

When

once a

man was

dead,

when

had

ceased to beat and
hfeless hull

warmth had

left

body, a
earth.
this

was

all

that remained of

him upon

The

first

duty of the survivors was to preserve
to that
it

from destruction, and
to a guild

end

it

was handed over
its

whose duty
priestly

was

to carry out

embalm-

ment under

supervision.

This was done

according to old and strictly established rules.
internal

The

and more corruptible parts were taken away,
rest of the

and the

body

i.e.,

the

bony framework

and

its

covering

—was soaked

in

natron and asphalt,

smeared

with sweet-smelling

unguents, and

made
with

incorruptible.

The

inside of the

body was

filled

linen

bandaging and
all

asphalt,

among which were
symbolising

placed
tality

kinds of

amulets

immor-

— heart-shaped
and
little

vases, snake-heads in carnelian,

scarabaei,

glazed-ware figures of divinities.

By
for

their mystic

power these amulets were intended
assist the preservation of the corpse,

to further

and

which physical provision had already been made
In about seventy days,

by embalmment.

when the

work of embalmment was completed, the body was wrapped
in

linen bandages, placed in a coffin,

and

so returned to the family.

The

friends

and

relatives

of

the

deceased then

edited by Bergmann. hisch. . Vienna. * 1887. Paris. Kal. which was closed and walled up.8 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF the dead in carried solemn procession across the river to his last resting-place. edited by Maspero. London. // Libro del Funcrali. Leipzig. 1881 — 1890. 1865. 1875. 1863. and other priests made offerings and performed mysterious ceremonies both during the procession and at the entrance to the tomb. 35 sqq. grief and exhorted his relations in life. edited by Birch.^ ceremonies pi. further offerings were made. The minutely ordered ritual for the at the door of the tomb was published and investi- gated in Schiaparelli's admirable work. for himself in the hills which he had provided forming the western boundary of the valley of the Nile. Turin. Pap. For the transport of the mummy. and the conclusion of their operations in a Paris papyrus and a Bulaq papyrus. Mourning-women accomtheir panied the procession with wailing . and by The procedure of the taricheiits is Brugsch. to forget and again to rejoice so long as should be granted unto them the The whole process of embalmment is briefly described in Rhind Papynis. see Dumichen.* The mummy was then lowered into the vault. described in a Vienna papyrus. du Louvre. priests burnt incense and intoned prayers. Harpers were there who sang of the of his their it dead man and worth. and afterwards the mourners in the partook of the funeral feast the ante-chamber of tomb.

shape of foods drinks. Hfe past man knows grave is not what shall follow beyond the darkness and long sleep. How to there fared with the dead could only be learned . or brought real him and of offerings. often degenerating into an orgy when at length all the guests had withdrawn. sometimes alone and sometimes accompanied by the priests. grew the banquet. and the Otherwise the tomb remained unvisited. it and the dead alone. geese. from the doctrines and mysteries of religion descend into the vault the and disturb the peace of mummy yet was accounted a heavy crime against both gods and men. and there offered to in prayers either dead. was only on certain feast to days that relatives made pilgrimages the city of the dead. cakes bread.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. 9 is for when it . the was left tomb was Afterwards the closed. or else under the symbolic of forms of little clay models like. On the the these occasions they again entered ante-chamber of the tomb. And to how much an Egyptian could have wished look behind the sealed walls of the sepulchral secret chamber and see what there befell the dead ! and mysterious things had not For their existence . it oxen. to enjoy the light of the sun . Gayer and gayer .

. they again him. to the gods. These " living. on which the above-mentioned practised. Etienne. a higher and an eternal constituent parts.10 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF death end. of all The most important * these component in the parts * Proceed- On these component parts cf.. p. which together almost correspond to our idea of the soul. . whose union in the The man had made the a human life possible. in Von Bergmann's I. or even of the gods. . there referred to. may be found p. but on leaving to find in its at his death each set out alone If all own way so. had found their common home it in his living body . II. a unity. had entered on a new. indestructible " parts of a man. p. of embalmment were distinct each of the former were even when in combination. ings of the Orientalist Congress at etseq. succeeded doing and it was further proved that the deceased had been good and upright. (1878). separated at moment of his death into those which were immortal and those which were mortal. 22. 74 et seq. ( But while the the latter formed and ) constituted corruptible body only rites Kha). 159 Many parallel texts to the additional chapter of The Book of the Dead. II. and so became one with entered into the company of the blessed. Wiedemann St. terminated with their earthly being only had come to an but they themselves life. Sarlcophag des Panchejnisis.

. embodied in the man's name the picture of in him the which was. and led to a philo- sophic explanation of the distinction sonalities between perin and persons. He endowed him. t There no modern word which exactly expresses the Maspero's translation of " Egyptian idea of the Double. . the divine counterpart of the deceased. was the so-called [_j . his Doppelgdnger. which strangely impressive by reason it of its thorough sensuousness. Double. or a his individuality statue to the living man. ^g. Doppclga?iger" tion of " \s \.\\e best hitherto proposed. is — name. of abstract But the Egyptian was incapable and was reduced to thought. dating from the eighteenth century account ) Many * On this ( Ka was sometimes used as interchangeable with Ren ^^. Ka . 83) is altogether misleading. such as that contained the Platonic Ideas.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. holding the same relation it to him as a word to the conception which It expresses. or might have been. as was . Meyer's transla- Ghosr {Gesch. p. forming a purely concrete conception is of this individuality. exactly his resembling second self.\ scenes.* Among rise to other races similar thoughts have given higher ideas. called up minds of those who knew him that at the mention of name. I I Ka. his with a that of material form completely corresponding to the man.

or throne-name.12 B.) * * The illustration is taken from Lepsius. represent different kings appearing pig^ I. making perfumeel {Froiu the temple of Dcr Bahri. Dciikmalcr. III. — Hatshcpsu. of Thothmes II.. and his .C. by her Ka. THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF and onwards. accompanied offerings. Here the solar cartouche. 21.

as a Httle man with the king's features (fig.. The first satisfactory explanation of KA-name was given by Petrie in A Season in 21.. on ascending the throne. of the Twelfth Dynasty see Petrie. before divinities. have a crude representation of this We I. Etudes Egyptologiqnes. pi. following him shadow follows a man. II. which was also the name four of his Ka. L. 273 et scq. i). from the reign of Taiiis Amenemhat I. the king took hitherto borne. are palimpsests effacing the names of Queen Hatshepsu Ramaka.C. this The figures in .3 THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. while behind the 1 king stands his (fig. was only necessary the Horus. 22.or Ka-name. (S2cond Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund). dating . pp.. the builder of the temple. No. But. the Egyptians had carried the idea further. p. But even about 1500 still as early as the time of B. scenes the these Personality accompanies as a the Person.* or as a staff with two hands and surmounted by In certain symbols of royalty. Amenophis III. 3. Ka. . from the sepulchral vault into the upper chamber. Ka sign. Maspero. scene originally represented the Queen and her is Ka but as it she always portrayed to in male attire throughout the temple. 2). He shows that the rectangular is parallelogram in which the Horus-name to pass written is the exact equivalent of the square panel over the false door in the tomb. cf. Egypt.. where offerings were provided A private person had but one name. or by the king's head. and * new names in addition to the one which he had among them a name for his Ka. and had completely dissevered the Per- Horus.or change her names in order to appropriate her figure as that of a king. by which the Ka was supposed for it. or tomb-chapel.

. Dcnk?nalcr. The hands the KaKa- staff have doubtless a . {From Abu Simbel. life. — The Ka of Rameses II. the Ir dnkh of (fig. and * the . the king being frequently represented as appearing j^before his own Personahty. Fig.symbol of III. represented * b}' the two-handed sta' standing behind the king while he slab's his enemies before Ra Harmakhis. 3). 186.) which bears the insignia of divinity. Lepsius. the staff of command. common origin with those of the sign— LJ .14 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF sonality from the Person. 2.

making offerings to his Ka. heart) . 3. all Power. 1 To it the king presents offerings of every kind and prefers his petition for gifts of the gods in exchange Fig. Stability. temple at Soleb.— Amenophis III. 87.5 THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. Denk7nalet\ . thee Lepsius. ) * : {From his His Personality replies all " I all I give unto thee all all Life. Health. and for Joy the (enlargement of * subdue III.

1

6

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF

peoples of Nubia (Khent), so that thou mayest cut
off their

heads."

In bas-reliefs of the

same period
III.,*

which represent the birth of Amenophis

his

Ka
alike

is

born at the same time

as

the

king,

and

both are presented to
(fig. 4),

Amen
build

Ra, as two boys exactly

and blessed by him.
temples
priests

About
to
to

this

time

the

kings

began to

their

own
;

Personalities,

and appointed

them

and
his

from

time to time the

sovereign
his

would

visit

temple to implore from himself

own

protection,

and

still

greater

gifts.

So long

as the king

walked

the earth, so long

his " living

Ka,

lord of

Lower Egypt,
of Splendour

tarried in his dwelling, in the

Upper and Abode
his

(SPn

^^ Duaty

\\

for

Ka
him,

was

himself, independent of him,
his counterpart

superior to

and yet

and bound up with him.

The
was

disjunction of the Personality from the Person

not,

however,
;

rigorously

and

systematically

insisted

upon
far

the two were

indeed separate, but

were so

one as to come into being only through
other.

and with each
*

A

man

lived

no longer than
el Bahri,

In the course of his excavations at

Der

for the

Egypt Exploration Fund, M. Naville discovered the
of

originals of

these scenes in a series of bas-reliefs representing the birth

Queen Hatshepsii which were
t Lepsius, Dcnk??ialer,
III. 21,

plagiarised by
129.

Amenophis

III.

Emm

9 THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. But there was : difference in their reciprocal relations live without the body. but the the Ka could live body could not without the Ka. and runs as follows " O every scribe. food and its well-being. Yet this does not imply that the Ka in was a higher. a just spiritual being . all ye who who love and honour your gods. After a man's death his Ka became his Personality proper . and would have your offices to flourish (shine) for your children. it was material needing suffering the same way drink for thirst lot if as the body itself. his 1 Ka remained with him. tablet of Khemnekht (now in the The prayer on the funerary Agram Museum) dates from : the Thirteenth Dynasty. say ye Osiris for ' : Let royal priest offerings be brought unto the Ka of the . and it. priestly reciter). These inscriptions vary but little. meat and milk. pass by this every Kherheb stele. they also required to it sustenance. hunger and respect its these were denied lot In this was the common bodily of Egyptian gods . (lector.^ stelae in Such prayers were also inscribed on funerary order that passers-by might repeat them for the benefit of the dead. and all good things needful for the sustenance of a god to the * Ka of the deceased. prayers and offerings were made to the gods that they might grant bread and wine. and it never left him this until the moment of his death. and were sorely put their if offerings failed them and food and drink were unsupplied.

. 316 et seq.. or ^'^^^/)' itself as do plants and trees (*^^^~^^n ^^AAAA became.) . " the living Ka in its coffin. funeraires egyptieimes^ particulars The Wiedemann... above summarised may be verified from contracts which a prince [erpd-ha) of Siut concluded with the priests of Anubis under the Tenth or Eleventh Dynasty (discussed by Maspero.. Inscriptions hicroglyphiques. as the texts oc- ^ i casionally express it. ^g. p. 1889. Mariette. Les Mastabahs. Observations siir guelques Le Miiseon X.' " life for the Personalities of the dead. I. cf. and Erman.. Denkvu'iler. became incorporate live which began to renew ^'^'^ and grow (c:^^ "(^ ^=^^^ rfid). Insc?iptio?is of Siut and Der in Rifeh. p. and bequeathed certain for the maintenance of priests to attend to large staffs of officials were kept up to provide the necessaries of Khemnekht. 42.. p. Zeitschr. I. the best publication of these inscriptions being that by Griffith. p. Similar contracts were : made even Lepsius. Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology. in order to accept the food there provided occasions it the On such mummy.»-.... 1882. 62 et seq. VII. Etudes de Mythologie. 3-7. 159 ff. 199 et seq. 6 et seq. 20 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF made to Offerings were also the Ka itself." The rich founded endowments whose revenues were to all time in providing their to be expended Kas sums this with food offerings.* For an account of the development of the formulae see on funerary steles * stelae. it and it was believed that from time to time visited the tomb for in it. De Roug6. pi. the times of the pyramid-building kings II. ^. London.

