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ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE
TOPIC:- Comparative study of OCTAPACE culture in Public and Private Bank
SUBMITTED TO: Ms. Shavina Goyal
SUBMITTED BY:Khushdeep Gill Roll No.-5542 MBA-II (D)
SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES PUNJABI UNIVERSITY, PATIALA
The OCTAPACE profile is a 40-item instrument that gives the profile of organization's ethos in eight values. These values are openness, confrontation, trust, authenticity, pro action, autonomy, collaboration and experimentation. The instrument contains two parts. In part I, values are stated in items 1 to 24 (three statements of each of the eight values), and the respondent is required to check (on a 4-point scale) how much each item is valued in his organization. Part 2 contains sixteen statements on beliefs, two each for eight values, and the respondent checks (on a 4-point scale) how widely each of them is shared in the organization. In addition to checking the items on the extent of their importance or sharing in the organization, the respondent can also check how much they should be valued, or how much the beliefs are useful. Thus both present as well as desired and ideal profiles can be obtained. O--- openness C--- confrontation T--- trust A---autonomy P--- pro action A--- authenticity C--- collaboration E--- experimentation OPENNESS: Openness can be defined as a spontaneous expression of feelings and thoughts, and the sharing of these without defensiveness. Openness is in both directions, receiving and giving. Both these may relate to ideas (including suggestions), feedback (including criticism), and feelings. For example, openness means receiving without reservation, and taking steps to encourage more feedback and suggestions from customers, colleagues and others. Similarly, it means giving, without hesitation, ideas, information, feedback, feelings, etc. Openness may also mean spatial openness, in terms of accessibility. Installing internal E-mailing may be a step in this direction: everyone having a computer terminal has access to information which he may retrieve at any time. Offices without walls are another symbolic arrangement promoting openness. In some organizations, even the chief executive does not have a separate exclusive cabin; floor space is shared by other colleagues at different levels in the organization. This willingness to share and this openness results in greater clarity of objectives and free interaction among people. As a result of openness, there should be more
unbiased performance feedback. Indicators of openness in an organization will be productive meetings and improved implementation of systems and innovations.
CONFRONTATION: Confrontation can be defined as facing rather than shying away from problems. It also implies deeper analysis of interpersonal problems. All this involves taking up challenges. The term confrontation is being used with some reservation and means putting up a front as contrasted with putting one's back to the problem. A better term would be confrontation and exploration. The outcome of confrontation will be better role clarity, improved problem solving, and willingness to deal with problems and with 'difficult' employees and customers. There will be willingness of teams to discuss and resolve sensitive issues.
TRUST: Trust is not used in the moral sense. It is reflected in maintaining the confidentiality of information shared by others, and in not misusing it. It is also reflected in a sense of assurance that others will help, when such help is needed and will honor mutual commitments and obligations. Trust is also reflected in accepting what another person says at face value, and not searching for ulterior motives. The outcome of trust includes higher empathy, timely support, reduced stress, and -reduction and simplification of forms and procedures. Such simplification is an indicator of trust and of reduced paper work, effective delegation and higher productivity.
AUTHENTICITY: Authenticity is the congruence between what one feels, says and does. It is reflected in owning up one's mistakes, and in unreserved sharing of feelings. Authenticity is closer to openness. The outcome of authenticity in an organization is reduced distortion in communication. This can be seen in the correspondence between members in an organization.
PRO ACTION: Pro action means taking the initiative, preplanning and taking preventive action, and calculating the payoffs of an alternative course before taking action. The pro action can be contrasted with the term react. In the latter, action is in response to an act from some source, while in the former the action is taken independent of the source. For example, if a person
shouts back at his friend's accusation he shows reactive behavior. However, if he does not use this pattern but responds calmly and suggests that they discuss the problem together, he is showing proactive behavior. Pro activity gives initiative' to the person to start a new process or set a new pattern of behavior. Pro activity involves unusual behavior. In this sense pro activity means freeing oneself from, and taking action beyond immediate concerns. A person showing pro activity functions at all the three levels of feeling, thinking and action. .
AUTONOMY: Autonomy is using and giving freedom to plan and act in one's own sphere. It means respecting and encouraging individual and role autonomy. It develops mutual respect and is likely to result in willingness to take on responsibility, individual initiative, better succession planning. The main indicator of autonomy is effective delegation in organization and reduction in references made to senior people for approval of planned actions.
COLLABORATION: Collaboration is giving help to, and asking for help from, others. It means working together (individuals and groups) to solve problems and team spirit. The outcome of collaboration includes timely help, team work, sharing of experiences, improved communication and improved resource sharing. The indication could be productivity reports, more meetings, and involvement of staff, more joint decisions, better resource utilization and higher quality of meetings.
