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David Pierce 2004.1.30
0 Preliminaries 0.0 Introduction 0.1 Alphabet . . 0.2 Sounds . . . 0.3 Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 8 8 9 10 10 10 12 15 17
1 Parts of speech 1.0 Words . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Numerals . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Particles, conjunctions and 1.7 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Stems . . . . . . . 1.7.2 Bases . . . . . . . . 2 Glossary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . postpositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
As a student of Turkish, I make these notes in an eﬀort to understand the logic of the Turkish language. This is not the account of an expert; nor—as should be quite clear—is it anything like a complete exposition of Turkish grammar. The information here is mostly from secondary sources: I mainly
and it never begins a word. T. O. they use a grave accent rather than a breve over the g). S and U respectively. cedilla under the s). Y. 0. breve or umlaut. and • the variants U and W (double-U) of V. The letter-forms given above are called upper case. it will use the Turkish alphabet and therefore illustrate features like vowel-harmony that are reﬂected in spelling. I. Z. E. B. I propose some technical terms that are diﬀerent from Lewis’s. X. I have made some use of primary sources: Turkish speech and writing as they appear in the course of my life in Turkey. modern Turkish (since 1928) uses an alphabet derived from the 23-letter Latin alphabet A. David Pierce 2 use Lewis’s Turkish Grammar . The 29-letter Turkish alphabet can be derived from the 26-letter English one by: • eliminating Q. D. G. Since my account is written. to distinguish them from the lower case (a. that is) can be understood as derived from the old by diacritical marks. but its presence at the top or bottom of the letter that is used to distinguish the letter from its ‘twin’. The s new letters (new to English-writers. English gets 3 more letters by introducing: • the variant J of I. but have also consulted . ¨ • deriving from C. It is not the shape of the mark. b. but these marks become integral parts of the new letters. M. L.1 Alphabet Like English. Q. S. R. For example. K. the ﬁrst capital of the Ottoman Empire. and there is a bus company called Uluda` (taking their g name from the mountain at Bursa. O. ˘ The letter G is called yumu¸ak ge (soft G). . V. G. C. P. ¸ ˘ ¨ ¸ by adjoining cedilla. I and ˙ (distinguished in both upper and I lower case by whether a dot is present: the lower-case forms are therefore ı and i respectively). N.2004. c and so on). • replacing I with two letters. S and U the letters C.30. F. G. O. X and W. one Turkish dairy styles itself S¨tas (they use a dot instead of a u .1. H.
for example. The vowels can then be tabulated: open back front a e o o ¨ close back front ı i u u ¨ unround round The sound of a can be spelled in English by uh. A diﬀerence from the norm might be shown by a circumﬂex: so kar means snow. In English. I have seen a capital J written with a dot.1. ﬂat/round and narrow/wide. (Also. • unround/round. Further distinctions are possible. a means proﬁt. 0. d¨z/yuvarlak. i and m. I precedes ˙ and the other new letters follow I. The o and u are as in German. the other word for a movie is ﬁlm. usually printed thus with three characters ﬁ. 23 . their ‘twins’. close the mouth more to get ı.) In Turkey.2004. mainly because Turkish retains borrowings from Arabic and Persian. their sounds are found in French as ¨ ¨ well. But j is rare in Turkish anyway. but commonly in English the u s terms are: • back/front. David Pierce 3 In the alphabetical order. sounding something like kyahr. • close/open. and as such is printed with four distinct letters. that is. and the name of a consonant (besides G) is itself plus e. while fındık means hazelnut. dar/geni¸). but k^r.2 Sounds ˘ The name of a vowel is itself.30. Because of the distinction between the letters ı and i in Turkish. being used only in foreign words. the consonants might be tabulated: . fil means elephant or chess-bishop. The number of vowels is eight. Besides the ‘semi-vowel’ y. But film is also a Turkish word. neither of these should be joined in a ligature to a preceding f. The other 21 letters are consonants. since each vowel is determined by the quality it possesses from each of three pairs: thick/thin. These are literal translations of the usual Turkish terms (kalın/ince.