Thus the of divinity became entirely anthropomorphic. EUidcs de Mythologie. p. and were indeed neither more nor idea less than the Kas of the gods. just as the king built his temple not to himself but to his Personality. of Offerings and the pleasures of earthly there even seems to have been a belief that imprisoned formulae. so also sanctuaries were to at sometimes dedicated not to a god himself but * As in the case of statues found in the temple of Ptah Memphis (Mariette. holding of a the belief that the statue human being represented and embodied a human Ka. 27 b). in it might be a statue by means in the of certain magic Royal statues royal temples were destined to the use of the Kas..THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. pi. cf. . 8 f. Mon. and some- man which were sovereign. Lepsius. 154. concluded that the statues of the gods represented and embodied divine Kas. t intended for his own Ka The Egyptians.. 1. div. there might the Ka sojourn and take part in Feasts life . t This striking theory was first broached by Maspero. The 21 Ka was represented by statues of the dead placed within his tomb. p. de Trav. Aiiswahl.* times in temples also by gracious permission of the Wherever one of these statues stood.. and. pi. Karfiak. 11). the many statues of all the same king in one temple being apparently service. Rcc. pi. 1. 80. and in that of Amon at Karnak (Mariette.

stood nearer to man in than the god himself.. whom rather the Greeks for comhis this pared to Hephaestos. 201). —but that of in in Ptah was not alone among the gods respect. 29 . Tcmpelpi. prayer is for the divine favour and blessings its not as a rule It is a addressed to the Apis. ijischriften. Manners and which are to Customs. Von Bergmann. —the maker Ka. For example. 2 . 33 61. t Lefsius. 13. Horus. col. pi. Renouf. of the West (Wilkinson. Transactions of the Society of Biblical . Insch. be considered as being the Kas of the deities of the East tlie and of the West. each was supposed to be possessed of his It own Personality in addition to himthis was believed that the divine Ka. the chief temple of for the Memphis was not service of the god Ptah. and hence in the case of votive stelae dedicated to the incarnation of Ptah the sacred Apis-bull of Memphis. 1. and not as Kas of abstract conceptions of East and West.22 his THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF Personality. I. 194. find occasional mention of the Ka of the East and the ed. III. 200. of the world. image which had the greater likeness to man. 1)1. and other gods were recognised as having Kas self* .. The pyramid texts show that even the times of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties Thot. Set. that is to say. Dumichen. Denk??ialer. Hicrogl.. but to Ka.. 2nd pp. very remarkable fact that in several inscriptions t the god We Ka III.

23 credited with no less than seven Bas and fourteen Kas. corresponding to the various quahties or attributes pertaining to his own being. stability. . or Double. as his Doppelgdnger. pp. wanderings did he meet it Only after long again in the world to come.. majesty. is 11. A?'ch(Eology. acquired a far-reaching significance which extended not only to the doctrine also to the conception of of human immortality but As we have already the relations of gods to men.. am hale {var. in some of the oldest texts. xxix. thee. still possess the prayer with which he was to " beginning with the words. chap. creative power.f _^. am strong.. 12. vic- tory. 504 ct seq. Dictio7iary. Supplt. I arise resplendent.* Thus the apprehension of the Ka. and which he could communicate to the person of the king such as : wealth. xi. entitled Chapter whereby the to thee Ka of a perso7i is satisfied in the Nether world: "Hail ! who wast my Ka I during hfe I ! Lo I I come unto I tliee." etc. Isa. I labour. pass on). stated. * Cf. during life ! Hail to thee who wast my Ka I come unto Brugsch.. 2. etc. 997 et seq. and we greet it. . each man had it a Ka him so long as he was alive. 1230.. t This prayer contained in that part of The Book of the Dead. might. glory. bring grains of incense. pp. VI. cv. I Chron.. but at his death left and led an independent existence. of a man's Perfound even sonality. THE IMMORTALITY OF THE Ra is SOUL.

my Ka flourishes even as they. Sometimes. which gave) unto them who are upon the horizon. and O /ulii. speaking. pi. el seq.. this warding is evil which (?) " I perform . They flourish. (?) the upper ones of heaven. generally chap. which given (var..24 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OE The second immortal part of man was his heart ([] J O ab)* The heart was removed from the body became of During certain by the embahners. The am pure. Truth nose of the god (?) Ra in that day on which are my . a form explained by the common double both " meaning * of the word Ka. the Osiris is justified against his enemies. The funerary papyrus '• of Sutimes (Naville. rises high to the The scale of the balance rises." Todtenbiich. planation as to what I am purified thereby. the two terms appear to have been synonymous. I. which signifies Double f) " <xndi food. as in The Book of the Dead. my Ka has abundance of food even as they." this accompanying vignette Occasionally for chapter shows the deceased as worshipping or sacrificing before the KA-sign on a standard. (this conjuration) not made that is against me The I conjuration runs as follows: "I am amulet of green felspar. 117) contains the following addition at the I end of I this chapter: enter unto thee (to the Ka ?). the necklace of the god Ra. we find the Ka sign represented as enclosing * pictures of offerings.. I purify thereby that which goeth forth evil from thee. life I flourish. the two were differentiated. I The " sacrificial formulae proceed " for where am. for the upper ones — otherwise said. and the texts give no definite exit. Ka I is where I I am I My head and my arm made (?) to where am (?) am he whose eye seeth. . my duration of flourishes even as they. off of This conjuration of which I say. whose ears hear am not a beast of sacrifice. In the religious texts the heart >_£> ^^ is called both J 0" 1 ^^. but. xw'i.

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were replaced within the body after embalmment. Perhaps the priests took measures ance for in for its disappear- order to furnish doctrine some tangible foundation heart. limestone. because they were designated as the source of all human error. According to these authorities the which must have included the heart. 2'J still comparatively was enclosed. viscera. of which four were placed with the mummy in its grave. Porphyry gives us even the form of the prayer which was repeated when sented the chest containing the intestines was if prethis before the Sun .THE IMMORTALITY OF THE periods of Egyptian history. or wooden vases. their concerning the writers Certain statements of Greek seem to imply some such proceeding. These vases are generally but most erroneously called " Canopic " vases. They usually date from the times of the New Empire. in special alabaster. and the text of prayer has not hitherto been confirmed from original . as were the rest of the viscera. but we have some few dating In other cases the viscera its from the Ancient Empire. it SOUL. were cast into the Nile. But for the most part documents do not afford us any information as to what was done with the material heart. genii and with them waxen images of the four the of dead as their guardian divinities. but rarely.

it into a coffer. flesh.— full of dire streams. And men. p. but if I haply in my life have sinned at ." Porphyry. have had whom my my life parents in this made known I me. 159 B: "We then. then cast them into the but of the rest of the body. they took care. cast it away. as the cause of . have continued I and those who gave for the rest of birth to I my body have ever honoured. " lest we should appear more senseless than the Eg3'ptians. receive me and make me I companion world to the eternal to gods. and of dead things. as in Hades. together with their other treatment of the dead body. as long time as to reverence. " ' sap.28 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF it documents racter that is yet so thoroughly Egyptian in cha- its authenticity cannot be doubted/'^ * I Plutarch. and of wind and fire confused together. is as follows : " O Lord. 996. which Euphantus translated from his native language. one embalmers making a speech on behalf of the dead. ii. should purify the rest of our life. 10: "When they embalm those of the noble that have died. as now become pure. Scptem (Diales). who cutting up the dead if body showed river." Solon or any one else has any allegation to make we will " By all means/' said Solon. This speech. taking out from the dead the belly KoCkiav) and all up before the sun. But listen.. iv. For in reality this [the belly] is the pollution of our and the Hell. they take out the belly (rj)i/ Koi\iav\ and put of the and holding the coffer to the sun they protest. 38: {Tr]v "As the Egyptians. De esu carnw7?i cutting it orat.. the sins which the man has committed in like manner that we ourselves. conviv. nor defrauded any of anything entrusted to me. cutting out gluttony and bloodthirstiness. nor committed any other wicked act. said render these tributes to the belly (r^ yaa-rpl). have neither slain any. [the entrails] to the sun.. For the gods." Plutarch. and a all ye gods who give life to men.. p./)^ abst. the Sun.

* and testify was called upon to concerning the man's former thoughts and deeds before Osiris. as mourning. but it had of necessity harboured and therefore it known them. left him at death and journeyed on alone through the regions of the other world it reached the " Abode of Hearts. where stood forth as his evil accuser . but on account of these (showing the [r. my own sin. for in it all his good and thoughts had found expression during his lifetime." * It was in this sense that the Egyptians regarded the heart as the seat of the feelings.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. not on account did I all. he embalms. for the heart was essentially divine and pure. judge of the dead. . They had not originated there. coffer in which the belly it yaaTrjp] lay).*' . In the meantime the mummy was without heart. And that having said these things he throws into the river but the rest of the body. Thus they thought excuse themselves to the Deity on account of what they had eaten and drunk. But the immortal heart of a man. as weeping. . and therefore to reproach the belly." it Its first meeting in with the deceased to whom had belonged was it the Hall of Judgment. and spoke of the heart as rejoicing. which stood a similar relationship to his material heart as his to the 29 in Ka till whole body. as they needed to pure. and had become lifeless and dead for to pierce the heart of anything was equivalent to utterly destroying by either eating or drinking what was unlawful.

genesis and resurrection Underneath it was made it flat. would have shared the fate of the mummy its had the device not been conceived of providing the latter with an artificial heart in place of own The original one. of The Booix of the Dead. too (to which we shall presently return).30 it. and inscribed with magic formulae.* scarabseus. —A heart scarab. see p. 6. which was a symbol of (fig. xxxb. THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF The Osiris. provisional heart was represented by an artificial Fig. which formed the usual inscriptions on heart scarabs. 6). The illustration is taken from photographs of a scarab the Edwards collection at University College. t For the translation of chap. . in . London.! that for the might be the substitute * dead man's heart. generally in made of hard greenish stone the image of the beetle. which had returned to the gods. 53.

to whom was closely akin. and form. nor any hurt through lack of them. also 3 ensure his his its resurrection by virtue of its But when own heart was restored to him the scaraba::us lost significance. 7." death of the order to for was a being which. A ''^^j K\' ^^' ^^^'^^ conception most nearly correit sponds to our "soul. on the it man in whom had dwelt. it left him in fly to the gods. Fig. When once elements which death had separated. Another immortal part of man was the <^^^. — The Ba as a bird. .1 THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. the resurrection had taken place there was no further need of amulets. its efficacy only availed for the space of time intervening between death and the reunion of those ik. Like all the rest of the amulets which the Egyptians gave to their dead.

be. or of a ram-headed scarabaeus From the fifteenth to the eleventh century B. from line ensured abundance (of food) to the Ba of the dead. drawings cxlviii.C. y- THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF and with whom it abode when not united to the man..— Ram-headed aeus. 10. to become and the composite figure of the signifies. But. 8). ram-headed scarabsus Fig. the ^^^. which really represents the soul as was imagined by the Egyptians. t Illustrations 7 and 8 are taken from photographs of objects in the Edwards Museum at University College. of its hieroglyphic The ram. (figs. 7). 14).t therefore. the Ba was neither immaterial nor It able to dispense with food and drink. sometimes with hands (fig. phonetic value ba. nevertheless. it was preferably repre- sented under the second form which than is really nothing more symbol. . means is and of the which scarabaeus. We * have sculptured figures and The possession of the formula in chap. 9) of The Book of the Dead. 8. latter ^. \\\vo something like " he has become a soul. 8. to kJieper." first It is otherwise with the it image.* bore the form of a human-headed bird (fig. (fig.

pis.* farewell before the In other scenes the soul is Fig. 33. loi. etc.. bidding it mummy.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE showing the touching the rising to Httle soul SOUL. Lepsius' edition. and approaching the grave edition. 4. — The Ba visiting the mummy on " The its funeral couch. 9. and gods. 3 . 33 perched by the sarcophagus. Naville's pis. etc. 104. 97. {From Book of the Dead:') depicted sign of * as life it comes flying from heaven with the in its hand. See The Book of the Dead.

times 12). 10.* Fig.. as a in small winged human it figure (fig.g. s fresco of the Triumph of Death. The Greeks or sometimes soul. ii). in the Campo Santo . illustration and Orcagna of Pisa.— The Ba flying down tomb and bringing offerings to the mummy. or a man (fig. was imagined as a butterin and mediaeval reliefs and pictures we see it leaving the mouth of the dead as a child 13). body which once invested This conception of the soul as a kind of bird is noteworthy when compared with the ideas which other nations have formed of it. or as flying down j¥ the vault with the offerings which the door of the tomb. ^ e.34 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF e o »a « I to visit the into it mummy at . (From " The Book of the Dead'') ' ^ the shaft of the * See. and drink it the 10). _ . represented the etScoXov. as food for (fig. had found bringing bread in one hand and a jar of water in the other. Roman fly (fig. little naked man.

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Fig 13. and received by an angel. Trophimus.) .— The soul of a man leaving him at his death in the form of {From the porch of the a naked child. cathedral church of St. at Aries.

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it Sarcophagus (or renews itself in the underworld). PiERRET. was of the gods and imperishable. e. 62^. was related to the Ka.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL.g.* it had also the same form. but whereas the sonality. " the Ba (soul) sees its Kha. as. t The Book of the Dead. dcs PaneheiJiisis. 10. or Kha. II. . embodies reminds one The ^ ^ X _i^ 2 is |> Sahu.. Sarkophag du Lotrure. Since the body. 23 .— a form this also its without contents. 11. 24. grows (^renpy f But in more precise texts the two things are kept distinct. returning to heavenly home when came about in religious death had set it free. p. 15. and wore upon represented the form which the Originally latter it man earth. that naturally when the mummy was mentioned texts as reanimated by the Ka it was frequently it confounded with the Sahu. pp. The latter 41 form recalls that of the it Egyptian Ka. Ixxxix.J At such times the Ba had power I. This invariably depicted as a swathed mummy. hisc. also was considered as immortal. although the idea which rather of th e Ba. 6.. t Von Bergmann. that " the In this sense is said Sahu it lives in the (r/id).. the was a complete Per- Sahu was Yet nothing but a hull. iv. See p.. it rests upon * its Sahu. Mariette. Denderah.

