REGRADED UNCLASSIFIED By
AUTHfRlTY OF
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1
SPECIAL SERIES No. 14
MIS 461

MILITARY INTELLIGENCE SERVICE
WAR DEPARTMENT

WASHINGTON, May 25, 1943

NOTICE

1 Publication of Special Series is for the purpose of providing officers with reasonably confirmed information from official antd other reliable sources. This issue has been prepared with the assistance and collaboration of the Ordnance Intelligence Unit, Technical Division, Office of the Chief of Ordnance.
2.
Nondivisional units are being supplied with copies on a basis similar to the approved distribution for divisional conmmands. as follows:
INFANTRY DIVISION CAVALRY I)IVISION AIRiMORED I)IVISION

Div Ilq Ren Tr Sig Co Engr Bn Med Bn QM Co Hq Inf Regt, 6 each Inf Bnl, 7 eachl FHq Div Arty FA Bn, 7 each

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Div ITq Ord Co Sig Tr Rcn Sq Engr Sq Med Sq QMI Sq IIq Ca- Brig. : each Cav Regt, 20 each Elq l)iv \rty PIFABnl, 7 each

8 2 2 7 7 7 7
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90
: 21 -150

Div 11q Ren Bn Engr Bn Med Bn Mainit Bn Sup Bn DI)irvTn I( Arlnd Regt, 25 e:ch FA Bn, 7 each Inf llegt

11 7 7 7 7 7 S 50 21 25 150

In order to meet the spcitic requnest of appropriate headqul(arters, or in order to collserve shipplilg space, the distriulltionl of any particular issue of Special Series may be Inoditied froln the standard. I)istribution to air units is being made by the Assistant (Chief of Air Staff, Intelligelce, Arily Air Forces. 3. Each command should circulate available copies among its officers. Reproduction within the militalry service is permiiitted provided (I) the source is stated, (2) the classification is not changed, andl (3) the infornlltion is safeguarded. 4. Readers are invited to comment on the use that tlley are nmaking of this publication and to forward suggestions for future issues. Such orrespondle ence nay be addressed directly to the I)issemnination Unit, Military Intelligence Service, War Department, Washington, D. C. Other publications of the Military Intelligeince Service include: Tactical and Technical Trends (biweekly); Intelligence Bulletin (monthly); filitary Reports on UTlited Nations (monthly). lRequests for additional copies of publications of the Military Intelligence Service should be forwarded throlgh chlannels for approval.

UNCLASSIFIED

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CONTENTS
Section I. INTRODUCTION .--------------------.---------------II. PISTOLS, RIFLES, AND GRENADES-----.--------1. LUGER PISTOL----------------------------

Page

1 -.. 3
3

-

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
2.

General -----------------------------. Hlow to Identify___ ---------------------Characteristics -------------------------How to Operate ------------------------Ammunition ------..-------------------Maintenance -..-----.----------------Accessories .----------------- -- --.. -- --.------------------------------

3 3 4 5 8 9 10
10

WALTHER PISTOL

a. b. c. d. e.

General ---------.-----.- ----------How to Identify .-----.--------------Characteristics--------------------------How to Operate ----------------------.. Ammunition ---.-----------------------.----. -------... ..------

10 10 10 12 14
14

f. Maintenance...-----.------------------

g. Accessories -

15
15 15

3. SUBMACHINE GUN (M.P. 38 AND M.P. 40) -------a. G eneral -------------------------------

b. c. d. e. f. g. a. b. c. d. e.

How to Identify ------------------------. 16 Characteristics ------------------------16 How to Operate ..---------------- ------17 Ammunition -------.------------------.19 Maintenance .--------------------------20 Accessories -------------.----.--------21
21

4. MAUSER KAR. 98K RIFLE ----------------------

General --------------------------------How to Identify ------------------Characteristics ------------------------How to Operate -------------------------Ammunition -------------------------------------------------------

21 22 22 23 .25
25

f. Maintenance

g. Accessories-_ _---------_ --........ (1) General--.----------------- ---..
(2) Grenade launcher8 and sights .--.----niI

26 26
27

.) (c) Practice projectile (Gewehr Sprenggranate... G.--e. Use as a Booby Trap ------------------8.. MAUSER KAR... (3) Grenades._ (e) Range -----------------------5..... G... How to Operate ------------------.) ---------------(d) Cartridgeand packing---------. Sprgr. Maintenance ----------------------g.----c. RIFLES. Method of Carrying ------------------46 e. M ethod of Carrying --------------------e. STICK HAND GRENADE.. PISTOLS..... 39 (ANTITANK RIFLE) -------------------a. How to Identify ..B.. How to Operate ----------------------45 d....IV CONTENTS Section II. (a) tIigh-explosive grenade (Gewehr Sprenggranate..---b. Pzgr.. Ub. MODEL 24 (STIELHAND- GRANATE 4) __________________________ ---a.. How to Identify ...---. STICK HAND GRENADE.----------d. SMOKE HAND GRENADE. MODEL 40 40 41 41 43 43 PH 39 (STIEL- HANDGRANATE PH 39) .---------------------45 b. AND GRENADES-Continued..) ----(b) Armor-piercing grenade (Gewehr Panzergranate.... 4.. HAND GRENADES -___--__--__________________-- Page 28 28 29 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 38 38 39 40 _ 7.. 45 a. Sprgr. How to Operate _----------_------d. How to Identify ------------------b.-----------------. 98K RIFLE-Continued.-. Characteristics ------------c.... G. Characteristics -----------------_--45 c.--. General ........ Use as a Booby Trap -------------------47 9... Ammunition --------------------------f. Ubungsmunition.. Accessories ... PZ... 6... MODEL 34 (NEBEL- HANDGRA NA TE 34) -------------------- 47 . Characteristics ------------..

How to Operate ---------e.72 73 HANDGRANATE 39) a. AND GRENADES--Continued. MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS -----------------12.-..(4) Immediate action ------.. Characteristics -----------d...14.. Ammunition ------------f.... MODEL 36 .. Accessories ------..G.. 42 ----------. MODEL 39 Page (EIER47 47 47 48 49 49 50 53 53 53 54 56 60 60 61 64 67 ..-------(1) Safety --------(2) To load and fire -------.. General-----.... Method of Carrying e. EGG-TYPE HAND GRENADE.. PISTOLS. 5-CM LIGHT MORTAR.. M. M..._. Accessories ------------.94 95 .... General --------b.-a. How to Operate -------------------------------------------d.----(5) To unload (6) To change barrels ------(7) Tripod mount --------... Characteristics --------------------------c.. 10.. How to Operate -----------e.. g.-b. (3) Sights . Use as a Booby Trap ---. Characteristics d. 13. f.95 95 95 97 101 101 ..... Ammunition---------------.. . Maintenance --------------- 74 78 80 82 83 83 84 85 88 93 93 . Maintenance ------------...----------------------b. How to Identify -----------c. How to Identify -.. SPECIAL USES OF STICK GRENADES___ III.a.CONTENTS V Section II..---. 11. General -...e.---a.. How to Identify ---------c.---. Maintenance -------------g.G.. 34 -----------. How to Operate .. How to Identify --------------C. b.. RIFLES. Characteristics --------d. Ammunition ------f.-.

f. General..-. d.7-CM PAK a. Carriage -.- - ----------- 15-CM HEAVY INFANTRY HOWITZER_----- a. Maintenance f.---- IV.-. f. 5-CM PAK a.. Maintenance .-.- ..-.. Carriage --a. . How to Operate d. d. 17.-. General ----...Ammunition ---------------------.-.-----Characteristics ------------How to Operate ------------------. How to Operate Ammunition Maintenance . -- - - - ...--.--. .. f..VI CONTENTS Page 102 102 104 104 105 108 109 113 113 113 114 114 118 119 121 123 123 124 125 130 130 135 136 1 6 137 137 143 145 143 149 149 151 151 157 159 159 Section III.--Table of Characteristics ----How to Operate Ammunition ---.. Table of Characteristics c. 8-CM HEAVY MORTAR. Ammunition e. -----------General ----------_------------How to Identify ------------. c. MODEL 34 -------- a... How to Operate.. f. c.Maintenance . MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS-Continued.---.5-CM LIGHT INFANTRY HOWITZER General Characteristics . b. 15. e. Characteristics c. 19. d.---Carriage --------.-. e. b. Ammunition ----e. 7. e. b. d.-..-----. Carriage -----.- . 3. b. --- - 18... ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS_ 16. c. General ----b..----------Maintenance ------------.

... . 176 h...-. Pist.. a.... Wgr. .... d...... 318 or Patr.. - ------------------------------- 22.-.. 8-cm Wgr.. .S.. 174 Patr..... 27...-... 23.s.....CONTENTS VII Page Section V...Z.. AND SUBMACHINE-GUN TION --..... POSSIBLE DANGERS.... Introduction b..... 175 f. 162 __ Color of Labels -------------1_.-.. c......... 174 Patr.K --- 176 176 j. STANDARD PISTOL . Patr.. MORTAR AMMUNITION ...._ 173 ... 34..... -..... 08 S. -_ __ - 162 a..... BELTED AMMUNITION 26.. B... 36. 08 fiir M. GLOSSARY OF GERMAN TERMS ...... Pistr.. (H) --------. e._-----_ _ 162 Special Labels ...-....S..E_ .. 5-cm Wgr. 178 . INTRODUCTION 21. BASE MARKINGS ....K...S..... 30. . c. GERMAN ABBREVIATIONS ------------------ 185 187 .. 08. ...172 172 172 25..... _......- 177 178 RIFLE AMMUNITION-------.... or Pist... Patr.. Patr..... Patr..__-__-162 Special Marks on Labels ---------.. VI......176 g. General . - a. LABELS __.........K... MACHINE-GUN....... b.......... i. 174 Patr. AND 180 181 182 MORTAR AMMUNITION ...E...L'Spur .. . 318 S. 9 mm ..... 38 ...Z...._. CHART OF PISTOL..L'Spur .. d.... 161 161 161 _ . b..-. Patr.....K 29.....S. b...92-MM)_ 173 173 174 a. S..m. Patr...m...Patr28. _. Pist.....S . 174 e...24...P.20._--.m.... AMMUNITION ----------------------------.....l..... STANDARD ANTITANK -..... _..-___________-____......... RIFLE AND MACHINE-GUN AMMUNITION (7. _ . Wgr.ni..P.. CALIBERS - -. Patr.....-----------------VII.... RIFLE. ---. General_ .s.. c....Z.-..m. _______ _.. 38 -------------. Nb....Wgr... Patr. 8-cm Wgr... ... 179 179 -- a..... Patr. . 163 Method of Reading Labels -----------_--164 --_-_-_--------AMMUNI---------------------- . 84. 38 ----------- 179 b.K .m. Patr. ...m...S ..

_______ .--------..... showing action of toggle joint. Two views of M.. 37 24. ...... . 32 21. Mauser Kar.... 98K rifle with grenade launchers and sights . Grenade launcher.....P.P.. 34 22.P.. Method of carrying and packing stick-type grenades . Method of using German sights -------------------------8 6..-. Mauser K ar... Rifle grenade launcher and grenade firing pistol (very light type) --. Method of removing receiver of MI.. Sketch of Eierhandgranate (egg-type hand grenade..... 98K rifle .. Close-up of breech of Pz.. Sketch of Stielhandgranate 24 (stick hand grenade. Method of unscrewing base of rifle grenade and thereby using friction fuze ..B.. 42 26... ..B... and open --------------. 44 .___ __ -.... Cross section of magazine.....-. Luger pistol and magazine -__ _.... .. 24 13.. () rifle grenade....-------11 7. Armament and organization of German infantry regiment --2... 39...--..-----16 9.. 35 23. 40.-----....-...------------29 16.. model 39) 39 49 28._.-. 4 3. 40 in action -----------------... 28 14. Pz..--------------------18 10.. -... trigger.-------.. model 24)... Special projectile 361 for signal pistol (WVurfk6rper 861 fuir Leuchtpistole)_ _----------.... 39 in position on edge of road . showing method of unscrewing it to aid in cleaning ------------------------------29 15....... Concentrated charge (geballte Ladung) made from several stick grenades ---------. Cross section of Luger pistol..B.---------------------------51 . M . .31 20.-. Walther pistol------------------. 39.---------------. ..---22 12.-... showing outside and cross section of grenade and fuze ... Three types of grenade projectiles: (i) pistol grenade. Overhead view of Pz.. and bolt mechanism of Mauser Kar.. 27.. with percussion detonator fuze..-. Pistol grenade being breech-loaded ----------------------_ ...31 19. _ .B.____...6 4...._______. .... 30 18. 40 from barrel and from magazine housing ...... (i) rifle grenade...._. 39 (antitank rifle) . Diagrammatic sketch showing trigger action of Walther pistol__ 13 8. 20 11....... . 39 25. illustrating cutout folding shoulder stock . 98K rifle -------------------------........... Close-up of Luger pistol to show operation of extractor -----7 5...30 17. showing skeleton shoulder stock folded. Method of inserting rifle grenade -. Cross section of shaving-stick grenade ----------------_ --50 29.VJI CONTENTS Figure ILLUSTRATIONS Page xII 1.-.. with hollow charge -----... Pz..

G.. 34 -. Laying 8-cm heavy mortar for direction during training ----. Right side of 5-cm mortar -------------------------102 --------------'----54..----58... M..... Stick grenades used as Bangalore torpedo ----54 ----32.7-cm Pak. Rear view of tripod mount for M.. .-57 ------36. showing relation between yards and meters_ 66 --------------43.-----------------------------56 _ 35. 34 in action on tripod mount. Breech mechanism of 3.___. 3..-----------------46.-. Left view of 8-cm mortar.. 34 on bipod mount --. .--.------------. -cnm Pak 38 .. 40.G.G.7-cm Pak in action 116 60..--. 34 78 47.-. Right view of 8-cm mortar.. M. using drum feed 37..-.G. 34 (rear view) _---------73 -------------45.. Breech of 5-cm Pak ---------------------- . 42. 34-84 49. () Stick grenade antipersonnel mine ----52 ) Stick grenade cluster mine--. Telescopic sight on M..G.62. Stick bomb for use with S.G. Close-up of 75-round saddle-type drum ---64 . 125 ..__-31..Z. Sketch showing method of inserting loaded belt in feedway of 61 . 34 on tripod mount -. Cross section of trigger..----64.-41.. Two views of M. M. model 34 -----------------105 ----56. anisms 123 . 34. 34 in action on boat.7-cm Pak (viewed from top rear) -117 119 . 42 ----------------------------------------------....G. model 34 -------------.G. 34 on tripod mount..--------52 ) Cross section of pressure igniter 35 (DrYckzunder 35..-.. recoil... 42 with feed cover raised to show feed mechanism -----92 51...-------59._ 114 .-...------------65. M.. 8-cm mortar.... 3.. in action 103 ---55. M.G. model 34. Removal of barrel of M.G.-. 5-cm Pak 38 from rear 126 -66. 34 from bipod mount 65 42... . 62 .G. Method of joining metallic-link ammunition belt ---------81 48. 34-----... and with antiaircraft adapter -... ..--------.G.7-cm Pak ----------------------61... showing traversing and elevating mech122 . M.CONTENTS Figure IX Page 52 -___-_. 34 on antiaircraft mount. M.------_ 30.G..107 57.7-cm Pak 115 . showing protective shield and drum 59 -feed -----------------39. 35)_ 52 -.. German method of firing M... Left side of 5-cm mortar 98 --53.--. .-----75 . and feed mechanism of M. with antiaircraft and tele59 scopic sights --------------------------------38. Carriage of 3.. Close-up of rear of S.. showing method of operating barrel extension ------97 -------------------------------52..G. 34 ..G.--------67 ---44.-.--.. M..------------. D. M._----------_--55 34.G. Rear sight of MI.G. 86 50.7-cm Pak 63. M. 34 in action without bipod or tripod -----------55 33.. Telescopic sight for M.G..

......... ... 94.. 82....-_________________. Breechblock of 5-cm Pak -----------------134 __________________ -_________ 70. pointed ball ammunition (Patr.. 131 _ _.--- 86-90. __.....F.---... Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern) ----- 168 169 --. Patronen..5-cm infantry howitzer__ . Label for 5 rounds of armor-piercing bullet (Patronen 318).5-cm infantry howitzer in action .X Figure CONTENTS Page handwhecls ---. pointed ball ammunition (Patronen 1. 69.. Beobachtungsgeschoss Patronen) 99.. Extractors of 5-cm Pak 71. Special labels - 163. Label for light. Patronen leichtes Spitzgeschoss) ---------------------------------100.. 97.F.---... Patronen schweres Spitzgeschoss) ..S.... 18)__ 153 Breechblock of 10...HI...5-cm light field howitzer 18 (1. .m..500 rounds of heavy...--- 166 167 . Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern gehartet)_ 93. 79. Label for 1..---.. Gunner's position on 5-cm Pak.----(Patronen s. 73.. 74...5-cm light field howitzer 18 (l.. m.5-cm infantry howitzer... Patronen .. 84.s... 16) used on 147 7. pointed ball ammunition (Patr. -....S.. . Label for armor-piercing incendiary bullet (Palr.H.. Labels for steel-core.500 rounds of heavy..... showing traversing and elevating 127 . 141 Firing mechanism parts of 7. _------...K.5-cm infantry howitzer 142 7. Manhandling 7. 75.. 164 91.._ ___-___-. Label for model 08 pistol cartridges (Pistolenpatronen08)------ 170 170 171 . S...F.5-cm infantry howitzer . 77... 67. 76.--132 -. showing 144 range-scale drum -------------145 .-----.. 83. Phosphor mit Stahlkern) 95. 78.m. Rbl.5-cm infantry howitzer Panoramic sight (Rundblickfernrohr 16..-. 143 Sighting mechanism (side view) of 7.. 72.--. Label for case of 1._ 150 15-cm infantry howitzer (rear view) -----------------------152 -------__--15-cm infantry howitzer on self-propelled mount 154 Firing mechanism of 10.--- 98.H.. Label for heavy. Label for super armor-piercing bullet with tungsten carbide core (Patr...-----.. Label for 1. 18) ----Breechblock (rear view) of 10... 80.--149 15-cm infantry howitzer in action ------------------------.. ...500 rounds of observation (explosive) bullets (B. Barrel and breech of 5-cm P'k 68.5-cm infantry howitzerSighting mechanism of 7.. armor-piercing ammunition ( PatronenS. 85.5-cm infantry howitzer in traveling position .P. pointed ball ammunition . 81. s...H..5-cm infantry howitzer ---.F..K. Patronen schweres Spitzgeschoss)__ _. S...S. Patronen schweres Spitzgeschoss) 92.167 167 168 96.5-cm light field howitzer 18 155 (I.K..------------------139 _______________Breech of 7...---. 140 Breechblock and firing mechanism of 7. 18) . 138 7..

. Overhead firing table (in yards) ----------_--------------76 2.. special practice (Patronen leichtes Spitzgechoss) ----177 Practice tracer (Patronen leichtes Spitzgeschoss mit Leuchtspur)-_ 177 Semi-armor-piercing (Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Eisenkern)-.. .... 178 Armor-piercing incendiary (Patronen Phosphor mit Stahlkern)__ 178 Observation (explosive) bullet (Beabachtangsgeschoss Patronen)__ 178 Dummy cartridges (Exerzierpatronen)---------------------179 Blank cartridge (Platz-Patrone88) .CONTENTS S Figure 101. 172 175 175 175 177 ..... 181 Graphic comparison of millimeters and inches-------..110 .. pointed ball (Patronen schweres Spitzgeschoss)-104.. 115...inside back cover TABLES 1. Label for dummy. . - Light ball. Heavy.. Super-armor-piercing with tungsten carbide core (Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern gehartet) ...... 108. 109. 111.. 103. Firing table.. 110..... drill cartridges....----------- Xi Page 171 . 114... Armor-piercing (Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern) -------105. 77 3. ---. model 34 (German) -. 106.. Table of minimum clearance ..------.. 113..- 107..... Markings on base of German small-arms cartridge .) 180 8-cm mortar shell . .....------180 Cross section of ball cartridge (scharfe Patrone S. 112.. 8-cm heavy mortar.. model S (ExerzierpatronenS. Armor-piercing tracer (Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern rund Leuchtspur) .)_ 102...------------..

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Section I. INTRODUCTION

The principal Germnan infantry weapons are here described in order to enable U. S. troops to identify and, when the opportunity exists, to operate them.' No attempt has been made to provide all the details necessary for the maintenance and repair of the weapons described. Reports from observers, enemy documents, British publications, and other sources of information have been examined and compared in order to present in a compact and simple form all the pertinent information on the main German infantry weapons. Wherever possible, the exposition is based on an actual examination and operation of the weapon concerned. The equipment of the German Army in 1939, and its present equipment, reflect the settled policy of the German High Command to have the smallest variety of weapons consistent with meeting operational requirements. While emphasis has been maintained on developing weapons with a high degree of fighting efficiency, only selected types have been designed for mass production.
'"Abandoned enemy materiel is promptly put into use to augment that of the pursuing force or to replace losses." FMTl 100-5, "Field Service Regulations, Operations," par. 579, Changes No. 1 (Sept. 16, 1942). The processing of captured materiel for intelligence purposes is described in Training Circular No. 81 (Nov. 6, 1942), Section III. Training Circular No. 88 (Nov. 17, 1942) contains general instructions for the recovery and evacuation of arms and other equipment by combat units in the combat zone. 1

2

GERMAN

INIFANTRY

WEAPONS

As the battle fronts have widened and the theaters of operations become more varied, the Germans have been forced to increase the variety of their weapons and to improve existing mathriel. In addition, they have augmented their supply of weapons by using captured materiel. No attempt has been made in the sections which follow to describe experimental or new German weapons which have not yet come into wide use. Nor is captured materiel used by the Germans considered. Therefore, on occasion U. S. troops may encounter German infantry equipped with some weapon not included in this study. However, a good knowledge of the standard German weapons will usually form a sound. basis for understanding the operation of the newer German weapons. For the armament and organization of the German infantry regiment, the principal unit which employs the weapons described herein, see figure 1.

Section II. PISTOLS, RIFLES, AND GRENADES'

1. LUGER PISTOL a. General Since 1908 the Luger pistol has been an official German military side arm. Georg Luger of the DWM Arms Company 2 in Germany developed this weapon, known officially as Pistole 08, from the American Borchart pistol invented in 1893. The Luger is a well-balanced, accurate pistol. It imparts a high muzzle velocity to a small-caliber bullet, but develops only a relatively small amount of stopping power. Unlike the comparatively slow U. S. 45-caliber bullet, the Luger small-caliber bullet does not often lodge itself in the target and thereby impart its shocking power to that which it hits. With its high speed and small caliber it tends to pierce, inflicting a small, clean wound. When the Luger is kept clean, it functions well. However, the mechanism is rather exposed to dust and dirt. b. How to Identify The Luger may be identified readily by its exposed barrel, curved butt, and generally smooth lines. (See

fig. 2.)
'The weapons discussed in this section may be operated by one man.
2 Deatsche

Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken, Aktiengesellschaft. 3

similar to that of the Maxim machine gun.-Luger pistol and magazine. recoil-operated.4 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS c. Characteristics (1) General. S.354 inch). 8-shot pistol with a caliber of 9 mm (. .-The Luger is the most common side arm in use in the German Army.3 It has a toggle-joint action very Front sight A/ Knurled knobs Rear sight_ Magaz ine----- Figure 2.45). aA Fcale of inches and millimeters is printed on the inside of the back cover to aid readers to know the exact length of these units. It is fed by an 8-round magazine that fits into the butt and is held by a magazine catch similar to that on the U. It is a semiautomatic. service automatic pistol (M1911 or M1911 Al Colt . and located in approximately the same relative position.

354 inch).PISTOLS. AND GRENADES 5 (2) Table of characteristics. (2) To load and fire. d. R ear ------------------. British. With the lock in this position. 8 rounds. How to Operate (1) Safety. Italian. 4.1.Open V notch. the word gesichert will then be covered by the safety lever arm. Capacity of magazine ---Sights: Front _----------------Inverted V blade.-The safety is on the left side of the receiver as you hold the pistol in firing. nonadjustable. To release the safety.-A loaded magazine is inserted into the butt and shoved home until the magazine catch 524652°-43 2 . Length of barrel__ -------1 pound 14 ounces. the German word gesichert ("made safe") is exposed. S.Principle of operation Caliber ----___----------Ammunition ---------Recoil-operated.040 feet per second. M aximum -----_------. the safety catch is on and the pistol will not fire. or U.25 inches. and the pistol is ready to fire. 9 mm (. it is necessary to push the lever forward and up. Muzzle velocity ---_-----. When the safety lock is turned down and to the rear. RIFLES. Weight (empty) ----Range: Effective -__------------25 yards.1. 9-mm Parabellum (German.150 yards. It is a lever pivoted at the lower end. manufacture).

and let the breechblock snap forward. Colt .45. Then release the knobs. With the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. This operation will carry forward a cartridge from the lips of the magazine into the chamber.Rear pivot pin Hook-shoped link Recoil spring head Magazineo Figure 3. the same fashion as is done with the U. In order to move one of the cartridges forward into the chamber for firing. 3). . in much Toggle jointBreechblock Lips of magazine J \ Barrel . it is necessary to pull the toggle joint to the rear and then let it snap forward.-Cross section of Luger pistol. Colt . grasp the knurled knobs on both sides of the toggle joint and draw the joint to the rear as far as it will go (see fig. showing action of toggle joint. S. This is similar to the operation used in loading the U. S.6 GERMAN INFAŽNTRY WEAPONS clicks.45.