(This particular table is my own invention though. after @. (Syllabic accents are not very strong in Turkish though. the letter d is unvoiced (‘strengthened’) to t. but its appearance seems more confusing. as between c and c. strong) consonant. This same vowel harmony is shown by many suﬃxes. (So ˘ it functions like gh in English in changing ﬁt into ﬁght. ¸ s 0. The variability in consonants will not be indicated. written Turkish is divided into sentences. Other such changes can occur. The sound of c is spelled in English by j or dge.30. However.) Used in a complete word (or sentence). when it begins a suﬃx appended to a word ending in an unvoiced (that is. u or u). by ch and sh. Also. I shall indicate the variability of vowels with the following symbols: • @ for an open unround vowel (a or e). being unaccented. and these into words. and is not the result of careful phonological study. ¨ . but causing the previous syllable to be accented. the columns. i. Some words are enclitic. In particular. each symbol resolves to a vowel that agrees as far as possible with the preceding vowel. the sounds of c and ¸.) The letter j is pronounced as in French.) The vowel in an enclitic may also change according to the preceding vowel.2004. The main eﬀect of g is to lengthen the preceding vowel. The question Avrupa + l# + l@¸ + d#r + @m@ + d#k + l@r s + #m#z + d@n m# + s#n#z? resolves to Avrupalıla¸tıramadıklarımızs dan mısınız? meaning Are you one of those whom we could not Europeanize? • # for a close vowel (ı. to the ﬂow of breath used to pronounce the consonant.1.) The members of the pairs ∗/∗ are voiced and unvoiced respectively. terminal k changes to g when a suﬃx beginning with a vowel is added. (These changes ˘ aﬀect the suﬃx -d#r and the termination -k mentioned below. (Perhaps using æ instead of @ would be more logical.3 Writing As in English. David Pierce b/p d/t g/k v/f j/¸ s z/s g/h ˘ m n 4 c/¸ c l r The rows here are intended to correspond to position of the lips and the tip of the tongue. or soft and strong in Turkish (yumu¸ak s and sert). the only possibilities for # are the unround vowels ı and i.) ¸ Example. I have not seen such symbols used elsewhere in this way.
ice cold. adverb and conjunction. A possessive suﬃx.1.30. that is. The postposition gibi corresponds to the preposition like. 1. depending on the situation. Instead of prepositions. numeral. even if the word is well-formed. a consonant may be interposed.2004. we can say that man and men are two words. we might say that the same word may be used in many forms. pronoun. As in English though. alternatively. Turkish has postpositions. in English.) This reversal of order in passing from the one language to the other occurs in other ways. The plural suﬃx. Some Turkish words used in examples like the following are deﬁned in a glossary (§ 2): Example. in Turkish they are many. Sometimes the y narrows the preceding @ to #. in the following order: 1. For example. Some grammatical functions are served by particles. Inﬂected forms are few in English. A Turkish word (as in the earlier example) may have parts which. adjective. but fulﬁlling some of the same functions. would appear as separate words in the opposite order. buz gibi means like ice.1 Nouns Turkish nouns have no gender. in English. David Pierce 5 The symbol # may resolve to zero (nothing) when it begins a suﬃx placed after a vowel. s or y.0 Parts of speech Words Not every word appears in a dictionary. the word may be inﬂected (or otherwise derived) from a dictionary-word according to standard rules. only one or a few of which appear in the dictionary. So. indicating the number (singular or plural) of a possessor as well as its person (ﬁrst. To a noun in the dictionary can be added four (kinds of) suﬃxes. Words in a Turkish dictionary can be assigned to some of the same parts of speech as English words: noun. verb. or else that they are two forms of the same word. (It is a slogan on signs in Turkey advertising a certain American soft drink marketed all over the world. second or third): . -l@r. adjectives generally precede the nouns they modify. n. Otherwise. 1 1. 2.