. VIII. Archeology. . of This Ancient Egyptian the to existence of a man's * shadow recalls Von Bergmann. belief a its shadow might live on independently.42 THE ANCIENT EGVrTIAN DOCTRINE OF Sahu. as " is said on the Sarcophagus at of Panehemisis.. such was also the case with things the all world to come the optical . and this was to was supposed place in . 37. p. represented scenes professing as a fan." In close the SAllU hves the command the connection with the the SAHU was ?^^(j(j J^ y. *• over the and. the sun shone and phenomena of earth were repeated. t As all earthly forms must needs have their in shadows. t In Transactions of the Society of Biblical 386 et seq. of the Ba. or sunshade 14).. this But. not content to accept as a simple fact. too. Birch has collected passages bearing on this point. (fig. Sarkophag is des Pmiehcmisis. alone to appear the idea realm of the gods. there. Khaib. shadow. in to portray the next world. where the translation not quite accurately given. apart from exactly what it owner. do at the moment when death had taken forth then the Khaib went independent our minds I. the Egyptians ascribed separate existences both to the shadows of the dead and According to Egyptian to those of gods and genii. p.

IWmWMMH Fig. HI. The Book of the Dead. relatifs a V Egypt... Recneil de Travaiix .'') ^^ there * f^. Ixxxix.. Masplro. the Khu is mentioned in connection with the xcii. the Luminous. especially one which was called the Khu. in chap.* The Ka. with the Khaib. the Ba. 141-44. 3. chap.e. {From ^*The Book of the Dead. cxlix. the SAhu. 40. I. pp. however. constituted the Ab.. with both. and the Khaib the chief elements of that which was immortal in man. The Golde?i Bough. Vol. Ba . 43 in Chamisso's story of Peter Schlemihl..— THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. Ba and Khaib.. published 1823. p. is i. 5. and Histoire In A7icie7i7ie des Peiiples Vol. less frequent reference they were of importshadow being I. On primitive beliefs as to a man's a vital part of himself. see Frazer. t See p. 14. de rOrie?it. 105 et seq. . To these. f . but others were also occasionally included. and in chap. 114.

feeling. the Egyptians gave the name of OsiRIS. which had resulted from its combined and how could in different parts find each other again the the next world. endowed with a kind of which seems to have held good only a time. and were either included mentioned or among the parts already were so left vaguely defined that they may be safely out of account in treating of the soul as conceived by the Egyptians without danger of our conception falsified being by the omission.44 ance THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF in local cults only. whom soul still were lacking but who in the interim possessed existence. When the their the immortal at was thus resolved then into its component parts death. in of the resurrection ? order to form new man The Egyptians had of to this evolved a very simple solution problem. what became of human individuality action. although thought. . doctrine one which. and thought. and not in for ever. was assumed that the addition to his immortal elements man as a person of a particular appearance and deathlessfor character was also ness. in according direct It our mode to of their in stands of the con- tradiction soul. To and this conception of a life dead man.

but each man hoped men to rise again. so he was king In the same w^ay man. as in he the too. instructed them laws. remained that which he in had his here . After a long and blessed reign he a prey to the machinations of his brother Set (Typhon). reigned true human likeness he civiHsed the Egyptians. their Death had not changed Osiris earth. risen. been life. in agriculture. had been king on world beyond death. Every one. and having been slain was constrained to descend into the underworld. death merely made a break without altering any of his conditions of existence. just as " Germans speak of dead blessed. Identical they were . Osiris 45 was the in first divine King of Egypt who . gave them and taught them true fell religion. when his earthly pilgrimage was ended. must descend into the underworld by the gates of death . may indeed be . life even as Osiris had of the blessed.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. where he evermore lived and reigned as judge and king of the dead. The and his relation subsisting between a man's OsiRIS clearly apprehended. even mummy was not by the Egyptians themselves. to lead henceforth the called their their In this hope dead as Osiris."— hoping that blessedness lot. of all His fate of death was the fate men.

mummy the men knew had ever also its from experience that no place of mummy left embalmment. and distinct Ry lands. from a drawing by Dr. mummy different and OsiRIS were nevertheless not entirely . W. to journey on into the next world.46 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF fact is not— that OSIRIS obviously implied by the texts. the texts describe and the same character. or Yet the tomb. — Hypocephalus. i^. H. both had the same appearance Moreover. the Osiris as resembling the mummy it. for which never once substitute the . in appearance while really differing from as and the embalmers it equipped the mummy though were called upon . Pig.

by virtue of every one of which the next world could be overcome..* because the OsiRIS could not without one.f * The soles See p. life t A certain part in the religious of our the played by a similar " Hypocephalus. or bronze. its own perfect counterpart. The in mummy live was provided with an artificial heart the shape of a scaraba^us. by the and formulae inscribed upon serve the needful it. was placed under the head of the mummy. complete as flesh and blood he had lived upon earth it . showed him mummy He never did and never could leave the extricated himself from the dilemma by : providing the mummy with a Doppelgdnger itself. demons of A stuccoed disc figures of papyrus. linen. for that the earth.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE to journey forth as the OsiRlS. yet not When this all once we idea have familiarised ourselves with singular we find in it a simple key to the riddles of the Osiris. whereas experience contradicted his creed. had mystic power life to pre15)." viz. SOUL. 47 The inherent contra- diction in all this arose principally from the fact that the Egyptian after hoped and believed that shortly in death he would arise again. which. and also with various amulets. own time has been Mormon Scriptures . 30. warmth of to the Osiris (fig.

the gods were besought that the mummy was held should not suffer earthly corruption. and place according (cf. 1867. 52. finally. 1871.* That nothing might be wanting to this Personality. the Orientalist Co?igress at St. In short. particulars of the For Joseph Smith.. and to be of it supreme importance that all flesh and bones. Hypocephalus of the illustration see P?'oceedings VI. and plate. And. 155. the soles which had been excised were placed w^ithin the the Osiris might find mummy in order that them to hand for the completion of his Personality. of the Society of Biblical Archceology. muscles and limbs should remain in place.. yEg. Zeitschr. p.. 7). 108. II. p. Wiedemann. p. Vol. A Pearl of Great Price. . 1851. 48. Judgment with pure and the gods were prayed to grant milk to the OsiRIS that he might bathe his feet in it and so assuage the pain which the removal of the soles must needs have caused him. * See Ebers. p.48 of THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF the feet which had trodden the in mire of earth were removed the Hall of order that the OsiRIS might tread feet . the With the mummy were also placed The Book of Deadly as well as other religious and mystic texts needed by the OsiRIS for his guidance through the regions learn beyond the grave. and from which he might the prayers which had to be spoken in due order to strict prescriptions. p. Proceedings of Etieniie.

but exhibits it in a series of discon- nected stages by giving the prayers which the OsiRIS must repeat when passing through different parts of the underworld. but the chapters in do not follow each other prayers the order in which the were to be used. or on encountering certain genii there. texts. of the This book contains no systematic account journey. as 49 it mummy was treated precisely though : were an OsiRIS. into consistent which 4 should . forms subject of Egyptian and to this in devoted the largest and best : known work the religious literature of the nation the compilation called by us The Book of the Dead. A chapter is devoted to each prayer. They pondered deeply one over a series of separate problems without results being able to unite the whole. while the OsiRIS proceeded on way. The Egyptians never underworld it . attained to any clear idea of the Osirian the same confusion and obscurity reigned over as over their whole conception of the unseen world and of deity. But the difference was great the the mummy his remained within sarcophagus in the sepulchral chamber. such as the analogy of similar literatures might lead us to expect. of the OSIRIS.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE the SOUL. treated at wearisome the favourite is The journey length.

priest or might make a selection of such chapters as he or the family of the deceased held to be the essential. The . the Dead he came all issued victorious from his over- enemies whom he encountered. in others. and was ushered at length into the Hall of the Double Truth.50 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF acceptance. Here also he found the chief gods of the Osirian cycle gathered together. published by Lepsius. as in the Ptolemaic copy it for a certain Aufankh. any definite and permanent topography of the regions beyond the Hence there is no fixed sequence for the chapters of TJie Book of the Dead. Since there reaches to one hundred and sixty-five. most and each was at liberty to form for himself a more or less modified conception of the character- istics of the underworld. the order varies materially in the different manuscripts to which are indebted for our we knowledge of the work. but must be content to know account in that according to the Tlie all Book of trials. and received by the goddess of Truth. and the forty-two assessors of Divine Justice . rule as to order or was no fixed scribe number. number of chapters while in in the different copies also varies some it is small. or to form command tomb. We cannot here follow the OsiRIS through all the details of his journey.

am not foul-mouthed. I am not of I dissembler. of T/ie Book of the Dead. do not stint the quantity of corn. he had not been guilty of certain definite sins. I do not multiply clamour evil.* * The '• Negative Confession " forms chap. nor not murdered. I am not a niggard. am not a I not an eavesdropper. 1890):— "I am not a doer of what I domineering character. and varies slightly in different copies. each of the He had not done lied. I I am not obscene. I am not a quarreller. seize the property of the gods. am not a doer of violence. nor injured not caused any to weep. I words of righteousness. and so on. I am not a is wrong. I dismiss a case through self-interest. and denying one or to another particular assessors. cxxv. and proceeded " Negative Confession —a denial of sins of commission — declaring that form of guilt evil. had not robbed. to recite Then the " the deceased spoke. I am not the cause of others' tears. I am not a robber. I do not I am I am not a teller of lies. the property of the gods. I plunderer. I women to the or men. I am not unchaste with am not an exciter I do not turn a deaf ear I of alarms. I am not a unchaste. $1 god Osiris was enthroned. not a monopoliser of food. am I not hot in speech.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE near the canopy under which the SOUL. am I do not pillage cultivated land. The following is Renouf's translation of the chapter as it appears in a Nineteenth Dynasty papyrus (see The Papyrus of Ani. purpose. do not revoke words. I am not I am no extortioner. I do not chatterer. London. am not a slayer of men. I not a striker. I in reply to am my am not evil-minded or a doer of am not a reviler of the .

I am not a reviler of the God. I I by gods and am Horus. 1 not a bawlcr.'") of the dead man's heart against the feather " The Book oj image symbol of the Truth. 1 6. giving no sign the of approval or disapproval but when confession was ended the heart of the deceased was brought forward and laid in the scales against the \«i*<j<r 5«ssf-«s-j»?-v- Fig. do not take away the cakes of the profane the god of my locality. put no obstruction upon the water." . of the funeral cakes. —The weighing or symboHc of Maat. {From the Dead. am not sparing in offerings to the gods. am I not fraudulent. . The weighing was Anubis I superintended king. the goddess of Truth. or I do not deprive the dead child. I do not kill sacred animals.52 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF heard all The judges either in silence.

This regularity. see Wiedemann. p. La du Musee Guimet. The gods were in fact the said to be nebu madt. Truth Law and Order by which and justice are but forms of Madt as Papyrus of Ant..' or dnchiu e7n madt. The earth abides for ever." is t This prayer Dead: " — contained in chap.— THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. let no . me through evidence. either of permanence or change. Whole heart mine which that of Let there be no estoppel against my birth. which called ' is the constitutive character of the Egyptian divinity. Heart mine which is that of is my mother. stood by readyto record the result (fig. 16). 2. x. xxx. of The Book of the Chapter whereby the heart of a person is not kept back froin him in the Ncthcrwordd. months." Renouf has said " The Egyptians recognised a divinity in those cases only where they perceived the presence of a fixed Law.-\ not to the Egyptian Dcesse seq. : and so do the heavens.* This was the time for the deceased anxiously to call upon Book On his heart in the prescribed formula from bear witness The * of the Dcad. in the Atinales Goddess of Truth. seasons. vji was or ^=/7 Aladt. 561 ei With regard to the meaning of the Egyptian name and word Aladt. the scribe of the gods. which is generally translated " truth. pp. and . Mad. ' possessors of madt. 53 while Thot. subsisting by through madt! Madt is the universe exists. setting at fixed intervals. applied to human action. Day and night. or justice. the stars rising some of them and and others eternally is circling round the pole in an order which never disturbed. Introduction. years succeed each other with unfailing regularity are not less constant in their course.

the complete lasting life the ever- of the righteous and the blessed. Lord of the Amenti.54 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF heart of a against him. is the joy of the Weighing of the Words. 29. who was thus built up into the earth. man who had once walked and who now entered upon a new life. As Bergmann. by me (in my Kha-t). Thou art my genius (Ka). Come forth to the bliss towards which we are bound Let not those Ministrants the course of his life who deal with a man according to give a bad odour to my name. Panehemisis."* and fate. were now restored to the justified OSIRIS. . . must now determine favour. to be set again in place. and forthwith the immortal elements which death had separated began the to reunite. Let not lies be uttered in presence of the great god. fall me presence of him art who is at the Balance. His Ka. ed. pleasant for the listener. and all remaining parts of himself. stated on the I. everlasting If his heart were content with him. Pleasant for us. and the in scales turned his his then the god Thot commanded him that heart should its be restored to This was done. Lo * ! how great art thou (as the triumphant one).. for "the man his is his own eod. mummy case of Von p. He thou hindrance be not against made in to me by who the divine Circle . the Artist who givest soundness to my limbs." — Rciioiifs translation.

