The Wourld Through Our Senses

Sensory organ, senses and stimuli Stimuli – changes that occur in the surroundings. Example : sound, chemical sunstances and light intensity Sensory organs – Organs that detect stimuli Each sensory organ is sensitive to only certain types of stimuli. For example, the eyes are only sensitive to light but not to sound. Sense – The ability of an organism to detect a stimulus Human beings have five sensory organs

Senses of smell

Senses of touch

Senses in humans

senses of taste

Senses of hearing

senses of sight

Relation between sensory organ, stimuli, and senses in human beings Sensory organ Stimulus /stimuli detected Sense Eyes Light Sense of light Ears Sound Sense of hearing Nose Smell Sense of smell Skin Touch, pressure, pain, heat and Sense of touch cold Tongue Taste (chemicals in Food) Sense of taste Response to stimuli

Stimulus

Receptor in sensory organ

Nerve impulses

Nerves Brain

Respons

Effector

Nerves

Nerve impulses

Common pathway in detecting a stimulus and producing a response in human beings

a) How close together the receptor are Example : the lips and fingertips are very sensitive to touch due to the large concentration of touch receptor. the epidermis and dermis. Refer to the diagram. The skin has five different receptor.1 The touch receptor – sensitive to slight pressure 3. The epidermis on the neck is thinner than that on the knee. The sensitivity of skin depend on.4 The cold receptor – sensitive to cold 3.Sense of Touch 1. It can detect stimuli such as touch. 3. 3.2 The pain receptor – sensitive to pain 3. pain.3 The heat receptor – sensitive to heat 3. So neck more sensitive than the skin at the knee. Below the skin is a layer of fatty tissue. The skin is a sensory organ that gives us our sense of touch. c) The sense of touch is very important to the blind because it helps them to identify object and feel their way around and to reads book in Braille . pressure. 2. skin consists of two main layer. . b) How deep the receptor are Example : The receptor with thick epidermis are less sensitive.5 The pressure receptor – sensitive to heavy pressure 4. heat and cold.

the air current passes through the nasal cavity. The brain interprets the message and identify the smells. How smells are detected. . 3. Refer to diagram. b) These receptors send out nerve impulses to the brain. 2. The smell receptors or sensory cells are located at the roof of the nasal cavity. 4.Sense of Smell 1. This position allows the smell receptor to have the maximum exposure to the air current. Smells are actually chemicals present in the air. a) When air is breathed in. The nose can detect these chemicals. The chemicals present in the air dissolve in the mucous lining and stimulate the smell receptor.

Refer to the diagram. It is sensitive to four basic tastes – sweet. 5. There are four types of taste buds . sour and bitter. These bumps contains tiny structures called taste buds. . 2. Each taste bud contains many taste receptors which are sensitive to chemicals in food.Sense of Taste 1. The surface of the tongue is covered with little bumps. Different areas of the tongue are sensitive to different tastes. one for each basic taste. the chemicals of the food dissolve in the salive. 4. 3. a) When we chew our food. How taste detected . b) The dissolved chemicals stimulate the taste receptors in the taste buds to produce nerve impulses. c) Messages are sent to the brain to be interpreted. salty. This enables us to identify the taste of the food. The tongue is the sensory organ related to the sense of taste.

The nasal cavity and the mouth cavity are connected. This allows the taste and smell of food in the mouth to be detected at the same time. .6.

5 cm long. Made of cartilage and skin. Part Outer ear a) Pinna (ear flap) Structure Shape like funnel. stretched membrane at the end of the ear canal Three small bones Function Collects and directs sound waves into the ear canal Directs sound waves to the eardrum Vibrates when sound waves hit it Amplify vibrations and transfer them from the eardrum to the oval window. the middle ear and the inner ear. Contain fluid and sensory cells. Nerve fibres that connect the ear to the brain Three semicircular cannals situated at right angles to each other. Detects vibrations and converts them into nerve impulses b) Ear cannal Middle ear a) Eardrum b) Ossicles c) Oval window A thin . c) Semicircular canals . A called tube filled with fluid and lined with tiny hair-like sensory cells. Transfers vibrations from the ossicles to the cochlea Equalises the air pressure on both sides of the eardrum. A thin . small membrane at the end of the ossicles A narrow tube that connects the middle ear to the back of the throat. thus preventing itu from damage. d) Eustachian tube Inner ear a) Cochlea b) Auditory nerve Carries vibrations and converts them into nerve impulses Detect the position and movement of the head to help us keep our balance (Note: They are not involved in the hearing mechanism. A 2.Sense of Hearing The human ear has three main parts – the outer ear. narrow tube lined with hair.

8. b) When the sound waves hit the eardrum. f) The brain interprets the impulses as sounds. The movement of the fluid stimulates the sensory cells or receptors in the cochlea. How sounds are detected by the ear : a) The pinna collects sound waves and directs them along the ear canal to the eardrum. d) The vibration of the oval windows causes the fluid in the cochlea to move in the form of waves . Nerve impulses are produced. The vibrations are then transferred to the ossicles. e) The auditory nerve carries the impulses to the brain. . it vibrates at the same frequency as the sound waves. c) The ossicles amplify for the vibrations about 20 times before transferring them to the oval window.

