An embedded system is a special-purpose system in which the computer is completely encapsulated by or dedicated to the device or system it controls. Unlike a generalpurpose computer, such as a personal computer, an embedded system performs one or a few predefined tasks, usually with very specific requirements. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it, reducing the size and cost of the product. Embedded systems are often mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale. Personal digital assistants (PDAs) or handheld computers are generally considered embedded devices because of the nature of their hardware design, even though they are more expandable in software terms. This line of definition continues to blur as devices expand. With the introduction of the OQO Model 2 with the Windows XP operating system and ports such as a USB port

both features usually Belong to "general purpose computers", — the line of nomenclature blurs even more. Physically, embedded systems ranges from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. In terms of complexity embedded systems can range from very simple with a single microcontroller chip, to very complex with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure.



In the 1960s, computers possessed an ability to acquire, analyze, process data, and make decisions at very high speeds. However there were some disadvantages with the computer controls. They were: high cost, program complexity, and hesitancy of personnel to learn. However the new concept of electronic devices was evolved. They were called programmable controllers which later became a part of embedded systems. This concept developed from a mix of computer technology, solid state devices, and traditional electro mechanical sequences. The first mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile released in 1961. It was built from discrete transistor logic and had a hard disk for main memory. REQUIREMENTS OF TYPICAL EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: EX: CHEMICAL PLANT: Consider a chemical plant. No. of temperatures have to be measured &based on values certain operations are performed, such as opening a value. INPUT: - From sensors which measure temperatures. OUTPUT: signal that controls a value. Ex: MOBILE PHONES: The processor of a mobile phone needs to carry out a great deal of communications protocol processing to make "TELEPHONECAL‖.

Fig 1.1 Typical embedded sysytem organisation



     Embedded systems often use a (relatively) slow processor and small memory size with an intentionally simplified architecture to minimize costs. Programs on embedded systems must often run with limited resources Embedded system designers use compilers to develop an embedded system. They often have no operating system or a speciali8zed embedded operating system (often a real-time operating system ). Programs on an embedded system often must run with resources: often there is no disk drive, operating system, keyboard or screen. may replace rotating media, and a small keypad and screen may be used instead of a PC's keyboard and screen.  Embedding a computer is to interact with the environment, often by monitoring and controlling external machinery. In order to do this, analog inputs and outputs must be transformed to and from digital signal levels.

Some widely used applications of embedded systems are listed below:             Automatic teller machines Cellular telephones. Computer network. Disc drives. Thermo stats. Sprinklers. Security monitoring systems. Hand held calculations. House-hold appliances. Inertial guided systems. Flight control hardware / software. Medical equipment.

which means that it is seen as a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. can use their phone all over the world. This fact has also meant that data communication was built into the system from very early on. which mean the subscribers. the standards have allowed network operators to offer roaming services. GSM is an open standard. GSM phones are used by over a billion people across more than 200 countries. which enable phone users to access their services in many other parts of the world as well as their own country. The ubiquity of the GSM standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators. GSM retained backward-compatibility with the original GSM phones as the GSM standard continued to develop. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital.5 GSM The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. for example packet data capabilities were added in the Release '97 version of the standard. Higher speed data transmission has also been introduced with EDGE in the Release '99 version of the standard. The advantage for network operators has been 8 the ability to deploy equipment from different vendors because the open standard allows easy inter-operability. which is currently developed by the 3GPP.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 1.From the point of view of the consumer. the key advantage of GSM systems has been higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls such as text messaging. by means of GPRS. Also. 4 .