Jequier. book Am Ditat (cf. and by nature pure and * imperishable . Paris. Le livre de y a dans V Hades. in always assume that judgment goes deceased. 55 Into their circle. at however. TJie Book of the Dead.* place of punishment or purification for the wicked or whether. as seems more probable. and he becomes one of the blessed. and to have been confined to certain classes of society. and was henceforth as one of them. clearly informed Nowhere of the are we as to the fate condemned who could not stand before the god Osiris. 1894. and no resurrection was The immortal elements were divine. We are told that the enemies of the gods perish. For such a man no possible. that they are destroyed or overthrown sions afford . they held some general belief that against a when judgment was pronounced heart and other immortal parts to man his were not restored re-edification him. but they could is be preserved The conception of a kind of hell certainly found in the ce qtiil are. such allusions ceptional. . ex- and Egyptian belief in a hell appears to have existed times only. p. 127).THE IMMORTALITY OF THE was joyfully admitted by the gods SOUL. and cognate religious texts. that his favour of the that heart approves him. but such vague expresfar the no certainty as to how in Egyptians in general believed the existence of a hell as a .

17. But the future blessedness which the Egyptian . the only difference being that. while the existence which they had led upon earth had been limited life in its duration. although personal annihilation was the evil-doer in of the whom it had dwelt. -^^w jxntwxmtmmm Fig. their doctrine this it was which they a. indeed. unchanged in appearance as in nature . as such did not lot die. But it was the hope of continued individuality which held out to the Egyptians . in all probability denied After judgment the righteous entered into blessedv^ ness. the of the world to for come was eternal. — The Blessed Dead ploughing and sowing by the waters (^Froni " of the celestial Nile.56 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF from entering the OsiRIS. The Book of the DeadT^ promised to the good and to the wicked. himself unworthy of them. from re-entering the hull of the man who had proved The soul.

state of floating in everlasting repose. the Godhead. 57 bliss far from being a passive state of promised by most of the higher rehgions. a an absorption into the All or into dreamy content.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE hoped was such as is SOUL. and unimpassioncd The average Egyptian . joy.

* The " fields cf. ex.* ploughing with oxen. He ex- pected his chief employ- ment the to be agriculture. A vignette belonging to chap. he counted on retaining his indein pendent individuality all respects and on working and enjoying himself even as he had done on earth. Although the Godhead. . occupation which must have seemed most natural to a people al- most entirely dependent upon the the produce of fields. the " Elysian fields " of the Greeks.58 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF to expected lead as active to a life in the world come as he had led with here. of Th: Book of the Dead dead fields of represents at the the work in the Blessed. casting of Aalu " .

19). recreation they sailed upon the canals of the next world played at draughts with their in their boats (fig. their fields All went on exactly as here. own and souls.— The Blessed Dead making offerings to the {From " The Book of the Dead:') celestial Nile-god. ears with sickles. or made offerings to the gods. fertility to their which gave water to seed (fig. 20). was required to serve for the making For change and ill pjg^ 20. to tread finally out the grain from the straw piling 18). it and up the corn in heaps against of bread. especially to the celestial Nile. 17). excepting that the work of the blessed was . driving oxen (fig.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL the the 59 cutting seed-corn ripe into the furrows (fig.

the fresh and pleasant north wind was always blowing. the Fifth it to to " Evil is Unas. the foe was always conall quered. always a very moral according to our standards. lived. the weather was always favourable. therefore The dead they must of necessity eat and drink. overflowed the fields to best its advantage.6o THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OE The Nile always invariably crowned with success. and the gods graciously accepted offerings all and requited the In short. the corn grew five ells high and ears were two ells long. But this belief in the life of the next world as the exact counterpart of this implied a danger which involved the Egyptian in heavy cares. life for without these processes the continuation of . the harvest never failed to be abundant. " be hungry and have nothing thirsty evil is it for Unas to be and have nothing to drink. of the dead in the earthly kingdom of the although not gods was an idealised life life. gives expression for king of this fear. to eat . indeed. partly ensured to the dead offerings m:idc by means of the to them by their sur- . The inscription of the sepulchral pyramid of Unas. was inconceivable they if the dead were without food would be starved." The necessities of life were. an Egyptian Dynasty." says that text. the life givers wnth rich gifts of kinds.

and earn their own living. * See p. the own resources. Museum}) ceased. or if no one took the trouble to repeat the dead were left to their formulc-E. — Ancient kingdom KA-statues of servants— potters and (^Originals in the Ghizeh bread-makers. lo. and must work. and till the land.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. and partly mysteriously created for their use in the next world by the repetition of ma^^ic formulae in this. 21. 6l vivors on recurrent feast-days. .* But if the offerings Fig.

21. into the next world by their slaves as other uncivilised nations sent the servants of the dead to * the realm of death after their masters. Wiedemann. As the old Germans were followed and horses . . Memoires de cf.* so in the in From scenes tomb of Mentuherkhepeshf at Thebes. Le Mnscon^ 457 ct seq. p. it servants to work for him in this world was desirous of securing like service In the time of the for for himself in the Ancient Empire granted that seems to have been taken those who were life servants in this life would be servants selfish also in the beyond. in the Eleventh Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Caire. at any rate greatness. the object being doubtless that of sending servants to the dead. 20. dating from the beginning of the Nineteenth Dynasty. to But the practice would seem have been ver}^ exceptional. V. we have of such evidence that Egyptian funeral ceremonies occasionally included human sacrifice sacrifice at the gate of the tomb. With this end in view the rich of those times had placed within their own sepulchral chambers KA-statues of life their servants in order to ensure immortal to them also (fig. see also Griffith. life was devised for evading it on their The rich man who had world to come. and so an expedient suggested by the conditions of their earthly behalf.. TJie To?fib ofPaiieri^ pp.. Mission Archcologique XIII. . p. 452. (ill after Egypt had entered upon la in her long period of See Maspero.62 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF Such enforced labour could hardly have appeared very attractive to Egyptians of the upper classes. 2i).

for soil. or stone. 63 Ancient Egypt a certain portion of mankind was set apart to serve the rest through all eternity.— THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. were made human inscribed with a certain formula. all and the thought gained ground that were equal in the Egyptians presence of death and of the gods. of * which hundreds and thousands of specimens vi. Chapter of : The Book of the Dead " consists of this formula. which there reads O Ushabti there ! Should I be called and appointed to do any of the labours that are done in the Nether- world by a person according to his abilities. obliged to renounce his hope of So the rich man was finding his servants again at his service beyond the tomb. likeness. whither- me!" Rcjioh/'s T?'a?islatio7i.* and placed within the tomb. But as Egyptian civilisation advanced and a more humane state of feeling dawned. in the hope that they would there attain to life and become the useful servants of the blessed they are the so-called dead . for planting the fields. or in wood. soever thou callest Here am I. be thou counted for watering the me at every moment. USHABTIU (or Respond- ents). these views were modified. toil through the possible negligence A this most singular expedient was adopted danger : to avert little images of clay. and was face to face with the old fear of being reduced to heavy of his successors. lo ! all obstacles have been beaten down for thee . or even of bronze. . for conveying the sands of East and West.

owed their very being and to the dead. playthings. These Ushabtiu were found at Hawara by Petrie see Kahim. so it was hoped that figures would show their thankfulness by diligence. 9. Gio'ob. Many other customs arose out of similar ideas to those which gave rise to the institution of Articles of personal USHABTIU. and Ilazvafa. his entrance into the for this purpose choice was often made in of such objects as the his lifetime. * : . pp." as the texts call life them. may (see Frontispiece These " servants for the under- world. adornment and for wreaths. And these their all as men seek to testify their gratitude to the Creator by doing little Him service." or " servants to the OsiRIS.64 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF be found in collections of Egyptian antiquities *). and stood to him in the same relation as man to God. carriages. who lived during the Twenty-sixth Dynast}'. toilet use. weapons. man had used and valued All this care. set of and tools were given to the dead. 19. priest The frontispiece represents one of 399 Ushabtiu made for a named Horut'a. and spare their master and maker toil. and a whole furniture household was often laid away in the grave in order that the OsiRIS should not be obliged to set to at work once to make or collect these things for himself on next world .

and. it were really intended and for all time.. underneath the foundations of temples.. so the furniture and imple- ments placed near the coffin were intended not so its much had for the mummy lying in tomb as for the Osiris dwelling with the gods. speaking of his discovery that was the Egyptian custom to place masonic deposits of miniature model tools. was bestowed not simply those 6$ in the interest of who had entered upon the Hfe everlasting but also in that of those who were left behind. however. says : "The 5 reason . these facts must not lead us to conclude that the the dead. and giving an account of the foundation deposits which he found beneath the pyramid temple of Usertesen II. As the amulets laid in and about the mummy were for the use of the OsiRIS.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. its Each of these objects heavenly counterpart. fro all upon earth . to prevent their exercise lack of things whose might impel them to revisit the scenes of their earthly lives were placed visits within the tombs. even as the mummy it was represented by the OsiRIS. etc. at Illahun. for their might not be alto- gether pleasant of for survivors withholding any part But the goods which belonged to the dead.* * Professor Petrie. and tomb was the permanent dwelling of that the objects placed within for his use there. Among other powers possessed by the dead was that of going to and it.

66
It

THE ANCIENT ECxYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF
was thus that the Egyptians sought
to

make
all

themselves homes in the next world, and to secure
the comforts
the
life

and pleasures of

their

earthly

life

in

which was to come.

Nevertheless, the pious
for ever as
:

Egyptian did not expect to remain
Osiris, or as a god in

an

human

likeness

he rather

hoped

for ever-increasing

freedom, for the power of

taking other shapes and transforming himself at will
into

quadrupeds
;

;

or into birds
into

— such as the

swallow
the

or the heron
lotus
;

or

plants

— more

especially

or even into gods.*
is

This

no doctrine of compulsory transmigration

such as used to be freely ascribed to the Egyptians

on the strength of the statements made by Herodotus
for

t

;

there

is

no question here of souls being
is

burying such objects

yet unexplained

;

but

it

seems not

unlikely that they
builders, like the

were intended
models placed

for the iise of the
in

tombs

for the

Kas of the Kas of the
needed
"

deceased.

Whether each

building had a Ka, which
is

ghostly repair by the builders' Kas,

also to be considered

{Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara,
building had
its

p.

22).

We

know

that each
(cf.

guardian

spirit in the

form of a serpent

the
in

representation of one dating from the time of

Amenophis
Div.,
pi.

III.,

Ghizeh, No. 217, published by Mariette,
*

Mon.

63

b).

t "

The Book of the Dead, chaps. The Egyptians were also the

Ixxvi.

Ixxxviii.

first to

broach the opinion that

the soul of
enters into

man

is

immortal, and that
is

when

an animal which

born

at the

the body dies it same moment, thence


THE IMMORTALITY OF THE
SOUL.
67
forced to assume fresh forms in which their purification
is

gradually worked out and their perfection

achieved.

To
of

the Egyptian transmigration was not

the

doom

imperfect

souls,

but a privilege

re-

served for such as had already attained

perfection.

Again and again the texts

assert
visit

that

the blessed
at will
;

may assume any may
travel

form and

any place

body and place can no longer enthral him.

He
divine
at the

round the heavens with the Sun-god Ra,
"

or arise from the shades with Osiris in the

night " of the 26th of the

month Khoiak
as

{i.e.

winter solstice)

;

he

is

even

a god,

nay,

he

is

himself a god, able to live in and by Truth, actually

taking

it,

indeed, as food and drink.
of the soul to incarnate itself at pleasure
chief reasons for
seen,

The power

became one of the
body.

embalming the
of the

As we have

the

preservation

body was held

to be necessary because the

mummy
has circled
air,

passing on (from one animal into another) until

it

through

all

creatures of the earth, the water,

and the

after

which

it

enters again into a new-born
is

human

frame.

The whole

period of the transmigration

(they say) three thousand years.
of an earlier,

There are Greek
forward

writers,

some

some
123.

of a later date,
it

who have borrowed

this doctrine

from the Egyptians, and put
II.,

as their own."

Herodotus,
p.

See Wiede-

mann, Herodots Zweites Buck,

457 et

seq.

68

THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF
to be the material
reality.

was supposed

form of which the

Osiris was the essential

But

this

temporary

need might have been met
the journey of the Soul to

in

simpler fashion, since

the

Hall of Judgment
short
time.

was accomplished

in

a

comparatively
for

There was, however, a further need
vision
visit

which pro-

had

to be made.

The

soul

might sometimes
its

the

mummy,

again

take up
it

abode

in

its

former body, and, animating

anew, return to earth
the
spots where

under that form and thus
once
it

revisit

had dwelt.

To

this

end

it

required an earthly

and tangible body, and

this

was supplied by the

mummy.
incarnate

If the

mummy

were destroyed, then the
it

soul not only lost one of the forms in which
itself,

might

but that one with which

its

interests

were naturally most closely connected
linked
it

—that one which
it

to earth

and best enabled

to exhort the

survivors to
see

remember the funerary

offerings,

and

to

how

it

fared with those

whom

it

had been obliged
of the

to leave

behind.

