Introduction to manufacturing processes - Overview

2.810 Fall 2009 Professor Tim Gutowski

Page references are to Kalpakjian and Schmid 6th ed

Process overviews
 Subtractive

 Additive
 Continuous

 Net shape

Material phase
Solid phase Liquid phase Mixed phase e.g. machining, bending e.g. casting, injection molding e.g. composites molding

Vapor phase -

e.g. chemical vapor deposition

chemical milling. etc. waterjet.1. Subtractive Processes Processes    Machining: Turning. boring. chemical mechanical polishing… . milling. grinding Non-traditional machining: EDM. Micro-electronics processes: Primarily etching type processes using either masks or beam.

Subtractive Processes  machining What is so great about machining? To first approx mat’l properties are independent of process Very flexible Good dimensional control (possible) Good surface finish (possible)    .

Downside? Serial process .long times Large quantities of waste Refixturing for large forces .

How does machining fight back? Horizontal milling Forming tools High speed machining .

Milling Cutter Arbor Spindle Spindle Shank End mill Arbor Slab milling Face milling End milling * Source: Kalpakjian. “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology” .

mfg.Milling * ** Head Column Table Saddle Knee Base * Source: http://www.edu/marc/primers/milling/#Introduction . Kalpakjian .mtu. ** Source: Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.

edu/mas2/html/processes/edm/index.electrode Dielectric (light oil) Workpiece P 769 * Initial shapes of electrode and workpiece Final complementary shapes of electrode and workpiece * Source: http://cybercut.EDM (ElectroDischarge Machining) Tool .berkeley.html .

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Wire EDM p 772 .

smu.seas.html .gliwice.html. *** http://kbm.mt.edu/rcam/research/waterjet/par1. ** http://www.polsl.seas.html.pl/wjm/basics.smu.edu/rcam/research/waterjet/par3.Waterjet Machining * Water preparation system Pressure generation system Cutting head and motion system *** water outlet ** High pressure water outlet Attenuator Abrasive particles Mixing chamber Water inlet as piston moves right Water inlet as piston moves left * Source: http://www.

berkeley. ** http://www.html.edu/mas2/html/processes/edm/index.html .Waterjet Machining * Water preparation system Pressure generation system ** Cutting head and motion system * Source: http://cybercut.omax.com/components_of_waterjet.

Lithography Illuminated areas Thin film (additive + subtractive) Mask Photoresist Substrate Exposing radiation EXPOSURE Positive resist Negative resist DEVELOPING ETCHING AND STRIPPING .

ca/processes/stamping/sp.qc.html Blanking .Blanking and Punching * Punch Sheet D T Die Part or slug Discarded Punching * Source: http://bdi-inc.

fully automated  Advanced Composites Processes  Combination of additive and net shape processes  Microelectronics Processes  Physical and chemical vapor deposition processes and coating methods  Joining & Assembly  Broad category includes welding. slow rates.2. Additive Processes Processes  Rapid Prototyping  Very flexible to part shape. adhesives. usually limited in material choices. and mechanical assembly .

Pros and Cons +Tailored materials + Structural complexity + High degree of automation .Hard to recycle .High waste for some . sequential .Slow.

Stereolithography (SLA) * * Source: http://cybercut.berkeley.edu/mas2/html/processes/stereolith/more.html .

Lamancusa. "Rapid Prototyping Technologies." Rapid Prototyping.Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) * Source: Michelle Griffith and John S. 1998 .

810/www/lecture/sinter_movie.mit.Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) http://web.edu/2.mov * Source: DTM Corporation (3D Systems) .

3D Printing
Selective joining of powder using ink-jet printing of a binder material

Spread Powder

Print Layer Repeat Cycle

Drop Piston

Intermediate Stage

Last Layer Printed

Finished Part

* Source: Kruth, J.P. (1991), “Material incress manufacturing by rapid prototyping techniques”

Z corp rapid prototyping

Direct Printing of Metal Tooling;
ExtrudeHone Corp., Irwin, PA
Directly print metal parts and tooling.

Polymer binder into metal powder.

3 D Parts Forging Die made by 3D printing P 539 .

Lay-Up of Advanced Composites (a) Hand lay-up * (b) Hand assisted tape lay-up ** ** .

•Hand lay-up •Spray-up •Vacuum molding .

Automated composites •Filament winding •Tape lay-up •Diaphragm forming .

Aviation Week: Skunk Works' Cargo X-Plane Complete Posted by Graham Warwick at 3/6/2009 12:14 PM CST .

PE(Plasma Enhanced) CVD Typical hot-wall LP(Low Pressure) CVD * * Source: http://www.CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) .org/mems/beginner/deposition.html .memsnet.Creates solid materials directly from chemical reactions in gas and/or liquid compositions or with the substrate material .LP(Low Pressure) CVD.

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html RF sputtering system .org/mems/beginner/deposition.PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) .Evaporation. Sputtering * * Counter Electrode e-beam evaporation system * Source: http://www.Material to be deposited is released from a source and transferred to the substrate .memsnet.

CIGS Photo-response mapping Of a CIGS cell Ascent CIGS Solar Cell .Thin film PV cell .