PISTOLS.-Close-up of Luger pistol to show operation of extractor. Then. to extract any cartridge that may be in the chamber. 4). exposing the word geladen ("loaded") on the left side of the extractor. RIFLES. the front end of the extractor projects above the level of the top surface of the breechExtractor (indicating loaded chamber) Cover pate latch Figure 4. It is always possible to determine whether there is a cartridge in the chamber by feeling or noting the position of the extractor (see fig. press the magazine catch. If there is no cartridge in the chamber. When there is a cartridge in the chamber. Cover-plate/. Pull the joint to the rear as far . grasp the knurled knobs of the toggle joint in the same manner as in loading. AND GRENADES 7 The pistol should then be locked by moving the safety so as to expose the word gesichert. (8) To unload. allowing the magazine to drop out of the butt.-First. block. the extractor is level with the top surface of the breechblock.

The sights should be aligned as in figure 5 O. straight-case ammunition is used. This operation will eject any cartridge in the chamber. e.low and right.8 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS ® 1 ® Figure 5. (i). ).-This pistol has an open V notch rear sight and an inverted V front sight. low and right. p. lower left. (®). (4) Sights. S. (See sec. British. Ammunition Rimless. These should be distinguished from Exerzierpatronen 08 ("drill cartridges 08"). The bullets in these cartridges have coated steel jackets and lead cores. ((i) illustrates correct sight picture.-Method of using German sights.-made 9-mm Parabellum ammunition will function well in this pistol.and U. firing high. below. low shot.) as it will come.) . The edge of the primer of the ball cartridge is painted black. 161. V. Q. German ammunition boxes will read Pistolenpatronen08 ("pistol cartridges 08"). the German ammunition will of course give the best results. (i).

S. it is necessary to remove the magazine and empty the chamber as indicated in d (3). hard surface until the barrel has moved to the rear about a half inch. The cleaning and oiling is done in a similar manner. first put the breechblock and receiver together and replace the pivot pin.45 automatic. using a piece of wood against the muzzle. M1911 Colt . Then push the knurled section of the cover-plate latch downward and remove the cover plate. Turn the pistol upside down and slide the barrel and receiver forward and separate them. Press the muzzle against a clean. Punch out the rear pivot pin and remove the breechblock from the receiver.-This pistol requires the same type of care as the U. and replace the cover plate. oil should be used sparingly or not at all.-In order to disassemble the weapon. making sure that the hook-shaped link engages in the claws of the recoil-spring head. Turn the cover-plate latch until it catches in its locked position. RIFLES. However. This amount of disassembly is sufficient for purposes of cleaning and oiling the pistol. Maintenance (1) Oiling and cleaning. . (2) Stripping. Push the barrel backward. or in other places where dust is prevalent. page 7.PISTOLS. AND GRENADES 9 f.-To reassemble the parts of the weapon. in desert countries. (3) Assembly. above. Slide the barrel and receiver back onto the frame.

2. (5) Lanyard hook on the left grip. Characteristics (1) General. S.-The Walther is a recoil-operated pistol with a slide that moves directly to the rear (in this respect. officially called Pistole 38.45 and unlike The double-action feature enables the weapon to be fired simply by pressure on the trigger without cocking the hammer.45. (2) Outside hammer. like the U. Eventually it may replace the Luger. This holster also contains a tool which can be used for disassembling the pistol and for loading the magazine. (6) Double action. M1911 Colt . 38") on the left side of the slide. c. Accessories There is a leather holster which carries extra ammunition in a separate magazine. is coming into more and more general use as a standard issue in the German Army. (4) Safety on the left rear of the slide. General The Walther. b. The Walther is the only military pistol with this feature. (3) Marking ("P. it is nevertheless a handy weapon because of its double-action 4 feature and its good balance.10 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS g. S. WALTHER PISTOL a. M1911 Colt . How to Identify The Walther may be identified by(1) Horizontally grooved grips. . Although the Walther lacks the stopping power of the U.

but.-Walther pistol. on the bottom rear of the butt and is moved to the rear to release the magazine. unlike the U. nonadjustable. Caliber _ _---------------. (See fig. double-action trigger mechanism. RIFLES. Ammunition -___--___----9-mm Parabellum (German. Open V notch.-- ture). British. S.Principle of operation______ Short recoil-operated. oi U.--. AND GRENADES 11 the Luger).9-mm (.) (2) Table of characteristics. The feed is by an 8-round magazine that fits into the pistol handle. the magazine catch is located Slide Safety Outside hammer Borrel / retaining pin Horizontally grooved grips / Slide stop Lanyard / hook Magazine catch - Figure 6.354 inch). M1911 Colt . maanufacCapacity of magazine_____ Sights: Front __--_-_-----Rear ______----.45 and the Luger. S. Inverted V blade.PISTOLS. Italian. . 6.-. 8 rounds.

a small pin protrudes about a quarter of an inch from the back end of the slide.75 inches."-Put the safety on "fire.040 feet per second. If there is a cartridge in the chamber. (See fig. "single action. set the safety to the "safe" position. thumb up the safety. To uncock the pistol. 7.12 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPON~S Length of barrel -- __ 4. 1.-(a) To load. 25 yards. Weight: With loaded magazine _-. This permits the hammer to fall and at the same time locks the firing pin in its rearmost position. thumb down the safety uncovering the letter "S" (sicher-"safe"). this small pin will remain flush with the surface of the back end of the slide. In order to lock the pistol. This arrangement is particularly handy in the dark. If the chamber is empty.150 yards. Pull the slide back once and .) The Walther has a device which enables a quick check to be made in order to determine whether or not there is a cartridge in the chamber.25 ounces. With empty magazine____ Range: Effective -----------Maximum _____ Muzzle velocity--____ 2 pounds 1." Insert a loaded magazine into the butt and shove it forward until the magazine catch holds it. In order to fire. uncovering the letter "F" (Feuer--"fire"). . How to Operate (1) Safety.75 ounces. d. (2) To load and fire. 1.-The safety is a lever located at the left rear of the slide. 2 pounds 5.

The pistol is now loaded and cocked. When ready to Hammer catch Disconnector stud aent Sear lever Toe of hammer Trip leer Safety-catch axis pin Sear lever Figure 7.-Pull to the rear the magazine catch."-Put the safety on "safe. As this pistol has a double action. located on the bottom rear of the butt. Work the slide back and forth several times to be sure that the chamber is emptied. put the safety on "fire" and pull the trigger. (3) To unload. and the magazine will drop out. AND GRENADES 13 let it snap forward. This pistol is now loaded but not cocked. A pull on the trigger will fire the weapon. on the opposite page." Insert the loaded magazine and work the slide as described in d (1). . the pull on the trigger will cock the hammer and then fire the round.-Diagrammatic sketch showing trigger action of Walther pistol.PISTOLS. (b) To load. fire. RIFLES. "alternate method. the recoil of the slide will cock the hammer. After the first shot.

which are "touchy" about the ammunition used. Pull the trigger.-Insert an empty magazine in the pistol. (2) British. Unlock the slide from the barrel by pushing in on the locking-cam plunger and pulling down the locking cam. and let the slide snap forward. model 34. Remove the magazine. f. but be sure that the slide and barrel are locked together . Care should also be taken so as not to mistake the dummy cartridges (Exerzierpatronen 08) used in drills for live ammunition.-manufactured 9-mm Parabellum ammunition for the Sten and Lanchester submachine guns. is likely to cause stoppages in German 9-mm weapons.and U. German-issue ammunition should be inserted in German pistols. Maintenance (1) Stripping. Wherever possible. Ammunition GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS The following types of ammunition may be used in the Pistole 38: (1) German standard 9-mm Parabellum cartridge (which is used also in the Pistole 08). S. Turn the barrel retaining pin clockwise about three quarters of a turn. (2) Assembly.-Assemble in the reverse order. Italian pistol ammunition. and remove the slide and barrel from the receiver by pulling the slide forward.14 e. Pull the slide back until the slide stop engages and holds the slide in the rear position. which will not function in the Pistole 38). model 38. press down on the slide stop. (3) Italian ammunition used in the Beretta submachine gun and 9-mm pistols (other than the cartridges used in the Beretta pistol.

It should be cleaned and oiled frequently.-The type of care given the U. is an abbreviation for Maschinenpistole.PISTOLS. literally "machine pistol. SUBMACHINE GUN 5 (M. 40. and a magazine holder are issued with this weapon. The barrel and slide will remain locked together if the pistol is assembled upside down. it can now be found in general use in all combat units of the German Army. S. General Although this weapon was originally designed for use by parachute troops.6 38 and the more recent M. oil should be used sparingly or not at all. the ordinary machine gun shoots rifle ammunition." . RIFLES. To insure this. Accessories A leather holster.P. are reliable weapons. service pistol will keep the Pistole 38 in good working order. The construction is simple. but the ejector and the two levers of the safety mechanism must be pushed in so as to prevent them from catching on the rear end of the slide. 3. which has been issued in large quantities. spare magazines. g.P. and both the M. They fire from an open bolt. AND GRENADES 15 before being assembled to the receiver. ' M. In extremely sandy or dusty regions. 38 AND M. pull out the locking-cam plunger and press the locking cam upward into its groove. (3) General care.P. 40) a.P. and the pressure in the barrel forces the bolt back in order to extract and eject the empty "A submachine gun shoots pistol ammunition.P.

(2) Absence of wood (these guns are all metal and plastic).P.P. 40 may be identified by(1) Folding skeleton shoulder stock.-Two views of M.P. b. 40") on top of the receiver. 38" or "M. and open. 38. they are magaMagazine well Skeleton shoulder stock / _. 40 are simple blowback-operated submachine guns.P.P. (3) Fixed and folding. 40. The spring then forces the bolt forward again. (5) Marking ("M.P.P.MEEA --.16 GE'RMANL INFAlNTRY WEAPONS cartridge case.P'. (4) Hooded front sight.P. How to Identify The M. chambering and firing a new round. open rear sights. (6) Corrugations on the receiver casing of the M. 2Magazine catch Magazine housing 0. . 38 and M. smooth surface on the receiver casing of the M.-The M. 40" Safety notch A Locking pin r/ Skeleton shoulder stock Figure 8. c.P. Characteristics (1) General. 38 and M. showing skeleton shoulder stock folded. 40.Recoil-spring housing Thumb catch Marking on top of receiver "M.

sighted to 100 meters (109 yards).-. They are used for close work and are not effective at the longer ranges.850 yards.-The only safety on these guns is the notch marked "S" (sicher-"safe") at the butt end of the cut made for the operating handle in the receiver.354 inch). 80 to 90 rounds per minute (in Rate of fire (practical) short bursts). Howto Operate (1) Safety.) (2) Table of characteristics. 40 is slightly lighter and has a slower rate of fire.. sighted to 200 meters (219 yards). Folding --------------. Principle of operation d.---Inverted V blade. Rear: Fix ed _--------------Open V notch.---. 8.P. With loaded magazine. air-cooled shoulder weapons which may also be fired from the hip. tended. .PISTOLS.-Straight blowback.---. Length -------------------with shoulder stock exOver-all. with cover.-.-. Caliber ----. AND GRENADES 17 zine-fed. They fire from an open bolt and deliver full-automatic fire only. 10 pounds Weight _-----------------7 ounces.Open V notch. Effective __-------. (See fig. Capacity of magazine______ 32 rounds in removable box magazine. full-automatic fire only. RIFLES. Although the M. both types are the same for all practical purposes. Sights: Front ---.9 mm (.-. 331/2 inches.---M aximum -------------1. Range: 200 yards.

." pull the operating handle back as far as it will go and then push it upward into the Figure 9. This is not a positive safety.P. 40 in action.18 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS To make the gun "safe.) safety notch.-M. (This photograph shows the manner of holding the pistol with the left hand when using the skeleton shoulder stock. as a jump or a fall may disengage the operating handle from the safety notch and leave the gun ready to fire.

RIFLES. straight-case cartridge with a round-nose. Disengage the operating handle from the safety notch. Snap the shoulder stock into extended position and unfold the butt plate. Italian 9-mm pistol ammunition other than model 34 will also 'See fig. for the method of aligning German sights.PISTOLS. 9 for the German method of firing). p. This is a rimless. let the operating handle go forward slowly. 8.P.160 rounds. (3) To unload.P. then aim.7 and squeeze the trigger. 40. 38 and M. Pull the operating handle back and switch it into the safety notch. above. Ammunition (9-mm) manufactured for the British Sten submachine gun (called a machine carbine by the British) can be used in the M. jacketed bullet.-Press the magazine catch and remove the magazine. AND GRENADES 19 (2) To load and fire. After pressing the trigger. The German nomenclature for this ammunition is Pistolenpatronen 08 ("pistol cartridges 08"). e. The magazine can serve as a grip while firing (but see fig. . Check the chamber to be sure that it is empty. It comes in cases containing 4.-Press the thumb catch above the pistol grip in order to release the skeleton shoulder stock from its folded position. r. Insert a loaded magazine into the feedway on the under side of the receiver until the magazine catch engages. packed in multiples of 16 rounds in cartons and packages. Ammunition The ammunition used in these guns is the standard 9-mm Parabellum cartridge. used in all German pistols and submachine guns.

-These submachine guns arc cleaned and oiled in the same manner as the U. Maintenance (1) Oiling and cleaning. oil should be used sparingly or not at all. Pull out the locking pin (see fig.-First. 10 () located on the bottom front portion of the receiver behind the magazine well.-Method of removing receiver of M. S Figure 10. 40 from barrel and from magazine housing. In sandy or dusty country. (2) Stripping. Thompson submachine gun. and turn the pin a . be sure that the gun is unloaded and uncocked.P. f. But the German-issue ammunition should be used whenever possible.20 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS function.

model 98K.-Assemble the recoil spring to the recoil-spring housing. Turn the locking pin so that it snaps in. or Mauser carbine. A small cleaning outfit is carried on the person. The recoil spring may be removed from the telescoping recoil-spring housing. and assemble the receiver to the barrel and the magazine housing by holding the magazine housing and then inserting the receiver and turning it in a clockwise direction. Replace the recoil-spring assembly and bolt into the receiver. MAUSER KAR. General The Mauser Kar. press the trigger. Remove the bolt and recoil spring from the receiver by means of the operating handle. Four magazines are sometimes carried on a magazine holder attached to the belt. 4. 98K RIFLE a. RIFLES. AND GRENADES 21 little to keep it unlocked. (3) Assembly. and a sling is attached to these guns for carrying purposes. 10 ®). It will then be possible to separate the receiver from the barrel and from the magazine housing. 98K. g. rifle is the standard shoulder weapon of the Ger524652--43-3 . Accessories Six magazines and a magazine filler are carried in a web haversack.PISTOLS. holding the magazine housing in its normal position (see fig. Grasp the barrel with the left hand and the pistol grip with the right. and at the same time turn the receiver in a counterclockwise direction. Hold the trigger back.

98K rifle nlay be identified by(1) Short barrel (23. M1903 (Springfield) rifle. 98K. M1903 (Springfield) service rifle will have little difficulty in using this German weapon. How to Identify The Mauser Kar. accurate short rifle.-Mauser Kar. Although the German rifle has no windage adjustment or peep-sight.-The Mauser Kar. (3) Cleaning rod section fitted into the stock under the muzzle. is a bolt-operated. 98K rifle. c. magazine-fed shoulder . which is a handy. (6) Semi-pistol-grip stock. Upper bond Lower band Metal-lined hole Cleaning rod section Stamped "Mod. S.4 inches). sliding on a ramp and graduated from 100 to 2. leaf rear sight. behind the hole for the butt end of the sling. it will give good results at medium ranges after a little practice.98" on left receiver wall Figure 11. Characteristics (1) General. with sling on the left side and a metal-lined hole through the stock. (5) Bolt action similar to the U. (4) Open V notch. Anyone who can use the U.000 (meters). (2) Upper and lower bands very close together. a short rifle or carbine. S. (7) Marking ("Mod 98") on the left receiver wall.22 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS man Army. b.

800 yards (approximately).. RIFLESi.000 meters (109 to 2. Kar... with an open V notch that slides on a ramp and is graduated from 100 to 2... It has a leaf rear sight.92 mm (. and Kar. Ammunition ____-..Manually bolt-operated..Leaf with open V notch sliding on ramp. 2._-_ - Inverted V blade (which is sometimes equipped with a hood to provide shade).187 yards).92 German small-arms Weight __ . 98.5 rounds. graduated from 100 to 2. 98B.. no windage adjustment.PISTOLS. d. Rear ----------.. are the Gew. (2) Table of characteristics. Range: Maximum___ __ _ 3..___ 7. Effective -. 11).5 inches.. which operate exactly as does the Kar. Older models.000 yards (approximately).4 inches. How to Operate (1) Safety.7.312 inches).. _.800 feet per second (approximately).-The safety is a thumb-operated lever mounted on the bolt plug. 98.000 meters. M1903 (Springfield) service rifle (see fig.. Capacity of magazine _-_-. AND GRENADES 23 weapon very similar to the U. 43. 23._. S.__ Length of barrel --------Over-all length --__-------Muzzle velocity _ _ Sights: Front -__ ammunition (rifle or machine-gun). 9 pounds (approximately). Principle of operation Caliber ------------------. 98K and differ only in that they have longer barrels and minor variations in fittings. and operates in the same .

for the method of aligning German sights. 5. trigger.24 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPON'S manner as the safety on the U. place a clip of cartridges in the clip guides. Close the bolt. 12). The trigger has a double pull. Check the chamber and magazine with your ' See fig. and bolt mechanism of Mauser Kar. (3) To unload. S. and press them down into the magazine (see fig.-Cross section of magazine. this action will eject any empty clip. S. Springfield service rifle. S. S. Open the Clip guides Bolt Bolt plug Magazine floor plate Maogazine-follower spring Figure 12. p. bolt. so take up the slack (as in the U.8 Observe all the safety precautions used in firing U. The safety lock can be moved only when the rifle is cocked. The rifle can be fired and the bolt worked when the safety lock is moved to the left. 8.-Open the bolt and work it back and forth until you empty both the magazine and the chamber.-The rifle is loaded in the same manner as the U. the piece is locked. When the safety lock is moved to the right. above. 98K rifle. . service rifles) before squeezing the trigger. (2) To load and fire. rifles. Springfield rifle.

-Cock the rifle by working the bolt. e. 161-184.) Ball ammunition is packed in cases holding 1. f. Ease . RIFLES. Maintenance (1) Stripping.. (See pars. Press in the bolt-sleeve lock and unscrew the bolt sleeve.-The bolt is stripped in the same manner as that of the U.PISTOLS. firing pin. pushing down on the bolt sleeve until the bolt sleeve clears the headless cocking piece.500 rounds. incl. Pull the bolt back. and set the safety lever halfway between the safe and the locked positions. below. for an explanation of the labels on ammunition cases. (b) To disassemble bolt. Turn the cocking piece a quarter turn in either direction and remove it from the firing pin shaft.312-inch) small-arms ammunition. to indicate that the ammunition in a case is packed in 5-round clips. Then pull out the near end of the bolt stop. Hold the bolt stop out while you remove the bolt from the receiver." or drill. and spring assembly. 20 to 30. Do not use ammunition from cases whose labels are overprinted Ex. pp. Now place the tip of the firing pin in the hole in the stock of the rifle. AND GRENADES 25 finger tip to make sure that they are both clear of cartridges. Ammunition The ammunition used in this rifle includes various types of 7. ammunition. S. Compress the spring.L.92-mm (. and the label is overprinted i. Springfield rifle. which is located on the left side of the receiver near the cutoff. as this is "dummy.-(a) To remove bolt..

which hold 60 rounds in 5-round clips. Muzzle and breech covers are sometimes used. above. a pull-through. a short knife bayonet . (3) Care and cleaning. In addition. Further stripping is not usually necessary. Additional rifle ammunition is issued in cloth bandoleers similar to the U. Ammunition is carried in 2 leather ammunition pouches attached to the belt. M1903 and M1 service rifles. brushes.-The care of this rifle is the same as that required for the U. Remove the bolt sleeve and firingpin spring from the firing pin.26 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAP)N'S up on the bolt sleeve so as not to allow the spring to escape suddenly. The rods from 3 rifles will make one full-length cleaning rod. g. and exert pressure while at the same time pushing the floor plate toward the trigger guard. S.--Insert the point of a bullet or a pointed tool into the small hole in the magazine floor plate. and short lengths of tow used as patches. This will release the catch.-Each rifle is furnished with a short length of cleaning rod. Accessories (1) General. (c) To remove magazine floor plate. Rifle grenade launchers may be attached to the rifle.-The assembling is done in the reverse order to that described in f(1). and the magazine floor-plate spring and follower can then be removed and broken down into their separate units. fitted through the bayonet stud. (2) Assembly. A small metal case carried on the person holds an oiler. type. S.