The

destruction

mummy
it

did

not involve the destruction of the soul, but
soul's circle of activity

narrowed the

and limited

its

means of transmigration.
This doctrine gave
rise to

the necromantic theory

that a soul might be compelled

by means of magic

* and not have been considered as two " For the "Story of Setna Tales. 69 body. a royal prince named Setna. through his dead subject own imprudence. he was he had invoked. see VoL II. overpowered by those whom The above Egyptians is sketch of the eschatology of the Ancient drawn from their own religious texts. the Ka and Osiris must surely once have had the same significance.* who had succeeded in the undertaking.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE formulae to re-enter the this its SOUL. dangerous according to a tale dating from Ptolemaic times. As to the origin of that system and the transforma- tions which it had undergone before reaching the it form under which entirely ignorant . The magician who had brought then stipulate for all about could kinds of It favours before is restoring the soul to freedom. and to speak through dead h'ps. the many For instance. when. paid heavily for spirits of the having sought to make the to him. true that . of Professor Petrie's Egyptian . is known to us we it are as yet but it is obvious that must have originally developed gradually and assimilated heterogeneous doctrines. such an attempt was reckoned highly and.

the spiritual Doppdgdnger. nor were after-times able it to effect features. attempts solving this these subject similar as problems connected with yet. but also that this in nation had even then succeeded life clearly picturing the future to themselves after a fashion which may to indeed often seem strange and incomprehensible modern . national and insti- but also of a complete system of religion. all As in other departments of Egyptian life and thought. so with the Egyptian religion trace its — we cannot it beginnings. while All in the other at it was named and are. As far back as Egyptian history has been traced appear to have been characters.70 THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF dead man's being of until time different factors of the had brought about the fusion in two theological as systems — one of which the Ka was regarded. In the earliest it glimpse of afforded in all its by the Egyptian essential texts appears as perfect parts in . in the people possession art not only of written tutions. the OsiRIS. or Double. mere hypotheses. much change by the addition of new What greatly intensifies the deep historical is interest of Egyptian eschatology that it testifies not only to the fact that a whole nation believed in the immortality of the soul four thousand years before the birth of Christ.

minds but to /I which we cannot deny a certain con- sistency and a deep spiritual connotation. nor . London and Aylesbury. Printed by Hazell. & Vine}'.. . Watson. yet for its from them and it is the sciences to of anthropology and comparative religion determine to what extent the Egyptian doctrine of immortality originated in Egypt itself. Ld. and how much was brought the there by the Egyptians from they had shared with the common home which Semites and Indo-europeans. We shall sisting not here discuss the many analogies sub- between Egyptian belief and the religious systems of other nations great differences and times.THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL.

.

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and the many illustrations Daily Telegraph. much appreciated in the CELEBRATED PIANISTS OF THE PAST AND PRESENT. brings the book up to date. cloth." Musical Standard. " This book is well written. KING STREET. 33. 'js. and enables musical readers to study every stage of the fortunate career which has now reached its climax and consummation. 8vo. and which is detailed without being diffuse. Mr. A " Collection of ii6 Biographies and 114 Portraits. . Gregory to the present day. Over one convenient record of important biographical details. trated.——— — — — —— 5 [JX^lXSiC—conttmied." H." Daily Telegraph. interspersed now and again with an anecdote or amusing passage in the lives of the great composers. giving full information in a concise and accessible form. and England. The work can be well recommended to all who desire a musical history. cloth. I Vol. profusely illusMusical Ne^vs." Pall Mall Gazette. " The publication is very timely. Matthew has acquitted himself excellently of the task of translation. 6d. down to the most famous among contemporary executants. the statements are correct. It comes just when most wanted.C.written translation of Pougin's work would at any time be pleasant. " Athenaiwi. LONDON. and admirably compiled volume. GREVEL & CO. Facsimiles of Rare and Curious Musical Works. " Mr. W. " This extremely interesting volume will be musical world. Matthew's well. 6d. and the well-printed volume will be heartily welcomed by musicians. COVENT GARDEN. and serves admirably for those who wish The facts are to obtain some general idea as to the progress of the art. and just now must have special charms. Crown 8vo. " The sketch of the later music in Germany. succinctly set forth.. and concludes a well-written. 10^. France. give the work a distinct value. hundred masters and mistresses of the keyboard find places in these pages the names ranging from John Sebastian Bach to Couperin and Rameau. Ehrlich." *' The plan of the book is admirably arranged and printed. By James E."— Z/i^ Quarterly Musical Review. "The author covers the entire ground of his subject from the time of St." Morning Post. Matthew. *• It is long since a more readable and fascinating book has come under our notice. Musical Instruments. A — MANUAL OF MUSICAL With 150 Illustrations of Portraits." Daily Telegraph. HISTORY. By A. Italy.

post free. ' * The far better . Annual Subscription. LONDON. 4to. I. This collection is by far the best of the cheap editions of copies from the Old Masters. cloth extra. " Btiilder. To those who have an interest in art. post free. containing Twelve Plates. GREVEL & CO. . 15^". and refresh his memory in various ways. gilt top.. 4to. COVENT GARDEN. Each "All Part i^.. Plates. the work will be most valuable nor will it meet a less cordial welcome from those who desire to recall what they have seen. W.. THE CLASSICAL SCULPTURE GALLERY. laid " It is illustrations of the worth the attention of those who wish to make a collection works of great painters at a small cost. Each Volume ^i net. THE CLASSICAL PICTURE GALLERY. the principal galleries in England and on the Continent have been under contribution. 3^. post free. their price. or Sd. Each Pari containing 6 Vol. post free. I. \s.C. Published in 12 Monthly Parts at dd. the plates are little short of wonderful.—— 6 — — Ifine Uvte. and a Complete Index. — 1S90 to 1895. KING STREET. of "Judged by will They value to the serious student of art." Graphic. for With Biographical Notices of the Artists. and the masterpieces of the great painters are admirably reproduced in process at so cheap a rate that each number of the Classical Picture Gallery is given for one shilling." Saturday Review. Annual Subscription. who will be able by their means to compare types and expressions." Birmin^ha7n Daily Post. each.. containing each 144 Plates. VI. Published Monthly. Volumes THE CLASSICAL PICTURE GALLERY. H. 33. 8^. Reproductions of Classical Pictures from the Public and Private Galleries of Europe. be of no little reproductions are marvellously cheap. Reproductions of Classical Sculptures from the Public and Private Collections of Europe. to whom pictures in foreign galleries are mere names. and they certainly give a idea of the pictures represented than any publication we have seen.

— — of Death is a weirdly fantastic idea which appealed acutely to the curiously mystic and morbid imagination of the ancient German It was frequently treated by them. and it formed one of Hans Designers. Considering the estimation in which the works of Velazquez are now held in this country. LONDON. has come from the hand of a modern designer." Tifties." A MODERN DANCE OF DEATH.C. Designer Title of "Art in Book-Plates. thoroughness. and a Plan of the Old Palace at Madrid. The amount of research and of real observation which his book shows is typical of the *' "No modern scholar. and the labour involved in amassing and digesting the enormous amount of information contained in it is beyond conception." Edinburgh Revinv. . H. The an acute and powerful. is at once repellent and fascinating. moreover. it was fitting that the monograph which Professor Justi has devoted to his life and times should be presented in an English The book has been written with true German form to the public.— jfine — — —— 7 UVtB— continued. W. Keane. H. crossing a row of mediaeval books on sharply pointed stilts which leave on the pages over which they pass a tortuous course of wormThe Design leaves on the mind holes. Royal 8vo. Keane. KING STREET.. so far as I know. By Joseph Sattler. VELAZQUEZ AND HIS TIMES. '' No better example could be given of the growth of historical knowledge during the past thirty years than is to be found in Carl Justi's recent book on 'Velazquez. The grim skeleton. H. Professor at the University of Bonn. with seals and keys dangling from his bones. £1 is. By Carl Justi. unlike anything which. With 52 magnificent Woodcuts. which will long be looked upon as i/ie definitive biography of the Great Master. Roxburghe. complete or adequate account of the life and works of Diego de Silva Velazquez has been written until the masterly Biography by Professor Carl Justi. Titles of the 13 Designs :— Worm-Holes The Call of Death The Tumbling House— The Conflagration— The Dangerous Bridge— Death and the Drunkard— The Last Act— Equality— The Three Dice (Plague. It is utterly is full of weird power— full." and 13 Plates in Heliogravure. The version which Sattler gives us now Holbein's most famous subjects. 33. GREVEL & CO. net." " The Dance Studio.' well translated by Professor A. partly coloured. of mordant personality. Every picture that Velazquez ever painted seems to be enumerated. £2 2s. Typhus)— The Last Leap of Death— The Eye of the Pessimist— The Good Friday Angelus Christ Crowned by Death. Every Morning Post. event in his life is carefully recorded. and Revised by the Author. COVENT GARDEN. an Etching of Velazquez' Own Portrait by Forberg. In Portfolio. Cholera. if a grotesquely unpleasant impression. Translated by Professor A.

well-arranged. and in itself a work of art. "The plan of the Atlas. W. by Alan S. Dr. Fol. " Professor Roth's well-known and highly valued plates of the human muscles and bones. Edited by C. By Charles Roth. and the eight following ones the muscles in action. and each is followed by an explanatory platej in which the parts depicted are numerated. Fitzgerald's translation of Professor Roth's work is altogether a valuable aid to the study of artistic anatomy. and trustworthy history of a delightful art. . "A artietic Hnatom^. With 156 Illustrations. THE STUDENT'S ATLAS OF ARTISTIC ANATOMY. Its manner of production does much credit to the ipuhlishers. Translated and Enlarged. with his nomenclature and descriptive notes. For the Use of Sculptors. Fitzgerald. of the South Kensington Museum. but a book which is pleasant to see and pleasant to read.C. which has been considerably enlarged from its original form.. 6d. Crown 8vo. book which is not only a comprehensive."— Ai/ienaum. By Ernest Lefebure. and anatomical elements in drawing from the nude. are worthily reproduced in this complete portfolio. MANUAL OF EMBROIDERY AND LACE: Their Manufacture and History from the remotest Antiquity to the present Day. M. The two first plates represent the bony framework of the body. natural. Cole. " It is a bold experiment to attempt to combine at once the classical. Painters. The figure plates are carefully drawn and admirably printed. and at the same time sufficiently vigorous in the contrast of light and shade. LONDON.. GREVEL & CO. Lace Manufacturer and Administrator of the Musee des Arts Decoratifs. the engraving being smooth and even." Bai/j/ Graphic.''— Academy. in Portfolio.D. Professor of Sculpture at the Munich Academy. 10^. but in this the author has succeeded remarkably well. cloth extra. KING STREET. 33. ^i t^s."' Lattcet. — H. while notes are added directing attention to those points which are of especial interest to artists.— 8 jfine UvX5~-coutzmied. gilt top. is very simple and convenient. and Amateurs. COVENT GARDEN. The plates are admirably executed. Paris. The limitation to a single pose prevents all confusion. E. whilst the addition of separate sketches at the end of the atlas furnishes an opportunity for more detailed study of the limbs and head. well written and well edited. With Thirty-four Plates. and very much facilitates anatomical knowledge.

painters. out the numerous points of interest touched upon. and one which may likewise be read with pleasure and comparatively uninitiated. Emeritus Academy With 29 University of Vienna." Times.C . 6d. Anderson. Academy Anatomy to the Royal of Arts. by W." Edinburgh Medical Journal. possessing some knowledge of anatomy. concise removed from pedantry artist's as from superficiality.— —— 9 BttlStlC UnatOm'^—confmued. Herr Brucke combines an is sentiment with the anatomist's keen eye. Professor of Physiology in the By Ernest Brucke. "The work is primarily addressed to but all those will who find are it interested in the artistic representation of the human body a very interesting and suggestive work. with a Preface. and his work evidently the result of thoughtful study. artists. GREVEL & CO. Professor of Edited. detect the faults of the The artist. and formerly Teacher of Anatomy in the of Fine Arts at Berlin. London. should be able to human frame as easily as the horse connoisseur recognises the defects of an animal. COVENT GARDEN. learned or interesting book upon an attractive and important subject.. LONDON. Crown '* 8vo." Saturday Revieiu. H. and all such as. to the English artist —Lancet." Science. **No book could be more welcome and anatomist. THE HUMAN FIGURE: Its Beauties and Defects. ys."— Athenccum. by the equally Written in a clear. Illustrations by Hermann Paar. An exceedingly valuable work for sculptors. are engaged in artistic pursuits. W." *'We can strongly recommend it both to the art-student and to the full-fledged artist. —Dublin Journal oj Medical ** "We cannot single It is long since we have been called upon to review a more thorough. he tells us. profit style. cloth. KING STREET. 33.