Once.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 2. We can modify this concept such that the vehicle owner also can lock the vehicle from his mobile phone.1 BLOCK-DIAGRAM GSM MODEM MICRO LCD MEMS ADC CONTROLLER KEYPAD LED KEYPAD FIG 2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION: The project ―GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM‖ deals with the design & development of a theft control system for automobiles which is being used to prevent / control the theft of a vehicle. The developed system makes use of an embedded system based on GSM technology. which is in turn. The information is passed onto the central processing insurance system. the information is being used by the vehicle owner for further processing. An interfacing mobile is also connected to the microcontroller. Again it will come to the normal condition only after entering a secured password. the vehicle is being stolen. 5 . connected to the engine. BLOCK DIAGRAM AND SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 2. where by sitting at a remote place. a particular number is dialed by them to the interfacing mobile that is with the hardware kit which is installed in the vehicle. The owner of the vehicle & the centre processing system will know this secured password. By reading the signals received by the mobile.1 Block diagram of vehicle theft control system 2. say to lock it or to stop the engine immediately. one can control the ignition of the engine.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM The main concept in this design is introducing the mobile communications into the embedded system. With the help of SIM tracking knows the location of vehicle and informs to the local police or stops it from further movement. 6 .


As the GSM receives a secret code from the owner it sends a signal to the micro controller and the micro controller will lock the engine. Micro controller will send a signal to the GSM module. If there is any change in the actual position of the MEM a control signal will be given to the ADC. The ADC will convert the analog signal to the digital signal and it will send the digital signal to the micro controller. After locking the engine.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 2. After reaching the position where vehicle was locked. The actual position of the MEM sensor should be 90 degrees with respect to ground. the owner enters an secret code to unlock the engine. In this way we can protect the vehicles. As this is a protocol we have shown the locking of the engine by glowing led. As GSM receives a signal from micro controller it informs the owner as “vehicle theft detected” through an SMS. 8 . the owner can able to find the location of the Automobile by using the signals generated by GSM. When the owner receives the above message he will send a message to the GSM module to lock the engine.4 SCHEMATIC DESCRIPTION: The operation of this circuit mainly depends on the MEM sensor. And we can also use this as a accident sensor.

If a system is developed with a microprocessor. interrupt controller. integrated on to a single silicon chip. Development of a Micro controller reduces PCB size and cost of design. the designer has to go for external memory such as RAM.1 Micro controller 9 . HARDWARE COMPONENTS 3.1.1 INTRODUCTION: A Micro controller consists of a powerful CPU tightly coupled with memory. data acquisition interfaces-Analog to Digital converter.1. But controller is provided all these facilities on a single chip.1 MICRO CONTROLLER (AT89S52) 3. various I/O interfaces such as serial port. Digital to Analog converter. Intel has introduced a family of Micro controllers called the MCS-51. Fig 3. EPROM and peripherals. parallel port timer or counter. ROM.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3. One of the major differences between a Microprocessor and a Micro controller is that a controller often deals with bits not bytes as in the real world application.

which do not need large amount of data and program memory. Interrupt controller are needed for its efficient applications. sufficient RAM and ROM are used to satisfy most applications . 4K bytes of ROM as compared to 32-KB. Micro controller do not have the excessive circuitry and the built-in peripheral chips are easier to program for operation. Bulky: On comparing a board full of chips (Microprocessors) with one chip with all components in it (Micro controller) Debugging: Lots of Microprocessor circuitry and program to debug. In comparison a typical Micro controller 8052 chip has all that the 8052 board has except a reduced memory as follows. whereas. Parallel programmable port. almost all-peripheral chips were used in the design. tended to be: Costly: The microprocessor system had to satisfy the data and program requirements so. As also Timer / Counter.32KB RAM and 32-KB ROM to be able to satisfy most applications. 128 Bytes of RAM as compared to 32-KB. Most applications. 10 . Serial port. Because of these additional peripherals cost will be comparatively high. Therefore. In Micro controller there is no Microprocessor circuitry to debug. An example: 8085 chip needs An Address latch for separating address from multiplex address and data.The peripheral control equipment also had to be satisfied. Slower Development time: As we have observed Microprocessors need a lot of debugging at board level and at program level.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM NECESSITY OF MICROCONTROLLERS: Microprocessors brought the concept of programmable devices and made many applications of intelligent equipment.