Pzgr. 40). (On the pistol grenade. (See also figs. The sight is a simple attachment clamping to the left-hand side of the rifle behind the rear sight. S.) There are two types of sights which are used with the grenade launchers. 15. (2) Grenade launchers and sights. service bayonets.) The grenade launcher at the top of figure 13 is used with the spigot-type. RIFLES. and the grenade slips over the cylindrical part of the launcher. (See fig. and 18. hollow-charge rifle grenade (SchussG. this grenade launcher is fitted to the bayonet lug. 16. When the armor-piercing grenade is fired. see figs. These are illustrated in figure 13.). 16. The grenade launcher shown in the lower righthand corner of figure 13 is used to fire the high-explosive rifle grenade (G. There are two range scales reading from 0 to 250 meters for low-angle fire and from 250 to 50 meters for high-angle fire. These two grenades are inserted with a twisting motion into the cup section of the launcher. These graduations apply to the high-explosive grenade only. 17. 14.) .-Both types are illustrated in figure 13. AND GRENADES 27 is made to be fixed to the rifle in a manner similar to that of U.PISTOLS. 75 meters on the low-angle scale corresponds to a range of 100 meters. and 20. 18 (. The sight is composed of a sighting device placed on a base which revolves about an axis and is leveled by a small spirit bubble. and 50 meters on the high-angle scale corresponds to a range of 65 meters.P. Sprgr.) and the armor-piercing rifle grenade (G.

~~~~~ -Mono 7771. The fuze operates on impact.-The high-explosive grenade consists of a blackened steel body with an aluminum nose fuze and a grooved collar fitting into the rifling of the bore of the launcher (see fig.-Mauser Kar.). in which case .:: . Sprgr. in the event of the nose fuze's failing to function. (3) Grenades. G.-(a) High-explosive grenade (Gewehr Sprenggranate. The collar carrying the rifling may be unscrewed from the body and the igniter string pulled. but the shock of discharge also initiates a delay system in the base which. 98K rifle with grenade launchers and sights.28 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS I 7w~~~~~~. 18 0). 11~~~~~~ .11. detonates the filling after a delay of 4 to 5 seconds.N Figure 13.

-The rifle grenade for use against armor incorporates the hollow-charge principle (see Figure 14.). Figure 15. (The cup of the launcher being rifled. Pzgr.-Method of inserting rifle grenade. RIFLES. 19).-Grenade launcher. G. (b) Armor-piercing grenade (Geiwehr Panzergranate. the radius of fragmentation being described by an enemy document as about 30 yards. AND GRENADES 29 the projectile can then be thrown as a hand grenade. the grenade is inserted with a twisting motion. The effect is equivalent to that of a "defensive" type of grenade. operating after 4 to 5 seconds (see fig.PISTOLS.) . showing method of unscrewing it to aid in cleaning.

-Pistol grenade being breech-loaded. Figure 17. (Both the launcher and the pistol are rifled).-Rifle grenade launcher and grenade firing pistol (very light type). .30 GERMAN INFANTRY WVEAPONS Figure 16.

-Method of unscrewing base of rifle grenade and thereby using friction fuze. with hollow charge.PISTOLS. ( rifle grenade. RIFLES. Figure 19.-Three types ow grenade projectiles: () pistol grenade. ®( rifle grenade. with percussion detonator fuze. . AND GRENADES 31 Figure 18.

approximately. with a stem in place of the combustion fuze 39). 10. When withdrawn. The pistol may now be cocked. the projectile is "live. (The barrel-reinforcing tube should be cleaned about every 10() rounds. 47.) The stem of the projectile is introduced into the tube until appreciable resistance shows that the base of the tube has been reached. The projectile is secured in the stem by a cotter pin and ring which must be withdrawn before the projectile is loaded into the signal pistol. (The projectile consists of the normal egg-type hand grenade (see par. On the lower end of the stem there is the cartridge (propellant charge with percussion cap) which expels the projectile on firing and sets off the combustion fuze. The stem contains a combustion fuze (combustion time. It is pushed in from the rear when the pistol is broken. a barrel-reinforcing tube is inserted into the barrel of the signal pistol. The signal pistol grenades are packed in a metal container with detonators and a barrel-reinforcing tube. below).-Special projectile 361 for signal pistol (Wurfk6rper 361 fiJr Leuchtpistole). When the barrel is returned to position. p. 4 to 5 se(conds) on the upper end of which a No." For firing the projectile. the pistol is ready for loading. 8 detonator is fitted.32 GERMANX INFANTRY WEAPONS Figure 20. The fuze is inserted into the detonator and then the detonator end is inserted into the grenade.) .

(e) Range. which may be marked with the G-erThe cartridges are not interman 'nomenclature. . RIFLES.-Each rifle grenade is packed with bulletless blank rifle cartridge in a cardboard container. Ub.. Sprgr. The grenade is a long cylinder. which carries an interrupted collar with eight right-hand grooves to fit the rifling of the launcher cup. AXD GRENADES 33 fig. Ubingsmullition. contains a fuze and detonator. partly steel and partly aluminumn. (c) Practice projectile ( Geu eh r Sprellgranate. with a black roundedmetal nose cap and a base plate slotted to facilitate removal. with a white spot on the end for armor-p)iercing grenades and gray for the highexplosive grenades.). The weight of the bursting charge is exceedingly small compared with the total weight of the projectile.PISTOLS. 18 )). a light metal diaphragm shaping the hollow charge. The containers are black. The armor-piercing grenade probably has a maximum range of about 100 yards.-This round is fitted with a smoke generator. (d) Cart'ridge and packitg. The rear aluminum half of the cylinder. and the general 'design is unnecessarily complicated. changeable between rounds of different types. G. six holes for smoke emission being drilled in the side of the body.-The high-explosive grenade has a maximum range of about 250 yards. The forward half of the cylinder is constructed of steel and contains the bursting charge. with considerable waste of efficiency. There is no provision for use as a hand grenade.

B. is the German abbreviation for Panzerbiichse.B. falling-block action worked by a moving grip in the Pz. 30) and by recoil in the Pz. Pz. Muzzle brake. There are at least two types of antitank rifles in use by the Germans: the Polish antitank rifle (model 35).B. Bii1)od mount alnd carrying handtle. 9 39 (ANTITANK RIFLE) a.) (See figs.B. 38 and Pz.B. i8. 38. General Antitank rifles are issued to the German Army on a scale of one for each platoon (or equivalent unit). How to Identify Both the Pz.34 GERIMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS 5. :.B. 21 and 22. 39 (antitank rifle)." The German tactical symbol for antitank rifle is . and the Corrying handle Bipod lock _Stock release button Rubber shock absorber Figure 21. a later model of the Pz.B.--Pz.B. b. 'Pz. Single-shot. Pz.'. which means "antitank rifle.9.B.') may be identified by(I) (2) (3) (4) pistol IFol(ling shoulder stocks with a rubber shock absorber. which has been reilnamed the Tankhbiichse. .

AND GRENADES 35 c.nonadljustable. 39 are basically the same and differ only slightly in appearance and com- 7 Muzzle brake Breechblock l Carrying handle / Satety fever Folding shoulder stocks Carrying sling Figure 22.__ _- ()lpen V notchl.B.B.92 mn (. C aliber ------------------.Caliber . necked down to take a caliber . with hood for shade and p)rotection. Characteristics (1) Gencral. The Pz. illustrating cutout folding shoulder stock.7.-Overhead view of Pz. 39 which follows will also serve for tlle l'z. falling-l)lock action. Animunitionll __-____-___.B. . RIFLES.PISTOLS.B.B.Principle of operation__ __ Single-shot.312 bullet. The bullet is an armor-piercing projectile with tracer compIound and sometimes with a tear-gas powder in the base. sighted 300 mneters (328 yards). Sights: F ront …----------------Inverted V blade.--The Pz. (2) Table of characteristics. 38. Rear ____---__-__. Tllie descril)tion of the l'z. 39. 38 and Pz.B. 39 are light antitank weapons carried by infantry.B. They are single-shot rifles fired from a bipod mount. 38 and Pz. ponent parts.312 inch).50 case.

Feed_ ----_ ----By hand from two ammunition holders that clip on each side of stock forearm. Effective _ _-__--_ Penetration ----------. d.-Press the bipod lock (see fig. and adjust the height of the bipod by turning the adjusting screw located underneath the pivot point of the bipod. Press the stock release button and snap the shoulder stock into place. (2). thus depressing the breechblock.-The safety lever is located on the tang of the receiver just to the rear of the breechblock. In- . move the safety lever until the letter "F" (Feuer-"fire") is exposed." move the safety lever until the letter "S" (sicher--"safe") is exposed.503/4 inches. Push the pistol grip forward and downward.36 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Over-all length: With shoulder stock in place _---__-------_-_ 621/4 inches. Move the safety lever to the "fire" position. stock With shoulder folded ___-_-_-_-----. To load and fire. 3/4-inch (20 ° impact) and 1-inch (normal impact) face-hardened plate.At 300 yards. Muzzle velocity _____ 3. 11/4 -inch (normal impact) face-hardened plate. at 100 yards. To put the rifle on "safe. To unlock. each box holding 10 rounds of ammunition. Range: 250 to 300 yards. How to Operate (1) Safety.540 feet per second. 21).

39 in position on edge of road. 8. This will eject the cartridge from the chamber. 5a.) (The rifle is fired should be kept in the "safe" position until ready to fire. 0 See fig. (3) To unload.43 . The piece is now ready to fire. AND GRENADES 37 sert one round into the chamber. 24).B. from the prone position. The rifle is now unloaded. Close the breechblock by pulling back and up on the pistol grip. open the breech by pushing the pistol grip forward and downward.-Move the safety lever to the "fire" position. RIFLES.10 The safety lever Figure 23. p. above. which is exposed by lowering the breechblock (see fig. for the method of aligning German sights. Being careful to keep the finger out of the trigger guard.PISTOLS.-Pz. 524652°-.

318. 318 S. 38 and the Pz. below.n. will not function in either rifle or machine gun. The ammunition for the Pz. Maintenance (1) Oiling and cleaning. 39. p. 93. though of the same caliber as the rifle and machine-gun ammunition. but this cartridge will not function in either the Pz. (H) for the pointed bullet with hardened-steel core. Oil should be used sparingly or not at all in hot. 39. 318 (P). . Ammunition GERMAxN INFANTRY WEAPONS The ammunition used has a rimless case the approximate size of the U." f.B. 318 S. uses a similar cartridge.-Remlove the pistol-grip pivot pin by compressing its spring lock and pushing it out from left to right.B. for the pointed bullet with steel core. or Polish cartridge No. and Patr. sandy. S.-The rifle should be given the usual care with respect to cleaning and lubricating. and is packed in boxes with green labels printed in Polish and overprinted "Patr. caliber .K. or dusty country. (2) Stripping. It is known as Patr.m.B..B. as the dimensions of the cartridge case are much larger. Remove the trigger pistol-grip group and " See fig. The Polish antitank rifle (model 35). The German nomenclature" for this ammunition is Patr. but the projectile is approximately the size of the U. 318. 167. 38 or the Pz. for one type of label used to identify ammunition for the antitank rifle.30 projectile.K. above).50 case. S. caliber . the Tankbiichse (see a.38 e.

(3) Assembly. the two pins Reor sightgr Front sighM n AmmunFAon holder r Pivot point Breechblocl h Safety laver m Adjusting screw o Bipod mount Pistol-grLp plvot pin Trigger pistol-4rip qroup Figure 24. from the side of the breechblock will release the trigger bar and hammer. g. Disengage the breechblock from the trigger pistol-grip by sliding the breech out along the grooves in its sides. The breechblock can be stripped by pressing on the spring-loaded button and sliding the plate upward. on the opposite page. AND GRENADES 39 breechblock from the receiver by pulling downward on the pistol grip. Accessories The accessories for these guns are a carrying sling and two ammunition holders that clip on the wooden . Removing.PISTOLS. 39.B. Be sure that the safety is on "fire" position so that the'breechblock can be replaced in its slots in the receiver walls. RIFLES.-Close-up of breech of Pz.-Reverse the stripping procedure given in (2).

Being of this type. The model 24 and model PH 39 stick-type. or "potato masher. (3) Porcelain ball attached to a cord in the exposed cavity after the metal cap is unscrewed. HAND GRENADES The hand grenades used by the German Army are all of the "offensive" type: that is. they have a thin metal casing with a high proportion of explosive filler. or "potato masher "-type. 6. A small cleaning kit similar to the rifle cleaning kit is carried by the antitank rifleman. instead of on the fragmentation of the case as in the U. In addition. "defensive-type" Mills grenades. there is a smoke stick grenade which differs from the regular stick. (2) Model marking on the casing or body of the grenade. ." only in the marking on the head of the grenade. because they can be thrown to a distance greater than their effective bursting radius. 7. they depend on the blast effect. STICK HAND GRENADE. They can be used safely by troops advancing erect in the open. model 24. How to Identify The stick hand grenade. grenades are used more often than the "egg"-type and can be regarded as the standard hand grenades of the German Army. may be identified by(1) Metal casing or body screwed onto a wooden handle with a metal cap.40 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS forearm. S. MODEL 24 (STIELHANDGRANATE 24) a.

__--_ -WVeight Weight of explosive filler -------------Time of delay fuze _----------_ Effective blast radius -_-_----_--_---_ 1 foot 2 inches. RIFLES. and at the other end of a procelain ball. 6 ounces. AND GRENADES 41 b. (b) The metal cap on the end of the handle holds the porcelain ball in place and is not removed until the grenade is to be thrown. through the center of which runs a double length of cord (see fig. (2) Table of characteristics. c.The wooden handle is unscrewed from the head. . 25).-(a) The detonator is not assembled to the grenade until it is carried into combat. 1_----------------------------1 pound 5 ounces.-(a) To arm grenade.Over-all length ------. The cavity in which the porcelain ball rests is closed 'by a metal cap that screws on. or head. 12 to 14 yards. containing the explosive filler and screwed onto a hollow wooden handle. How to Operate (1) Safety. Inside the cap is a spring-actuated metal disk that prevents movement of the porcelain ball.-This grenade consists of a thin iron or steel casing. Characteristics (1) General. and the metal end of the delay fuze is exposed in the interior of the handle.PISTOLS. 4 to 5 seconds. This cord is attached at one end to a lead ball which is part of the friction-igniter-detonator system. (2) To arm and throw. The head and the handle are screwed together again. Insert a detonator into the open end of the delay fuze.

-Sketch of Stielhandgranate 24 (stick hand grenade. showing outside and cross section of grenade and fuze.) .42 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS X-:'g. (The cross section of the grenade is drawn to a larger scale than the scale of the sketch of the outside view. model 24).:i~: S Explosive filler Figure 25.

(2) A sleeveless jacket fitting over the blouse. To see whether or not the delaying device has been removed from the grenade. pulling the friction wire causes the grenades to explode immediately without the usual 4. are carried in(1) A metal case holding 15 grenades and 15 detonators (see fig. and throw.PISTOLS.) (3) The belt with the grenades stuck in. (4) unscrew the delayed-action device in the top of the handle to make sure whether the delayed- . (In this jacket there are 10 pockets. (See -fig. (3) To disarm grenade. (3) unscrew the cap at the end of the handle and let the porcelain ring hang down. 26). in which the grenades are carried with the heads down.to 5-second delay. 5 in front and 5 in the back.-(a) Unscrew the handle from the head. it may be tested as follows: (1) unscrew the head (explosive cylinder) from the wooden handle. as there is a 4.) When troops attempt to use the captured grenades. Do not throw too soon. d. 25. RIFLES.-Unscrew the metal cap. (2) remove the detonator and the fuze which project from the handle. pull out the porcelain ball as far as it will go. Use as a Booby Trap This grenade may be made into a booby trap by removing the delay fuze. e. (b) remove the detonator from the open end of the delay fuze. handle first. Method of Carrying Stick hand grenades. model 24. AND GRENADES 43 (b) To throw grenade. (c) replace the handle.to 5-second delay.

handle from it. it may be sufficient to take one from each batch of suspected grenades. carry out the above operations in the reverse order. If time is short. It will then be obvious whether the explosion takes place immediately or after an interval of 4 to 5 seconds.-Method of carrying and packing stick-type grenades.44 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS action cylinder actually contains the column of compressed black gunpowder. . and operate the fuze by pulling the cord from a distance. To reassemble the grenade. unscrew the Figure 26.

_ Effective blast radius -_--_---------------16 yards. this cord is attached to a lead ball which is part of the friction-igniter-detonator system. . 1 foot 4 Weight --------------i 1------------1pound 6 ounces.Over-all length ---------_------------inches. AND GRENADES 45 8. (2) Table of characteristics. model PH 39.4 to 5 seconds. b. MODEL PH 39 (STIELHANDGRANATE PH 39) a. or head. RIFLES.PISTOLS. the model PH 39 consists of a thin iron or steel casing.--(a) The detonator is not assembled to the grenade until it is carried into combat. How to Identify The stick hand grenade. (3) Cord attached to the friction igniter being also attached to the metal cap (this being observed on unscrewing the metal cap on the handle). This head is screwed onto a hollow wooden handle. c. At one end. containing the explosive filler. STICK HAND GRENADE._-_-_-_---------. through the center of which runs a double length of cord. Time of delay fuze ---. How to Operate (1) Safety. Weight of explosive filler _---------7 ounces. Characteristics (1) General. and at the other end to the metal cap which screws onto the end of the handle. may be identified by(1) Metal casing or body screwed to a wooden handle with a metal cap.-Like the model 24 stick grenade. (2) Model marking on the casing or body of the grenade.

a detonator is inserted into the hollow end of the delay fuze.46 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (b) The metal cap on the end of the handle is not unscrewed until the grenade is to be thrown. Method of Carrying Like the model 24.-The grenade is disarmed by unscrewing the handle from the head. as this action would start the fuze burning. removing the detonator from the open end of the delay fuze. and then replacing the handle.Before use in action. the PH 39 grenades are carried in-(1) A metal case holding 15 grenades and 15 detonators. (2) To arm and throw. To arm the grenade." However. and the hollow end of the delay fuze is exposed. .-(a) To arm grenade. (b) To throw grenade. as the cord that starts the delay fuze is attached to the metal cap on the model PH 39 grenade. d. and the grenade should then be thrown with an overarm motion.-Unscrew the metal cap and pull it away from the grenade handle to the full length of the cord. (3) To disarm grenade. the cap should not be pulled away from the handle. This ignites the 4. and the casing and the handle are screwed together again. the wooden handle is unscrewed from the grenade head.to 5-second delay fuze. 2 In this respect it differs from the model 24. The cap may be unscrewed carefully and lifted slightly to be sure that the grenade is a model PH 39. the grenade is ordinarily carried without the detonator assembled.

of gray-green painted metal with a raised rib around the middle. EGG-TYPE HAND GRENADE. p. in which the grenades are carried with the heads down. . AND GRENADES 47 (2) A sleeveless jacket fitting over the blouse. b. 43. How to Identify The egg-type hand grenade may be identified by(1) Egg shape.) (3) The belt with the grenades stuck in. 5 in front and 5 in back.to 5-second delay. It is ignited by a friction-type igniter and a 4. e. RIFLES. MODEL 34 (NEBELHANDGRANATE 34) The smoke grenade. Characteristics (1) General. Use as a Booby Trap The removal of the delay element in the fuze of this grenade will cause the grenade to explode at once without the usual 4. SMOKE HAND GRENADE.to 5-second delay fuze. (In this jacket there are 10 pockets.PISTOLS. 7e. MODEL 39 (EIERHANDGRANATE 39) a. model 34.-This is a small thin-cased "offensive"-type grenade with a high proportion of a lowgrade high explosive (see fig. is handled in the same manner as the other stick grenades and is identified only by a broken white line painted around the head of the grenade near its base. (2) Blue knob protruding .from one end. 27). above). 9. 10. handle first. The grenade may be examined in the same manner as is described for the model 24 grenade (see par. which is a standard stick grenade with the explosive filler replaced by smoke composition.

screw the armed fuze by hand.-----------. (2) To arm and throw. be sure that the exposed pocket is clean.-Unscrew the blue '3 knob.) (2) Table of characteristics.) . (3) To disarm grenade.-(a) Unscrew the knob from the grenade. and (c) replace the knob.Unscrew the knob from the grenade. Blue knobs have been reported on igniters having a 4. Throw the grenade. -(See e. How to Operate (1) Safety. unscrew the protective cap from the detonator end of the knob.to 5-second delay. inches.… 2 Time of delay fuze -----_ 4 Thickness of casing _.-(a) To arm grenade. inch. To render the igniter inoperative. 28 illustrates the shaving-stick grenade.Over-all length-------3 Weight _--_. 8) from its box and check the open end to see that it is dust free and not distorted (do not use a dusty or distorted detonator). '3 It has been reported that a red knob is used for those igniters having no delay element. to 5 seconds. which has the same type of detonator as the egg-type. carefully unscrew the knob. and pull. carefully slip the detonator onto the detonator end of the knob. (b) remove the detonator from the end of the knob. (b) To throw grenade. on the opposite page.to 5-second delay. remembering that it has a 4. c.------12 Maximum diameter --… -. ounces.02 inches (approximately).-The detonator is not assembled to the grenade until it is carried into combat.48 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (Fig. and then use the key supplied to tighten the fuze. draw a detonator (standard No.

PISTOLS. these egg-shaped grenades can be used as booby traps. d. If the red primer cap is unscrewed and the firing string pulled.-Sketch of Eierhandgranate 39 (egg-type hand grenade. the explosion occurs instantaneously rather than after . RIFLES. A-ND GRENADES 49 taking care not to exert any pull on the cord. (2) Any convenient container. the Germans in Africa have put red primer caps on the grenades which are used as traps. Method of Carrying The egg-type grenades are carried in(1) The pockets. e. model 39). Use as a Booby Trap Like all other materiel. It has been reported that ( EXTERIOR ) CROSSSECTION () FUZE ASSEMBLY Figure 27. Then cut the cord with scissors and replace the knob with the cord inside.

-Cross section of shaving-stick grenade. .50 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS cord Figure 28. the heads of six model 24 or model PH 39 stick 1 See TM 5-325. a 4. 11. pp. and antipillbox work. SPECIAL USES OF STICK GRENADES14 For special demolition. 1943). antitank. "Enemy Land Mines and Booby Traps" (April 19. many of which are made from grenades. 1-96.to 5-second delay-the standard delay with the blue cap. for detailed information on the construction of German land mines and booby traps.

) concentrated charge (geballte Ladung) for the above purposes. The whole can then be used as a convenient Figure 29. (This charge is used for demolition purposes.PISTOLS. AND GRENADE'S 51 grenades can be removed from their handles and fastened securely around a seventh stick grenade from which the handle is not removed (see figs.-Concentrated charge (geballte Ladung) made from several stick grenades. Bangalore torpedoes for blowing paths through barbed wire can also be made by binding the desired . 29 and 30). RIFLES.

52 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS number of grenade heads behind one another on a long stick or board'(see fig. 31). (This mine is improvised from the head of a stick grenade and pressure igniter 35 (Druckziinder 35. D. D.--Stick grenades used as Bangalore torpedo. 35).Z. Figure 30. and to it is attached a long wire or cord.-Q. the grenade nearest the operator is complete with handle and detonator.) (®)Crosssection of pressure igniter 35 (Druckzunder 35. 35).Z. .) (i) Stick grenade cluster mine. t -- LEI:~~~~~~~~~~~~i Figure 31. Stick grenade antipersonnel mine. which is screwed into the head of the grenade. (This mine is a variation of mine (i).

43 5 53 . 1943). as well as on numerous other types of mounts on tanks and other vehicles (fig. 32). 34.5 and many other types of small German units. It can be fired without a mount (fig. which means |. 34 a. General 2 The M. 52465. 37) for use as an antiaircraft gun.incngewcehr. weapon. 33) for use as a light machine gun. weapons discussed in this section are operated by more than one is the German abbreviation for Masch. MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 1 12.G." The (Germln tactical symbol for a light machine gun is 'The German tactical symbol for a heavy machine gun is ' See "The German Squad in Combat. machine gun. is not directly comparable to any U.3 on a tripod (figs. 25." MIS Special Series. 34 and 35) for use as a heavy machine gun. No. or it can be mounted on a bipod (fig. this allpurpose gun is the most common German automatic weapon in use by the German armed forces. M. Every infantry squad.Section III. 'The 2 M. for detailed descriptions of the tactical employment of the machine gun in the German squad. 36) or on the standard tripod mount with adapter and special sight (fig.G. Consequently. 34. can be expected to be armed with the M. model 34. -. 9 (Jan.G.G.' and on a special antiaircraft mount (fig. or St "machine gun. 38). S.

Shape of plastic shoulder stock.G. How to Identify The M. 34 in action without bipod or tripod. Folding front and rear sights. 34 may be identified by(1) (2) (3) (4) craft Air-cooled jacket. Figure 32.) (5) Operating handle on the right side. Plastic pistol grips and double trigger.G. .54 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS b. (An auxiliary antiairring sight that fits on the barrel jacket may also be found.-M.

-Two views of M. .Air-cooled jacket Front sight / .G. 34 on tripod mount. 34 on bipod mount. Opera ting handle Double trigge ! r a AA ring sight base Rear sight I I _ // Cbe .G._~~ ~ -~.IFeed cover Y\ Feed-cover catch Feedwoy / Safety Plastic pistol grip Figure 33. .-M. Hingeclomp & Claws for ottaochirig gun to trlipo relescopec sight -Trle$CoplIC rtght bOse Base for AA adapter-- '--- EIeveting hondwheel mechanism Trcrversing 86 _ 4_ 2or spore barrels Case I Spoure borrels -- o 3 4 Figure 34.

34.-The M. 70-77. 34 on tripod mount. Jr. 34." Cf.-M. 4. "7. 1941). Characteristics 6 (1) General. . 260-273. Their History.9-mm Germln Machine Gun. 34 is a short-recoil weapon." The Ordnance Sergyeant. (Sept.56 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPON!S c. 239-241. unlocking itself from the barrel in the next nine-sixteenths of an inch in travel. Melvin M. the bolt being locked to the barrel by means of interrupted screw threads at the moment of firing and for Clamp Lugs for attaching gun to tripod Telescopic sight base AA adapter Figure 35.G. G.. and with antiaircraft adapter.G. and Charles T. pp. Vol. M. three-sixteenths of an inch of recoil. 1942). Haven. Johnson. There is no accelerator to assist the back'For a more detailed description of the chlaracteristics and operation of M. Automatic Arms. pp. 309. see TNM-E9-206A. F. Derelopment and Use (New York: William Morrow and Co. M. "Germian Light Machine (Gun.G. Medlin.