Chapter II. By Professor G. H." CO. New and Cheaper Edition. " It is enough to mention this new edition of Mr. with Notes. " The Publishers have conferred a boon alike on tourists and students their issue of a fourth and revised edition of Professor Maspero 's 'Manual of Egyptian Archeology. Painting and Sculpture. and popular the to antiquarian lore of the Scotsman.D. The Industrial Arts. Over three hundred well-executed illustrations are given. Chapter V. Maspero himself . LONDON. additional matter has been inserted. acknowledged as one of the most eminent authorities on Egyptian and into this manual for students he has compressed the result of his vast learning. LL.— — lo — Hrcb^oloo?. COVENT GARDEN. nothing needs to be said. .. Ph. but the present edition has been carefully corrected. GREVEL & KING STREET. MANUAL OF EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY: And Popular Guide for to the Egyptian Antiquities Students and Travellers. The author is archceology. Tombs. which could not indeed be easily improved.. In its essential features. Civil and Military Architecture.C. 6." book for The Guardian. Edwards. cloth extra." for the specialist. Birmingham Daily Post. the by work remains what it was when first presented to the English public some eight years ago. and numerous fresh illustraIt tions are given. Maspero. Religious Architecture. W. CONTENTS. With 309 Illustrations. 33. and are so chosen as to make the text transparently clear. I. Edwards. Oxon. Maspero's well-known work.L. D. Chapter III. — Chapter Crown "It is 8vo. should also be mentioned that by the introduction of separate page-headings and other improvements the worth of the purposes of reference has been considerably enhanced.C. thousands of years of Egyptian civilisation in language precise enough to make the work a handbook enough to insure its becoming a guide country for travellers in Egypt. On the qualifications of Miss Edwards— herself a learned Egyptologist — as a translator. which has been revised and enlarged by the author.D.' as translated by the late Miss Amelia B. gilt top. in view of the continued progress of Egyptological knowledge. by Amelia B. revised by the Author. results of It sums up the long a marvel of erudition and condensation. English Edition. Chapter IV.?. by M. and brought down so as to include the latest researches into its subject.

of the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities. H. Sculpture. With Crown A. "Professor Wiedemann's treatise is quite a perfect thing of its kind.A. M. Assyria. [In the pj-ess. " For the iirst time we have a really sensible explanation of the reason for the preservation of the body in the mummied form." Glasgoiu Herald. A. W^ith 60 Illustrations specially prepared for this work. Syria. cloth. British Museum. LONDON. Demy 8vo. 6d. By Ernest Babelon. of ba the soul. T. Evetts. of sahu the idealised body or human form.C. " Prof. Wiedemann's little book appeals not only to the Egyptologist. 8vo. . KING STREET." Spectator. " This book is extremely interesting and valuable. t^s." Saturday Review. With 241 Illustrations. By Dr. and of the various Manchester Guardian." Dr. cloth extra. as well as to that larger public which is interested in all that relates to the thoughts and beliefs of civilised men. of ab the heart. COVENT GARDEN.. GREVEL & CO.— — —— — -continued. Wiedemann. He treats his fascinating subject with marvellous clearness. Wiedemann. and Industrial Arts of Chaldsea. and the reader follows his guidance through the mazes of the great system of immortality with breathless interest. and of the ' Osiris of the dead man himself" Academy. but also to the student of religion and history. ' THE RELIGION OF THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. Wiedemann unravels with much skill this perplexing subject. Persia. Translated and enlarged by B. 33. Crown >8vo. of khaib the shadow. when set forth in lucid language by a skilful and learned interpreter. 6d. MANUAL OF ORIENTAL ANTIQUITIES: Including the Architecture. cloth. and Carthage. Professor of Oriental Languages at the University of Bonn. \os. Librarian of the Department of Medals and Antiques in the Bibliotheque Nationale. ffenceforward it will be impossible not to have a clear idea of what the old Egyptians meant when they spoke of ka the double. and explains by these means the elaborate ceremonial which attended the preservation and after care of the dead in Egypt. and is a model of what such a monograph should be. Paris. los. Phoenicia. W. Dr. 1 1 UVCbXOlOQ'Q THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DOCTRINE OF THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. transfigurations of the soul of the deceased. By Prof. gilt top. 21 Illustrations. Judaea. A.

late By Maxime Collignon. 6d. a good book." etc. Assyria.2 — — — — — 1 UVCb^OlOQ'Q— continued. "The gradual development of the type of each god according to the general principles which govern the formation of types in art is historically Miss Harrison's translation does not read like a translation.C. Syria. By Pierre Paris. '• Translated and Enlarged by Jane E. considered. Author of Myths of the Odyssey." Spectator. gilt top." etc With 140 Illustrations. and Carthage." Academy." St. Harrison. doing for Greek mythology much the same service which Mrs. . cloth extra. \os. and we know no higher praise than this. Babelon's work has already won such a high measure of praise from the students of Oriental archaeology that its place is assured among modern authorities on the art and culture of the ancient civilised nations of Western Asia. embracing the art history of Chaldaea. Member of the Ecole Fran^aise. Jamieson rendered to Christian hagiology. COVENT GARDEN. Author of " formerly Member of the Ecole Franfaise." Saturday Review. icy. which owes much more than its English dress to its accomplished editor. MANUAL OF GREEK MYTHOLOGY IN RELATION TO ART. LONDON. Phoenicia. Myths of the Odyssey. James' Gazette. MANUAL OF ANCIENT SCULPTURE." **M. It fills a gap in our literature. but like an English book. Edited and Augmented by Jane E. Judaea. at Athens. gilt top. GREVEL & CO. 6d. W. Crown "This is 8vo. " The quantity of information contained in one small volume is wonderful. KING STREET. M. gives us within the narrow compass a lucid and compendious survey of the sculpture of the ancient world. admirable manual.' which takes deservedly a high position both for the general accuracy of its statements and excellent AthetuEum. Persia. 33. By the study of the illustrations alone a clear idea can be gained of the different characteristics of these nations." " Introductory Studies in Greek Art. With 187 Illustrations.. Harrison. Paris' H. " The * Manual of Oriental Antiquities. cloth extra. character of its illustrations. Athens." Academy." " Introductory Studies in Greek Art. Crown ** Svo.

Published with the sanction and under the patronage of the Central Committee in Athens. loj-. Professor at the University of Nancy. —The Olympic Games 1 Ancient Times. to and well-informed guide. A Popular Account of the Results of Recent Excavations for Students and Travellers. Professors at the University of Athens. Delos. in Participators. Victors. Part II. Description of the Festival at Athens. Parts. G.— — UVCbB:OlOQ>S—confmued. Olympia. Mistress of the Thetford Illustrated. Grammar School ys. 776— A. GREVEL & CO. Lambros and N. Dodona. " Of the volume value. Tiryns. Diehl. *' It would be difficult to point to a single volume in English which takes so comprehensive a survey or deals with its materials in a manner at once so scientific and so popular as this work of M. — 1 3 EXCURSIONS IN GREECE TO RECENTLY EXPLORED SITES OF CLASSICAL INTEREST (Mycense. H.D. Polites. Crown 8vo. 6d. Eleusis. Tanagra)." Times." **A book of considerable value archaeology. 33. By Part Sp. By Charles Diehl. Athens. W. KING STREET." the English student of classical it is Saturday Rez'ieiv. with 01 Illustrations.C. LONDON. p. COVENT GARDEN. Epidauros. 1896. *' We are carried round Greece by a very entertaining Acadeffiy. in I. —The History of the Revival of the Games. 2 an elegant cover. Perkins. ."—Pd!// Mall in general Gazette. With English and German Text. for Girls. B. we may say that of the very greatest THE OLYMPIC GAMES. Hea4 Ti^nslated by Emma R. cloth..C. 4to. Competitors.

" Daily " Telei:. LONDON." Graphic. W. or a group of statuary illustrating and elucidating the text. With 47 Woodcuts and 6 Crown 8vo. illustrating the Iliad and Odyssey.C. Zeus and Jupiter. *' Homer should study and It is a book which every one who loves his keep at his elbow. KING STREET. atlas is thus not only useful as an aid to the study of the poems."' Echo. " Makes a capital gift -book. Poseidon and Neptune. " Mr. 4to. . js. Containing over 211 Woodcuts from Works of Ancient Art. " In ' full-page Photographic Plates." Scotsman. and is the fruit of laborious research among the best available authorities on the subject.' The additions are all and have been admirably planned." Scotsman. R. which shall be at once systematic and readable. or mural painting. edition of ' ' ' H. but available also for the purposes of a student of ancient art as a thing by itself. 6^. cloth. The author has set himself to provide an account." Standard. and whenever they found an opportunity they have reproduced a bust. so that the difference of origin of Greek and Roman deities is made clear. of the chief Greek and Roman deities accurate according to the light of modern researches and theories. COVENT GARDEN. By Talfourd Ely. Sheffield. and popular enough "in style for general reading— a kind of Lempriere up to date. cloth. for the use of Schools and Students. James' Gazette. "The book is most pleasantly written. Olympos' Professor Talfourd Ely furnishes a book which should be found useful by a large number of readers of the present day. Anderson." University Correspondent. One feature of the book should be especially useful to young readers." Classical Review. have parallel but distinct accounts given to them. the illustrations to which not only make the Iliad and the Odyssey more intelligible to the Greek student. Hera and Juno. 10^. Engelmann's well-known Homeric Atlas. OLYM POS: Tales of the Gods of Greece and Rome." St. 6d. Firth College. PICTORIAL ATLAS TO HOMER. GREVEL & CO.. C. " An excellent educational idea. and the rest.— — 14 — — — — — — — UVCbXOlOQ'^—continucct. "The compilers have gone through 'Homer' book by book. By Dr. . with Descriptive Text. The editors regard the Homeric poems as a secular Greek Bible.raph. " It ought certainly to prove of service to teachers who wish to render ' Homer intelligible to their younger pupils. Anderson has done valuable work in preparing this English The ' clear. 33. but supply a clue to the sacred mysteries of ancient art and literature. Engelmann and Professor W.

By Ernst Von Wildenbruch.C. **A most admirable gift to those who take an intelligent interest^^in ancient art would be the 'Manual of Archaeology. gilt top." cloth. Ely. Etruscan.. Greek. i6mo. beginning with Egypt. By Henry O'Shea. COVENT GARDEN. Crown " In this 8vo. Translated from the Seventh German Edition. novel the BIARRITZ AND ITS ENVIRONS. 6s. H. of old Greece is reconstructed with a reahsm that gives a correct reflex of the times in a language that is both elegant and picturesque. :: 5 1 MANUAL OF ARCH/EOLOGY Containing an Introduction to Egyptian and Oriental Art. Author of "A Guide to Spain and Portugal. the mother of the sciences. cloth. . " We know of no such complete and concise handbook to ancient art for Mr. With a Map. W. James' Gazette.' by Talfourd Ely. By of the Councils of the Society for Talfourd Ely." Morning Post. GrapMc. Illustrated with 25 Tanagra Figures.— UVCbVCOlOQ^—conlmiic'd. GREVEL & CO. KING STREET. THE MASTER OF TANAGRA An Artist's Story of Old Hellas."— St. life cloth extra. the Promotion of Hellenic Studies."— . Member Crown 8vo. With 114 Illustrations. and Roman Art. takes us through the art of Chaldea and Assyria to that of Greece and Rome. 5^. LONDON. Price is. 33.

Rogers. illuminated capitals. Bindings. Enlarged. the dispersion over Europe of the German printers. bookbinder. vellum cloth. the artist.. the growth of Book Illustration. W. the author. By Henri Bouchot.C. etc. the librarian.' and kindred topics. Royal 8vo.. By Walter T. the bibliophile. THE BOOK: Its Printers." Athencewn. Initials. and the Art of Cataloguing. or Guide to the Knowledge of the Book. useful list of books of reference. about rare books. and decoration. COVENT GARDEN LONDON. With With 37 Illustrations. 33. The book is nicely got up. MANUAL OF BIBLIOGRAPHY. will not be disappointed.' 'The Library and the Catalogue. of the National Library.?. Paris. which anticipated by a few decades the discovery of Printing. Crown 8vo. Head- and Tail-Pieces. Book Illustrations. will all turn with interest. cloth. "It H. . and the illustrations add to its beauty and "To this little work the printer. Printers' Marks. and. and a great many other subjects which touch the hearts of book lovers and book maniacs. and all similar matter down to the present day. Inner Temple Library. the A value. It also contains many illustrations of mediceval and modern printing. With a Treatise on the Art of Collecting and Describing Early Printed Books. a glossary.' treats elaborately of 'The Book. numerous Borders. Containing 172 Facsimiles of Early Typography. Illustrators. Library Management. binding. a Latin-English and English-Latin Topographical Index of the Early Printing Centres. 5. and Binders. GREVEL & CO. "Beginning with the Block Books. KING STREET. we venture It describes 'The Invention and to predict. Progress of Printing. from Gutenberg to the Present Time. £1 is. matters of abbreviation. New Edition. and an index are added. steel engraving. of the Binder's Art." Echo.' 'The Ornamentation of the Book.— i6 — — JSibliograpb^. and a Frontispiece. gives in a pleasant way a great deal of information about the invention and progress of printing." Ficblishers Circnlar. this work gives an account of the rise and progress of Printing. and a Latin-English and English-Latin Topographical Index of the Eailiest Printing Presses. wood engraving. heliotype.