• deﬁnite-accusative: -(y)#. since there will also be types II. roughly as in Latin: • genitive: -(n)#n. my and mine are possessive.) Lewis refers to the predicative suﬃxes as type I. y and n are used only between vowels. depending on which is more euphonious. the parenthetical # is used only between consonants.30. Its use is imprecisely summarized this way: It can be left out if ambiguity will not result. In the endings given above. David Pierce 1st 2d 3d -(#)m -(#)n -(s)# -(#)m#z -(#)n#z -(l@r)# 6 singular plural 3. . asserting the distinctions of number and person that apply to the noun itself: 1st 2d 3d singular -(y)#m -s#n -(d#r) plural -(y)#z -s#n#z -(d#r)(l@r) Lewis refers to the possessive suﬃxes as personal.1. A predicative suﬃx. from the aorist verb turur stands. • locative: -d@.) Note however that these endings do not make a noun ‘possessive’ in the English sense in which man’s. and it can be used for emphasis (even in persons besides the third). (More on this point is just below. I chose the name I did. they make a noun ‘possessed’. as early as the 11th century. • dative: -(y)@.) Turkish has ﬁve series of suﬃxes that indicate person. (We might also call them ‘possessive personal suﬃxes’. I have chosen a word giving more indication of their function. (It can also be the deﬁnite-accusative of evler houses. parenthetical single letters are used or not. • ablative: -d@n. 4.) The suﬃx -d#r is said to come. A case-ending. III and IV. (The parenthetical s. The word evleri can be analysed as evler-i his/her/its houses or as ev-leri their house. since these endings turn nouns into predicates (and even complete sentences).) The plural suﬃx is parenthetical above because it is generally not repeated: Example.2004. it may also mean their houses. But (as will be seen. For the particular series of suﬃxes in question.
Common are: • -c#. then the second one has a possessive ending. my friend’s street. David Pierce Atlar Example.30. a noun in the absolute case) can be an indeﬁnite direct object: ¸iir okur S (S)he reads poetry S (S)he reads poems Example. then that other noun takes a possessive ending. but numberless. or more generally a person involved with the thing. then the plural suﬃx is (normally) not used: Example. The converse need not be the case.1. T¨rkiye’nin cumhurba¸kanı u s T¨rkiye Cumhuriyeti u president of Turkey Republic of Turkey In general though. when two nouns form a unit. as gold. Attırlar Atlardır They are horses They are surely horses They are the horses 7 Note then that a single sentence can be built up out of a single word: eviniz your house at your house If one considers ev as synExample. Example. (The last example but one is exceptional. English is the same way: Elm Street. A noun without a case-ending (or. the ﬁrst can be in the absolute or the genitive case. indicating -monger.2004. ¸iirler okur ¸iirleri okur (S)he reads the poems S If a numeral is present. • -l#k. making some kind of abstraction. A noun without the plural suﬃx is not really singular. The second-person plural can be used (as in French) for a polite singular. Be¸ ba¸ koyun ﬁve head of sheep. then one can contrive Odalarınızdayım I am in your rooms.) u u Some suﬃxes make new nouns from old. so k¨pe need not become k¨pesi. One also has altın k¨pe gold earring. u can be understood as an adjective. s s If one noun is genitive and is to possess another. -dealer. Except for the lack of a possessive suﬃx in the Turkish sense. but here altın. with all four kinds of suﬃx. s¨t¸u milkman u c¨ i¸ci s¸ worker g¨nl¨k u u gecelik diary nightgown . for relations not strictly possessive: Example. evinizde Evinizdeyim I am at your house onymous with odalar rooms. -seller.
David Pierce 8 1. with special names for single-digit multiples of ten and for certain powers of ten as in English (without exceptions like eleven and thirteen): . As noted earlier. cır¸ıplak s ¸ c stark naked. in a comparison. Example. that is. Turkish adjectives do not have comparatives and superlatives. Atım var means My horse exists. they are used to assert or deny possession. as in English: daha az more less en en az most least Also. which represent the only use of preﬁxes in Turkish: Example. they can generally be distinguished from nouns in the manner just alluded to: When they modify a noun. since Turkish has no verb have: So.3 Numerals The cardinal numbers are named according to the conventional base-ten numeration system. rather. Unlike some English adjectives. According to Lewis. Putting one of them after a noun is like putting there is (no) before a noun in English: Tanrı yok(tur) means There is no god. the noun to which the comparison is being done is in the ablative case (and then daha need not be used). taking all of the same endings that nouns do. sekerli ¸ sweet hızlı swift Ankaralı ‘Ankarian’ Two important words can be called adjectives: var and yok. a sentence like ¸ocu˘un babası yok The child has C g no father should be understood as having the subject co˘un and the predicate ¸ g babası yok.2 Adjectives Adjectives can behave as nouns. Nonetheless.) 1. I have a horse. Some adjectives have intensive forms. Also. adjectives do generally come before the nouns they modify. they do not force the noun to take a possessive suﬃx.1. bombo¸ utterly void. adverbs are used. bembeyaz whiter than white. (The reason lies in the kind of modiﬁers that babası can take here. The suﬃx -l# makes a noun into an adjective indicating possession of or connexion with the noun.30. meaning existent and non-existent.2004.