A simple mechanism makes it easy to exchange a cool barrel for a heated one. Although the rate of fire is probably too high for the weight.G. but a recoil assister on the muzzle helps to move the recoiling parts to the rear by gas pressure on the front face of the barrel. Browning caliber . The gun is . on the U.-M. The same purpose is served by a similar part Figure 36. using drum feed. S. 34 on antiaircraft mount.30 M2 aircraft machine gun. the gun is a handy air-cooled automatic weapon.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 57 ward movement of the recoiling parts.

below). 3. drums used in antiaircraft or light ground versions of the gun. (2) Table of Characteristics. the Patr. Type of feed ___…_______. 75-round double. the whole assembly being made of very simple round parts. 318 manufactured for the Pz. 4. which hold 50 rounds and mnay be connected together to make longer belts.or magazine-fed. the feed usually coming from the left.1. 7The barrel-locking ring revolves while sliding in the supporting jacket. 50-round belts contained in a metal drum attached to the feed block of the gun in tank or antiaircraft versions of the gun.312 inch). Compare the action in the M. 85.58 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS belt. Nondisintegrating metallic-link belts.92 mm (. 39 antitank rifle is unsuitable. because it will not fit in the chamber).G. or saddle-type. 2. Amnnunition __-----______ All 7. 42 (par. Canvas containers holding 100roun(l belts are also used in tanks. by substituting a special feed arm in the feed cover.B. it can be made to feed from the right side. p. (Caliber ______-_------____ 7. so that the bolt and main spring recoil in an absolutely straight line. 13c.Principle of operation____ Short recoil on the Solothurn 7 pri'nciple. .92 amnlnition not expressly forbidden for use in the machine gun (for example. However.

MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 59 Figure 37. 34 in action on tripod mount. with antiaircraft and telescopic sights. showing protective shield and drum feed. Figure 38.G. . 34 in action on boat.-M.G.-M.

depending on the type of ammunition used.681/2 pounds. There is a folding peep sight on the rear sight that is used with the antiaircraft ring sight. just above the trigger and in front of the sear.5. 2. This telescopic sight is graduated up to an effective range of 3. a . graduated from 200 to 2. fits its base on the barrel jacket.500 meters (3. 2.827 yards). kept in the maintenance kit. When used on the tripod as a heavy machine gun.187 yards).60 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Weight: As light machine gun 261/2 pounds. How to Operate (1) Safety. Effective _ ----. a telescopic sight is mounted on the tripod. The antiaircraft ring sight.000 yards (heavy or light).000 meters (219 to 2. Auxiliary ____ Muzzle velocity __---_-_-- Range: Maximum -------------. (bipod) ------------As heavy machine gun (tripod) -----------. d.500 to 3.827 yards (heavy.000 yards (light). To prevent the safety lever from jumping from either the "safe" or the "fire" position.Rear vertical leaf sight with open V notch.000 feet per second. Sights: Standardc sights-------. with tripod _---and telescopic sight).3.-A manual safety is located on the left side of the receiver.

This gun cannot be cocked with the safety lever Operating handle ~. By1- Base used for AA mount or bipod mount in rear position Belt tab Loaded belt (feeding from left side) Figure 39. (2) To load and fire. in the feedway on the left side of the receiver (if you have no tab on the belt. When the letter "I" is exposed. with the open ends of the links down.G. . when the letter "S" is exposed. in the "safe" position. that is. 39). the gun is ready to fire.-Insert the tab of the belt (see fig.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 61 spring-actuated catch is assembled to the safety lever.-Sketch showing method of inserting loaded belt in feedway of M. 34. This catch engages in notches cut in the receiver at the "S" (sicher--"safe") and "E"' (Feuer-"fire") positions and holds the safety in the position where it is set.-(a) Using belt from belt box.

since otherwise injuily may result from the handle moving forward when the trigger is pulled. This may be done with the feed cover either open or closed. Check . Close the cover plate. The bolt now catches in its rearward position. Now cock the gun by pulling the operating handle. and can be released only by squeezing the trigger. The operating handle must be returned to the forward position before firing the gun. on the right side of the receiver. to the rear as far as it will go. underside of the feed block.62 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS take two cartridges from the end of the belt and use the empty links as a tab).-Close-up of 75-round saddle-type drum. and pull the belt through until the first round is stopped by the three cartridge-holding pawls on the Figure 40.

-Press the catch on the sliding lever of the drum. as this gun.-Check the sights to see that both the front and rear sights are in position. more than likely the gun will be set up to take these drums without any changes.-Press the bottom part of the double trigger which is marked "D" (Dauerfeuer-"continuous fire").MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 63 the safety lever to be sure that it is in the "fire" position. (c) For full-automatic fire. Engage the hook which is on the front (narrow) end of the drum onto the lug on the front end of the feedplate lower assembly. has a marked tendency to jump. (e) Using 75-round double drum. 40) is found with the gun. Now proceed as in belt loading from a belt box (see d(2)(a). and move the cover to the open position so that the tab end of the belt can be pulled from the drum. Insert the tab in the feedway. 61. that is. (d) Using 50-round belt from drum.-If this type of drum (fig. Turn the rear end of the drum toward the gun until the spring catch on the drum engages the lug on the rear end of the feedway. with the open end of the links down. and it also has a folding dust cover to protect the breech mechanism when the drum is not in place on the gun. p. No belt is used in this type . 41). with a special feed-cover (see fig.'single-shot fire"). in full-automatic fire. This special feed-cover has an opening to take the 75-round drum. above). Press the top part of the double trigger which is marked "E" (Einzelschussfeuer. The assistant should hold down the bipod legs. (b) For semi-automatic fire. with the letter "F" exposed. that is.

The required range is then set. 8.--The rear sight is divided into meters.-German method of firing M. see fig. 43 and 44). Figure 41. Use the trigger for semi. Place the drum in position. 5. 34 from bipod mount. 8 See fig. above. Pull the operating handle to the rear and then push it forward.-The telescopic sight is used with the tripod mount for aiming the machine gun in either direct or indirect fire (see figs. p. straddling the feed opening and thereby depressing the dust cover. in meters. for the method of aligning German sights.64 GE'RMAN INFAiTRY WEAPONS of drum. 42. (3) Sights-(a) Rear sight. When direct fire is being employed the shutter is set to direkt ("direct").8) (b) Telescopic sight.or full-automatic fire in the same manner as in firing belted ammunition from a belt box or drum. thus cocking the gun and placing the operating handle in a position where it will not fly forward when the trigger is squeezed. . on the elevation drum by turning the elevating knob.G. thus exposing the meter graduations of the elevation drum. (For a conversion of the meters into yards.

100-mil diviDElevation sions) and elevation micrometer (fine. The elevation scale graduations read from 0 to 10 (0 to 1.G. 34. on the elevation scale and elevation micrometer.000 mils) for actual elevations of from minus 300 to plus 700 mils. The 300-mil setting corresponds to 0 elevation.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 65 In indirect fire the shutter is usually turned to indirekt ("indirect"). thus covering the elevation drum and bringing into position an index for reading the elevation micrometer. 1-mil divisions). 44) is provided for use in establishing the safety point of minimum elevain mnils is read on the elevation scale (coarse. then set. l "o~ 'o qqo Figure 42.-Rear sight of M. in mils. ° A collimator (see fig. showing relation between yards and meters. . The required elevation is Rear sight leaf Thumb nut for raising or lowering sight .

G-Scale index. N-Elevation drullm (direct fire). E-Micrometer index. H-Light window. F-Azimuth scale. I'-Shutter. D-Throwout lever. .G. K-Collimator clamnping screw. C-Azimuth micronleter. J-('ollimator. L--Eyepiece. MI-Cross level. R-Wing nut.-Telescopic sight on M. 34. Q-Elevating knob.66 GERMAN INFAANTRY WEAPONS A-Longitudinal level. Figure 43. B-Azimuth knob.

The collimator traverses with the telescope.-If the gun fails to fire.G. cock it by pulling the operating handle to the rear. 34 (rear view).MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 67 tion for firing over the crest or over the heads of friendly troops. Aiming is accomplished by lining up this cross with the target. back the operating handle. distance. In drawing. the gannermust know by the . (4) Immediate action. As one looks into the collimator. and then squeeze the trigger.--(a) General. but can be elevated or depressed.-Telescopic sight for M. a cross may be seen which remains stationary as though it were at an infinite yepiece Collimator Eyepiece Colli mator clamping screw Cross level Elevation scale Shutter Elevation micrometer (indirect fire) Elevating knob Figure 44.

" and squeeze the trigger. or if a cartridge case falls out of the ejection port. In case another cartridge becomes stuck in the same chamber after a short time. put the safety on "fire. but should put the gun on "safe. the feed-block lower assembly should be removed. the gunner may. If the bolt was already in the extreme forward position and the cartridge was not fired.68 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPON'S feel whether the bolt was in the extreme forward position or whether it was halfway forward. if the cartridge is al- ready in the chamber. If there is a cartridge in the front part of the receiver. try to fire again. If the cartridge has not been loosened within 5 minutes. after he has made sure that the dud cartridge has been ejected. When heated by firing. it should be removed. the gunner should close the feed cover. the lock and the barrel should be changed. Then the cartridge in the chamber can be removed by the gunner at his leisure. a thorough cleaning of the chamber is recommended. and remove the belt from the feed-block lower assembly in order to see whether a cartridge has been left in the front part of the receiver or in the barrel. . However. If the shot does not go off. " open the cover with the left hand. If necessary. a barrel which has a live cartridge in the chamber must never be changed immediately. the bolt should be left in the extreme forward position in order to prevent a "cookedoff round" (self-ignition of the cartridge in the hot barrel) when the breech mechanism is open. the gunner must in no case try to fire again. If no cartridge is ejected when the bolt is drawn back.

and push the cartridge into the proper position in the link of the belt. extract the cartridge-case remnant from the barrel. and then jams a new round into that part of the empty case remaining in the chamber. replace the worn belt-feed lever. c. d. The barrel is free. b. the bolt is in order and in the proper forward position. belt link bent or too wide). The belt-feed (lever) is worn. using the extractor for ruptured cartridges which may be found in the M. When time permits. first remove the new round and change the barrel.-The following chart may be helpful in curing stoppages: Symptom Cau~seRemedy 1. open the cover. d. The cartridge is too far back in the belt (belt improperly filled. a. b. (When beltfeed is used) a.G. 34 tool kit. Put in a new feedplate lower assembly. c. The feed-plate lower assembly is broken. 524652--43-6 . Put in a new spring. The cartridge does not center the feedway. The spring of the belt-feed lever or spring of the compressing lever is broken. Draw back the lock.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 69 If the bolt pulls the base off a cartridge case in extracting it. Load and try to fire again. If the gun does not fire. (b) Stoppages.

1. d. The canmling ways on the locking piece are too rough or the lock is jammed in the cartridge chamber. Screw the recoil booster tighter. The cartridge is not pushed out of the belt or out of the drum. The reaction of the bolt is insufficient because the recoil is too weak. b. Clean and oil the dirty parts. Change the bolt. put on a new Empty the drum. The barrel is free. for example. c. the bolt is in order and in the plroper forward position. The cartridge sticks too tightly in the belt (bent belt-link). e. The bolt is obstructed in its forward movement. (When drum feed is used. The drum is properly filled. If this does not work. The contact surfaces of bolt are too rough. b. The spring in the drum is too weak. It is caught on the cartridge (in the belt or the drum). movable parts are dirty or not oiled. c. Remove the cartridge from the belt link. b. The recoil booster is loose. The cartridge does not center the feedway. improperly filled drum later and fill it again. with the 75-round saddletype drum) a. Change the barrel. Take the drum off and try by shaking to bring the cartridge into the right position. Put on another drum retighten the and slack spring in the drum.70 Symptom GE'RnMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Cause Remedy ima. b. a. . d. e. a. 2.

A round is not fired. d. c. The cartridge is not pushed out of the belt or out of the drum. a and b. The ejector spring is weak or broken. g. A deformed cartridge is in the barrel.spring rod is jammed in its rear position. . The sear is worn or broken.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 71 Remedy Symptom Caunse 2. loosen the tension on the spring in the drum. The feed pawl does not take hold of the cartridge (in the belt or the drum). c. Replace the sear. Replace the feed pawl spring. In drum feeding. Put on another drum. f. The bolt is obstructed in its forward movement. 4. in spite of sufficient recoil and forward movement of the lock. The bolt is in its extreme forward position. There are dirty or rough locking lugs. The ejector is worn out or broken. b. e. a. a. e. a live cartridge is ejected. Change the safety grip-sp)ring. The firing-pin spring is broken or too short b. c. Change the bolt. a and b. It is caught on the cartridge (in the belt or the drum). Clean and oil the dirty parts. The feed pawl spring is weak or broken. d. g. The safety gripspring is too weak. f. 3. Remove burrs or rough places on the receiver. g. f. Change the bolt and replace the firing pin (new spring). f. the cartridge is pressed too hard against the bolt. g. The return . The firing pin spring is weak or broken. In reloading. The bolt is broken or the return spring is weak or broken. c. Reload and fire again. Replace the bolt or return spring.

b. Remove the belt from the gun. a.-To unload (using the belt drum or belt). b. Cartridge case is not extracted. d. The ejector is worn. and pull it back again. and set the safety lever to the "safe" position. A cartridge case is jammed in the chamber. Raise the feed cover by pushing forward the feedcover catch (at the rear end of the feed cover). especially a and d. c. Let the bolt spring forward once more. later remove the cartridge case from the barrel. d. If this does not help. c. a. cock the gun by pulling the operating handle to the rear.72 Symptom GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONSI Cause Remedy 5. See under 2. change the barrel. Repair the extractor spring. Change the belt or drum. The extractor is worn or broken. c. Change the position of the gun. 6. b. a. b. Insert a new ejector stud. A cartridge has bounced outside of the gun and sprung back into the gun through the ejection port. Change the bolt. . A cartridge case is not ejected. Change the bolt. (5) To unload. c. The cartridge is jammed in the ejector opening by the closing bolt. The recoil is insufficient. Change the barrel. d. close the feed cover. The ejector stud is loose or worn. A cartridge case is torn off (ruptured case). a. d. After checking to be sure that the chamber is empty. above. The bullet of the new round has struck the cartridge case still sticking in the chamber. The extractor spring is weak or broken.

(b) Procedure. Spare barrels are regular equipment with the M. 45).-Removal of barrel of M. in cases of emergency.or double-barreled containers by the gun crew. 34 and are carried in either single.--Cock the gun and set the safety lever to the "safe" position.-(a) General. after firing 400 rounds.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 73 move the safety lever to the "fire" position. proceed as in unloading with the belt or belt drum. Push in the receiver catch (located just below the rear sight base on the left side of the barrel jacket) and turn the receiver almost a half turn in a counterclockwise direction (see fig. To unload when using the 75-round double drum.G. or.G.-The barrels on this gun should be changed after firing 250 rounds near sight Operating handle fS \ Turn stock counterclockwise allow removol of hot barrel ~to Receiver catch Barrel Barrel extension Figure 45. (6) To change barrels. Lower the shoulder stock until the barrel slides . and ease the bolt forward by holding the operating handle and squeezing the trigger. 34 in full-automatic fire. except that the double drum must be removed before the feed cover is opened.

grasp the cradle. and then lock the clamping lever.-The elevating handwheel is on the left of the elevating gear (see fig. On this mount. (See figs. 34 and 35. it should be unfolded and erected as follows: (a) Release the clamping lever on the front leg. using an asbestos hand pad which is furnished with the spare-parts kit.-After unfolding and 1 erecting the mount. (7) Tripod mount. . grasp the handle. ° first place the rear end of the machine gun on the mount so that the projections on each side of the gun fit into the claws on the cradre (see fig. Raise the mount to the required height and tighten the wing nuts. 46) until it stands erect and engages the upper part of the mount. extend the front leg to the required position. it' is considered to be a heavy machine gun.74 GERMAN INLFANTRY WEAPONS out of the barrel jacket. 34). (c) Elevation and traverse. Now level the piece and insert a cool barrel into the barrel jacket. (b) Loosen the wing nuts on the rear legs and push the rear legs back. 34 is employed on its tripod mount. Push the press lever forward and raise the cradle.G. '°If the tripod mount is folded. The front part of the gun is secured by means of the hinge clamp. Set the safety lever to the "fire" position and commence firing. Remove the hot barrel. Turn the receiver back to the right until the receiver catch again locks together the barrel jacket and the receiver. drawing the elevating gear smartly back (fig. then lower the muzzle end of the gun onto the cradle.) (b) Mounting gun on tripod.-When the M. with the other hand. overhead and indirect fire nay be employed. (d) Adjust the legs.-(a) General. so that the cradle is horizontal when the elevating gear is adjusted to its old position. (c) With one hand. 46). The machine gun can now be mounted on the mount.

G. for a translation of the plate containing overhead firing data. pp. There is a clamping lever for locking the traversing slide. and adjustable elevating stops are provided to enable the gun to be elevated gradually. 46).MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 75 A wing nut is furnished for clamping the elevating gear. (See tables 1 and 2. below. 34. 76-77. Traversing stops are arranged for the traversing arc.-Rear view of tripod mount for M.) a handle on the right in which an oil bottle is fitted. . Adjustments for direction are made by shifting the traversing slide along the traversing are by means of Overhead firing table Elevating handwheel handle slide Uji-n n114 Clamping lever Figure 46. which is graduated to facilitate adjustment of the stops (see fig.

...---------.......-. _ . The limits of the searching fire... ... Actuated in this manner.....---.-. OVERHEAD FIRING TABLE (IN YARDS) Safety S fety Divisions Distance to own troops Sight 55 _-_--------.....-_ _-.----35 1300 .._ _----------23 330 20 440 __---. 23 880_ . 44 2250 2030 1800 1730 1550 1500 1450 1350 1350 1250 1250 1250 1300 1350 1450 1500 1550 1730 1750 1860 ._-_ -_.76 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS In front of the elevating gear is an automatic searching-fire device.-----27 250 ___ .-------._ .. and consequently the distance on the ground covered by it.--.---23 280 ----.......------------20 660 --------------22 770_ ..-37 1400 ----------------41 1500 _.... 20 550 . ...._ 49 110 39 140 _.. operated by the recoil of the gnm in the cradle.._----__ 29 1100 ... 27 990 ... 21 1200 --.-----.. which causes a projection on the cradle slide to strike a roller on the device.-.-....-..-----_ 61 80 _--------... 29 220 --... 35 165 31 190 . 1920 Table 1 ... can be increased or reduced by means of two levers at the inner end of the elevating handwheel.-... the device alternately elevates the cradle step by step and depresses it similarly each time a shot is fired..-.

2190__ ------2300__ -------._ 1860_.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS OVERHEAD FIRING TABLE (IN YARDS)--Continled Sa fety Distance to own troops Divisions Sight 77 _ 1670_ 1750_ ---------------. 2950_ 3060__ 3170__ 3280_ 3390_ _ _ _ 49 55 2030 2130 60 66 73 81 90 99 109 119 131 143 156 170 184 199 215 Table 1-Continued TABLE OF MINIMUM CLEARANCE Target Depth Double depth 1300 2190 2840 3280 3600 1 2 3 4 5 2 4 6 8 10 Table 2 .-----------------1970__ --------2080__ -----. --.2400__ 2520__ 2620_ 2730__ 2840_.

-Method of joining metallic-link ammunition belt. 47). and when it is used for antiaircraft purposes.78 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS e. Each length holds 50 rounds. . Ammunition (1) Belts. but lengths of 250 rounds are usually the longest used.-The belts used in this gun are of the nondisintegrating metallic-link type. Lengths may be joined together to give a belt Figure 47. the 50-round belt in the belt drum is employed (see fig. of any length. When the gun is moved frequently.

Patrone mit Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern and Leuchtspur (Patr.m. S. Patrone mit Spitzgeschoss m7it Stahlkern (Patr.-At one end of a belt there is a link with a small semicircular tongue (fig.). cartridges with steel-core pointed bullet with tracer.).S. in red ink.K. Ammunition is not packed in belts. and black tip on the bullet. Ried lacquer coloring around the primer seat. Green lacquer coloring around the primer seat. This can be done while the gun is firing.500 rounds to a case. 47 ®). 47 ( B) and at the other end of the belt (fig. the tongue on the last link of one belt is slipped through the hole on the first link of the second belt until the small projection on the tongue is over the small D-shaped hole in the center of the curved body of the link (fig. Red lacquer coloring around the primer seat. Ammunition is usually packed 1. S. it is loaded into the nondisintegrating . 47 0).L. c a r t r i d g e with steel-core pointed bullet. (3) Types of ammulition. cartridge with heavy. To join one belt to another.L'Spur).MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 79 (2) To join belts. s. A case weighs about 113 pounds. pointed bullet.m. Now place a round in the link and the belts will be locked together (fig. K. 47 0 B) there is a link with a small rectangular hole in the side of the curved body of the link. Ammunition cartons holding 5-round clips have their identification labels overprinted with I.Type German Name Identification Ball AP tracer_- · Patrone schweres Spitzgeschoss (Patr.

f. 79. This will correctly place the round in the belt.-Release the feedcover catch (at the back end of the feed cover) by . it must be kept cleaned and oiled at all times. The belts should be kept oiled. and sand. The same type of care and cleaning given to similar U. These belts are not expendable. Belts are connected as stated in e (2). 34 is sensitive to dirt. Insert rounds in the belt from the end with the projection until the cannelure of the cartridge case is stopped by the tit on the end of the projection. Rotate the bipod until it is on top of the barrel. above.-Raise the front sight. One application of heavy oil will last for 10 usings of the belt in the gun. weapons will suffice. To function well. dust. (b) Feed cover and feed block. The ejection-port cover should be kept closed whenever the gun is not firing.-(a) To remove bipod. p. (5) Lubrication of belt.G. (4) Hand-loading belt. Maintenance (1) Oiling and cleaning.-The belts should be lubricated with heavy oil if the cartridges are kept in them for any purpose other than immediate use.Stripping. Press the leaf spring catch of the bipod (located underneath the barrel jacket behind the bipod guide).-When there is no belt-loading machine available. and then remove it from the gun. This ejection-port cover will automatically open whenever either of the double triggers is pulled.-The M. S. the belts may be loaded by hand. (2) .80 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS metallic link belts with the aid of a belt-loading machine.

G. Press the buffer-housing catch. recoil. and raise the feed cover. 48) from right to left and remove the feed cover.-In removing the buffer housing. 34. the large return spring will be released. (c) Shoulder stock. Therefore. Center the belt feed slide in the feed block and pull the feed block off the feed cover. Give the Feed-cover hinge pin Folding dust cover Sear Buffer spring Figure 48. Press the feed-cover hinge pin (see fig.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 81 pushing it forward. (d) Buffer hotusivg and return spring.-Cross section of trigger. which is located beneath the rear end of the receiver back of the pistol grip.-Press the catch located on the underside of the plastic shoulder stock. care should be taken to maintain pressure on the buffer housing while removing it. and feed mechanism of M. shoul(ler stock a quarter turn (in either direction) and then remove it. turn the buffer housing a quarter turn counter- .

Withdraw the bolt from the open rear end of the receiver. Accessories Several accessories go with the gun itself. INFANTRY WEAPON'S clockwise. are- These (1) Spare barrels. above. When putting the bolt assembly back into the receiver. center the feed arm extension on the feed cover. (3) Assembly. Make sure that the nail-like ejector plunger is in its forward position. insert the bolt head in the receiver so that the bolt rollers fit into the receiver roller grooves. (4) Belts and belt boxes.82 GERMAN. bringing the bolt back. slide the feed block onto the feed cover so that the belt pawls will be on the left side of the gun. (e) Bolt.-Assembly is carried out in the reverse order to that used in the stripping procedure. page 73. (f) Barrel. in a single. pushing with the finger if necessary. When assembling the feed block to the feed cover. . (2) Tripod for using the weapon as a heavy machine gun (this may have an antiaircraft mount adapter). Next. (5) Belt drums and belt-drum holders.and a double-barreled holder. The following steps should be checked. usually three.-Proceed as stated in d (6). and allow the tension on the return spring to be gradually relieved.-Strike the operating handle toward the rear with the palm of the hand. g. first center the belt-feed pawl slide on the feed block. (3) Antiaircraft tripod. Finally. The raised rib on the feed arm should match the grooves on the stud on the top rear end of the bolt carrier.