Using an inexpensive 8-bit Micro controller will doom the 32-bit product failure in any competitive market place. One or more interrupt inputs and an interrupt controller One or more serial communication ports. One or more I/O ports.RAM and ROM also were integrated in the same chip. The on-chip Flash ROM allows the program memory 11 . Coming to the question of why to use AT89C52 of all the 8-bit Micro controller available in the market the main answer would be because it has 8 Kb on chip flash memory which is just sufficient for our application. The ROM size was anything from 256 bytes to 32Kb or more. One or more timer/counters.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM So peripheral devices like Timer/Counter. They are also faster and more reliable but. which were most often used were integrated with the Microprocessor to present the Micro controller . Analog to Digital /Digital to Analog converter One or more PWM output Network controlled interface Why AT 89C52? : The system requirements and control specifications clearly rule out the use of 16. the above application is satisfactorily served by 8-bit micro controller. Systems using these may be earlier to implement due to large number of internal features. Parallel programmable port. 32 or 64 bit micro controllers or microprocessors. Typical Micro controllers have all the following features:          8/16/32 CPU Instruction set rich in I/O & bit operations. RAM was optimized to minimum of 64 bytes to 256 bytes or more. Interrupt controller and so on. Serial Communication Port.

0V to 5. 8052 micro controller architecture: The 8052 architecture consists of these specific features:                Compatible with MCS®-51 Products 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash 4.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM to be reprogrammed in system or by conventional non-volatile memory Programmer.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Full Duplex UART Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode Watchdog Timer Dual Data Pointer Power-off Flag 12 . Moreover ATMEL is the leader in Flash technology in today‘s market place and hence using AT 89C52 is the optimal solution.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM   Fast Programming Time Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode) 3.1.2 PIN DIAGRAM: Fig -3.1.2 Pin out diagram of 89C52 ic 13 .

1.3 Functional block diagram of micro controller 14 .1.3 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MICROCONTROLLER Fig 3.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3.

1. Pins XTAL1 And XTAL2 is provided for 15 .4 Internal Block diagram: Fig 3.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3.4 AT89C52 internal block diagram The 8052 oscillator and clock: The heart of the 8052 circuitry that generates the clock pulses by which all the internal all internal operations are synchronized. Fig 3.1.

Each bank contains 8 registers. It is possible to have 4K of code memory on-chip and 60K off chip memory simultaneously.e. If only off-chip memory is available then there can be 64K of off chip ROM. so when 8052 is reset. each individual bit of a byte can be addressed by the user. This is often in the form of an external EPROM. Code memory may be found on-chip or off-chip. Internal RAM also contains 128 bits. And also it is most flexible in terms of reading and writing. This memory is limited to 64K. The internal RAM is found onchip. These bits are bit addressed i. The crystal frequency is the basic internal clock frequency of the micro controller. They are numbered 00h to 7Fh. 16 . So it is the fastest Ram available. The first 32 bytes are divided into 4 register banks. a) Code memory Code memory is the memory that holds the actual 8052 programs that is to be run. This often is in the form of standard static RAM or flash RAM. Internal Ram is volatile. this memory is cleared. 256 bytes of internal memory are subdivided. external Code memory and external Ram. which are addressed from 20h to 2Fh. On-Chip memory refers to physically existing memory on the micro controller itself. Types of memory: The 8052 have three general types of memory. The user may make use of these variables with commands such as SETB and CLR. External code memory is the code memory that resides off chip. The manufacturers make 8052 designs that run at specific minimum and maximum frequencies typically 1 to 16 MHz. They are on-chip memory.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM connecting a resonant network to form an oscillator. Typically a quartz crystal and capacitors are employed. External RAM is the Ram that resides off chip. This is controlled by pin provided as Ea b) Internal memory The 8052 have a bank of 256 bytes of internal RAM.