EXPERIMENTING: Experimenting means using and encouraging innovative approaches to solve problems; using feedback for improving, taking a fresh look a things, and encouraging creativity. We are so caught up with our daily tasks that we often only use tried and tested ways of dealing with problems. While these methods save time and energy, they also blind us from perceiving the advantage of new ways of solving a problem. The more we work under pressure, the less is our inclination to try a different approach as the risk seems to be too high. And yet, complex problems require new approaches to their solutions. Organizational learning does not imply repetitive action; it implies applying past experience to current problems to reach beyond. There are several aspects of creativity in an organization. Creativity is reflected in new suggestions generated by employees, attempts at improving upon previous ways of working,
trying out a new idea to which one has been exposed, innovating new methods, and thinking about a problem while ignoring so called constraints.
The objective of the study was to compare the OCTAPACE CULTURE of private and public banks. For the purpose of collecting data on the OCTAPACE profile, a two-part questionnaire developed by Pareek (2002) was used.
Hypothesis considered for the study: Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of the employees from the public sector (PSPCL) and private sector (Patiala distilleries) on the dimension openness.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of the employees from the public and private sector on the dimension confrontation.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of the employees from the public and private sector on the dimension trust.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of the employees from the public and private sector on the dimension authenticity.
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of the employees from the public and private sector on the dimension Proaction.
Ho6: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of the employees from the public and private sector on the dimension autonomy.
Ho7: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of the employees from the public and private sector on the dimension collaboration.
Ho8: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of the employees from the public and private sector on the dimension experimentation.
The analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results were evaluated on each dimension of OCTAPACE to test the hypotheses of the study. An independent sample t-test is used to examine differences between respondents from the public sector (PSPCL) and private sector (Patiala distilleries).
Group Statistics V2 openness public private confrontation public private trust public private authenticity public private proaction public private autonomy public private collaboration public private experimenting public private N 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Mean 16.00 18.00 15.20 18.00 15.40 16.60 12.00 17.00 16.00 18.40 16.20 18.20 16.00 18.00 13.20 19.00 Std. Deviation 1.414 1.414 .837 .707 .894 1.140 .707 1.414 1.000 1.342 1.789 .837 1.414 .000 .837 1.225 Std. Error Mean .632 .632 .374 .316 .400 .510 .316 .632 .447 .600 .800 .374 .632 .000 .374 .548
Results of Independent Sample t-test (Sector-wise Comparisons) Openness: No significant difference is observed on the dimension ‘openness’ (t=2.236, p>0.05) between public (Mean=16.00, SD=1.414) and private sector (Mean=18.00, SD=1.414). Thus, the null hypothesis Ho1 is not rejected. Confrontation: Significant difference is observed on the dimension ‘confrontation’ (t  = 5.715, p<.05) between public (Mean=15.20, SD=0.837) and private sector (Mean=18.00,
SD=0.707). Thus, the null hypothesis Ho2 is rejected. This means there exist a difference between employees of public and private sector on dimension of confrontation. Trust: No significant differences is observed on the dimension ‘trust’ (t=1.852, p>0.05) between public (Mean=15.40, SD=0.894) and private sector (Mean=16.60, SD=1.140). Thus, the null hypothesis Ho3 is not rejected. Authenticity: Significant difference is observed on the dimension ‘authenticity’ (t= 7.071, p<.05) between public (Mean=12.00,SD=0.707) and private sector (Mean=17.00, SD=1.414). Thus, the null hypothesis Ho4 is rejected. Proaction: Significant difference is observed on the dimension ‘Proaction’ (t= 3.207, p<.05) between public (Mean=16.00, SD=1.000) and private sector (Mean=18.40, SD=1.342). Thus, the null hypothesis H05 is rejected. Autonomy: No significant differences are observed on the dimension ‘autonomy’ (t= 2.265, p>.05) between public (Mean=16.20,SD=1.789) and private sector (Mean=18.20, SD=0.837). Thus, the null hypothesis H06 is not rejected. Collaboration: Significant differences are observed on the dimension ‘collaboration’ (t= 3.162, p<.05) between public (Mean=16.00,SD=1.414) and private sector (Mean=18.00, SD=0.000). Thus, the null hypothesis H07 is rejected. Experimentation: Significant differences are observed on the dimension ‘experimentation’ (t  = 8.744, p<.05) between public (Mean=13.20, SD=0.837) and private sector (Mean=19.00, SD=1.225). Thus, the null hypothesis Ho8 is rejected.
Conclusion: On the basis of above analysis, it can be inferred that significance differences exist in the mean scores of the two sectors on the dimensions of confrontation, authenticity, proaction, collaboration and experimentation. On the other hand no significant differences exist on basis of openness, trust and autonomy in public and private sector employees.
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