is the (.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS (6) Tool kit. 49) as a light machine gun. 1 bolt carrier.G. 42" General Recently a new dual-purpose machine gun has appeared which may eventually replace the M. welding. it can be used a. 1 open-end wrench. 1 oil container. (7) Canvas or leatheroid breech cover. 34." " r. which mleans . and riveting. M. 83 (Ersatz- 13. on a tripod as a heavy machine gun. 1 feed-plate lower assembly. 1 ruptured-cartridge extractor. 1 oil container with bristle brush on cap. 34 in the German Army. this M. 1 open-end wrencllh. 1 firing-pin retainer. 1 screw-top metal container. and for numerous other special purposes on special mounts. Like the M. containing 1 spare bolt. Because of the wide use of stamping.G. 1 plastic case containing sulphur (used with oil as a lubricant). 1 firing pin. Package of rubber muzzle caps.erman abbreviation for Masch inentelcliu "machine gun. 1 belt-feed )awl-slide housing. (8) Spare parts (in the belt box marked with a yellow "E" stiicke-"replacements"): 1 brush. 1 belt-feed pawl assembly.G. {9) (10) (11) (12) (13) Asbestos hand pad (for handling hot barrellls). 1 firing-pin lock. 1 cartridge-extractor tool.G. as an antiaircraft machine gun (on a special tripod). on a bipod (see fig. 2 complete bolt assemblies. 1 antiaircraft auxiliary ring sight.

A new and faster method of barrel change is another outstanding characteristic of this new model. G. colen Figure 49.G". however. which is still the main armament of all types of German units.G. (2) Barrel jacket opening on the right side to allow change of barrel. (4) Leaf rear sight sliding on ramp (unlike the Al. 34 rear sight. b. . The rate of Feed-cove. 3/4 and grooved for the fingers. 42 may be identified by(1) Rectangular shape of receiver and barrel jacket. (This change is effected by a handle. which is of the upright leaf type). 34.84 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS gun is far easier to manufacture and less smooth in finished appearance than the M. How to Identify The M.G.-M. also on the right side. but a certain decrease in accuracy has resulted. fire has been increased over that of the M. 42.G. 34.) (3) Operating handle much larger than that of the M. equally as serviceable as the older model. It is.G.

and the gun cannot fire semi-automatically. 34. above. The edges of the wheels are in contact with the operating surfaces of the locking camns in the barrel extension. the locking cams force the locking wheels outward. 7 524652°-43 . 42 is a combination shortrecoil blowback weapon.G. which project above and below the slots. while the blowback pressure from the barrel drives the bolt to the rear. On firing. 58. The barrel is then locked to the bolt head.-The M. the barrel extension and the bolt recoil together a half inch.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 85 (5) Separate antiaircraft rear sight hinged on the right sight base.12 the bolt is locked to the barrel by means of two movable locking studs.) c. These locking studs resemble a wheelbarrow wheel and axle. the body being round and having a separate bolt head of a nonrotating type. As the bolt closes. (6) Bolt of a different pattern from that of the M2I. so that their axles.G. Instead of the rotating bolt action of the M. Characteristics (1) Gcneral. and then the locking cams serve to unlock the locking wheels from the barrel extension. This system gives a high rate 21 See note 7. 34. p. 34. (7) Single trigger.G. located in the bolt head. operating the weapon. and are placed symmetrically in slots in the sides of the bolt head with their axles vertical. enter the corresponding slots in the barrel extension. (The trigger mechanism is not equipped with two triggers as in the M.G. and operating on two locking cams on the barrel extension.

G. which is what the Germans seem to be seeking 3 in this weapon.-M. / /I Return spring AA rear light (folded down) U Feed pawl Single trigger / Figure 50.G. I' This increased rate of fire is not desirable ftom any point of view except that of use as an antiaircraft machine gun. 50). The tripod mount is the same as that of the M. . 34. No detailed information on the antiaircraft tripod is available.G." The feed is the same as for the M. 34 except for the method of fastening the gun to the mount. a belt or drum being used (fig. a special feed cover to take a 75-round saddle-type drum is made for this gun. It is not known whether Feed arm Fe ed pawl Feed-r igh cover catch Cortrid dge stop Rear sighf Operating handle 4 Feed-ploate lower assembly /.86 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS of fire. 42 with feed cover raised to show feed mechanism. because the accuracy is decreased considerably.

MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 87 (2) Table of characteristics. in antiaircraft versions of the gun.187 yards) (there is an antiaircraft rear peep sight hinged on the open rear sight base). 2.Combination short recoil and blowback.050 to 1. Caliber _-------___________ 7.000 meters (219 to 2. Rate of fire (cyclic) __..92-mm not expressly forbidden for use in the machine gun (for example. 1.350 rounds per minute. 39 antitank rifle is unsuitable..1. for use by the light (ground) version when the position of the gun is being changed frequently and rapidly. contained in a metal drum attached to the feedblock._---. 50-round belts. Leaf with open V notch sliding on Rear --__-------------ramp. graduated from 200 to 2. . Non-disintegrating metallic-link Type of feed _------------which holds 50 rounds and may be connected to make longer belts.92-mm (. (bipod) ---------------Sights: Front ---.312 inch). 318 manufactured for the Pz. Principle of operation . Ammunition_ -_-___----All types of 7. because it will not fit in the chamber). on a folding post. the Patr. or.---------Inverted V adjustable for height.B. Weight as light machine gun 251½2 pounds.

. The handle should then be shoved forward again until a "click" is heard.) d. kept in the maintenance kit. To put the gun on "safe." push the safety catch toward the right until the letter " F " (Feuer-"fire") is exposed. it works from side to side. Pull the belt through until the first round can be engaged by the feed pawls (a three-cartridge width). When ready to fire.G.88 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Auxiliary -__-____. How to Operate (1) Safety." push the safety catch toward the left (facing the muzzle). take two cartridges from the end of the belt and use the empty links as a tab). . The safety catch cannot be operated unless the gun is cocked. and fitting on the barrel jacket. cock by pulling the operating handle to the rear as far as it will go. Do not cock the gun until ready to fire. (This is used in conjunction with the folding antiaircraft rear peep sight attached to the rear sight base. 34 safety.-There is a plunger-type safety catch located just above the pistol grip. To put the gun on "fire. with the open end of the links down.-Insert the tab of the belt. until the letter "S" (sicher"safe") shows on its surface. (2) To load and fire. The cartridges in the belt should not be pulled so far as to cover the feed opening in the feed-plate lower assembly. The feed cover may be either open or closed during this operation. ___--_ Antiaircraft ring sight. This will prevent a misfire.--(a) Using belt from belt box. Unlike the M. in the feedway on the left side of the receiver (if there is no tab on the belt.

p." and press the single trigger. . and move the cover to the open position so that the tab end of the belt can be pulled from the drum. above. move the safety to "fire. 64. above. No belt is used in 1 See fig. more than likely the gun will be fitted to take these drums without any changes. This special feed cover has an opening to take the 75-round drum. 5.G. that is. Now proceed as in belt-loading from a belt box (see d (2).-If this type of drum is found with the gun. .G. 8. p. on the opposite page). Engage the hook which is on the front (narrow) end of the drum onto the lug on the front end of the feedplate lower assembly.-Press the catch on the sliding cover of the drum. Turn the rear end of the drum toward the gun until the spring catch on the rear end of the drum engages the lug on the rear end of the feedway. for a description of the telescopic sight which may also be used with the M. with the open end of the links down. 12d (3) (b). To fire. for the method of aligning German sights. See par.'" There is no double trigger (to give provision for semiautomatic fire) as in the M. (b) Using 50-round belt from drum. 34. (c) Using 75-round double drum (if furnished with gun). and it also has a folding dust cover to protect the breech mechanism when the drum is not in place on the gun. The safety can be put on "safe" only when the gun is cocked. with a special feed cover. Insert the tab in the feedway.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 89 since the recoil (return) spring is not powerful enough to close the bolt and at the same time to shove the operating handle forward.~2.

This stoppage cannot be cleared by pushing in the end of the bolt or by using a stick or other object to remove the jammed case. About the only types of stoppage that will occur in the M. 42 are caused as follows: (1) by empty cases jamming in the catch between the bolt and the operating handle. Place the drum in position. pull the operating handle to the rear and return it to its forward position. Then pull the trigger. cock the gun by pulling the operating handle to the rear. To clear the second type of stoppage.or full-automatic fire in the same manner as in firing belted ammunition from a belt box or drum.-To unload (using the belt drum or belt).-If the gun fails to fire. and set the safety lever to the "safe" position.90 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS this type of drum. . Pull the operating handle to the rear and then push it forward. or (2) by empty cases jamming between the bolt head and the barrel extension. (d) Immediate action. Raise the feed cover by pushing forward the feed-cover catch (at the rear end of the feed cover). To clear the first type of stoppage. (3) To unload. holding the bolt level with the feed-arm roller. straddling the feed opening and thereby depressing the dust cover. Use the trigger for semi. thus charging the gun and placing the operating handle in a position where it will not fly forward when the trigger is squeezed. and moving the operating handle back and forth.G. merely hold the bolt back and shake the gun several times. the bolt must be drawn back a little by pulling back on the operating handle.

then swing the barrel-change lever toward the barrel jacket until it locks in place.G. in cases of emergency. and rotate the rear end to the right and forward (see fig.M:ACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 91 Remove the belt from the gun. and it can be withdrawn by grasping it with the asbestos hand pad furnished with maintenance kit. after firing 400 rounds.--Cock the gun and set the safety catch to the "safe" position. Push the barrel-change lever forward.-The barrel on this gun should be changed after firing 250 rounds in full-automatic fire.-(a) General. (b) Procedure. This will bring the rear end of the barrel clear of the barrel jacket. 42 and are carried in either single. To unload when using the 75-round double drum. Place the cool barrel in the loop of the barrel-change lever. 51). The single-barreled container opens up so that the hot barrel can be laid on it and exposed to the air to facilitate cooling. close the feed cover. Spare barrels are regular equipment with the M. Set the safety catch to "fire" and recommence firing. or. and ease the bolt forward by holding the operating handle and squeezing the trigger.or double-barreled containers by the gun crew. (4) To change barrels. . except that the double drum must be removed before the feed cover is opened. and seat the muzzle of the barrel in the front end of the barrel jacket. After checking to be sure that the chamber is empty. move the safety lever to the "fire" position. proceed as in unloading with the belt or belt drum.

.92 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Feed cover- Flosh hider Hollow feed arm-. 42.G._ Recoil booster Feed pawls / BarrelChange lever Feed-block lower assembly. . showing method of operating barrel extension.-M.-- Baorrel extension Bolt Cartridge stop Return spring Feed-orm operating stud _-_ Operating handle Plastic shoulder stock Figure 51.

G. 12e. (2) Stripping. this weapon must be kept cleaned and oiled at all times.-(a) To remove bipod. 34. The ejectionport cover will open automatically whenever the trigger is pulled back. above. The feed-cover hinge pin may now be removed. 34. 42 is sensitive to dust. normal care. Give the .-Like the M. and remove it from the gun. and sand. (b) Feed cover and feed block.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 93 e. (See par. 78. compress the spring clip on the feed arm and lift out the feed mechanism. Raise the feed cover to a 45degree angle (halfway). and the feed-cover assembly removed from the gun. S. such as given U.G. push back the spring-loaded cover over the pawls to the rear. the M. The ejection port should be kept closed whenever the gun is not actually firing.-Release the feedcover catch (located at the back end of the feed cover) by pushing it forward. At the same time.--Press the catch located on the underside of the plastic shoulder stock. Otherwise. Maintenance (1) Oiling and cleaning. (c) Shoulder stock. The tracks on which the bolt slides should be oiled carefully.G. will suffice. 42 and the M. dirt. To remove the feed mechanism. Rotate the bipod forward. To function well. Ammunition The same type of ammunition may be used in both the M. automatic weapons.) f. The bolt head and bolt parts should be oiled lightly.-Compress the spring catch on the bipod.G. p.

by pushing with the finger.94 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS shoulder stock a quarter turn (in either direction) and then remove. g. Therefore.-First.G. 91. (e) Bolt. which is located beneath the rear end of the receiver just back of the pistol grip.-In removing the buffer housing. spring will be released. turn the buffer housing clockwise 180 degrees (one-half turn). being sure that the heel of the firing pin (which is on the bolt housing) is on top. (f) Barrel. Accessories Not all the accessories of the M. and the extractor should be on the bottom side of the bolt. and ease the buffer housing away from the receiver. 42 are known. above. care should be taken to maintain pressure on the buffer housing while removing it.G. The following steps should be checked when putting the bolt assembly back into the receiver. Withdraw the bolt from the open rear end of the receiver. or return. press the trigger. Insert the bolt head. (d) Buffer housing and return spring. but they are probably similar to those of the M.-Proceedas stated in d (4). then strike the operating handle toward the rear with the palm of the hand. The feed-arm operating stud should also be upward. thus bringing the bolt to the rear. .-Assembly is carried out in the reverse order of that used in the stripping process. releasing gradually the tension on the return (recoil) spring. 34. if necessary. p. (3) Assembly. the large recoil. Press the buffer-housing catch.

S. 36 is identified by(1) Rectangular base plate (no bipod legs). this German weapon is a muzzle loader.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 95 16 14. MODEL 36 a. . mortars. It is a two-man load. b.-Like U. 161.Gr. but unlike the U. A third man carries ammunition. c.W. or 1 18 In combat this weapon could be carried complete by one man. below).Gr. It is a small light weapon. '6 Leichter Granatwerfer 36 (I. 36). (3) Cleaning rod clipped to the base plate. General This 5-cm weapon. 5-CM '5 LIGHT MORTAR. is the standard light mortar of the German Army. a second man would then carry the ammunition. (2) Position of the traversing and elevating mechanisms.17 the base plate and the traversing and cross-leveling gear being carried by one man. '"The German tactical symbol for a light mortar is f7. weapons. The German style will be followed in the descriptions of German weapons in order to avoid confusion with similar U. S. The 5-cm is designed for high-angle fire and cannot be depressed below a 45degree elevation. Characteristics (1) General. (See par. 21. models it is fired by a trigger arrangement.W. which is comparable to the U. ' Note that the German practice is to designate in centimeters weapons with calibers of 20 mm and higher. S. 60-mm mortar. easy to carry but somewhat slow to set up. and the barrel and elevating screw by another. How to Identify The l. S. p.

.. 60 mm (2. not trigger fired.54 inches.. 100 yards.. 60 mm.. trigger -......8 0m Principle of operation. 42 pounds.... drab. stenciled in black.--- 31 pounds -----------...4 inches).. Over-all length ___ Maximum diameter ---------Weight..------2 pounds ------------T N T ------------------- Muzzle loader.. or zones --------Propellant ----Markings ------Fuze Sights ------.... HE. Elevation is established by a quadrant. 45 degrees to 90 degrees. Maximum range --Minimum range___ Type of shell. 600 mils (change in deflection).. 60mm ..96 pounds. Traverse ---------Elevation Rate of fire_ Nitrocellulose -----------Bomb painted maroon. 4... Later ones are laid by means of a white line on the barrel..... HE filling_ No.6 inches.. 8. 140 mils (70 either way)... Weight in action. Early models have a telescopic sight..935 yards...------------ Muzzle loader. 28... S. ----- '--------- .._ ~_I German 5-cm IennIg U.--50 mm (1..-... 9. normal: 1 round in 4 seconds (this rate can be maintained).5 inches__ ------------50 m m --------... dull olive practice. Nitrocellulose. TNT.. Maximum: 1 round in 2 seconds. Caliber ----------Length of barrel -. Percussion ... Superquick.97 inches) ----18 inches---------------568 yards . HE... of charges. 2.... 6 rounds in 8 seconds (but this rate cannot be maintained)... -..55 yards ----------------HE. blue. 1..96 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (2) Table of characteristics..

How to Operate (Figs. wait at least 1 minute before unloading.-Pull out the barrel hinge pin.-After releasing the mortar shell. the trigger lever should be immediately pulled several times.-Left side of 5-cm mortar. 52 and 53) (1) Safety.Barrel handle Trigger lever Range indicator cover -Bubble-housing -Barrel hinge-pin head Traversing bracket Cleaning-rod brush case J Figure 52. (2) To unload. -release lever collar .MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 97 d. If this fails. and gently raise the bottom of the barrel until the shell slides into the hands of the man waiting to receive it. If a misfire occurs. lower the elevation indicator. . the loader and pointer lower their faces to the ground.

. Be sure that the range indicator is folded down. Squeeze the catches at the lower end of the elevatingscrew pillar. Quick-release lever Barrel hinge-pin heod.-(a) Adjust the trav- ersing handwheel to zero. Pull out the hinge pin connecting the barrel to the base plate. Figure 53.98 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (3) Preparationfor action. (b) Hold the barrel by its handle and adjust the elevating screw to its minimum elevation. (c) Insert the barrel in the base-plate socket.-Right side of 5-cm mortar. and engage them in recesses in the front end of the traversing bracket.

-The mortar is leveled by means of the two leveling handles situated on each side of the base plate and connected by a cross bar. the collar is . turn both handles to the left. To center the bubble: (a) to move the bubble toward the firer. loosen the ground on which the base plate is placed. The are is graduated from 60 to 520 meters (65. turn both handles inward. Bed the base plate into the ground by pressing down on the barrel-plate handles so that the base plate will slope slightly in the direction of the target. (f) Place the mortar in position. (c) to move the bubble to the right.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 99 (d) Push in the hinge pin and raise the range indicator.-Range is shown on an arc fixed on the left side of the barrel by the rear edge of an indicator hinged on the traversing bracket. (5) Elevation. turn both handles outward. and the indicator can be folded down when the mortar is dismantled. (e) If time permits. and lay it roughly on the target by moving the base plate and by using the white line on the barrel. (d) to move the bubble to the left. A leveling bubble is mounted on the traversing bracket on the left side of the barrel socket. turn both handles to the right. (4) Leveling.4 to 568. A rough adjustment of elevation can be effected in the following manner: pressing a quick-release lever unlocks the catch of the sliding collar connected to the upper end of the elevating screw pillar. (b) to move the bubble toward the target.8 yards).

100

GERMAN

INFANTRY WEAPONS

then free to slide along its guide, and the barrel can be elevated by means of the barrel handle. As soon as the range ordered is indicated approximately on the range scale, the sliding collar is locked in its guide by the release of the quick-release lever. Fine adjustments are effected by rotation of the sleeve of the elevating-screw pillar. (6) Laying for line.-The mortar can be laid direct or by means of aiming stakes. Rough adjustments for line are effected by moving the base plate with the traverse set at zero. A deflection scale consisting of two rows of graduations is marked on the cross bar which connects the two leveling handles. The distance between the graduations in each row is 20 mils, but the rows are offset so that graduations on one row are halfway between those on the other. This permits measurement of deflection to the nearest 10 mils. The total traverse-300 mils right and 300 leftis 600 mils (33°45'). Fine adjustments are made by rotating the traversing knob until the desired deflection is shown on the traverse scale. (7) To load anzd fire.-The layer's position during loading and firing is on the left behind the mortar. He lies on his stomach, holding the leveling handles and steadying the base plate with his forearms. The loader, lying on the right of the layer, loads by inserting the shell in the muzzle, tail first. The loader then grasps the trigger, and both he and the layer lower their faces to the ground, the layer still steady-

MACHINE

GUNS AND

MORTARS

101

ing the base plate by resting his weight on it. To fire, the loader pulls the trigger slowly and evenly.
e. Ammunition

(1) Shell.-The 5-cm mortar shell, model 36 (5-cm Wgr. 36),19 has a cast-steel shell casing with a fin assembly screwed into the base and is fired by a propellant charge. contained in a shot-gun cartridge-type container, which fits into the hollow-fin assembly and is held there by a set screw. (2) Fuze.-The fuze (IVgr. Z. 38)2° is a nose-percussion type fitted for graze, and becomes armed when approximately 60 yards from the muzzle of the mortar barrel. Ammunition is carried in a steel container that holds 10 rounds and has handles for carrying.
f. Maintenance

This mortar requires no more maintenance than the U. S. 60-mm mortar. Bearing surfaces are well protected from the entrance of dust, and the threaded sections of the elevating and traversing mechanisms are completely enclosed in tubes or long nuts. A cleaning rod and brush are attached to the base plate.
`95-cmr Werfergranate 36 (50-mm mortar shell 36).
20 WerferTgranatziinder 38 (mortar shell fuze 38).

524652--43-

8

102
15. 8-CM
21

GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPON-S

HEAVY MORTAR, MODEL 34

22

a. General

The 8-cm model 34 mortar (see figs. 54 and 55) is the standard heavy infantry mortar of the German Army and like the U. S. 81-mrm M1 mortar it is a smoothbore, muzzle-loading weapon for high-angle fire. For manhandling it is broken down into three parts: (1) the

Figure 54.-8-cm mortar, model 34, in action.

base plate, (2) the tube, and (3) the bipod with the traversing, elevation, and cross-leveling mechanisms. It is basically similar to the U. S. 81-mm mortar, except
'Actually this is an 8.1-cm mortar, but it is called an 8-cm by the (Germans. e Schihcrer Granatweerfcr 3S (s.Gr.W.34). The German tactical symbol for a heavy mortar is _/ or _7

MACHINE GUNS AND

MORTARS

103

that the cross-leveling mechanism is not connected with the bipod leg, as in the U. S. 81-mm mortar, but is controlled by a handwheel located underneath the elevating mechanism between the bipod legs. This weapon is so similar to the U. S. heavy mortar that anyone who has'used the latter can handle this
Ponoramic sight

Tube Breech end of tube Bipod

Traversing handwheel

Guide tube Bose plate reech cop Cross-leveling handwheel

Figure 55.-Right view of 8-cm mortar, model 34.

German weapon effectively after a little practice. The German sights are graduated in mils, are basically the same as the U. S. mortar sight, and so will not cause any difficulty. This weapon is a serviceable mortar and should give a good account of itself in American hands.

104 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS b.2 inches). Principle of operation.Muzzle loader. Minimum 400 to 1. …_----__.200 meters (437 to 1. this German weapon is a muzzle-loading. How to Identify The 81-mm heavy mortar..312 Effective range__ ___ yards).078 yards). (2) Bipod with cross-leveling handwheel located between the bipod legs. Weight of shell. model 34__-. (2) Table of characteristics. c. 125 pounds.900 meters (2. fired by a firing pin situated at the inside breech end of the barrel. Characteristics (1) General.5 kilograms. or 734 pounds. may be identified by(1) Rectangular base plate with only one socket to take the ballshaped section (the spherical projection) on the breech (or base) end of the tube. Sights -------------panoramic sight for fine adjustments. range ----------.__ .60 meters (66 yards). It cani be carried by three men or loaded on a horse-drawn cart.3. model 34. Caliber Maximum range ------1. A panoramic sight is mounted on the left side (as you face the muzzle) of the traversing-mechanism yoke. smoothbore mortar which is fired by dropping the mortar shell down the barrel-not by a trigger arrangement as with the German 5-cm light mortar.4 mm (3. Weight in action __-----------_----81. heavy mor- tar. S.-Very similar to the U. 6 rounds in 8 to 9 seconds (but this Rate of fire _-_-___ rate cannot be maintained). Line on tube for rough laying.

lM~ACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 105 d. model 34. wait one minute. loosen the mortar barrel clamp. and finally gently raise the breech end of the barrel until the shell slides out into an operator's hands. 55 and 56) (1) Safety. put on "safe" by pressing in the spring-actuated bolt. How to Operate (Figs.-In the event of a misfire.-Left view of 8-cm mortar. in order to prevent shells from sticking. which is located on the ball-shaped section of the breech (or base) cap. and tighten the mortar barrel clamp again. Be sure that the bore of the barrel is kept clean. rotate the tube 90 degrees. points to the letter "S" (sicher--"safe") (about 90 degrees). . and then turning the bolt in a clockwise direction until the arrow on the bolt Panoramic sight Elevating crank Guide tube Safety bolt Figure 56.

(3) Elevation. With the deflection scale on the sight at zero degrees if the aiming point or stake is . Set the elevation clinometer by moving the elevating crank.-Set up all aiming stake or select an aiming point in line with the target (see fig.-Sight the upper part of the sight on your aiming point or stake. Turn the tube in the socket until the spring-actuated bolt is on top. Note the angle shown on the deflection scale of the sight.-(a) Set the base plate and bed it into the ground.-Check the firing table (see table 3. open the mortar barrel clamp and set the elevation so that one-third of the elevating screw shows above its tube. . (5) Determination of direction of fire. and lay the mortar for direction by using the deflection adjustment on the sight. p. place the sight on the sight base. below) for the elevation necessary for the range and charge that you are using. and set the sight to 1200. 110. set the ball-shaped section of the breech cap of the tube into the base-plate socket. put the bipod in position with the elevating handwheel toward the tube. and adjust the sight accordingly. 57). and then place the barrel inside the clamp between the position marks on the barrel itself. lay the mortar roughly by moving the bipod legs and then set the legs by pressing the spikes into the ground. (4) To zero mortar. spread the bipod legs. with the flat section to the side. tighten the mortar tube clamp.106 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (2) Preparationfor action. and see that the line formed by the bipod legs is parallel to the line formed by the forward edge of the base plate.

MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 107 in front. . Figure 57.-Laying 8-cm heavy mortar for direction during training. or at 180 degrees if the aiming point or stake is in back of the mortar. lay accurately for line. Be sure the cross-level bubble is kept centered while you are determining the direction of fire.