Warnecke. net. Roxburghe.. . quaint. so fascinating and so curious as the Book-PIates of Joseph Sattler. *' The book of the year. high-class specimens of the engraver's an epitome skill. no bounds to his ingenuity. S. 4to. have just been published by Messrs. picturesque. £2 2S. Original Designs for Ex-Libris. KING STREET. GREVEL & CO.. " Ex-Libris Join-nal. Drawn by Professor Ad. Beham. LONDON. net. Virgil Solis. net. He is decorative. Zs. W. net. H. COVENT GARDEN. although several English artists have turned out work not unworthy of comparison with anything Small collections of Book-Plates by Mr. Hildebrandt. There seem to be no limits to his invenStudio. bestowed on Book-Plates than in this country. Amman. Jost Edited 4to. Burgmair." The Book-Plate Armorial Year-Book. produced on the Continent. H. Frederick Warnecke and Professor Hildebrandt.— — — IfiSOOkS on ]BX*XibriS {Limited Editions). H. Conceived in the Style of the Little Masters of the i6th Century. ^Voodcuts by Lucas Cranach and Collected and Reproduced by other Artists.C." Daily Telegraph. ^i 8>y. nothing. In Portfolio. ART Forty-two IN BOOK-PLATES. H." "One of the most remarkable volumes upon our subject which has yet appeared. grotesque by turns. by Joseph Sattler. HERALDIC BOOK-PLATES: Invented and Fifty Ex-Libris. it seems to me. weird. as a rule. humorous. Charles Teske. and other artists. M. Grevel and Co. — — THE BOOK-PLATES OF ULRICH DUKE OF MECKLENBURGH. etc. Printed in Colours. ** We have RARE OLD BOOK-PLATES of the 15th and i6th Centuries: containing 100 Plates by Albert Durer. by F. Covent Garden. and contain some specimens which reach the mark of masterpieces in design and effect. ^s. "Book-Plates are. and a collection of them really forms a study of history In Germany much greater care is of the rise and fall of historic families. tion. 33. 4to. Fol. 2 vols.

4to. Chodowiecki. for Ex-Libris has appeared than that above. von Heinemann. will soon be exhausted. and as the number of copies is limited to one hundred. 4-y. 4s. By Holbein. a Preface by 4to. \ SCORE OF BOOKPLATES. some of them as early as the fifteenth century.. With 23 Plates. L. Otto. the stock Ex-Libris fotirnal. .C. COVENT GARDEN." INITIALS: An Alphabet A H. Facsimile Reproduction of the Frankfort Edition of 1596. THE EX-LIBRIS COLLECTION OF THE DUCAL LIBRARY AT WOLFENBUTTEL. 33. net. here we may find specimens of many of the most x-are and beautiful German Book-Plates in existence. With Frederick Warnecke. Kilian. Invented and Designed by Clemens Kissel (Mayence). £2 net. Invented and Designed by G. Israel de Bry. The volume contains no less than one hundred and sixty plates and the selections are made with remarkable discrimination and taste. net. 4to. "Since the pubHcation of the late Herr Warnecke's 'Die Deutschen Bucherzeichen. Theodor and J. KING STREET. no more important book on the subject of German As a collection it is miique . W. One Hundred and Sixty Selected Book-Plates from the XVth to the XlXth Century. GREVEL & CO. LONDON. Chief Librarian of the Ducal Library at Wolfenbiittel. from the year 1596. 2s.8 1 — ^^i:%i\}nS—cont2mied. and the majority of them earlier than the present century. Preface by Dr. after the Original Etchings by J. Virgil With a Solis. Joseph Sattler and others.' in 1890. British collectors will be charmed with the number and infinite variety of the plates. 4^. reproduced in this work. SYMBOLICAL BOOK-PLATES: Twenty-five Ex-Libris. O. net.

consisting of a Code of Rules for Assaults.— V 3f cncinQ — anb 6ame6. Steel. y. 6d. 6d. is replete with valuable lessons. is ' We do not know a work that on the art of fencing. of the kind are rare in English.' be found a most valuable companion to his other works. W. 33. which should prove of much service to the beginner. Competitions. With 42 Crown 50 copies printed on 8vo. Whatman paper. been much all deserves the gratitude of able advocacy of the art.C. a well-known authority on all connected with the use of cold steel.za/ ^/ illustrations. 'Fixed Bayonets. of late Capt. little treatise " This has. a well-known authority on the subject. King's Dragoon Guards. Author etc. COVENT GARDEN. has compiled a book. skilled master. : 19 THE SWORDSMAN A Manual of Fence With an Appendix By Alfred Hutton. should be read by all who take any interest or who desire to gain a practical knowledge in the art of fence— an art which unfortunately. LONDON." so full of clear explanation and sound instruction Court fournal. and which also contains many useful hints to the more accomplished performer. " Captain Alfred Hutton. Cold Steel. ." —Morning "Books Post. Captain Hutton neglected of late years. The book. the book deserves a all welcome from manship."— United Seivice Institution. " for the Foil. GREVEL & KING STREET." Illustrations. Sabre. admirers of the arme blanche^ not only for his its but also for his excellent exposition of practice. bound in vellum at los.. which he has further explained by the many admirably diawn y<?«r. and as Captain Hutton is a and his method carries authority. which trations. etc. CO. and Bayonet.' ^i^:'— United Service Gazette. contains forty-two illus- and will 'Cold H. has here dealt with another branch of the subject. '• Captain Hutton." " Fixed Bayonets." who are interested in the maintenance of good swords- Scotsman. cloth.

" and " P^ixed Bayonets. is extremely interesting. as opposed to the player. De la Angelo. By Ernst Eduard Lemcke. "Captain Hutton has compiled and arranged the lessons in his book so as to make the antique methods accessible to the student without the labour of searching through * ' many ancient volumes. 6d. Captain Hutton's clear and concise treatment of this curious form of Sword Play." Illustrated London News. and Dagger. KING STREET. This latest contribution to the literature of fencing should not be neglected by any one interested in that fine art. is "The game H. LONDON. Svo. Vellum cloth. Weischner. etc. Sword Royal Svo. cloth." Cold etc. to 300 copies. though there almost unlimited scope for skill or good play. extra.. and other celebrated Fencing Masters. Broadsword Case of Rapiers. Lemcke's book will be able to master the principles and rules of the game. embracing the Two-hand Sword. 17th. still there is a sufficient element of chance to maintain the interest to the other hands.C. containing a Series of Studies of the Swordsmanship of the i6th. The student who has patience to go carefully through Mr.— 20 — jFeuctng anb — — (Barnes—conhmted. "The plates are superbly reproduced. ." Early Small Play. SKAT: An Illustrated Grammar of the famous German Game of Cards called Skat. Superfine Dutch paper. Liancourt. IS. ^i is. Alfred Hutton." Saturday Review. offers so great a variety of combinations that. OLD SWORD PLAY. Di Grassi." With 58 Illustrations after Alfieri. By Author of " Capt." Graphic. 33. illustrated as it is by plates from Marozzo and Di Grassi. and i8th Centuries. COVENT GARDEN." Morning Post. " The Swordsman.) (Limited Buckram. and Buckler. Steel. Touche. Marozzo. W. and form a most valuable collection. however apparently bad the cards they hold. " Rapier. GREVEL & CO.

. and began his military service in Those were the days of the romance of war. Among the officers of this force was Baron Ompteda. War By Baron Ompteda." Graphic. " The statesman may find light thrown on more than one obscure historical interest. LONDON. the army of the kingdom did good service in our many wars. and contribute some interesting final data to the history of the struggles which culminated in the of Napoleon.— — flDemoira. W. 33. who was born in 1765. a German legion was raised to carry on the war on the Continent.C." incident of a time which must always be of great Daily Chronicle. — 21 IN THE During KING'S the GERMAN LEGION with Napoleon.A los. *' These memoirs throw a time light upon the organisation of the English army at a when it included a foreign legion. M. cloth. With " Portrait. of a very interesting soldier. GREVEL & KING STREET.. and Baron Ompteda had as many adventures as the hero of one of Lever's novels. Demy 8vo."— Lord Wolseley H. COVENT GARDEN. and more especially in the great struggle with Napoleon. 1792. after Hanover had been con- quered by the French. " A very interesting life CO." overthrow Morning Post. 6d. Translated by John Hill. When little the English Sovereigns were also Kings of Hanover. when.

GREVEL & CO." Times. at Home ' is a true feast for all interested in great men. 33. H. and many more Napoleon's life." Birmingham Daily " 'Napoleon Graphic. his relations with officers . COVENT GARDEN. is This book will be widely read in an age for personal gossip. Masson's laborious pages. took his bath. from his rising in the early morning until his late going to bed. LONDON.— 22 — — fl[^Cm0iV5—confmueci. With 12 beautiful Illustrations by F. shaved and how he it worked and how he spent set his rare moments of leisure. gilt top. KING STREET. de Myrbach. ^i is. and ample detail. . he will find all down in M. de Myrbach. Mr. Most entertaining.- 2 vols. "The work volumes are enriched by twelve illustrations by F.. guarded. cloth. of state. slept and woke.C." "If any one wants to know in the fullest detail how Napoleon made his toilet.. visits to The times and manner of his the successive Empresses. after working half through the night. the arrangement of his his expenses and their contents how were regulated relating and checked by to his own hand — all these matters." whose only strong passion Daily Nczos. W. 8vo. The Daily Life of the Emperor at the Tuileries. Masson's representing scenes of the home-life of the great Emperor. NAPOLEON AT HOME.. ". It is a methodical and minute account of the daily home-life of Napoleon. his family parties. ate and drank. and with secretaries and house- hold and personal servants private apartments how he was . By Frederic Masson. is exactly described by its title. are told with systematic order Post.

Lowe has been enabled to make an exceedingly interesting and entertaining volume. With Notes and an Introduction. 6d. ample as this might appear to be.''' from superabundance of amusing anecdotes and sparkling iwn — Daily Telegraph. W. *' The eminently its readable character of the book may be best exemplified mots." "An amusing and instructive book —one which greatly help English Readers to understand the character of one of the world's greatest men. Author of "Prince Bismarck. GREVEL & 33.' " full of interesting matter.C. Edited by Charles Lowe." Daily News. ' would be altogether incomplete without volume of Table Talk. ever found wanting." Daily Chronicle. COVENT GARDEN. Crown *' 8vo." etc. it "Our knowledge The Australasian.. 7s.A. an Historical Biography. . both in personal talk and in at It comprises vivid pictures of Prince Bismarck home.— — — — — — BISMARCK'S TABLE TALK. gilt top. " This held. Mr. with Portrait. " An book. and illustrates very piquantly his hearty loves and hates. KING STREET. and his robust is prejudices. LONDON." is a very illuminating and valuable volume calculated to enhance is very greatly the respect in which the Prince's remarkable personality Glode. **The book political affairs. is of Prince Bismarck. intercourse in the confidence of private friendship. cloth. and to present the great chancellor as he has chosen to show himself and at different periods of his life in the freedom of familiar Times. M. " A magnificent attractive portrait of the Iron Chancellor by himself. A Biography by Anecdote." MoTning Post. in which no great man CO." Black and White. H.

33. COVENT GARDEN. with the numerous forms of water application shawls. Parish Priest of Woerishoven. of 272 pages. His system he has given in the work under notice. Christian Union. ' ' The translation of this valuable work is into English will have the effect of giving us a handbook to health the like of which we cannot boast. and is not to be confounded with another Translation."' Tke an author whose book has already gone through thirty-six alone. but not altogether on the lines of Sebastian Kneipp. cloth. The idea of the culture of health in a sense original. There is no form of water cure but the Bavarian pastor has something to say about. We hope it may find a wide Echo. Illustrations and a 36th) Portrait of the Author. 8vo. Entirely revised by the Author. 6i-. able in execution. it is true. GREVEL & CO." Sala s Journal. circulation in England. truly refreshing. bandages. This book deals. wet shirts. and by common sense and observation many diseases This volume should take its place as an honoured may be averted. Sebastian Kneipp.. KING STREET. from the last (the Enlarged by 136 pages.C." H. Bavaria. " is " Here editions in German — "The are author expresses himself with directness and simplicity which Common sense is the prevailing element running through the book. a work that is at once original in conception and methods instituted in England. which is made from an old German Edition. By With 100 the Rev. W. thirdly. price 5^-. 396 pp... an accurate rendering of the Original Work. and. New his Illustrations of "All Germany Guaj'dian. with diseases. This Edition is and contains neither the Original Woodcuts nor the Medicinal Plants. translated German Edition.— — 24 — — ifatber lknctpp'6 1Boo\\b. next with medicines. member of the domestic pharmacopoeia of the day. has long been popular here. etc. . LONDON. Complete Copyright Edition. since the by the author have in their entirety never been adopted Hydropathy. first. as revised by the Author himself. with 50 additional Illustrations of Medicinal Plants. bears witness to the worth of regimen. MY WATER CURE Tested for more than 35 Years for the Cure of Diseases and the Preservation of Health.