c) Stack pointer (81h) The stack pointer holds 8-bit value. It is a 16-bit SFR and also an addressable SFR. In MUL AB the higher byte of the product gets stored in B register. which contains the 2 byte address. In div AB the quotient gets stored in B with the remainder in A. It can hold 8 bit values b) B register (0F0h) The B register is very similar to accumulator. the 8052 returns the value from the memory location indicated by SP and then decrements the value of SP. it is used to accumulate the results of large no of instructions. d) Data pointer The SFRs DPL and DPH work together work together to represent a 16-bit value called the data pointer. the 8052 first store the value of SP and then store the value at the resulting memory location. It may hold 8-bit value.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Special Function registered memory: Special function registers are the areas of memory that control specific functionality of the 8052 micro controller. a) Accumulator (0E0h) As its name suggests. The b register is only used by MUL AB and DIV AB instructions. When a value is to be popped from the stack. e) Program counter The program counter is a 16 bit register. When the 8052 is 17 . The data pointer is used in operations regarding external RAM and some instructions code memory. which tells the 8052 where the next instruction to execute to be found in memory. This is used to indicate where the next value to be removed from the stack should be taken from. When a value is to be pushed onto the stack.

8-bit auto reload timer. or 13 bit timer. This SFR controls whether each of the two timers is running or stopped and contains a flag to indicate that each timer has overflowed. 88h) The timer control SFR is used to configure and modify the way in which the 8052‘s two timers operate. These bits are used to configure the way in which the external interrupt flags are activated. f) PCON (power control. And is incremented each time an instruction is executes.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM initialized PC starts at 0000h. g) TCON (timer control. or two separate timers. Additionally. Using this SFR your program may configure each timer to be a 16-bit timer. Certain operation modes of the 8052 allow the 8052 to go into a type of ―sleep mode‖ which consumes much less power. Additionally you may configure the timers to only count when an external pin is activated or to count ―events ‖ that are indicated on an external pin. 89h) The timer mode SFR is used to configure the mode of operation of each of the two timers. It is not addressable SFR. which are set when an external interrupt occurs. h) TMOD (Timer Mode. 18 . 87h) The power control SFR is used to control the 8052‘s power control modes. some non-timer related bits are located in TCON SFR.

and baud rate generator. these timers always count up. taken together. TH2 and TL2. the count rate is 1/12 of the oscillator frequency. these timers always count up. auto-reload (up or down counting). however. Since a machine cycle consists of 12 oscillator periods. What is configurable is how and when they increment in value. j) T1 (Timer 1 Low/High. The type of operation is selected by bit C/T2 in the SFR T2CON (shown in Table 2). Timer 2 consists of two 8-bit registers. however. Their exact behavior depends on how the timer is configured in the TMOD SFR. address 8A/8C h) These two SFRs taken together represent timer 0. the TL2 register is incremented every machine cycle. Timer 2 has three operating modes: capture. The modes are selected by bits in T2CON. In the Timer function.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM i) TO (Timer 0 low/high. address 8B/ 8D h) These two SFRs. as shown in Table 3. k)Timer 2: Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter that can operate as either a timer or an event counter. 19 . represent timer 1. Their exact behavior depends on how the timer is configured in the TMOD SFR.

Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro controller. Any data to be outputted to port 0 is first written on P0 register. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level. bit addressable) This is a port latch2. For e.0. bit addressable) This is port 0 latch.7. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level n) P2 (port 2. Any data to be outputted to port 0 is first written on P0 register.g.0. For e. the external input is sampled during S5P2 of every machine cycle. l) P0 (Port 0.7.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Table 3. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P2. The new count value appears in the register during S3P1 of the cycle following the one in which the transition was detected.7. Any data to be outputted to port 0 is first written on P0 register. bit 7 is pin p0.g. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro controller. Timer 2 Operating Modes In the Counter function. Since two machine cycles (24 oscillator periods) are required to recognize a 1-to-0 transition.. the maximum count rate is 1/24 of the oscillator frequency.. To ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes.g. For e. T2. bit addressable) This is port latch1.. address 0A0h. the level should be held for at least one full machine cycle. In this function. the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0 transition at its corresponding external input pin. address 90h. When the samples show a high in one cycle and a low in the next cycle. 20 .0. bit 7 is pin P1. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro controller. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P0. m) P1 (port 1. address 90h. bit 7 is pin P2. Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level. the count is incremented. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P1.