For example. (8) Immediate action.108 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (6) Corrections for direction.-When the order to load is given. or the inside of the barrel may require cleaning. guiding it in with the left hand. to correct to the right. Ammunition The model 34 mortar shell is of conventional type with a percussion fuze. containing 154 grains of powder and giving a muzzle velocity of 246 feet per second. Charge II.-Corrections are made by adding or subtracting the required deflection (positive or negative) on the. If the primer has not been struck. page 105. is fitted to the shell. a new firing pin may be needed. and then relaying the mortar by using the traversing handwheel. the extra deflection must be added to the angle on the deflection scale. into the muzzle of the mortar. If the primer has been struck. At this point all members of the crew should lie flat on the ground. (7) To load and fire." allow the shell to slide down the barrel and remove the left hand from the muzzle. fins first. e. the setting on the deflection scale should be increased by 30 mils.-In case of misfires. above. insert another propelling cartridge into the base of the shell. Charge 1.deflection scale of the sight. On the order "Fire. follow the safety precautions listed under d (1). it must be subtracted from that angle. con- . take the shell in the right hand and insert it. To correct for direction to the left. if a round falls to the right of the target and the estimated correction for direction is 30 mils to the left.

Twenty-four rounds are usually carried by a mortar crew in action. Cleaning materials will be found with the equipment or can be improvised from materials at hand. below. for elevation and charge information. 110. S. . each case holding 4 complete rounds. having 432 grains of powder and giving a muzzle velocity of 427 feet per second. mortars. containing 570 grains of powder and giving a muzzle velocity of 499 feet per second. Charge III. are used as additional increments and fit between the tail fins.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 109 taining 293 grains of powder and giving a muzzle velocity of 344 feet per second. Ammunition is carried in steel cases. Maintenance The mortar requires the usual care and cleaning given to U.) f. or Charge IV. (See the firing table on p.

0 566. 390 1. 185 1.110 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS FIRING TABLE 8-CM HEAVY MORTAR. 313 1. 526 1. 426 1. 263 1. 4 632. 237 1. 372 1. 094 1. 437 1. 393 1. 2 545. 488 1. 382 1. 327 1. 259 1. 250 1. 0 239. 4 414. 2 327. 447 1. 127 1. 507 1. 058 1. 016 1. 380 1. 365 1. 371 1. 289 1. 224 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 65. 0 348. 6 719. 8 261. 4 87. 415 1. 348 1. 349 1. 4 305. 469 1. 8 479. 337 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.5 KILOGRAMS (7. 2 218. 6 392. 0 130.75 POUNDS) Range Meters I~ Elevation Charge Yards - Elevation Charge Mils Mils 1. 404 1. 34--3. 545 1. 4 196. 0 457. 8 697. 430 1. 301 1. 370 1. 6 501. 8 588. 410 1. 4 741. 235 1. 0 675. 450 1. MODEL 34 (GERMAN) 8-CM SHELL NO. 360 1. 6 610. 6 174. 2 436. 383 1. 157 1. 276 1. 2 654. 305 1. 325 1. 34 WEIGHT OF SHELL NO. 2 109. 8 370. 357 3 3 3 3 3 Table 3 . 210 1. 4 523. 6 283. 8 152. 2 1. 283 1.

2 1. 021 1. 052 1. 264. 2 981. 258 1. 309 1. 351. 060 1. 040 1. 135 1. 504. 020 1. 249 1. 220 1. 155. 183 1. 317 1. 256 1. 280 1. 017 991 962 926 874 1. 160 1. 4 1. 282 1. 196 1. 206 1. 4 1. 249 1. 8 1. 062 1. 417. 180 1. 193 1. 182 1. 210 1. 0 784. 340 1. 0 1. 292 1. 4 959. 329. 046. 080 1. 526. 300 1. 2 1. 8 1. 040 1. 6 1. 6 828. 000 1. 005 987 968 1. 130 1. 090. 235 1. 8 1. 0 1. 325 1. 0 1. 400 763. 438. 349 1. 177. 8 1. 260 1. 341 1. 118 1. 094 1. 320 1. 199. 140 1. 0 1. 333 1. 4 850. 4 1. 286. 262 1. 460. 081 1.MACHINE GUNS AND MORTARS 111 FIRING TABLE--Continued Range Meters Yards Elevation Charge - Elevation ---Charge Mils Mils 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1. 212 1. 06& 2 1. 0 893. 301 1. 167 1. 240 1. 6 937. 8 915. 275 1. 267 1. 082 1. 395. 6 1. 203 1. 024. 002. 2 1. 220. 184 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Table 3-Continued . 173 1. 6 1. 067 1. 8 1. 100 1. 360 1. 106 1. 2 872. 0 1. 269 1. 152 1. 6 1. 276 1. 133. 228 1. 141 1. 214 1. 101 1. 8 806. 4 1. 221 1. 222 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1. 273. 240 1. 231 1. 118 1. 482. 308. 163 1. 2 1. 284 1. 4 1. 6 1. 152 1. 289 1. 191 1. 038 1. 380 1. 0 1. 199 1. 120 1. 111. 242. 242 1. 200 1.

720 1. 896. 613. 740 1. 056 1. 2 2. 900 1. 787. 620 1. 940. 460 1. 4 1. 116 1. 049. 008 994 980 963 946 925 901 869 3 1. 800 1. 874. 143 1. 569. 6 1. 6 1. 700 1. 540 1. 071. 744.. 660 1. 152 1. 8 1. 2 1. 591. 500 1. 722. 135 1. 045 1. 6 1. 8 2. 580 1. 809. 4 2. 8 1. 780 1. 2 1. 2 1. 4 1. 033 1.. 6 1. 0 945 917 881 1. 962. 860 1. 520 1. 077 1. 840 1. 700. 087 1. 0 1. 097 1. 600 1. 831. 820 1. 107 1. 176 1. 6 2. 8 1. 126 1. 420 1. 547. 853. 635. 067 1. 005.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Table 3-Continued . 678. 918. 560 1.112 GERMAIN INFANTRY WEAPONS FIRING TABI LE--Continued Range Meters Yards Elevation Charge Mils Mils Elevation Charge 1. 640 1. 0 1. 168 1. 440 1. 027. 4 1.---. 765. 4 1. 021 1. 656. 983. 880 1. 160 -----------------I -------. 760 1. 480 1.--------------------------------------- 4 4 4 -----------------.. 0 1. 680 1. 2 1. 8 1. 0 1.

but the 3. 1942). 21. 25. 62). General The 3.7-CM PAK 2 a. The bomb is the hollow-charge type. p.45-inch antitank gun) formerly the chief German antitank gun. Its use is likely to be restricted to short ranges. These weapons are also equipment of German artillery units." MIS Special Series. The German Army provides infantry howitzers and antitank guns as accompanying weapons of the infantry. facilities have not been available to make an actual examination of the pieces. with a rod which fits into the bore. below). For a description of their employment un(ler desert condlitions see "Artillery in the Desert. has been largely replaced by the 5-cm." Pak has gained currency as a word. 113 . The gun is also in service with the Italian Army.7-cm Pak (1. 3. p. 6 (Nov. has also recently been introduced (see fig. This gun. 58 and 59). 1.' is normally towed on its own 'The information in this section is mainly based on reports. Note that the Germrna practice is to designate artillery calibers in terms of centimeters rather than millimeters (see par.Section IV. above. 2Pak is the German abbreviation for Panzerabwehrktnone which means "antitank gun. 3. xii. which has a good penetration performance at ranges up to 400 yards. A stick bomb 5.7-cm P]k is 3 The German tactical symbol for i or See fig. No. which is organic equipment of the German infantry regiment. 161. Pak 38. It has recently been provided with the AP 40 type of ammunition.7 inches in diameter and 11 inches long. ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS' 16.7-cm Pak is still likely to be encountered (see figs.

--3. _ Length of gun --_----__.625 feet per second. 3._-_--. Weighing only about 880 pounds. but may also be carried in a truck.8 to 10 rounds per minute.25 degrees.2. it is a suitable weapon for use by airborne troops. Effective range --.52 inches. Table of Characteristics Muzzle velocity: AP ------------------. ._------Rate of fire ------.450 feet per second. b. AP 40-------------6•00 yards. Depression ---------------.114 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS wheels by a prime mover.-There are three safety arrangements: (a) Before the breech can be opened after a misfire. Traverse -----------------. the handoperated block stop must be released by pressing the plunger (see fig. How to Operate (1) Safety..60 degrees (6 degrees with trails closed).65. c. 59).8 degrees. Elevation ----------------.7-cm Pak. Figure 58.

ANTITANK GUNS AND iNFANTRY HOWITZERS 115 Figure 59. the safety catch on the left prevents the sear from releasing the firing pin. as a spring-loaded plunger prevents the actuation of the sear. . (2) To load and fire. (c) The gun cannot be fired when the buffer cylinder is not correctly assembled. set the safety catch at Feuer ("fire").7-cm Pak in action. to close automatically. To load the gun. and also prevents the breech from opening.-To open the breech.-3. insert a round and give it a final impetus in order to cause the breech. 60 and 61). (b) When turned to sicher ("safe"). press the hand-operated block-stop plunger (top left of the rear face of the breech ring) and turn the breech-mechanism lever clockwise (see figs. The plunger is pressed back automatically by inertia when the gun is fired.

but with the Recoil recocking guids Hand-operot d Iloc-sop pungo r Trip lever Left trigger- Elevating Figure 60. push the right-hand firing lever toward the piece. and start opening the breech until resistance is felt. and the block stop goes forward by inertia. press the push button in the center of the elevating handwheel. The firing mechanism is recocked automatically during recoil.-Close-up of rear of 3. Firing may also be accomplished by pulling outward the trigger lever located on the right of the breech.7-cm Pak .116 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS To fire the gun.-With the trails closed. To recock after a misfire. or the breech might open completely. the traverse is only 106 inils (6 degrees). The breechblock is automatically unlocked after firing. Movement of the breech-mechanism lever then extracts the cartridge case. (3) To open trails. The hand-operated block-stop plunger must not be pressed in.

Lock the trails in the open position by pushing up the hinge locking levers. lift the locking lever at the trail end.062 mils (60 degrees). Press down the locking levers of the trail hinges. (4) Sights. rear).S 117 trails open it is 1. with duties as follows: Right trigger . the other for horizontal).ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY IIOWITZE.-The German gun crew numbers six. 524652°-43 -9 . Adjustment of the sights is obtained by two pairs of adjusting screws (one pair for vertical adjustment. (5) Gun crew.Trip lever lever- H'and-operated block stop Figure 61.7-cm Pak (viewed from top.-Breech mechanism of 3. To open the trails.-The sights are mounted on an upright bracket carried on the top of the carriage.

7-cm shell case and primer are used with a propellant charge of 216 grams of nitrocellulose.. one in the nose and another in the base. I This projectile consists of a mild steel body... AP 40 shot I. The rod fits into the muzzle end of the bore. 2lbs 10 oz. I E tracer shell ----- Base (Bd.. (5103)) None .. (c) No.-..7-cm Pak (see fig.7cm Pak Pzgr. 62). . Black shell marked 3. 40. and all safety precautions observed. . Ammunition The following three types of ammunition (carried in 12-round metal containers) are fired: Type Weight of Weiht of com proectile round projectile 3 lbs 2 oz 2lbs . 4 drives the prime mover. In addition to the ordinary types of ammunition listed above the Germans have developed a stick bomb for use with the 3... 1 loads and fires the piece. 2 and 3 handle the ammunition.118 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (a) The chief of section is responsible for seeing that all duties are properly performed. 1 b 6 oz-. There are two fuzes.5 oz Fuze Fuze Mrkin Marking AP tracer shell.Delayed action (either A. all commands executed. 89 Rh S274 or Rh S82). (b) The gunner lays the piece.. I lb 8 oz. The standard 3. (e) No. Z.7cm Spgr. d. The stick bomb consists of a hollow-charge projectile attached to a perforated sleeve within which there is a rod.. and tungsten carbide armor-piercing core..7cm Pak Pzgr. the concentric perforated sleeve fits over the muzzle end of the barrel.... 12.-...Z. Gray shell marked 5. an aluminum-alloy windshield (ballistic) cap.. Black shell marked 3. (d) Nos.

e. and open the breech all the way by pulling the breech-mechanism lever to the right rear.-(a) To disassemble breech mecha.ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS 119 Air space -- Bursting charge Base fuze - a_ Sleeve.-Stick bomb for use with 3.-Press the hand-operated block stop. to fit / over the barrel Rod. to fit inside the boi Fins (six in number) Figure 62.nism.7-cm Pak. Insert an artillery tool . Maintenance (1) Stripping.

(b) Recoil. being filled from the center of the piston shaft at the rear by using a screw pump. further firing is unsafe.-The recoil cylinder is hydraulic. To disconnect the gun from the recoil system. This presses back a safety plunger at the lower forward face of the breech ring and locks the firing mechanism. Release the extractors. The recuperator is of the double-banked spring type. as the piece may become separated from the cradle. insert the actuating shaft of the con- . The liquid is of the glycerine type.-Insert they hand-operated block-stop spring and retaining bush. during recoil. Open the breech fully and remove the actuating spindle and the breech-mechanism lever. (2) Assembly of breech mechanism. Remove the axis pin and the spring case by turning 40 degrees to the right. German handbooks recommend that no one shall stand within 35 feet directly in rear of the gun when it is being fired.120 GERMANE INFANTRY WEAPONS between the shoulder of the plunger and the link of the breech-mlechanism actuating shaft in order to take the weight off the spring. The cylinder contains 2 pints when full. use a small flat bar to turn the connecting ring counterclockwise. Place the breechblock in the breech ring in the fully open position. If. Remove the extractors. Remove the breechblock. the recoil indicator on the right of the cradle reaches graduation 595. slightly closing the block to remove the axis pin. about one-half turn.

and then close the breech. Carriage (1) Axle. (See fig.062 mils). and press home the axis pin. turns of the handwheel. E. Insert the extractors by slightly closing the breech to admit the extractor axis pin. (3) Traversing mechanism.-Thelower carriage has a pivot housing and bearing face for the top carriage.apon and operates the traverse with his right hand by a small handwheel (clockwise to the right. and connect the breech-mechanism lever. however. and release it. the traveling clamp.-The gunner is on the left side of the w. Replace the main spring and cover plate. and is completed by 301/. locked when firing. (2) Lower carriage. Next. and the locking gear for the trail legs. . counterclockwise to the left). placing the flats of the plunger into a link of the breechmechanism actuating spindle.) The traverse is 60 degrees (1.ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZE:RS 121 necting arm into the breech ring. which is. It also houses the axle and carries the traversing rack. Insert the actuating spindle. Insert the firing pin and release the sear. giving the cover plate a quarter turn.-The axle incorporates an independent suspension. Then release the hand-operated block stop and open the breech until it is held by the extractor claws. Insert the axis pin as far as possible. The releasing and locking are controlled by the opening and closing of the trail legs. insert the return spring and plunger. 63.

which the gunner operates with his left hand. 63. The leg shield folds under Lever to adjust suspension ( -Eccentric adjustment for traversing mechanism -Upper carriage Elevating handwheel- Figure 63.-A locking device for use when traveling is mounted at the rear end and mates with the upper carriage when fully elevated. . (See fig.122 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPON6 (4) Elevating mechanism. A leather buffer is fitted to the rear end and forms a stop for the gun on counterrecoil.-The are of 21 degrees (372 mils) elevation and 13 degrees (229 mils) depression is completed by 33/2 turns of the handwheel. showing traversing and elevating mechanisms.7-cm Pak. (6) Shield.-Carriage of 3.-The shield is composed of the gun shield and the leg shield.) (5) Cradle.

' The latter. note 2. see par. 1. Mounted on a split-trail carriage and Figure 64. 16a. 118. and folds down to the ground level when in action. it is one of the most effective German antitank guns at present in service and is part of the equipment of the German infantry regiment. the upper half being hinged and folded forward as required. high-explosive shell. The gun shield has a slope of approximately 45 degrees when in action.7-cm Pak. and armor-piercing shot (AP 40). General This 50-mm (1. above. 64 and 65) was introduced in the spring of 1941 to replace the 3. tactical symbol for the 5-cn Pak is or above. 5-CM PAK 4 38 a.ANTITANK GVUNS AND INFANT'RY HOWITZE!RS 123 the lower carriage when traveling. p. .6 The gun fires armor-piercing shell.-5-cm Pak 38. p. 17.97-inch) antitank weapon' (figs. 5The Gernanl 6 See fig. normally towed by a half-track prime mover. T See paragraph 16d. p. xii. 113. note 1. 4Panzcrabwcchrkanone ("antitank gun").

.124 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS a light shot with a "windshield" nose 8 and tungsten carbide core...800 feet per second.540 yards.-The carriage is provided with a tubular split trail and an armor-plated double shield. 500 yards. 675 pounds. 770 yards.---. 3..940 feet per second.-.000 yards. (2) Table of characteristics. The latest type of armor-piercing shell has a piercing cap... b....---------_ _. 2. Weight (gun and mechanism) ----Weight of complete equipment (including extra wheel) -----------8Ballistic cap... The gun has a muzzle brake... 880 yards..-.-. Effective range: AP --.... Characteristics (1) General. 1... 319 mils (18 degrees).. 2. HE .700 feet per second. 124.Maximum range: AP . 2..640 yards.Muzzle velocity: AP -__ -AP 40 -----HE . 10 to 15 rounds per minute. .96 inches.. 115 mils (65 degrees).AP 40 -----------------------HE ------. AP 40. has a good performance at ranges under 500 yards. 2..145 pounds. 478 mils (27 degrees)... Practical rate of fire ---------------Over-all length of gun (including breech ring and brake) -----------Depression Elevation -Traverse .. . 1.

ANTITANK GUNS AND IN'FANTRY HOWITZE'RS

125

Figure 65.-5-cm Pak 38 from rear.

c. How to Operate (1) Safety.--There are three mechanical arrangements which operate as safety devices: (1) unles the breechblock is properly closed, the safety plunger will not enter its recess and the gun cannot be fired; (2) the safety plunger must be in its recess in the lower face of the breech ring before the firing shaft can be rotated; (3) the breech cannot be opened if the striker is not cocked, because the firing shaft is engaged with the safety plunger, which is in its recess. (2) To load and fire.-To open the breech by hand, recock the firing mechanism by turning the safe-and-fire lever to sicher ("safe") (fig. 66) and pushing it for-

126

GE'RMAN LNFANTRY WEAPONS

ward again; then turn the breech-mechanism lever in a clockwise direction. The breech will then be held in the open position by the extractors. To load the gun, insert a round smartly. The round will then release the extractors, and the breech will close automatically. To fire the gun, press the push button in the middle of the elevating handwheel (fig. 67). If this fails, pull the firing lever backward or lift the plunger. A semi-automatic action operates when the plunger in the center of the front end of the spring case is
Spring case
r

Breech-mechanism lever
Extractor-releasing lever

Firing sha

Breech-

Firing plunger

Safe-and-fire lever Figure 66.-Breech of 5-cm Pak.

Breech ring

(The spring assembly for the breech-mechanism lever consists of the spring case, which is in two parts (the front with the piston retaining cap and the rear with the piston, piston catch, and pawl), the rack-spindle retaining catch, the rack spindle, the semi-automatic and hand plunger, and the inner and outer springs. When set for hand operation, the piston catch is rotated inwards and the carriage lever does not engage it. The piston head then has the word EIN ("in") showing upwards.)

ANTITANK GUJNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZE'RS

127

pressed in and turned so that the word ein ("in") shows upward. When the plunger is set in this position, the breech is opened automatically during the counterrecoil. The gun is always recocked automattically during recoil. The breech is ready to close automatically when a round is slammed in.

Figure 67.-Gunner's position on 5-cm Pak, showing traversing and elevating handwheels.

(3) To open trails.-Push to the right the cradle clamp which fixes the gun in the fully elevated position. The trails being fully open, the weight of the gun is taken off the road springs, and a catch on each side locks the trails in the open position.

128

GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS

(4) Sights.-The sighting gear is operated from the left side and is fitted to the left saddle trunmnion. The sight bracket carries an open or telescopic sight, and is provided with a lateral-deflection gear, a range drum, and means of adjustment for line and elevation. Magnification of the telescopic sight is threefold. A battery for lighting the graticules for night shooting is fitted. The range drum is graduated in black for AP (Pz.) and in red for HE (Spr.). The figures 5-8-10-12-14 on the AP scale correspond to ranges of 500, 800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 meters. Ranges of 300, 700, and 1,100 meters are set on intermediate graduations, which, however, have no figures against them. The scale for HE is marked 4-6-8-10, etc., up to 24. These figures correspond to ranges of 400, 600, 800, 1,000 meters, etc. Ranges in between are set on the intermediate graduations. A small lever with a worm screw operates the lateral deflection gear. When a tank approaches directly from in front, the lever should be pointed towards the gunner. If the tank is moving across the line of sight, the lever should be turned two notches in the direction of travel (for example, the lever should be turned to the left for engaging a tank moving from right to left). The lever should be moved only one notch for an oblique target. Lateral deflections may be set in this way for targets traveling at less than 12 miles per hour. For targets traveling at more than 12 miles per hour the graticules on the sight should be used. The central

. and lays for direction.. respectively. If the telescope is missing. 1 loads and fires the piece. and all safety precautions observed. the layer sets the range drum to 8 Pz. . 8 Pz -_.-The Germans have a gun crew of eight. 2. and 5 handle the ammunition. (5) Gun crew. an emergency open sight. Less than 550 ---- 8 Pz __---.. all commands executed. (d) Nos. For example.ANTITTANKX GTUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZE. Between center and bottom of tank. and lays the right laying-off mark on the center of the target. (b) The gunner sets the announced deflection.100 to 880 ----880 to 550 ----- 8 Pz-. whose duties in firing are as follows: (a) The chief of section is responsible for seeing that all duties are properly performed.- Between top and center of tank. and the left and right laying-off marks for targets moving to the right and left. held by a lanyard on the right of the sight bracket. moves the lever one notch to the left.RS 129 mark should be employed for tanks approaching from the front. 4. to engage a tank 770 yards away and traveling obliquely to the left at 18 miles per hour. 3. Center of tank. (c) No. can be fitted. 6 drives the prime mover. (e) No. The Germans use the following table as a guide to avoid frequent alteration of the sight during action: Range (yards) Range-drum setting Part of tank laid on 1.

130 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS d... Remove the breech-mechanism lever dust cap. Maintenance (1) Stripping.. pinion. 40. and remove the castellated nut and case complete. 118.. Rotate the breech-mechanism lever to the right and rear. 5-cm Pak 88 Spgr.5 in_.. e.. AP 40 shot.89) Black. Base -.. note 1.7 in 19. Remove the extractors (fig.. 69) and crank.__.. Remove the retaining pin from the firing and recocking ..-(a) To disassemble the breech mechanism.. Open the breech slightly until the key on the actuating shaft is in line with the keyway on the breechblock. Withdraw the breechblock (fig.. Close the breech. 68) from the left.4in_ 23. None___ Black.. Ammunition The following three types are fired: Type Weight of complete round Length of complete round 21. which must be uncocked.-.HE shell .. Dark green. pulling it upwards. above. I See paragraph 16 d.shell case marked 6-cm Pak 38 Pzgr. and actuating shaft.I-l 9 lbs3oz. Weight of projectile Fuze Identification AP tracer shell. Remove the extractor releasing lever.. 2.... shell case marked 5-er Pak 38 Pzgr. thus moving the breechblock and extractors. p.025 lbs . and set the safe and fire lever to "fire".. swing the case to the left and front. 7 lbs 3 oz.6lbs 11 oz.Z. shell case marked 3 Ibs 15 oz___ Nose.-Remove the securing pin from the spring case of the breech-mechanism lever (fig. 66). (A. 4lbs9oz. Press the striker cap in and remove with the spring and striker..

Ports are drilled in the conical part of the piston. Remove the firing and recocking shafts with the safety plunger. Toward the end of the run-out. this plunger enters a bore of smaller diameter in the piston rod. (b) Recoil cylinder.-Extractors of 5-cm Pak.ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS 131 Figure 68. which is connected to the gun lug. Counterrecoil control is effected by a brass control plunger screwed to the end of the tapered rod.-The recoil cylinder is mounted in the cradle. shafts. The piston rod. is hollow and fitted with a bronze piston head. Tapered . a tapered rod is screwed into the front plug of the cylinder and projects into the hollow piston rod.

The actuating shaft receives the breech mechanism lever at the top. and is held in position by a spring. The front has a toe piece engaging the safety plunger. when the breech is properly closed. the recocking shaft is moved so that a projection on it retains the firing pin in the cocked position. The rack pinion is mounted centrally on it. The rear has a projection which engages the firing plunger. . it forces the firing pin to the rear.132 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Ofn D Breech-mechanism lever ust cover Rack pinion Actuating shaft Sliding block tanng pin Firing plunger Safe-and-fire lever [11 block Safety plunger Recocking shaft SFngprin Cap Figure 69. the right end of the shaft engages the firing pin and. allowing the plunger to drop into a recess in the breech ring. is clear of the toe piece. the firing shaft holds the firing pin in the cocked position. The recocking shaft has a safe-and-fire lever incorporated which can be operated independently. and the crank below. At Fcuer ("fire"). the projection is cleared. When the safe-and-fire lever is set to sichcr ("safe"). which. in the lug on the front lower end of the breech ring. The firing phlunger. and allows the front shoulder on the firing pin to engage the firing shaft.-Breechblock of 5-cm Pak. The rack pinion engages the rack in the spring case when operated by hand or semi-automatically. The firing pin has a shoulder at the front and a lug at the rear to engage the firing and actuating shafts. rotating during recoil. (The breechblock is of the horizontal sliding-block type arranged for semiautomatic working. engages the firing shaft when firing. ready to fire. The firing shaft is in two parts. When the breech is closed. A recocking lever on the left engages a cam on the cradle during recoil. The crank is fitted with a sliding block which engages a radial groove in the breechblock. preventing it from moving forwards.