' Whilst 'My Water Cure. Though not a a wide reputation ' ' ' professed physician. the parish' priest of Woerishoven in Bavaria. the and drinking. KING STREET. ' Thus Shalt Thou Live contains an on a host of other subjects besides Water Cure. in Conclusion. not without the sanction of successful experience in a ' Thus Shalt Thou Live is a literal translation his vade-mecum of dietary and clothing.— ffatber 1kneipp*5 l6oo\\5—coHtmued. LONDON. rational Mode of Living and a natural Method of Curing. properties of food.. W. etc. German 6^. cloth. he certainly displays no art of healing in little mastery of the practical some of is ' its simpler applications. His fame is not unknown in this country. . of Woerishoven (Bavaria). about absurd fashions in dress. COVENT GARDEN. as set forth in My Water Cure. the present work is intended to give them the needful instructions about diet. though purely empirical. Edition. Curate Translated from the 19th 8vo." H." *' ' Times.' he says. — 25 "THUS SHALT THOU LIVE!" Hints and Advice for the Healthy and the Sick on a plain. was destined to show its readers how they might recover lost health by proper appHcations of water and common herbs. and hygienic subjects generally. 33. containing Advice to the Healthy and the Sick on a Simple and Rational Mode of Life and a Natural Method of Cure. Hints and based on his own observation and experience. sleep. By Sebastian Kneipp. Third Part : A Word "Father Kneipp. GREVEL & CO. dwellings. and his system.' at home. First Part : Conditions of Health and Means of Preserving : It. enjoys in Germany as the exponent of a system of Water Cure which he carries out in his parish and applies to all who consult him there. from the 19th German edition of ' clothing. children.C. and many Englishmen have either visited Woerishoven for the purpose of consulting him or have applied his principles. large variety of cases. eating immense amount of good advice Father Kneipp writes 'hardening' of JEc/io. Second Part How the Cures are Effected after Kneipp's Method.

lays his this system which " What is the secret of good Father Kneipp's cures? In this volume he whole system open. by simply consulting the " Plant." The Scots ma7i. 6d. W. description is The any point of importance — H. . upon the General and Special Characteristics of every Plant.— — 26 — — jfatber Iknetpp's 1Soo\{5-contimted. 6d. use. Father Kneipp's book is certain to interest He gives a large number all who have paid attention to natural healing. Patience in experimenting and acuteness of observation have enabled Father Kneipp to draw up a therapeutic system as simple in principle as ' * effective in practice. a list of diseases preparation of his herbal teas. in a most pleasant way.Atlas. of simple prescriptions for different diseases. and thus to make up. Illustrations. Containing Father Kneipp's application of his With 29 Photographs taken from 8vo. and other applications of water which it recommends are further explained in a series of photographic illustrations that adds considerably to the value of the book. at Home." T/ic Westjninster Gazette. KING STREET." to find out for himself whatever herb he will have to look for in woods or fields. cloth extra. and dwells on for instance. and the volume is illustrated by numerous plates and a portrait of the Pastor himself. With 41 Coloured Plates. instructions as to their cures." Daily Chi-onicle. Describing. 33.C. GREVEL & CO. bandages and compresses. and Picturing True to Nature Medicinal Plants mentioned in Father Kneipp's Books. containing 69 specimens. all 8vo. and tinctures. cloth. occurrence.. mode of acting. supplied by a distinguished Botanist. \2s. powders. and other " In and is ' My Legacy and ' are given full particulars of finally. its flowering time. douching. 6s. diagnostics. final directions for the Water Cure hfe. and the processes of bandaging. that "Family MedicineChest " recommended by Kneipp." The Echo. . also with uncoloured Plates. COVENT GARDEN. details as to the how to administer baths of different kinds. MY LEGACY TO THE HEALTHY AND THE SICK. healing power. js. written in language a child could understand. etc. "It is PLANT-ATLAS. LONDON. Everybody is enabled. etc. There is a simplicity about undoubtedly attractive.

The author shows that chemical phenomena are intimately bound up with our daily lives. cloth. 6^. 8vo. instrucsuggestive to English readers. KING STREET. . He also brings home to us how chemical considerations play their part in those speculations regarding the physical universe that are suggested by each fresh discovery made by science. GREVEL & CO. and has no CHEMISTRY Twelve IN DAILY LIFE. Professor of Medicine and Director of the Clinical Hospital at Gottingen. 6d. and that whether we are conscious of it or not we are constantly carrying on chemical operations. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College.. LONDON. ON W. glass. Professor of Chemistry in the University. " We H. Ebstein. Free on application. written in a it.w/'-! the Preface. Translated into English by M. boards. The book can be followed intelligently by any reader. Pattison Muir. and those in search of instruction will find it on every page.— ^." Pall Mall Gazette. by have nothing but praise for the admirable series of lectures delivered Lassar-Cohn. W. and goes on to illumination. and will no doubt prove equally interesting. tanning. explosives. COVENT GARDEN. THE KNEIPP BROCHURE: Giving information about the Life and Works of Father Kneipp. soaps. With These lectures. M. foods.— — THE CARE OF CHILDREN IN SICKNESS AND HEALTH. Illustrated. and The method of treatment is eminently human and suggestive. M. and his Healing Method. 2s.A. metals and alloys. 33. Counsels on the Hygiene of Childhood. 21 Illustrations.. to be interested by the homely method of setting forth difficult facts. paperNobody could fail making. but it begins with the composition of air and the chemistry of breathing. Lassar-Cohn. TREATMENT. 8vo. Popular Lectures by Dr. photography." *'This work is sign of charlatanry about thoroughly scientific Medical Times. cloth. Crown 8vo. By Father Kneipp. agriculture. 5^. Konigsberg. CORPULENCE AND By Dr.C. Prof. caused quite a stir in German circles. Cambridge. and the publication of them in book form. tive. ITS PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES. spirit. His scheme is too long to quote in detail.

Commerce. by M. in condensed form.C. and Manufactures AngloIndian words. [/n the Press. Ed. 6d. Now ready. Technical Terms in Art. By Headmaster Dr. Translated from the Second Edition. 6d. Each Part. By Professor Dr. and Lecturer in the Imperial School of Posts and Telegraphs. much importance The object alike to the student of physics of this work is to present. in this department. the results of the chief work. Cambridge. The leading generalisations in each of these divisions of Electro-Chemistry are deduced from experiments of a simple character. English. i Unabridged Edition. and with the Pronimciation It contains the after the Phonetic System of Toussaint-Langenscheidt.. and much in the last ten years. 33. 4to. Muret. of the Municipal Dorothea Realgymnasium. Dr. GREVEL & CO. the Largest. RcJbert Lupke. W. is the Attention is directed from time to time characteristic feature of the book. each. About 6s. M. most of which has been done in the last twenty years. Berlin. to the applications of Electro-Chemistry in arts and industries. Provincialisms. will appear very . COVENT GARDEN. Fellow and Lecturer of Gonville and Caius College. LONDON.A. The German-English Part. and is distinguished by its clear and concise arrangement. With 54 figures in the text. Parts to 20. shortly. secondly with Van't Hoff's theory of solutions.28 CbCmiStV^—confinued. H.. i^. THE ELEMENTS OF ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY TREATED EXPERIMENTALLY. Electro-Chemistry is of and the student of chemistry. firstly with the recent theories of electrolysis. and Americanisms . and by far the most Comprehensive of all English-German Dictionaries. as well as by appropriate Examples. This method of founding the scientific conclusion on the results of experiments which can be repeated in the lecture room and the laboratory with fairly simple apparatus. KING STREET. It is the only one with the New German Orthography. Demy 8vo. Pattison Muir. Sanders. Revised and Enlarged. by Prof.German Dictionary. MURET'S DICTIONARY is the Latest. Science. . This work will be published in about 36 parts. which are fully described. and thirdly with the osmotic theory of the current from voltaic cells. at i^. (Berman Xanguagc MURET'S ENCYCLOPAEDIC ENGLISH-GERMAN AND GERMANENGLISH DICTIONARY. The book deals. D. M.

as so many well as to the Englishman learning German. Sheep-In the Cow Shed-The Watch Dog. With Reading Lessons. to date. Koehler. Fr. cloth. and the conversational tone of the — Schoolmaster. KING STREET. 6d. and a German-English and English-German Vocabulary. COVENT GARDEN. cloth.The -At the Pond -The Owl -The Stag -Good GREVEL & CO. by Professor Dr. ys. Toy-book.. CONTENTS. 8vo. " When a dictionaiy attains its thirtieth edition it may be laid down with is a success. By Lothar Meggendorfer. difficulty after difficulty. LONDON. W.C. Senes^ ALL ALIVE. 6d.Gennaix %anQX\aQC~confmue(i. New -It is Edition. By 30th Edition. H. By William Eysenbach. Lambeck. features and many additions. H. and that those a certain amount of confidence that the work good who require dictionaries (and who does not ?) have found it to be a English as book of reference. 3^. . Xotbar flDcgQcn&orfcr^e Zo^^^oo^. for use by the students dictionaries are. 6^. 33. qs. 29 DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH AND GERMAN LANGUAGES. PRACTICAL GRAMMAR OF THE GERMAN LANGUAGE. This book is useful to the German learnmg It is not. with coloured design. 8vo. A Movable Small folio boards."— PuMiskeri Circular.-A Flock of Cart Horse Friends. a one-sided production intended The present edition contains several new of one nationality only. brought up Dr. decidedly 'practical: We like the gradual mode of presentmg exercises.

A Movable Toy-book. ALWAYS A Movable Small folio JOLLY. boards. with coloured design. 6(/. W. CONTENTS. CONTENTS —Ourselves-The Repast— He and Slie-The Performing Goat— The Minuet — Bimbamboo — Madame Pompadour — Tlie Sentinel— See-Saw. GREVEL & Ca. By Lothar Meggendorfer. with coloured design. CONTENTS. 5^-.30 tr0P=B00l.C. Toy-book. 6d. . with coloured design. Folio oblong boards. By LOTHAR Meggendorfer.— Introduction— The Nursery— St. Folio oblong boards. ys. 33. 4to boards. SmCS—confinued. LONDON. ys.— The Angler— The Elephant — The Naturalist — The Portrait Painter— The Forgotten Latch-key— The Lion— The Pianist. 6^/. CONTENTS. with coloured design. Musician—The LOOK AT ME. COVENT GARDEN. TRANSFORMATION SCENES. A Movable Toy-book. By LoTHAR Meggendorfer. — — Musical Darkies Donkey — The — The Fair H.—The Masher comes a Smasher Astonished Artist The Obstinate Angler— Silly Billy at the Circus. KING STREET. THE MONKEY THEATRE. Nicholas— At the Barber's— Sambo and Topsy— The Three Musicians— The Carpenters —The Obstinate Donkey— Fido. By LoTHAR Meggendorfer. ys.

the The Toybooks —being made to move by a slip of attached cardboard. but the great novelty of the donkey does indeed bray the pull a string. and so on. boys a present for good little girls and toy. 5^. with coloured design. like a book . Eight Coloured Pictures. the Cow. but here is a «'One has often heard of people who 'talk It audible and voca sounds.' _ at a loss for recommended H. LONDON. 33. They consist of figures— aninial and human of funny plates illustrative of comic verses. -St. the Cuckoo. cloth. GREVEL & KING STREET. One Stout Volume. in the artless executed Here is nothing unusual. No nursery elsewhere. that will please the little far into the \ ule-tide season their seniors are tired of playing with them) Fiinch The author is Lothar Meggendorfer. with Rhymes for 15^. ' who will find no end are printed in bold letters. a gentleman to whom Air. quarto. the Lamb. and the baby cries 'Papa' and the book is as excellent as wonderfully realistic. and the Baby. the Goat. ' price is of the cock he There are also verses describing the peculiarities style familiar to wel l-regula ed cow. You ! cow 'moos. and lo babies. perhaps. he The book is called 'All Alive. gilt edges. natural Schoolmistress.C. CONTENTS -The Stork at the Pond-The Hare-The Clever Poodle-The Chicken and the Fly-Little Hans and Pussy-The Bear in Trouble. and the whole idea of should be without it . Reproducing the Voices of the Cock. adorned with baa in a lifelike the small birds twitter. which immensely delighted The figures are good. the 'Speaking Book lies and the print clear . if it does not exactly talk. By LOTHAR Meggendorfer. the Donkey. as can be expected. —I THE SPEAKING PICTURE-BOOK. that we have yet seen are the a collection Movable Toybooks by Lothar Meggendorfer. moving figures. ones (when "Excellent Movable Toybooks. COVENT GARDEN. Children. book that. .' " Most novel of the novelties. the lamb says 'Mama' The imitations are manner. the babies of the school in figures of animals. W. -/^^z/j of amusement in their laughable scenes and with movable pictures and ''"'f saw the other day a good large Toybook.XTO^^BOOl^ SCViCS—conlinuecf. though the pictures are we nurseries. and anybody the execution is ingenious. and the movements^ are as ^^?lich it was used. James to order this re markably clever CC-. may be safely Gazette. the goat. suited for little readers. the Birds. wishes a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year. 4to boards. —Punch. 31 SCENES OF ANIMAL LIFE. emits mcluding coloured pictures of various domestic animals. A Movable Toy-book.

witty and diverting. With Full Text and loo Original Vignettes. GREVEL & CO. 3^. "A delightful children's book. -Catalogues on application. DAILY PARCELS FROM ALL PARTS OF THE CONTINENT.C. Messrs. Importers of Publishers and Foreign Books. Respectfully Dedicated to Children of All Ages. 4to boards. .. GREVEL & CO. W. LONDON. and the with which the characteristics of Egyptian mythology are made is to take their place in the divertissement of the whole quite extraordinary. 33. supply all Books and Periodicals published abroad and at home on the most They receive Liberal Terms. Both the letterpress and the skill illustrations are wonderfully humorous. THE EGYPTIAN STRUWWEJLPETER OR The Struwwelpeter Papyrus. and is sure to approve a discerning public.. KING STREET. for the benefit of the rising generation. H. From the Vienna Papyri. in which the various discoveries in style Egyptian antiquity are most amusingly parodied in the well-knoAA-n of the original Struwwelpeter. H."— T/ie Bookseller. itself to The book is altogether delightful. COVENT GARDEN.. 6d.

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