Writing a value of 1 to a bit of this SFR will send a high level on the corresponding I/O pin whereas a value of 0 will bring it to low level p) IE (interrupt enable. On 8052.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM o) P3(port 3. Each bit of this SFR corresponds to one of the pins on a micro controller.g. The low 7 bits of the SFR are used to enable/disable the specific interrupts..g. which are used to select. The serial interrupt always interrupts the system. if the high bit of IE is 0 all interrupts are disabled regardless of whether an individual interrupt is enabled by setting a lower bit. 0A8h): The Interrupt Enable SFR is used to enable and disable specific interrupts.address B0h. the parity flag and the overflow flag. if a serial interrupt is executing no other interrupt will be able to interrupt the serial interrupt routine since the serial interrupt routine has the highest priority. For e. r) PSW (Program Status Word.. 0B8h) The interrupt priority SFR is used to specify the relative priority of each interrupt.0. However. if we configure all interrupts as low priority other than serial interrupt. which of the ―R‖ register banks currently in use. The PSW SFR contains the carry flag. bit addressable) This is a port latch3. where the MSB bit is used to enable or disable all the interrupts. 0D0h) The program Status Word is used to store a number of important bits that are set and cleared by 8052 instructions. an interrupt maybe either low or high priority. even if another interrupt is currently executing. it also contains the register bank select flags. Additionally. For e. An interrupt may interrupt interrupts. the auxiliary carry flag. 21 . q) IP (Interrupt Priority. bit 0 of port 0 is pin P3.7. Any data to be outputted to port 0 is first written on P0 register. bit 7 is pin P3. Thus.


s) SBUF (Serial Buffer, 99h) SBUF is used to hold data in serial communication. It is physically two registers. One is writing only and is used to hold data to be transmitted out of 8052 via TXD. The other is read only and holds received data from external sources via RXD. Both mutually exclusive registers use address 99h.

I/O ports: One major feature of a microcontroller is the versatility built into the input/output (I/O) circuits that connect the 8052 to the outside world. The main constraint that limits numerous functions is the number of pins available in the 8052 circuit. The DIP had 40 pins and the success of the design depends on the flexibility incorporated into use of these pins. For this reason, 24 of the pins may each used for one of the two entirely different functions which depend, first, on what is physically connected to it and, then, on what software programs are used to ―program‖ the pins. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1


can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the follow-ing table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and dur-ing accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash program-ming and verification. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the



AT89S52, as shown in the fol-lowing table

RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped dur-ing each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.


Any interrupt can cause the 8052 to perform a hardware call to an interrupt –handling subroutine that is located at a predetermined absolute address in the program memory. The interrupts maybe enable or disabled. Reset is a non maskable interrupt which has the highest priority. These interrupts are mask able i.e. and the Timer Control (TCON) register.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM INTERRUPTS: Interrupts are hardware signals that are used to determine conditions that exist in external and internal circuits. and the serial port interrupt (RI or TI) Two interrupts are triggered by external signals provided by the circuitry that is connected to the pins INTO 0 and INTO1. Five interrupts are provided in the 8052. Interrupt Priority (IP) register. The appropriate memory locations for each for each interrupt are as follows: In interrupt Rr RESET IE E0 (External interrupt 0) T F0 (Timer 0 interrupt) I E1 (External interrupt 1) A Address 00 00 00 00 00 03 0B 13 T F1 (Timer 1 interrupt) S SERIAL 00 1B 00 23 The AT89C52 is a low-power. . they can be disabled. Three of these are generated automatically by the internal operations: Timer flag 0. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. It is generated when a high is applied to the reset pin. given priority or otherwise controlled by altering the bits in the Interrupt Enabled (IE) register. the Atmel AT89C51 is a 25 . The device is manufactured using Atmel‘s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. the registers are loaded with the default values. Timer Flag 1. Upon reset. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). Each interrupt source causes the program to do store the address in PC onto the stack and causes a hardware call to one of the dedicated addresses in the program memory. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip.