ANTITANK GUJNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS 133 grooves. The firing pin is held cocked by the firing shaft. forcing the piston to the rear and compressing the inner and outer springs.) 524652°--3----10 . according to German instructions. be filled until the oil gauge on the near edge protrudes 44 mm (13/4 inches). To close the breech (by hand): Release the extractors by loading a cartridge or actuating the extractor releasing lever. and is released when the cutaway portion on it is opposite the front shoulded on the firing pin. The recoil cylinder should. the crank is actuated. To close the breech (semi-automatic): Release the extractors by loading a cartridge. On run-out. When the breech is properly closed. The recocking process follows on recoil. The piston-rod stuffing box is packed with soft packings. The inner spring then asserts itself. which engages the firing lever and rotates it. The breech should close automatically. To fire: The firing plunger is forced upward by a lever on the carriage. The piston with the rack spindle then moves forward under the action of the outer spring. The firing pin has been recocked during recoil. the rack engages the breech-mechanism lever pinion. metal to metal. allowing the rack spindle to move forward and rotate the pinion and breech-mechanism lever to the closed position. until the piston catch is forced inward and the outer spring reasserts itself. To open the breech (semi-autoila tie): Set the spring-plunger to semiautomatic.56 inches). When the breech-mechanism lever is pulled to the right rear. revolves it. Normal recoil is 700 mm (27. On recoil a stop fitted to the cradle overrides the piston catch. forcing the sliding block to the left and thereby opening the breech. the stop and front face of the piston catch engage. 730 mm (28. set the semi-automatic plunger to AUS ("out"). the plunger can enter its recess in the bottom of the breech ring.74 inches). The word EIN ("in") will then show upwards. and rotates the breech-mechanism lever to the right rear. which are cut in the plunger. The safety plunger in the breechblock has a cutaway portion to engage the firing shaft. graduate the control. The extractors eject the cartridge case and retain the breechblock in the fully open position. so opening the breech. To open the breech (by hand): First. thus firing the round.

spring. The breech ring is rectangular andt is secured to the barrel by a locking collar. Fit them to the breechblock. The hydropneumatic and recuperator cylinders are situated one above the other in the cradle. Place the striker.134 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (c) Recuperator. ) . by. Fit the crank to the breechblock and place the breechblock in the breech ring. The recuperator system is attached uiderneath the breech rinig by a letlac(hable lig. loose barrel construction and is fitted with a muzzle brake. (2) A s s e m b l y. Insert the firing and recocking shafts.-Assemble the breech-mechanism spring case to the breech ring (fig. 70). Insert the safety plunger in the breechblock. (The barrel is of monobloc. Assemble the pinion on the actuating shaft with the dust cap and breech-mechanism lever.-The recuperator is hydropneumatic.-Barrel and breech of 5-cm Pak. I _( _~ Barrel Breech-mechanism spring case Breech ring- Gu~de~ Locki collar ng l. A clinometer plane is providled. and the key on the actuating shaft in line with the keyway on the breechblock. The extr. with the pinion engaging the assembling line on the rack. Figure 70.cetors are fitted to.sses through the breech ri ng. an extractor releasing lever which pa . and kept in position. securing them by the retaining pin. The recuperator piston rod is fixed to the gun lug. and cap in the breechblock.

The carriage consists mainly of the following: (1) Trail. . (3) Saddle.-The cradle houses the recoil cylinder and recuperator. The right leg has a cradle clamp near the front and a traversing stop. and traversing handle. The ends are cranked forward to take the wheels. lifting handle. filled with air under pressure and a small quantity of liquid.--The trail has split tubular legs. and push the block to the closed position until the extractor releasing lever can be inserted. The semi-automatic cam arms which engage the recoil cylinder stop on the breechmechanism lever are bolted to the left side. and is pivoted to the axle. (2) Axle. so that the legs can be locked together for traveling.ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY IIOWITZERS 135 Assemble the extractors to the breechblock. Each leg has a spade. The sighting gear and layer's guard are mounted on the left trunnion and a hydropneumatic compensating cylinder is fitted to the right.-The axle houses a pintle to which a traversing rack is fixed. which are muzzle-heavy. The function of the cylinder. is to balance the cradle and piece. (4) Cradle. The left leg is fitted with a stop for the cradle clamp and a lunette and locking bolt.-The saddle supports the cradle and gun. Carriage The carriage is of the split-trail type carried on two disk wheels. with a third detachable wheel to increase the speed of bringing the gun into action. f.

actuates the firing mechanism. (6) Traversing gear. General The Germans introduced the 7.-The shield consists of two 4-mm sheets of armor plate spaced about 1 inch apart.I. .5-CM LIGHT INFANTRY HOWITZER a. and 78). (9) Shield.--The cradle firing gear is operated from the elevating handwheel. The left side of the shield has a sight port.136 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (5) Elevating gear. xii. It is found in the cannon company of the infantry regiment. S. The German tactical symbol for the or light infantry howitzer is Ie 11 " Leichtes Infanteriegeschiitz is translated literally as "light infantry weapon.--The sighting gear is operated from the left side and is fitted to the left saddle trunnion. " See fig.G.151 mils)). 1. terminology is termed a howitzer.s Infanteriegqcschiitz 18. 75." Sometimes Geschiitz is translated as "gun. 7.-The traversing gear is operated from the left side of the carriage and allows about 321/2 degrees (565 mils) traverse left and right (a total of 65 degrees (1.--The elevating gear gives 27 degrees (478 mils) elevation and 18 degrees (319 mils) depression. 71. to which is attached a cable. A push knob. p. 18. 181° in 1933-34 as an infantry close-support weapon (figs." There are two versions: one on steel-type artillery wheels and the other on pneu9Leichte." But this weapon in U. It is operated by a handwheel on the left side of the carriage. (8) Cradle firing gear. above. (7) Sighting gear.5-cm l.

-...ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS 137 matic tires.-The gun cannot be fired until the barrel is properly closed..5-cm mountain-infantry howitzer. and is often referred to as the 7.870 yards..... Characteristics (1) General. airborne troops. 730 . 177 mils (10 degrees). The breech-mechanism lever and firing lever cannot be moved when the arrow on the safe and fire lever is at sicher ("safe") because (a) the toe on the breechmechanism lever engages the safe-and-fire lever and prevents any movement. (2) Table of characteristics.292 mils (73 degrees)...feet per second." b. The steel-wheeled carriage is also used by... This weapon can be split into six loads (a maximum of 165 pounds each) for pack transport.Muzzle velocity (maximum) Maximum range Theoretical rate of fire ----Length of barrel _--.-. h The German tactical symbol for the mountain-infantry howitzer is .-Tlhe howitzer is drawn by six horses or by a motor vehicle.. 1. Traverse __-------------------Weight in action _-------------.. c. 880 pounds. How to Operate (1) Safety.. 72 and 73)....5 cm).-------------3. and (b) the toe on the safeand-fire lever engages a cutaway portion in the firing lever and prevents any movement (fig.. 15 to 20 rounds per minute. A projection on the firing lever must enter a recess in the breech-mechanism lever when fully closed (figs. 74).. Depression_ -_----------------Elevation . 212 mils (12 degrees).. 10 calibers (10 x 7.

138

GE'RMAN LNFANTRY WEAPONS

(2) To load and fire.-To open the breech, set the arrow on the safe-and-fire lever to Feuer ("fire"). Then disengage the retaining catch by gripping the breech-mechanism lever handle, and pull the breechmechanism lever to the rear. This movement causes the actuating link to be revolved in the slipper block.

Figure 71.-7.5-cm infantry howitzer in action.

The inner stud of the actuating link, being displaced from the bearing center of the link, is given a circular motion, causing the slide to be raised and drawn slightly to the rear. The slide, dovetailed to the breech ring, causes the barrel to be revolved about its trunnions and the breech end to be raised to the open position.

ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS

139

When the round is inserted, the extractor is carried forward, the breech-mechanism lever is rotated, and the actuating link causes the slide to move down and forward in its groove, thus lowering the breech to the closed position.

Extractor

6"
I111111Ii

A4

lever
lever

I
Figure 72.-Breech of 7.5-cm infantry howitzer.

140

GERMAN INYF'ANTRY WEAPON-S

To fire, pull the firing lever to the rear. On rotating the firing lever to the rear, the torsion spring is put under tension. The spring-loaded lug on the shaft engages the firing pin, forcing it to the rear against its spring and cocking it. When the lug on the shaft trips the lug on the firing pin, the latter is allowed to move forward and fire the gun. The firing pin can be recocked and fired by pulling the firing lever to the rear. (3) Sights.-The sighting mechanism works on the reciprocating principle (see figs. 76 and 77). It is fitted with a range drum graduated to 1,320 meters and a
Firing-lever retaining plunqer \ retanExtractor retaining catches,

Figure 73.-Breechblock and firing mechanism of 7.5-cm infantry howitzer.

ANTITANK GUN'S AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS

141

correction scale for the five charges used. A rocking platform for the sight is operated by a worm spindle and deflection nut. A clicker arrangement is also incorporated. The dial sight is the Rundblickfernrohr 16 (Rbl. F. 16) (fig. 79).3 The Rbl.F. 16 has a magnification of Extractor retaining catches Safe-and-fire lever

spring

'Cover
Figure 74.-Firing mechanism parts of 7.5-cm infantry howitzer.
' A more modern sight, the Rundblickfernrohr 32 (Rbl.F. 32), is used on the newest equipment.

-7. the upper prism micrometer head is adjusted to a setting of 300 mils. There is provision for illuminating the graticule at night. For a zero angle of site.142 GERMAN LNFANTRY WEAPONS four and a 10-degree (177-mil) field of view. The azimuth scales are graduated from 0 to 6.400 mils. the main scale being numbered every hundredth mil from 0 to 64 and the micrometer scale every mil from 0 to 100. The graticule shows an inverted Vand a broken verticle line. Figure 75. . There is no means of focusing the eyepiece. and the gunner must keep his eye about three-fourths of an inch away.5-cm infantry howitzer in traveling position.

). 18. .5-cm infantry howitzer. This shell is not provided for the 7 .-Sighting mechanism (side view) of 7. or to a . Ammunition is carried in baskets holding three rounds.Geb. The weight is 12 pounds 2 ounces.5-cm Igr. with fuze Az. 23 n.I. the cartridge cases are either 6341 (brass) or 6341 St (steel).15-second delay (m.5-cm l.A.G. Ammunition Separate ammunition is used.ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS 143 d. The following types of shell are used: (1) HE shell 7. more recent type of metal container also holding three rounds.V. or in a Cross-leveling gear Sight operating arm Sight supporting b Figure 76.V. The fuze can be set to instantaneous (o. 18.).

18.5-cmr Igr. (3) Hollow-charge shell 7. The letters Al are understood to indicate inclusion of a granular.Geb. the Dopp. .144 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS (2) HE shell 7.G. can also be used. 38. a time and percussion fuze.-Sighting mechanism of 7.5-cm infantry howitzer. The weight is 12 pounds 2 ounces. with fuze Az. 23 n.. aluminium flash composition in the filling. 18AI.Range-scale micrometer head -Range-scale drum Figure 77. When fired by l.l. (S/O60) Geb. This shell has been introduced r.A. showing range-scale drum. Z. with fuze Az. It is fired with Charge V. 38..5-cm Igr.

Figure 78. and remove the firing lever with the trsion . Al. Take out the spring and firing pin. Turn the safe-and-fire lever to Feuer ("fire").) and 7. 45 mm at 30° . Maintenance (1) Stripping.-(a) To dismantle breech mechanism. Penetration is approximately 55 mm at normal. Remove the firing-pin cover by pushing in and rotating through 90 degrees in a counterclockwise direction.5-cm infantry howitzer.ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANT'RY HOWITZERS 145 primarily for antitank purposes.-Manhandling 7. but in emergency it can also be used against personnel.5-cm Igr. ([?b. Release the firinglever retaining plunger by depressing and rotating the lever. (Ub. e.).5-cm Igr. There are also two practice shells: 7.

is closed by a stuffing box and gland at the front. Hold the breech open and remove the extractor. then insert the actuating link in the slipper and engage it with the slide. which can then be removed. the barrel can now be lifted out. The hydropneumatic cylinder is placed above the liquid cylinder. The recoil cylinder. pass the safe-and-fire shaft in fronm the .146 GERMAIN~ INTANTRY WEAPON'S spring and collar. Open the barrel until the extractor and the extractor retaining catches can be placed in position. A communicating channel connects the cylinders and a valve is fitted to regulate the flow.-The recoil system is carried in the cradle. (b) Recoil and recuperator system. with piston control rod with sliding valve. and spring.-Assemble the breech mechanism by first placing the actuating slide in its groove in the barrel. rotate the breech-mechanism lever to the fully open position and remove. together with the extractor retaining catches. The liquid cylinder has a piston and packing. After taking out the taper pin. Replace the breech-mechanism lever and taper pin. and the rear end of the piston rod is secured to the breechblock lug. The rear end has a nut to secure the cylinder to the breechblock lug. A spring-loaded valve is fitted to the front of the hydropneumatic cylinder. the recoil cylinder on the left and the hydropneumatic recuperator on the right. Insert the safe-and-fire plunger. Depress the retaining plunger of the safe-and-fire lever and remove the latter. Operate the actuating shaft until it disengages the actuating slide. If necessary. (2) Assembly.

spring. 16) used on 7. Upper prism micrometer head Main azimuth scale . Place a slight tension on the spring and push the shaft home. replace the firing pin. Insert the retaining plunger and spring of the cocking-and-firing shaft.ANTITANK GTINS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS 147 right side. . when it will engage and retain the extractor retaining catches.F. the smaller feather uppermost.Micrometer drum head Mirror Clinometer bubble Quick -release lever Eyepiece Figure 79&-Panoramic sight (Rundblickfernrohr 16. and cover. Replace the firing shaft with the two feathers engaging the feather ways in the recess. Finally.5-cm infantry howitzer.Micrometer -. RbI.

and shaft.-Thle elevating gear. (4) Traversing gear. Brackets are fitted to the ends. The traversing clamp. It consists of two side pieces supported by transoms at the front. (1) Cradle. rack. in which the wheel suspension springs and locking plungers are housed.-The cradle is trough-shaped and fitted with a cover plate. (3) Elevating gear. fitted to the right side of the axle. Toward the front. The elevating pinion is housed on a shaft between the side plates of the carriage.-The axle slides in bearings. brackets with spring-loaded plungers are fitted for the reception of an upper shield. The elevating are is secured to the under side. is fitted to the left side of the carriage.148 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS f. the locking plungers engage in the wheel cranks. Two boxes for spares are fitted. The carriage is traversed along the axle by means of a traversing nut and screw. consisting of a worm gearing. and lifting handles. a lunette. When in the firing position. The rear end is fitted with a spade. pinion. at the front. It is formed with trunnions which fit the trunnion bearings on the carriage.-The traversing gear is operated from the left side and consists of a system of gear wheels and shafts. one in the center and the other at the rear. (2) Axle. is on the right. and the recoil indicator to the right side. it is prepared with bearings to receive the trunnions on the cradle. Carriage The carriage is of the box type. supported on pneuinatic tires. securing the cradle to the carriage when traveling. .

524652-0-43-..I.ANT'ITAN'K GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS 149 (5) Sight bracket. note 10. 136. 19.-15-cm infantry howitzer in action. 33 "4is a standard German infantry support weapon found in the cannon company of the infantry regiment (see figs. and the upper end to the sight reader. 1. xii.-The sight bracket is fitted to the left side of the carriage. The Geror tactical symlhbol for the heavy infantry howitzer is n11111 I ' See fig. General The 15-cm s. above. The lower end of its connecting rod is secured to the left cradle trunnion. 15-CM HEAVY INFANTRY HOWITZER a.G. p. 4 Schwlrcs Inl(lnlteri(qgescI iitz 33 (see p. above)." It fires a Figure 80. 80 and 81).11 sL .

or a smoke shell. .150 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS high-explosive shell with a percussion fuze. and is used for either high. Figure 81.or motor-drawn or self-propelled (see fig. The gun may be horse.or low-trajectory shooting. 82).--15-cm infantry howitzer (rear view).

Table of Characteristics Caliber ---------------.1.000 yards. 1.300 mils." the rotation of the shaft forces the locking plunger back against its spring so that it projects beyond the breechblock and engages a recess in 6149. 83.57 inches. When the safe-and-fire shaft is set to "safe.1 mm equals 5.-The safe-and-fire shaft passes from the right face of the breechblock to the firing-pin way. Onle turn of traversing handwheel equals 2. How to Operate (1) Safety.?9 Diameter of wheels . is cleared by it. Muzzle velocity ----------------. 84. so marked on the breechblock.2 mils.---------------------Maximum elevation ---------------------. Its right end is formed into a grip. 790 feet per second.AlNiTITANK GUNiS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS 151 b.5 tons.3 inches. and 85).16 64. if the shaft is turned through 90 degrees. The breechblock locking plunger passes from the rear face of the breechblock to the safe-and-fire shaft (see figs. It is held against a surface of the latter by a spring. _ _--__ 149.--_-. or. it is so placed that the fiat surface either engages a surface of the firing pin.87 inches.1 mm.43.__----------------------200 mils. -Weight . 17 . c.___-------------------6. marked with an arrow which may be set to sicher ("safe") or Feuer ("fire"). At the other end it is reduced to a semicircular section.. Maxiimum rallge _______---------. 11 calibers. 18 One turn of elevating handwheel equals 12 mils.l8 0 mils.l' Length of piece.---------. Maximum depression ----------------Traverse -.

which is then free to move.-To open the breech. to re-enter the block. When the safe-and-fire shaft is set to fire. This raises the catch clear of the stop on the breech ring. the locking plunger is enabled.152 GERMAN. (2) To load and fire.--15-cm infantry howitzer on self-propelled mount. thus locking the breechblock in the closed position. INFANTRY WEAPONS the breechblock way. under pressure of its spring. so that the breech-mechanism lever can be rotated. grasp the breech-mechanism lever and press the catch inward. Then rotate the breech-mechanism lever clockwise . Figure 82.

-Firing mechanism of 10.H.) so that the catch is held behind the stop on the breech ring. 18).ANT'ITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWiTZERS 153 through 180 degrees. As the breech closes. The rotation of the breechmechanism lever forces the toe of the crank against the right side of the groove in the top face of the block.plunger spring Trigger Striker Firing lever Safe-and-fire shaft Figure 83. thrusting it to the left into the closed position. Insert a round. To close the breech.5-cm light field howitzer 18 (I. (This firing mechanism is similar to that of the 15-cm infantry howitzer. a projection on the toe of the crank comes into position behind the cam of the crank . Tripping piece Firing plunger Firing.F. thrusting the block to the right into the open position. The rotation of the breech-nmechanism lever forces the toe of the crank against the left side of the groove in the top face of the block. return the breech-mechanism lever to its original position and release the handle.

To fire the howitzer. This rotates the firing lever on its axis pin so that the angle of the former bears against the Crank stop or pin I Firing.5-cm light field howitzer 18 (I. forcing it into the block against its spring.) head of the firing plunger.154 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPON'S stop so that the block is locked in the closed position.H. pull the firing lanyard to the right rear.F. The recess in the plunger in which the upper projection of the trigger is engaged .-Breechblock of 10. 18). (This breechblock is similar to that of the 15-cm infantry howitzer.hole bush Figure 84.

Actuating groove Trigger Loading aperture Figure 85. which. is pivoted on the firing pin. The toe of the trigger engages the toe of the tripping-piece.-Breechblock (rear view) of 10.F. so that both the firing pin and tripping piece are forced back against the firingpin spring.ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRY HOWITZERS 155 turns the latter in a clockwise direction.H. released. As the rotation of the trigger continues. its toe clears the toe of the spring of the firing pin striker forward on to the The firing lanyard is now the tripping piece. driving the primer of the cartridge. and asserts itself.5-cm light field howitzer (I. 18). and the firing .

(b) The gunner operates the sights. (d) the crossleveling gear and bubble. and 7 handle the ammunition.F. The upper projection of the trigger. The toe of the trigger. (c) No. the toe of the trigger trips the toe of the tripping piece. (b) the line-of-sight device and site clinometer. pressing against a projection on the striker body. (f) Nos.F. (3) Sight. 6. riding on the inside of the tripping piece. . being engaged in the recess of the plunger. turns the trigger in a counterclockwise direction. 5. and all safety precautions observed. 16 or Rbl. (f) the panoramic dial sight (Rbl. (c) the elevation (range) mechanism. (d) No. 32). which is returned by the firing-pin spring to the normal position. (4) Gun crew. to the rear.--The sight consists of (a) the sight and socket. 3 operates the elevating mechanism. 4. 1 operates the breech. forces it. forces it to the right so that the heel of the tripping piece forces the inner cover to the rear. with the firing pin half cocked and withdrawn from the firing-hole bush. 2 rams the round home. under pressure of its spring.156 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS plunger. all commands executed. At the same time the heel of the trigger.-The service of the gun is divided among the gun crew as follows: (a) The chief of section is responsible for seeing that all duties are properly performed. (e) the elevation pointer and cradle pointer. At the end of this movement. (e) No. too. moves to the right.

38 is in one piece with the shell body. 38 and (b) 15-cm Igr.4 second. 23 is a highly sensitive. 33. The I(yr.(a) Projectile. The high-explosive capacity is large (21. Packing-------------Weight of packed basket --.Igr.38 kg (84 pounds).589 mm (23. (b) Fuze. -Diameter at base -----. whereas the baseplate of the Igr. Pressed TNT with smoke box …___-___________----HE filling and standard Zdlg. 38 and 15-cm 7gr. 42 kg (92 polln(ls).ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANTRYl HOWITZERS 157 d.___-. has the following dimensions: . 36 exploder system. 181/ pounllds. weight of filling. nose-percussion fuze with an optional delay of . 145 mm (5.-The fuze s. Weight (fuzed) ----------------Length (fuzed)_--------------. Diameter at driving band -_-----Driving band. with a c 12 n/A percussion primer. and no more ammunition of this type will be issued when present stocks are exhausted. (c) Cartridge.Z. 1 shell in wicker basket.98 inches).19 inches). 33 is obsolescent. It operates on impact or graze.-The ribnmed brass cartridge case. Ammunition (1) General. 33 (HE shell). 33 has a screwed-in baseplate. (2) 15-cm 7gr.__-152 mm (5.71 inches).43 inch).-The following two types of high explosive shells are used in this infantry howitzer: (a) 15-cm Iqr. single. There is also a smoke shell.8 percent). width__ ___ 11 mm (. The only point of difference between these two types is that the Igr.

-10. Part 4: Circular bag -----____________.8).158 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS 133 mm (5.P.5-( 3.65 inches). stenciled Kart.____---4 mm (.0.BI.' -. Part 6: Circular bag___________ _____-· 41 gm DigLBl.-12.3.8).2).0.5-( 3. is the German abbreviation for Diglylkolnitrat BWttchen Pulver (diglycolnitrate flaked powder). charge 2 of Parts I and 2.5 ( 3.P. External diameter External diameter External diameter Thickness of rim Length ______-___ Packing.16 inches). s Digl.2mm. .5 pounds). 2.Bl.-10.22 inches).40.-10. The cartridge case is closed at the top by a cardboard closing cap.0. charge 3 of Parts 1. 2 This is the dimension of the flakes in millimeters: that is 40mm x 40mm x .B1. as follows: Part 1: Large flat circular bag. 33 Weight of box (packed) __. Each part is contained in a silk bag on which the details of the weight and type of propellant are stencilled. Charge 1 consists of Part 1.5--( 3.) G Wa A50 s FH1 3 (equipment) The markings s F H 13 suggests that the cartridges for the 15-cm s.B.Small hole ------------._ 130 gm Ngl. etc.5-( 3. 13 are interchangeable.Bl.G. above rim__ 158 mm (6.3.8)._--.8).8). -10.-105--( 3.3. 106 gm Digl. 8sI.H.P.8).2 cartridges complete in wooden box. 101 gm Part 3: Crescent-shaped bag __----_--_.3. -10.Bl. 33 and the 15-cm s.169 mm (6. _-_.P.5--(40.24 inches). 101 gm Digl. Part 2: Crescent-shaped bag -_________ Digl.Bl._ 9 kg (19. with axial hole--____---_----_ __ ___---_-.3. The propellant consists of six removable parts so that the shell may be fired with any one of six charges. -----.P. is the German abbreviation for Nitroglyzerin Blittchen Pulver (nitroglycerin flaked powder).10 inches). 1 Ngl.P. Part 5: Circular bag _-_______________. at rim __.Inf.F. Markings: on base__ -_______- 4 P131 6303 (design no.P.0.0.Bl.P._ -------- at mouth__ 155 mm (6.3.P. 26 gm Digl.-_____-__-_ _ 40 gm Digl.0.0.G. and 3.

and the exploder system comprises a detonator set in penthrite wax enclosed in an aluminium container. the description under the heading of maintenance cannot be made complete.-This smoke shell may be identified by the white letters "Nb" on a field-gray projectile which weighs 38. open the breech mechanism until the extractor bolt is clear. 38.ANTITANK GUNS AND INFANT'RY HOWITZERS 159 (3) 15-cm Igr. allow the firing lever to return to its normal position and remove the extractor. e. (c) hold the firing lever in the "fire" position and remove the extractor bolt. Toward the front are the trunnion bearings which receive the trunnions of the cradle. Carriage (1) General.-The carriage is of the box type. and there is a spring compensator on each side piece. (d) crank the breechblock clear of the cam and withdraw. (e) remove the breechmechanism lever by aligning the key with the keyway and lifting. Maintenance (1) General. f.50 kg (85 pounds). The elevating handwheel is mounted on the right of the car- . It is fitted with a fixed spade and is also provided with an attachable sand spade.-The breech mechanism may be removed in the following order: (a) set the safety catch to Feuer ("fire"). The shell produces a smoke cloud 50 meters (55 yards) thick. The bursting charge consists of picric acid. (b) by means of breech-mechanism lever. Nebel (smoke shell).-Because of the complexity of the mechanism and because of the lack of definite authoritative information on this weapon. (2) To disassemble breech mechanism.

one on each side of the carriage. It consists of a worm gearing. the cradle is secured by a clamp to the carriage. pinion. and shafting. and the traversing handwheel on the left. to the center of which the sand spade is also secured. The elevating are is secured underneath.-The spring compensators are fitted longitudinally. A shield is fitted at the front.-The traversing gear is operated from the left by a system of gear wheels and shafting. (4) Traversing gear. (2) Cradle. in which guides on the gun move as it recoils and runs out.-The cradle is trough-shaped and is provided with guide ways.160 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS riage. and the recoil indicator at the right rear. Towards the rear are the two cradle arms to which the trunnions are fixed. rack. and is operated by a lever secured to the clamp shaft. They neutralize muzzle preponderance at all angles of elevation. On either side at the front is a pad to receive the unabsorbed force of run-out. and a box for spares at the rear.-The elevating gear is operated from the right of the carriage. . When traveling. (3) Elevating gear. (5) Spring compensators. and between them is the expansion chamber which receives the buffer fluid forced from the buffer by expansion as it becomes heated. Each trunnion is provided with a cranked compensator lever which compresses the compensator spring. The clamp is at the front of the carriage.