David Pierce sıfır 0 d¨rt be¸ o s altı yedi 4 5 6 7 kırk elli altmı¸ yetmi¸ s s 40 50 60 70 y¨z bin u milyon 100 1000 1 000 000 9 bir 1 on 10 iki 2 yirmi 20 uc ¨¸ 3 otuz 30 sekiz dokuz 8 9 seksen doksan 80 90 Example. with some irregularities: • the dative of ben is bana. sana. • o is declined as if it were on.2004. is y¨z kırk dokuz u milyon be¸ y¨z doksan yedi bin sekiz y¨z yetmi¸ kilometre. and of biz. bizim. 149 597 870 kilometres. The role of an English relative clause is taken in Turkish by participles.30. formed by addition of (¸)@r: s Example. like that. and su this or that (thing pointed to).1. .4 Pronouns The personal pronouns may supplement the predicative suﬃxes mentioned above: 1st singular ben plural biz 2d sen siz 3d o onlar Declension is as for nouns. 1. There are also distributive numerals. The o is also a demonstrative pronoun. s u u s Ordinals are formed from cardinals by addition of -(#)nc#. • the genitive of ben is benim. The other demonstratives are bu this. birinci ikinci ﬁrst second birer one each iki¸er two each s The word bir has some similarities to the English indeﬁnite article a(n). (The same can happen in English: the man who is walking can be the walking man. these are declined ¸ as if they were bun and sun. An astronomical unit. ¸ There are no relative pronouns in Turkish (but see below on ki). and of sen.
but it does not follow a predicative ending. this ending jumps to m#: Example. Ay¸e ile s s s David and Ay¸e.6 Particles. we can try the walked-on-by-the-man road. a verbal noun that can be analyzed as .5 Adverbs Adjectives can function as adverbs. David Pierce 10 for the road where the man is walking. ne what.30. David de.) ¸ ¸ ¸ 1. Added to the demonstratives and to ne. as in Ay¸eyle. The accusative and ablative of ne correspond to why.) Interrogative pronouns are: kim who. the word de˘il not takes the predicative suﬃxes. Example. conjunctions and postpositions The enclitic particle m# turns a sentence into a question. some obsolescent: buraya burada buradan hither here hence oraya thither orada there oradan thence nereye whither? nerede where? nereden whence? (Likewise we have suraya. as in Evde g de˘ilsin You are not at home. s 1.1. Evde misin? Are you at home (and not somewhere else)?. but sometimes with reduplication. hangi which. suradan. 1. and ne zaman is when. g The conjunction ve and is from Arabic and can be replaced with nativeTurkish words like the postposition ile with and the particle de too. without addition of a suﬃx like the English -ly. withe emphasis on the preceeding word. Sen mi evdesin? Are you (and not somebody else) at home? Similarly. the suﬃx -r@ makes nouns of place. rather.2004. surada.7 Verbs The dictionary-form of a verb is usually the inﬁnitive. and ka¸ c how many. but it is unnatural. For Ay¸e and David we can write Ay¸e ve David. some of whose cases have corresponding English words. s The ile can be suﬃxed.