The wall of eyeball is made up of three layers.Sense of Sight 1. 4. The eyes are the sensory organs of sight. (a) Sclere – tough. The eyelids and eyelashes keep dust and dirt out of the eyes. outer layer (b) Choroid – black. middle layer (c) Retina – sensitive to light . They are sensitive to light. The eye brows help to prevent sweat from running into the eyes. 3. 2. innermost layer The structure of the human eye and the function of the different parts .

fibrous. Make up of strong muscle Contract and relaxes to change the thickness of the lens Strong fibres that connect the Hold the lens in its position lens to the ciliary body A watery transparent liquid . the conjunctiva and the lens obtain food and oxygen from the blood vessels in the choroids layer by diffusion through this liquid. onto the retina.The black pigment absorbs light and therefore prevents reflection of light inside the eye which would make an image less sharp. . They detect shades of grey in dim light. muscles The hole in the centre of the Controls the amount of light iris entering the eye. The innermost layer of the . The thin . outer layer that is opaque and tough Middle layer that contains black pigment and many blood vessels Function Retina Cornea Conjunctiva Iris Pupil Lens Ciliary body Suspensory ligaments Aqueous humour Protects and maintains the shape of the eyeball . . -The thickness of the lens is changed to focus near and distant objects. The curved and transparent Its curved surface helps to refract layer of the sclera at the front (bend) light onto the retina.Detect light and produces nerve eyeball. A transparent bioconvex and -It refract and focuses an image leastic disc. It contains many impulses photoreceptors known as cones .Helps to focus the image onto that fills the space between the the retina cornea and the lens -Helps to maintain the shape of the eyeball -The cornea . enabling us to have and rods colour vision -The rods enables us to see in dim light .Part Sclera Choroid Stucture White.The cones detect colours in bright light.The blood vessels supply nutrients and oxygen to the eye. transparent layer of Protects the cornea membrane in front of the cornea The coloured part of the eye Controls the size of the pupil and that is continous with the thus the amount of light entering choroids. of the eye. It is made up of the eye.

the size of the pupil increases to let in more light. the lens and vitreous humour. Carries nerve impulses from the retina to the brain. The interpretation also allows us to know the shape. 4. 5. a) When it is very bright . b) When it is dim. the colour . light rays from the object enter each eye through the pupil. There are no photoreceptors here. It is located directly opposite the pupil Blind spot A point on the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye. The intensity of the light influences the size of the pupil. How wee see -Helps to focus the image onto the retina -Helps to maintain the shape of the eyeball Detect light or image that fall on it Images that fall on this spot cannot be detected. the rays are refracted to form an image on the retina. the aqueous humour . the size of the pupil decreases to let in less light. 2. jelly-like and transparent substance that fills the space behind the lens Yellow spot(fovea) The most sensitive spot on the retina. 3.Vitreous humour A thick . The brain interprets the impulses and we can see the object the right way up. . As the light rays pass through the cornea. Optic nerve Made up of nerve fibres that connect the retina to the brain. The image is upside down and smaller than the actual object. 1. the size and the distance of the object. When we look at an object.

c). Eyes have the ability to focus on objects a different distance. a).0 x 10 8 ms-1 in air. . Light and Sight Properties of light. Light can be refracted when it travels from one transparent medium to another. Light can be reflacted when it hits a surface d). Light extremely fast and has speed of 3. Refer to diagram.5. Light travels in straight lines within the same medium b).

1. Reflaction of light a) Reflaction of light occurs when light bounces off the surface of an object. it is reflected as a parallel beam. 2. It can be parellal . . This type of reflection is called irregular of diffuse reflection. c) When a parallel beam of light hits a rough surface cause the reflected light to head off in all directions. A beam of light is made up of a bundle of rays. Refer to the diagram. divergent or convergent. It also produced sharpe image. Its called ‘regular reflection’. Refer to the diagram. Refer to diagram b) When a parallel beam of light hits a very smooth surface.

Near objects are blurred .The lens is too thick .Sees near objects clearly .Sees distant objects clearly .The eyeball is too long Causes .Distance object are blurred Condition of vision .The lens is too thin .Defect of vision and ways to correct them Short-sightness (myopia) Long-sightness (hypermetropia) Similarity Both are caused by the conditions of lens and eyeball Differences .The eyeball is too short .

Agtigmatism Colurblindness Longsightedness Defect of vision Presbyopia Shortsightdness .

Blind spot Optical illusion Monocular vision Limitation of sight Cannot see tiny objects Cannot see very distance object Stereoscopic vision Diagram 4 : Monocular and stereoscopic vision .

ray machine Stimuli and Responses in Plants a) Tropisms Tropism are growth responses of plants to external stimuli b) Geotropism Geotropism is the growth movement shown by plant in response to gravity c) Phototropism Phototropism is the growth movement shown by plants in response to light d) Hydrotropism Hydrotropism is the growth movement shown by plants in response to water.Magnifying glass Binoculars Ultrasound scanning Devises to overcome limitation of sight Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine Telescope Periscope x. e) Thigmotropism Thigmotropism is a response by plants to touch or contact with the solid structure .

Structure questions 1. Pinna Auditory Nerve . Figure 1 shows the cross section of the human ear (a) Name the parts labeled M to Q (b) Which labeled parts of the ear responsible in carrying out the following functions ? (i) (ii) (iii) Changing sound vibrations to electrical messages Amplifying sound vibrations Helps in balancing by detecting the position of the head (c) Complete the sequence below to show how sound is detected by the human ear.

(a) label the cornea and retina in Figure 2 (b) The following sequence shows the path of light rays from the object entering the human eye. Figure 2 shows the cross section of the human eye. Cornea Aqueous humou Pupil R Vitreous humour Retina (i) Mark R in Figure 2 (ii) State the function of R (c) A student suffers from a detect of vision due to his slightly long eyeball. (i) (ii) (iii) Name the defect of vision the student is suffering from Mark X along the line EF to show the position of the image that is formed in his eye What kind of lense can be used to correct this defect? .2.

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