3. the markings on the cartridge cases and bullets are also described in detail. whereas weapons with calibers of 20 millimeters and higher are measured in centimeters: for example. Since unidentified ammunition cannot be used without danger to the user.7-cm Pak. INTRODUCTION The primary purpose of this section is to describe the ammunition suitable for use in German infantry weapons. CALIBERS The calibers of small arms (weapons with a caliber below 20 millimeters) are measured by the Germans in millimeters. The Germans refer to their rifle and machine-gun ammunition as caliber 7. In many instances the exact caliber is used: for example.5-cm Kanone. Labels and methods of packing ammunition can be changed easily. AMMUNITION 20. therefore.92 mm (.1 cm.312 inch).9 mm. T'heir 8-cm mortar ammunition is actually 8. the 7. may be caused by the German practice of referring to calibers approximately. This should not cause any confusion. Some confusion. 21. 161 . whereas in reality it is caliber 7. considerable information is included on the system by which the Germans label and pack ammunition. however.Section V. as the conversion from centimeters to millimeters is simply a multiplication by 10. the 9-mm Pistole 08.

162 GERMAN LNFANTRY WEAPONS 22. Color of Labels The usual practice is to have white labels with black printing. c.". printed usually in red. times used by the Germans. indicates cartridges are for use in machine guns. General All German ammunition containers bear labels.92-mm rifle and machine-gun ammunition). (5) "fiur Gew. printed usually in red. A knowledge of the practice used in labeling ammunition will enable identifications to be made readily. (2) Pale blue labels for pistol ammunition. b. indicates cartridges are for use in rifles only. The following special colors are used for further identification: (1) Yellow labels for tracer ammunition. (3) Brick-red labels for blank ammunition. The following marks have been reported: (1) "i. G. (3) "S. (6) "Patr." or "nur fiir Gewehr". (4) "fiir M." printed in red is used to identify armorpiercing ammunition." on the labels is used to indicate dummy ammunition. . Special Marks on Labels Overprintings and other special marks are some.L. K." in large black or red letters is used to indicate that the ammunition is loaded in clips. LABELS a. m. (2) "Ex. 318" indicates cartridges for use only in antitank rifles (the cartridge case being larger than that of the standard 7.

86 to 90.--"To be fired only in rifles or 98KI" . it is often for the purpose of marking unreliable ammunition. 08" indicates 9-mm pistol and submachinegun ammunition. special labels indicate specially loaded ammunition.AMMUNITION 163 (7) "Pist. running vertically. Patr.".S. incl. indicates steel cartridge cases (rather than brass). (8) A green diagonal band is used to indicate ball cartridges with the "l. Special Labels When a special label is used.-"Not suited for overhead fire or firing through gaps in lines!" Figure 87. (9) A blue band of considerable width. The following (figs.) are examples of some special labels: Figure 86. or light-weight bullet. d. In some instances.

164 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPON'S :. it is shown on the label: for . The ammunition cases are labeled to indicate the name of the weapon for which the enclosed ammunition is intended.-On labels for small-arms ammunition.-"To be fired only in machine guns!" Figure 89.-"Only for sighting in. I 111 11 I Figure 88." e. the Germans omit in nearly all instances any reference to the caliber.".-"Only for practice purposes. Method of Reading Labels (1) General. Where the caliber differs from 9 mm. I 1 11. Figure 90. The standard caliber for pistols and submachine guns is 9 mm.

Gew. "Military Dictionary. roman and German gothis. abbreviations are used. and also the type of weapon for which it is intended.AMMUNITION 165 example.2.-Set forth below (figs. (7) composition of-the tracer (if any). Patr. 7. Pist. In order to place all this information on a label.3 and consequently labels may be printed in either. inel. S. a list of abbreviations' and a glossary 2 are given in sections VI and VII (pp. GermanEnglish. Bl. Labels may be expected to contain the following information: (1) number and type of cartridges. 185190. or both of them. (6) specifications of the primer. 2 See also TM 30-255. To facilitate the translation of the labels. No. P. (4) place and year of manufacture.0. (5) specifications of the cartridge case and bullet.) are some typical labels for small-arms ammunition. it will indicate that the ammunition is made for use with non-standard 9-nmm weapons. 17.63-mm pistol cartridges"). L. 524652 °- 43---- 12 ." '3 See figs. 90 to 101. 12 (April 12. P. (2) Examples." MIS Special Series. (2) lot number and the year of loading of the cartridges. 92 and 94. (3) type of powder. English-German. The Germans use two alphabets. 1943). 35 ' A more extensive list of German abbreviations is given in "German Military Abbreviations. below).63 mm ("7. 35 Nz. L. Where the caliber of 9 mm is shown on the label.45): Rdf. The label illustrated in figure 91 reads: Line (1) (2) (3) (4) 1500 Patronen s. (2. 24.

heavy. delivery 1935 Figure 91. (The label is white with black printing. K. D. 17th delivery 1935 Brass-cartridge case.500 rounds of heavy. and year of manufacture Specifications of cartridge case. 98. 35--Gesch. 7.166 (5) (6) GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Patrd: S.) . lot 7. 88: S.: P. year 1935 Primer capsule 88. 35 Zdh. including type of gun for which intended Arsenal.500 rounds. delivery 193!. delivery 1935 Nitrocellulose rifle flaked powder (?) Rdf. pointed ball ammunition (Patronen s. L. pointed ball ammunition Lot 24. specifications of bullet Specifications of primer. Patronen schweres Spitzgeschoss)..-Label for case of 1.(?) arsenal. L. 55. L. serial number. (???) 98.--Bullet lot 55. A translation of this label reads as follows: Line (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 1.* P. 35 The following information is contained on this label: Line (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Number and type of cartridges Lot number and year of loading of cartridges Type of powder. S.

m.-Label for super armor-piercing bullet. (H)" are in color after Patr..) Figure 94. black border and printing.AMMUNITION 167 Figure 92. (This label is green with black printing. one red and the other yellow. Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern gehartet). m. Patronen Phosphor mit Stahlkern). the edging is white. K. the border and the printing are black. P. (This label is white with a red triangle. but they are not reproduced in this photograph. (H). K. Figure 93. K.--Label for 5 rounds of armor-piercing bullet (Patronen 318). with tungsten carbide core (Patr. S.-Label for armor-piercing incendiary bullet (Patr. The letters "S. m. (This label consists of two triangles.) .

) Figure 96.-Label for 1. im Ladestriefen.168 GERMAN INFIANTRIY WEAPON'S Figure 95. pointed ball ammunition (Patr. indicating the cartridge cases are steel instead of brass. (The label is white with black printing. pointed ball ammunition (Patr. black printing. The letters "i." are overprinted in red ink. A vertical blue band runs through the center.. S. Patronen schweres Spitzgeschoss). L..500 rounds of heavy. they indicate the ammunition is loaded in clips-i.) .. L. S. s. notice also the word Stahl ("steel"). (This label is white with Patronen schweres Spitzgeschoss). s.-Label for heavy.

6)50. armor-piercing ammunition (Patronen S. &*w.3 .1 Nt..lm I ___~~~~~iml. 77. "S.. la-g~dt(2 .57 L35. m. 2-0.L. Get 101.----l-- Figure 97.-Labels for steel-core.* P.:: PZL. The different sizes of the same label are used on different sizes of packing boxes.. Zdh 88. f Naone S*m.S' k. tt. P.K.re*rg:s CSP'".AbMlMUllITION 169 - -I- I ·-I ·- 1500 Patohen S:mK.U Pahtr Getohoaoftdel P. Gew.35 Nx.:L" l*ltx S:"t 3 1. (The labels are white with black printing." is printed in red. L. (2-2-0. L * Pofsi PAILM ar 3 t· h. K..-. L.2 iL 35 - I S.-. K. m. *btks&sKt*X~t3 ..45): R4£ . Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern). $1L P.O:eths P. PrP.) .

The underlined printing is a caution: Protect against shock and dropping!) Figure 99. a green diagonal band runs from the lower left to upper right corners.. pointed ball ammunition (Patronen I.-Label for 1. Patronen leichtes Spitzgeschoss).170 GERMAN INTANTRY WEAPONS Figure 98.-Label for light. Beobachtungsgeschoss Patronen).500 rounds of observation (explosive) bullets (B. (This label is white with black printing. (This label is white with black printing.) . S.-Patronen.

.-Label for dummy. (This label is white with black printing and a red overprinting of "Ex. 3$ J& 1.0~~ a i t.AMMUNITION 171 Figure 100.X0. the Walther.") . drill cartridges. this label is pale blue with black printing.'-. I . P. Model 08 pistol cartridges are the regular ammunition for the Luger. iLkgS ed* .X} i pIw+0f' 0 aV000:0.) -I--.--Label for model 08 pistol cartridges (Pistolenpatronen 08). 38 and 40.- ··· i I: Figure 101. 000000}d00 PSt.- 11 -1-1-1 1 -- -111- I 0 ER\xeVr t : £5. model S (Exerzierpatronen S. S. and the M.-.).

24. The German nondisintegrating metallic-link belts are non-expendable. 38 means 1938). The cartridges are belted by the unit to which they are issued. BELTED AMMUNITION German machine-gun ammunition is packed in cases. (3) the delivery number (for example. or as a colored band around the case. BASE MARKINGS The following information is stamped on the base (fig. Colors are used on various parts of the ammunition itself to provide another means of identifying each cartridge. (2) the type of case (for example." . which are used to carry small-arms ammunition for machine guns mounted on tanks. 102) of German small-arms ammunition: (1) the manufacturer's mark (for example. 2 means delivery 2.172 GERMANt 'INFANTRY WEAPOUNS 23. (4) the year of manufacture (for example. P for Polte). S* for brass cartridge case 4). on the tip. 25. even in ' St is for "steel. POSSIBLE DANGERS All ammunition which is exposed to the sun and heat is likely to produce dangerous pressures.-Markings on base of German small-arms cartridge. being used over and over. The coloring may be applied in the primer seat. Figure 102. Sometimes belted ammunition is placed in canvas bags. and is not supplied in ready-belted form.

Patr. Pist.AMMUNITION 173 weapons that are in good condition. In addition. This ammunition may be identified by the label reading: PFist. Pist. 08 S." Consequently. 08. The bullet has a lead core. The cartridge case of this standard 9-mm semi-armorpiercing ammunition is the same as the ball ammunition. 08 fiir M. (c) As a result of subjection to shelling or fire. care should be exercised in the use of any enemy mat6riel to be sure that both the ammunition and the weapon are in good working order. but the bullet has an iron or mild-steel core and a steel jacket. (b) Use as booby traps laid deliberately by the enemy. 08. Patr. The primer seat is colored black. 'The mechanical safety devices may have been so disarranged as to arm the ammunition. The above-named pistol ammunition types are all standard ball ammunition for German pistols and submachine guns. Each type consists of a rimless cartridge case and a round-nosed bullet. Patr. 26. Pist. 9 mm... or Pist. and a steel jacket with a copper or gilding metal coating to cut down wear on the rifling. P. ammunition may be dangerous for any of the following reasons: (a) Removal (either deliberate or accidental) of safety devices from fuzes. Patr. P. . STANDARD PISTOL AND SUBMACHINE-GUN AMMUNITION a. b. or Pistol Patr. E. 08 fuir M. m. This ammunition may be identified by the black coloring of the bullet. Patr. Patr. Pist. 9 mm (P) (of Polish manufacture).

S. K.92-MM) Caliber 7. The case is a rimless bottleneck case. 1. in.92-mm ammunition is standard for German rifles and machine guns (see figs. the cartridge case being the same for all of the various types. This is the standard rifle and machine-gun ball round. L'Spur (Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern und Leuchtspur) (fig. Patr. S. c.30 case but somewhat shorter. S. General 1 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS 27. Patr. S. much like the U. L'Spur Patr. 104) is the cartridge with a steel-core. This type of ammunition has a steel core and a feed sleeve with a steel jacket that is coated with gilding metal. m.03) is the heavy. pointed bolt-tail bullet consisting of a lead core and a steel jacket coated with gilding metal.). (Patronen schweres Spitzgeschoss) (fig. K. Patr. 105) is the cartridge with a pointed armor-piercing bullet and tracer. K. having a heavy. K. rn. This ammunition is identified by its red primer seat. 103 to 114. s. The modifications are made in the size and character of the bullet. S. Patr.m. S. S. pointed bullet. s. Patr. . incl. RIFLE AND MACHINE-GUN AMMUNITION (7.174 a. caliber . Various types of this ammunition are used for special purposes. This ammunition is identified by its green primer seat. pointed ball ammunition. b. d. (Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahl- kern) (fig.

(H) (Patronen Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern gerhiirtet) (fig. m. . e. K.-Armor. 106) is a cartridge with a pointed.Figure 105.AMMUNITION 175 This ammunition is identified by the red coloring on its primer seat and a black-tipped bullet. and a black bullet. Patr. S.-Armorpiercing tracer (Papiercing (Patronen pointed ball (Patronen schweres Spitzgeschoss mit tronen SpitzgesStahlkern). armor-piercing (tungsten carbide core) bullet. choss mit Stahlkern Spitzgeschoss). k l Black L e i 4i Green Red Red Figure 103. m. Earlier issues had a plain uncolored bullet but did have the red primer. Figure 104. und Leuchtspur).(H) Patr. This ammunition may be identified by the red primer and the red base of the clip. S. K.-Heavy.

This ammunition is identified by a green band around the base of the cartridge case. and German documents state that this type of ammunition is used for antiaircraft practice only. This ammunition is identified by the blue color on its primer seat. E. S. h. S. S. tracer bullet. I. m. This ammunition is identified by the green band around the base of the cartridge case and by the blacktipped bullet. It is said to be used only against aircraft.m. 110) is an incendiary armor-piercing cartridge with a standard case. L'Spur (Patrone leichtes Spitzgeschoss mit Leuchtspur) (fig. L'Spur Patr. and a phosphorus charge in the base cavity. This decreases the range. Patr. S. Patr. i.176 f. S. 1. (Patronen Spitzgeschloss mit Eisenkern) (fig. Patr. It has a steel core. s. K. P. . (Patronen Phospor mit Stahlkern) (fig. except that instead of a lead core the core is of aluminum. 107) is similar to the Patr. S. heavy. 1. K. these cartridges are used only for antiaircraft practice. Patr. GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Patr. Patr. Patr. S. (Patronen leichtes Spitzgeschoss) (fig. 108) is a cartridge with a light. m. According to German manuals. 109) is a semi-armor-piercing cartridge with an iron or mild-steel core and pointed bullet. pointed ball ammunition. E. m. g. P. I.

and is said to be used only in peacetime firing for checking ranges. and in later issues by a bullet painted black (except for the tip). spur).Light Figure 108. (BeobachtungsgeschossPatronen) (fig. B.piercing ball. Patr. . Patr. it may have a red band across the base.-Practice a r m o r .Figure 107.. This ammunition is identified in earlier issues by its chromium-tipped bullet. j. 111) is an observation bullet containing a smoke producer 9 Black e -Green j Red Green Green Figure 106. special pract r a cer (Patronen with tungsten cartice (Patronen leichtes Spitzgesbide core (Patroleichtes Spitzgeschoss mit Leuchtnen Spitzgeschoss choss). . and explosive.Super. B.AMMUNITION 177 This ammunition is identified by the black or red color of its primer seat. mit Stahlkern gehiirtet).

) mimum. or for the tip.Figure 111..Semi.Figure 1 10.312-inch) bullet.178 a.92-mm (. (The bullet kern). STANDARD ANTITANK RIFLE AMMUNITION The ammunition used in the Pz. The round itself can be identified by the large cartridge L i Blue C Red or Black Block / Black Figure 109.B. 39 (antitank rifles) is of the armor-piercing type.B.92-mm rifle and machine-gun am- . necked down to take the 7. (The bulis black or red in let is black except the primer seat.piercing (Patronen Spitzgeary (Patronen bullet (Beobachschoss mit EisenPhospor mit Stahltungsgeschoss Pakern).) case. The German labels distinguish this ammunition from the regular 7. tronen).-Obserpiercing incendivation (explosive) a r m o r .-Armor. early has a red band issues have chroacross the base. 38 and Pz.p I a te d 0 tip only. Introduction GE'RMAN 'INFANTRY WEAPONS 28.

B. b.m. This is the regular armor-piercing ammunition for the Pz.50 car- Gopper Holes Figure 1 12. 39 antitank rifles. . 5-cm Wgr.K.92-mm (. Z. The projectile has a gilded metal jacket and a tungsten carbide core.m." have a small amount of tear gas in the bullet. Wgr.AMMUNITION1 179 munition by the words "Patr. 318 S. Werfergranatziinder38 (50-mm model 36 mortar shell. 318" in front of the Labels having the distindistinguishing "S. Patr. 38 and Pz. It is a high-explosive shell and has a ' 5-cm Werfergranate36. tridge case) with a small projectile of 7. 29. S.312 inch). It consists of a large cartridge case (like the U.K. with model 38 mortar fuze). caliber . MORTAR AMMUNITION a. 38 6 This is the standard shell used in the 50-mm model 36 mortar. 36." guishing "Rs.-Dummy cartridges (Exerzierpatronen). 378 or Patr.B. Sometimes it will have a tracer and sometimes a small charge of tear gas in the base of the projectile.

It has only one propellant charge. 38 ' This is the standard high-explosive shell for the German 81-mm mortar (s. Figure 114. b.Cross section of ball cartridge (scharfe Patrone S. percussion-nose fuze. This shell may be identified by its size and maroon color (fig. 34).Gr. or charges. 115).-Blank cartridge' P ( a t zPatrone 88).).180 GE'RMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Wooden bullet painted red Copper -loted 1 ring for each time cartridge case is refilled Figure 113.-. It has a percussion fuze. This shell may be identified by its size and maroon color. Werfergranatziinder 38 (80-mm (actually 81-mm) HE model 34 mortar shell with model 38 mortar shell fuze). 78-cm Werfergranate 34. 8-cm Wgr.W. Z. and an ignition charge in the form of a shotgun shellcase that fits into a cavity at the center of the tail-fin assembly. . Each shell has three increments. Wgr. 34. which are clipped into a slot in the ammunition container which is provided for carrying the mortar shell.

its maroon color. Z. It has a percussion fuze.AMMUNITION 181 c. s8-cm Werfergranate 34 Nebel. and the letters "Nb"."irl : . Werfergranatziindcr 38 (89-mm (actually 81-mm) model 34 smoke shell with model 38 mortar shell fuze). 34 Nb. 34).Gr. Each shell has three increments.TW. Wgr.. 38 8 This is the standard smoke shell for the German 81-mm mortar (s.7v1. 8-cm Wgr.:: F ig Propelling charges 13 increments shown) Figure 115. This shell may be identified by its size.-8-cm mortar shell. provided for carrying the mortar shells. 524652--43----13 . which are clipped into a slot in the ammunition container that is g.:\ ::::::. or charges.

182 GERMAN LENFANTRY WEAPONIS .0-.S H . 6 Z t.caW~~~~.-~9 .bo o :f"_ _ "...ai us S3 .5 E.^ W .! l t O U-h . IL.'""E ) OWr CCC FI' z 0 5R . U9 "C -LI u U 03 4A 0. Z 007 I-0 - 'S· 5.7 A ~*d C e- Gn A : _ _ .- bcWW~ z I 2- "C I- 0 z 0 z z 0 z 4 m -V 9 ILL 4 m -. 02 53 5.

. ' 0o :.0 ~ _0 . =m c oi z c O LZ·z 9" Cd C.X . *~ E 0n 0 eq.gZ i CC~ . _-' eqCb .? P~~~~~ =.: Ej " el on~~ r4 C. I .0 IL 8'- s K l. ea ea tl: 1Si t.C' Cd C ?) 0 M 0 0 i '0 P E IC C 0.0 a .a :1 .- F L .AMMUNITION 183 q 0 0 13I 00 . C 0: X eq E a ox iE e .

CDCU" . r 3E_ ?._S.aa k s W > ~ p gv a m 8f3 f e co o N "fl * co tB oXN X8*_e ectB°n8C B~ ~4 .CC .^. a. a* i a m e a3 cJ = I a a > . . .s B o8 |a s " :.184 . C C· > o.cg a GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS aOSc g t cs ° mo a ° _wt>oS o o ee N N-q ¢4 cza . d e W E I'S z s X S C t t as3 O~~~M o0 o a a. t t- .:.¢<x o gs > g°> -Cg o "D ezs SS r 8C . Sln Sn ..

rifle magazine clips charge.W. GLOSSARY OF GERMAN TERMS 1 aus Beobachtungsgeschoss Patrone Dauerfeuer (D) Ein Einzelschuss Ersatzstiicke (E) Exerzierpatrone Feuer (F) geballte Ladung gehirtet (H) geladen gesichert Eierhandgranate Kanone Kern Ladestreifen Ladung leichter Granatwerfer (l.G. 1. S. replacements drill cartridge (dummy or blank cartridge) fire concentrated charge charge. load light mortar tracer machine gun smoke smoke hand grenade trade name of 9-mm German pistol ammunition cartridge. English-German. 5. German-English" (Aug. For an extensive German military dictionary see TM 30-255. sustained fire in single-shot spare parts.) Leuchtspur (L 'Spur) Maschinengewehr (M. "Military Dictionary. propelling charge.) Nebel (N) Nebelhandgranate Parabellum Patrone (Patr. pole hardened (tungsten carbide core) loaded made safe ("safed") egg-type hand grenade cannon core clips.Section VI.Gr.) out observation (explosive) bullet continuous fire. . pointed ball ammunition with core of aluminum 185 IThis is a list of the German words used in the text.) Patrone leichtes Spitzgeschoss (Patr. 1941). round of ammunition heavy. semi-fixed shell.

pointed bullet cartridge with pointed. s. armorpiercing (tungsten carbide core) bullet incendiary armor-piercing cartridge case round cartridge with steelcore.) stahl (St) Stielhandgranate (Stielhandgranate 24) Stielhandgranate PH 39 Tankbiichse ZDinder (Z) cartridge with steel-core. m. S.) Patrone schweres Spitzgeschoss mit Leuchtspur (Patr. m. S. K. S. S.186 GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Patrone mit Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern (Patr. m. m. K.) sicher (S) Spitzgeschoss Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern (S.) Patrone Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern und Leuchtspur (Patr. L'Spur) Pistole Pistolenpatrone Rundblickfernrohr schwer schweres Infanteriegeschiitz (s.) Patrone Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern (gehartet) (Patr. G. K. pointed bullet cartridge with pointed. L'Spur) Patrone Spitzgeschoss mit Eisenkern (Patr. S. (H)) Patrone Phosphor mit Stahlkern (Patr. m. P.) Patrone schweres Spitzgeschoss (Patr. E. m. s. S. K. model 24) stick hand grenade.) Patrone Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern (Patr. K. m. S. K. armor-piercing bullet and tracer pistol pistol cartridge panoramic sight heavy heavy infantry gun safe pointed bullet pointed bullet with steel core steel stick hand grenade (hand grenade. pointed ball ammunition cartridge with heavy tracer bullet cartridge with iron or mild steel-core. pointed bullet heavy. model PH 39 antitank rifle (model 35) (Polish) fuze .

B1. or A. bullet Gewehr rifle gehartet hardened (tungsten carbide core) Infanteriegeschiitz infantry gun Aluminum Az. "German Military Abbreviations" (April 5.Z. F Flak Geb. No.Section VII. B Bd.L. I. un.Gr.Gr. For an extensive dictionary of German military abbreviations. Z B. D Digl. (S/60) D. Patr. pressure igniter Ersatzstiicke spare parts. base detonator fuze Patrone mit Beobachtungs an observation bullet conGeschoss taining a smoke producer and explosive Dauerfeuer sustained fire Diglykolnitrat diglycolnitrate Diglykolnitrat Blattchen diglycolnitrate flaked powPulver. k Infanteriegranate Infanteriegranatz zfinder (schwerer Infanteriegranatz ziinder) in Ladestreifen kurz infantry grenade infantry grenade fuze (heavy infantry grenade fuze) in clips (rifle) short I This is a list of German abbreviations used in the text. E Ex. 187 . P. GERMAN ABBREVIATIONS' Al.I.) i. replacements Exerzier dummy (used to indicate dummy or practice ammunition) Feuer fire Flugabwehrkanone antiaircraft gun Gebirgsmountain Geschoss projectile. Digl. Dopp. H. Gesch Gew. Z. or 'H I. 12. (s.combination fuze (60 seconds den Brennlange) burning time) Druckziunder pressure fuse. see MIS. Igr. Special Series. 1943). Z. der Doppelziinder (60 Sek.Z.Z. G. indicates inclusion of a granular aluminum flash composition in filling of shell Aufschlagzfinder percussion fuze Biische rifle Bodenziinder base percussion fuze.

I. Modell Maschinengewehr machine gun Modell pattern. m M M. Nb.H.I.light. L 1.Bl. L.A. pointed ball ammunichoss tion with core of aluminum armor-piercing Patrone Phospor mit Stahl.Bl.incendiary kern cartridge with steel core Karbiner Karbiner 98B Karbiner 98 kurz Karthitsche P. Patr. M. Mod. fog (used to designate gas as well as smoke) new type neuer Art smoke.K. l. canister shot (semi-fixed ammunition) cartridge Kartusche delivery Lieferung charge. GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS carbine carbine 98B short carbine 98 case shot. 98B Kar. model machine pistol.m.L.nitrocellulose rifle powder (flaked) chenpulver ohne Ladestreifen without clips. . submachine Maschinenpistole gun with delay action (fuze) mit Verzogerung Nebel smoke.P. semi-fixed shell.l.V.Gew. not in clips ohne Verz6gerung without delay.188 Kar. Kar.G. Pak Patr.W I.P. Patr.Gr.I.V. o.G. Ladung load leichte Feldhaubitze light field howitzer leichtes Gebirgsinfanterie. instantaneous Pulver powder Panzerabwehrkanone antitank gun Patrone cartridge. Nz.S.F.light mountain infantry howitzer geschiitz leichter Granatwerfer light mortar light infantry gun (howitzer) leichtes Infanteriegeschiitz light weight.nitroglycerine.S. 98K Kart.P.Geb. propelling charge. Patrh. Kart. pointed bullet leichtes Spitzgeschoss meter Meter model Mark. o. flaked powder pulver nitrocellulose Nitrozellulose Nitrozellulose Gewehr Blatt. l. m. Ngl. round of ammunition Patronenhiilse-Stahl brass cartridge case Patrone leichtes Spitzges.G. Nz. N n. Ngl.P. fog Nebel nitroglycerine Nitroglyzerin Nitroglyzerin-Blittchen.S.

W. Patrone Spitzgeschoss mit Eisenkern Patrone Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern Patrone Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern gehartet 189 cartridge with iron or mild steel-core.318 S.K. Rheindorf Rdf.m.S. Rh Rheinmetal Reizstoff Rs.K. Panzerbiichse Pz.S. s. etc.B. pointed ball ammunition cartridge with heavy tracer bullet cartridge 318. Panzer Pz. 318 pistol pistol cartridge armor.ni.H.S. medium (artillery) safe manufacturer'smarkfor brass cartridge case (72% copper and 28% zinc) manufacturer's mark for a type of alloy heavy (medium) field howitzer heavy mortar heavy infantry gun (howitzer) heavy infantry gun (howitzer) rapid-fire cannon Patrone Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern und Leuchtspur Patr.F. Patr. L'Spur S 274.G.m.K.m.s. pointed bullet cartridge with steel-core. pointed bullet cartridge with pointed armor-piercing (tungsten carbide core) bullet cartridge with pointed armor-piercing bullet and tracer heavy. Patrone schweres Spitzgeschoss Patr. s. armor-plate antitank rifle armor-piercing shell panoramic sight an arsenal arms manufacturingcompany irritant gas heavy. Patrone 318 Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern gehartet (H) Patronen 318 Polnisch Patr. 222. Pzgr. Pistolpatrone Pist. 318 (P) Pistole Pist.m.Inf. schwere Feldhaubitze schwerer Granatenwerfer schweres Infanteriegeschiitz schweres Infanteriegeschiitz Schnellfeuerkanone .m.H.K. S.G.K. schwerer S.I.S. sicher S S* Patr. bullet with hardened steel core Polish cartridge No. Patrone 318 Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern Patr.E. Patr.S. 318 S.s. Patr.Gr. S.ABBREVIATION Patr.S. Panzergranate Rundblickfernrohr Rbl.K. bullet with steel core cartridge 318. L'Spur Patrone schweres Spitzgeschoss mit Leuchtspur Patr. s.F.

Z.D. S.K. Wgr. Spr.m. SI GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1043 . A. Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern gehiArtet Spitzgeschoss mit Stahlkern und Leuchtspur Sprenggranate SprengStahl tlbungsmupition Werfergranate Werfergranatziinder Ziinder ZUindladung Ziindhiitchen 88 small-arms ammunition factory pointed bullet with steel core super armor-piercing bullet with hardened steel core pointed bullet with steel core and tracer effect high-explosive shell explosive mark for steel cartridge practice ammunition mortar shell mortar shell fuze fuze primer charge primer capsule 88 Spgr.m. Ub. S.190 S. Zdh:88 U. Zdlg.K.m.K.K.Z. Wgr. St. G.L'Spur GERMAN INFANTRY WEAPONS Selve-Kornbegel-Dornheim. (H) S.

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