in some inﬂexions is used like var in an expression of possession. for example. In particular. Where there is no inﬂexion of i-. it forms a locative. yielding a ﬁnite. Kalkmalısın You must get up. It does take some of the case-endings though. necessitative verb: Example. a From the gerund can be formed an adjective in -l#. . that is. Also. but the corresponding meaning is needed. Roman yazmaktayım I am engaged in writing a novel. it takes possessive suﬃxes: Example. The gerund does have all of the features of nouns (except perhaps that it does not have a plural). I have to go. In particular. 11 otherwise. possessive. Another verbal noun is stem + m@. Gitmeliyiz We must go. to which a predicative suﬃx can be added.supplies the inﬂexion. then the stem ol. This verb does not have all of the inﬂexions that regular verbs do.2004. (Lewis reserves ‘gerund’ for verbal adverbs. by analogy with the English gerund. Gitmem l^zım My going is necessary. except the defective verb with stem i-. Here they are. along with the personal pronouns: 0 1 2 3 4 5 ben sen o biz -(#)m -(#)n -(s)i -(#)m#z -(y)#m -s#n (-d#r) -(y)#z -m -n — -k -@y#m -@s#n -@ -@l#m — -s#n siz onlar -(#)n#z -l@r# -s#n#z -(d#r)l@r -n#z -l@r -@s#n#z -@l@r -#n. But olmak can also be treated as a regular verb meaning to become. David Pierce stem + m@k. the stem itself is the dictionary head-word. it does not take possessive suﬃxes.30. I propose to call this a gerund.1.) The Turkish inﬁnitive does not have all features of the noun. the inﬂexions that it does have are used with regular verbs to form compounds. All verbs are regular. -#n#z -s#nl@r I propose the following names for these series (two of which I gave earlier): 1. I mentioned that there were ﬁve series of personal endings. to which a predicative suﬃx can be added to make a ﬁnite verb: Example. Other ﬂavors of verb are formed on this pattern and will be discussed below. ol.
Before looking at bases. in ancient times there were ﬁrst-person imperative endings. They attach directly to verb-stems. The optative and imperative endings might be called modal. so ol. 5. in that one of the bases is conditional). Note that every regular stem can stand by itself as a second-person singular imperative verb. predicative. a stem must be lengthened to an appropriate base before a non-modal ending can be added. 1.1 Stems The two-fold distinction in English between aﬃrmation and denial (between I did it and I didn’t do it) can in Turkish be seen as three-fold. imperative. David Pierce 2. a stem can become: . indicating a wish or command: gideyim git gitsin gidelim gidin(iz) gitsinler let me go go let him go/may he go let’s go you all go let them go/may they go According to Lewis. C As in the case of the necessitative verb. except in the ﬁrst person.30. Ba¸ınız sa˘ olsun is a formula oﬀered to somebody grieving s g over a death. personal (the term is ambiguous. 12 3.is used instead: Example. and the plural one became the optative. the base will express some distinctions of tense and aspect (as well as mood.does not take a modal ending. Some roles of the optative or subjunctive are taken by the conditional. described below. the singular one inﬂuenced the optative. the stem i. Indeed. so generally. 4. optative. By addition of the indicated suﬃxes. The optative endings (also called subjunctive) are little used. the point is that the endings on this line do nothing but assign person and number). one might think that there was a single series of modal endings. Also.7. The command Be quick! is given by ¸abuk ol!.1.2004. I shall ﬁrst look more at stems.
(If we insist on this term.30. reﬂexive: -(#)n. 13 Any of the three stems so far can be rendered potential by suﬃxation of with -@bil. simple negation is achieved. Other compounds. then Turkish has more voices than the active and passive of English. are possible. Example. they appear in the following order: 1. compounds with dur.cringe o (make a head) (make clean) (make like a dog) After the root or the l@ in a dictionary-stem. The dictionary-stem (the stem before addition of negative. When extensions are present. temizle. less common. If it is not just a verbal root.clean k¨pekle. often -l@. The second column below gives English inﬁnitives without to (as might follow the words I shall).be powerful or able. The impotential suﬃx is the negation of the obsolete verb u. Such compounding might be said to indicate distinctions of aspect. The defectiveness (in particular.1. for example. then it might be a noun or adjective with a verbal suﬃx. impotential or potential suﬃxes) can sometimes be further analysed. as noted. or • impotential: -@m@.begin s Example. David Pierce • negative: -m@. Moreover. extensions may be present that indicate distinctions of voice. English does have other ways of conveying the additional distinctions of voice that appear in Turkish). . the third column gives a ﬁnite form (as might follow I).stop or gel. The Turkish verb does not make the distinction between permission and ability that English can make with may and can.indicate continuous action. with -m@. meaning know. gelmegelemegelebilgelmiyebilgelemiyebilnot not be able to be able to be able not to possibly be unable to come come come come come do not cannot can may not may be unable to come come come come come The potential form can be considered as a compound with the verb bil-. ba¸la. the lack of inﬁnitives) of the English modal auxiliaries gives various possibilities for translation.2004.