Hardware details: The on chip oscillator of 89C52 can be used to generate system clock. One of the counters.2 INTO P3. The reset input is normally low and taking it high resets the micro controller.4 TO P3. and thus can be used for timing purposes.2 TMOD TMOD ------------ The two internal timers are wired to the system clock and prescaling factor is decided by the software.O RXD P3. is used for generation of baud rate clock for the UART. crystals from 3. except during access of internal program memory.7 RD ALTERNATE USE Seria data input Serial data output External interrupt 0 External interrupt 1 External timer 0 input External timer 1 input External memory write pulse External memory read pulse Table – AT89C52 serial port pins SFR SBUF SBUF TCON-1 TCON. apart from the count stored in the two bytes of the timer control registers.5 to 12 MHz may be used for this purpose. It would be of interest to know that the 8052 have a third timer. which is usually used for generation of baud rate. The ALE (address latch enable) pulse rate is 16th of the system clock. and very occasionally three processor cycles. The instructions take mostly one or two processor cycles to execute.5 T1 P3.6 WR P3. Depending upon version of the device.3 INT1 P3. AT89C52 Serial port pins PIN P3.I TXD P3. as mentioned earlier. 26 . which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The system clock is internally divided by 6 and the resultant time period becomes one processor cycle.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM powerful microcomputer.

The 89C52 has instructions for bit manipulation and testing. and addressing is nothing but selecting one of them. and thus it can only be reused but not copied. One can easily give example of lift for one such application where each one of the floors. These are therefore extremely useful for programs involving individual logical operations. Two new concepts are brought to us: addressing and memory location. etc may be depicted by a single hit. Writing the software: The 89C52 has been specifically developed for control applications. As mentioned earlier. any of their contents will then be easily accessible. short jumps and calls within 2k memory space which are very convenient. it has 8-bit multiply and divide instructions. Memory unit: Memory is part of the micro controller whose function is to store data. If we suppose that we marked the drawers in such a way that they cannot be confused. Memory consists of all memory locations. With this group may be accessed bit wise to facilitate their use for bit set/reset/test applications. The device has to be erased in full for further alteration. EEPROM and FLASH memory versions of the device are also available now. 16 bytes have been organized in such a way that all the 128 bits associated. The 89C52 has short branch instructions for 'within page' and conditional jumps. Memory components are exactly like that. For a certain input we get the contents of a certain addressed memory location and that‘s all. This means that we need to select the desired memory 27 . and as such the controller seems to favor programs which are less than 2k byte long. out of the 128 bytes of internal RAM. Apart from these. a separate CMOS circuit has been used for generation of reset signal so that it could be used to drive external devices as well. The easiest way to explain it is to describe it as one big closet with lots of drawers. door condition. It is enough to know the designation of the drawer and so its contents will be known to us for sure.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM In the present hardware. Some versions of 8751 EPROM devices have a security bit which can be programmed to lock the device and then the contents of internal program EPROM cannot be read. which may be used with advantage.

28 . Its memory locations are called registers. or more wires. We will designate this line as R/W (read/write). as well as its functionality. and on the other hand we need to wait for the contents of that location. There are two types of buses: address and data bus. Control line is used in the following way: if r/w=1. we must have some ―way‖ through data goes from one block to another. and the other one is as wide as data. Simply stated. for example. Memory is the first element. There are several types of ports: input.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM location on one hand. Besides reading from a memory location. we wish to add the contents of two memory locations and return the result again back to memory. Input-output unit: Those locations we‘ve just added are called ―ports‖. and we need a few operation of our micro controller. reading is done. and if opposite is true then writing is done on the memory location. first of all it is necessary to choose which port we need to work with. memory must also provide for writing onto it. The part we just added in is called ―central processing unit‖ (CPU). This is done by supplying an additional line. The first one consists of as many lines as the amount of memory we wish to address. divide. which are interconnected. and move its contents from one memory location onto another. and thus any exchange of data is hindered. First one serves to transmit address from CPU memory. Bus: That ―way‖ is called ―bus‖. and then to send data to. or take it from the port. and the second to connect all blocks inside the micro controller. When working with ports. called control line. subtract. If. Look at the current situation. 16. in our case 8 bits or the connection line. output or bi-directional ports. we would need a connection between memory and CPU. Central Processing Unit: Let add 3 more memory locations to a specific block that will have a built in capability to multiply. Registers are therefore memory locations whose role is to help with performing various mathematical operations or any other operations with data wherever data can be found. We have two independent entities (memory and CPU). Physically. it represents a group of 8.