“Manufacturing Engineering and Technology” . Pressure on Pressure released [Sequence in the resistance spot welding process] * AC or DC power source Electrode holder Electrode [Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding operation] Arc Work Work cable Electrode cable * Source: Kalpakjian.Welding * Electrode Weld nugget Lap joint Pressure applied Current on Current off.

3. Continuous Processes Pultrusion of composites Metal Extrusion  Net shape process Plastic Extrusion Czochralski Crystal Growth Continuous Casting .

constant cross section .constant cross section .constant cross section .Pros and Cons + Low unit cost for large runs + Low unit cost for large runs + Low unit cost for large runs .

com/lord/manu.techline.Pultrusion of Composites * * Source: http://users.html .

htm .engr.edu/staff2/abrate/NSFATE/camps/pult.siu.Pultrusion machine * * Source: http://howard.

Examples of extruded products Metal Extrusion Dummy block Ram Die Direct extrusion process Die Extruded product * Indirect extrusion process Fluid Hydrostatic extrusion process * Source: http://www.html .eaa.net/pages/material/extruded.

Plastic Extrusion * Single Screw Plastics Extruder * Source: http://www.au/products/ .com.telfordsmith.

p 532 .Plastic extrusion used in rapid prototyping.

.Continuous Casting * * Source: Thomas. Michalczyk. “Continuous Casting: Modeling”... The Encyclopedia of Advanced Materials (Dantzig. Greenwell. J. B. eds.) . A. J.. G.

uni-kiel.techfak.de/matwis/amat/elmat_en/kap_5/illustr/i5_1_1.html .Czochralski(CZ) Crystal Growth * * Source: http://www.

the kerf material represents lost exergy String-Ribbon Invented by Ely Sachs saves this material .String Ribbon Process In ID and wire sawing of Si ingots.

Viscoelastics. Others Liquids: Casting. Others Mixtures: Infiltration. Injection Molding. Powders. Net Shape Types    (& near net shape) Solids: Metal Forming. Others Hard tooling Solid forming – very fast cycle time Thermal processes – slower and depend upon cooling rate Dimensional control is not as good as machining Characteristics     .4.

qc.ca/processes/stamping/sp.html. **: http://bdi-inc.tms.html .Sheet Metal Stamping * ** Typical Stamping Die ** Drawing Forming * Source: http://www.org/pubs/journals/JOM/9911/Hosford-9911-figure1.

com .forging.org/facts/wwhy6. “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology”.johnsonforging. ***: http://www.Forging ** * No friction Friction force Open Die Forging *** Closed Die Forging * Source: http://www. **: Kalpakjian.htm#fig3.

mahidol.Compression Molding .htm .th/mahidol/eg/em_proj/group7/htm1text.Similar to metal forging process .Most common method of processing thermosets Mold Plunger Heated Mold Part Charge Mold Cavity * Source: http://www.ac.

** http://www.cepsales.eaa.Metal Casting * ** Sand Casting Mold Die Casting machine * Source: http://www.html .com/Castings.net/pages/material/casting.htm .

“Manufacturing Engineering and Technology”. ** http://cybercut.edu/mas2/html/processes/castshell/more.berkeley.html .Metal Casting * ** Making was pattern assembly Pattern meltout Slurry coating Shell Pouring molten metal Investment Casting Shell Mold Casting * Source: Kalpakjian.

Powder Compaction * * Source: http://www.htm .turkishpm.org/en_tozmetal.

% Density Strength Ductility 0% Time Green compact Necks formed Pore size reduced Fully sintered .Sintering 100 % Indicated property. compared to solid material.

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Injection Molding * * * Source: http://www.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.htm .idsa-mp.

idsa-mp.htm .Injection Molding * Source: http://www.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.

”. Ogorkiewicz.htm .arrem.com/designguide/dgprocesscap.Thermoforming * Heater Clamping Plastics sheet Vacuum Thin corner ** * Source: R. ** http://www. “Engineering Properties of Thermoplastics.

A.Blow Molding Descending parison Inflating Inflating and cooling * Source: W. “Polymer Conversion” .Holmes Walker.

siu.edu/staff2/abrate/rtm .Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) * Preform Tool Injection Cure Demold * * Source: http://howard.engr.

Summary • • • • • dimensional tolerance rate cost fixed costs materials .

Kalpakjian. S. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Addison-Wesley. 1988 2. Springer-Verlag.2 Machining 25A.McGeough. J. 6um RMS1 Grinding3 Creep Feed2 Grinding Rough milling of Al > 35hp LASER3 Chem. Advanced Methods of Machining. 1992 3.Typical Material Removal Rate 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 102 [cm3/sec] EBM1 EDM1. 1991 . G. Chapman and Hall. Chryssolouris. Laser Machining.A.67 in3/min 1m X 1m area * References: 1. Milling2 Note: 1cm3/sec = 3.

Parallel processes require tooling. larger fixed costs. but short cycle time .Unit cost: C/N =F/N + V Serial processes take longer. larger variable costs Specialty mat’l add to variable costs QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

27 Homework #2 .Readings: Machining Kalpakjian and Schmid 6th Chapters 21 .

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