Like the ancient-Greek middle voice. the reciprocal and causative extensions make the repetitive extension -#¸t#r (other suﬃxes are used to the same eﬀect in a few s cases). the latter meaning is also expressed by yıkanıl-. The signiﬁcance of an extension is not always obvious from its name. s • uyan. and • -d#r in other cases.30. -r or a vowel.be awakened. Here are some more examples of distinctions of voice: Example. s • ara¸tır.can mean either tour (the countryside) or take a walk (in the countryside).1. the causative extension can make an intransitive stem transitive: ol. after stems ending in a consonant other than -l (otherwise it has the same form as the reﬂexive). and • some exceptional forms occur as well.investigate. Don’t let anybody allow [their C c children] to pick the ﬂowers. except: • -#r. literally. but yıkan. what water does in a pot on the stove.wash dishes. 14 4.2004.be present.meet and bulun. s 3.means have [somebody] killed. • ¸i¸ekleri koparttırmayınız. while old¨r. causative: • -t after polysyllabic stems in -l. more than one ¨ u causative extension can be used. reciprocal: -(#)¸. and what I do when I put the pot there.means kill. and kayna. uyandır. . Also: • bulu¸. the reﬂexive extension may suggest a doing for and not just to oneself. Also.means die.awake. As here.wash oneself s or be washed. and it may have the same eﬀect (and even the same form) as a passive extension (although these two kinds of extensions can be used together as well). Used together. the causative extension could be called factitive: old¨rt. passive: -#l. Sometimes the same verbal root can be used transitively or intransitively: gez. We have bula¸ık yıka.awaken. uyandırıl.and kaynat¨ ¨ u mean boil: respectively. that’s why all of the diﬀerent stems that feature them will generally appear in the dictionary. Used with a transitive stem. David Pierce 2. -@r or -#t occur after some monosyllabic stems.
David Pierce 1. making a present tense. Here.2004. • future: -(y)@c@k. the present.7. The one past tense given so far may be called inferential. – negative: -m@z. It survives as a suﬃx -#yor. s • aorist (not used with negative stems): – positive: -@r. There is said to be an ancient verb yor. • conditional: -s@. which can be attached to a stem. -#r or -r. i.1. The predicative endings can be added to all of these participles but the present.30.2 Bases 15 Regular verbs have several participles.go or walk.has only the past tense. the result does not stand on its own as a participle. ongoing action. • past: -mı¸. the bases we have now are also complete sentences: Okuyor Okumakta Okuyacak Okur Okumaz Okumu¸ s (Okumu¸tur s Okumalı (S)he is reading (S)he is engaged in reading (S)he will read (S)he reads (S)he does not read It seems that (s)he read (S)he read) (S)he must read Two more bases are formed from stems by addition of the following characteristics: • simple past: -d#. The aorist tense denotes habitual action. some of which are formed from a stem by addition of the following suﬃxes: • present: -@n. turning them into ﬁnite verbs of the corresponding tenses. . but can receive a predicative suﬃx. as its use does not imply that the speaker witnessed the event described—unless -d#r is added. Since the third-singular predicative ending is empty.
By appending bases in i.can follow or be suﬃxed to a regular verb-base. . these forms can be produced: okuyormu¸ s okuyordu okuyorsa okuyormu¸sa s okuyorduysa okuyacakmı¸ okuyacaktı okuyacaksa okuyacakmı¸sa okuyacaktıysa s s okurmu¸ s okurdu okursa okurmu¸sa s okurduysa okumazmı¸ s okumazdı okumazsa okumazmı¸sa s okumazdıysa okumu¸ imi¸ okumu¸tu s s s okumu¸sa s okumu¸ imi¸sa okumu¸ idiyse s s s okumalıymı¸ okumalıydı s okuduydu okuduysa okudu idiyse okusaymı¸ s okusaydı If it is not associated in this way with a regular verb-base. The simple bases result from suﬃxing a characteristic -m#¸. David Pierce 16 These attach to the stems of all verbs. In particular. Example. . for example: Okudu Okusa [I saw that] (s)he did read If (s)he would read. the present. including i-. Personal endings may be attached to regular bases.30. On the stem i. The distinction between the present and the aorist characteristics is of aspect. The resulting bases take the personal endings.1. adjective or de˘il. All bases so far described are simple. Thus the bases in i. We have then. The bases formed on i. as noted. saying that a conditional verb is indicative makes sense if one takes If A then B to mean just B or not-A. All verbs formed with predicative or personal endings might be said to have the indicative mood. -d# or -s@ only. A third way to indicate a present tense is by appending typeI endings or a verb in i. Alternatively. pronoun.2004.must be completed with personal endings. The non-conditional simple bases can s be rendered conditional by being compounded with that simple base. the second being conditional. a complete verb formed on a simple base in i. then a complete verb in i.are simple are also formed compound bases.to indicative stems in oku-.are ﬁve: imi¸s idiiseimi¸se s idiyse- All verb-bases have now been described. an action ongoing or envisaged. . The aorist indicates habitual action.must follow or be suﬃxed to a noun. g In a verb with two characteristics. the personal ending may precede this.to an inﬁnitive in the locative case: the result indicates ongoing action only.
• Roman yazmaktayım. then m# follows this. in which case no suggestion of hearsay or inference is meant. the ending -m#¸t#r has the same force as s -d#.30. then the base is what is followed by m#. I am engaged in writing a novel. s s • Somebody who read the story might report Barı¸ gelmi¸. s Example. more rarely s with -d# (+) idi. It makes a sentence into a question with a evet/hayır (yes/no) answer.2004. The interrogative particle is m#. The form imi¸. From yaz. or reported by somebody else—unless the regular base is followed by -d#r or a verb in i-. s • The story under that head might say Barı¸ gelmi¸tir.may not indicate past time at all. it indicates past action. Barı¸ means peace. 2 Glossary altın gold ara. s s s The pluperfect tense is usually formed with -m#¸ (+) idi-. The characteristic d# of the simple past is inseparable from an attached personal ending. I am writing a novel [now. I write novels. If the personal ending is -l@r. or in the future]. but only hearsay. David Pierce Example. so if there is one. unless -d#r is also used. then m# must follow this. is attached to this. so: s • A newspaper headline could read Barı¸ geldi. In particular. • Roman yazıyorum. This action is inferred from present appearances. or possibly s s Barı¸ gelmi¸ imi¸. 17 The inferential characteristic is originally a past-participial ending. and it follows the word that could also be an answer to the question. or the form of i. Exceptions include the following.seek at horse baba father ba¸ head s . If this word is the verb.write we can form: • Romanlar yazarım. the personal ending. Used in a regular base.in use.1. Peace is said to have come. it always starts a new word.
break oﬀ koyun sheep kayna.2004.write yıka. right g s¨t milk u seker sugar ¸ siir poem ¸ tanrı god temiz clean uyu.know bo¸ empty s bul.come gece night gez.30. David Pierce beyaz white bil.1. walk git.read ol.sleep yaz.go out or up ¸ cıplak naked ¸ ci¸ek ﬂower ¸ c cocuk child ¸ da˘ mountain g dur stop ev house gel.die ¨ sa˘ alive.get up kop.ﬁnd buz ice cabuk quick ¸ cık.boil k¨pek dog o k¨pe earring u l^zım necessary a oda room oku.go g¨n day u hız speed kalk.tour.wash zaman time 18 .
 Mehmet Hengirmen.30. Turkish Grammar For Foreign Students. Oxford.2004. 1967. .1. 2000. Ankara: Engin. David Pierce 19 References  G. L. Turkish Grammar. Lewis.
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