2 555 TIMER IC The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multi vibrator applications. The original name was the SE555 (metal can)/NE555 (plastic DIP) and the part was described as "The IC Time Machine". such as the 7555 and TLC555. 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). 29 . The part is still in wide use. thanks to its ease of use. Ultra-low power versions of the 555 are also available. it is estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year. 3. As of 2003. Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip). The IC was designed by Hans R. Depending on the manufacturer. and the 558 (a 16-pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally. but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary. Something is simply being written into or read from it.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM When working with it the port acts like a memory location. and it could be noticed on the pins of the micro-controller. The 7555 requires slightly different wiring using fewer external components and less power. and TR falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). It has been claimed that the 555 gets its name from the three 5 kΩ resistors used in typical early implementations. the standard 555 package includes over 20 transistors. Camenzind in 1970 and brought to market in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). low price and good stability.

The 555 Timer IC is available as an 8-pin metal running mode: The 555 can operate as an oscillator. frequency divider.2. The pin number used in the following discussion refers to the 8-pin DIP and 8-pin metal can packages. Bi stable mode or Schmitt trigger: The 555 can operate as a flip-flop. The explanation of terminals coming out of the 555 timer IC is as follows. capacitance measurement. 3.  This IC consists of 23 transistors. missing pulse detection. Uses include bounce free latched switches. Uses include LED and lamp flashers. security alarms. touch switches. the 555 functions as a "one-shot". etc. logic clocks. bounce free switches. pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc A stable . 2 diodes and 16 resistors. if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used.1 555 timer ic pin diagram 30 . pulse position modulation. etc. pulse generation. tone generation. an 8-pin mini DIP (dual-in-package) or a 14-pin DIP. Applications include timers.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM The 555 has three operating modes: Monostable mode: In this mode.

 Pin 7: Discharge Terminal. This pin is an inverting input to a comparator that is responsible for transition of flip-flop from set to reset. which compares the voltage applied to the terminal with a reference voltage of 2/3 VCC.  Pin 4: Reset Terminal. Output of the timer is available at this pin. The external voltage applied to this pin can also be used to modulate the output waveform. 31 .  Pin 5: Control Voltage Terminal. All the voltages are measured with respect to this terminal. Thus either the external voltage or a pot connected to this pin determines the pulse width of the output waveform. capacitor discharges through the transistor. To disable or reset the timer a negative pulse is applied to this pin due to which it is referred to as reset terminal. This pin is connected internally to the collector of transistor and mostly a capacitor is connected between this terminal and ground. When this pin is not to be used for reset purpose. It is called discharge terminal because when transistor saturates.  Pin 8: Supply Terminal. The function of this terminal is to control the threshold and trigger levels. There are two ways in which a load can be connected to the output terminal either between pin 3 and ground pin (pin 1) or between pin 3 and supply pin (pin 8).01 micro Farad to avoid any noise problem.  Pin 6: Threshold Terminal. it should be connected to + VCC to avoid any possibility of false triggering. the capacitor charges at a rate determined by the external resistor and capacitor. A supply voltage of + 5 V to + 18 V is applied to this terminal with respect to ground (pin 1). The amplitude of voltage applied to this terminal is responsible for the set state of flip-flop. When the transistor is cut-off. The load connected between pin 3 and ground supply pin is called the normally on load and that connected between pin 3 and ground pin is called the normally off load. Pin 2: Trigger Terminal. The output of the timer depends on the amplitude of the external trigger pulse applied to this pin.  Pin 3: Output Terminal. This is the non-inverting input terminal of comparator 1. it should be connected to ground through a 0. When this pin is not used.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 555 timer IC 8 pin configuration   Pin 1: Grounded Terminal.

the output (pin 3) is at ground and the discharge transistor (pin 7) is turned on. whatever that may be. the IC will remain in this state. However. the output (pin 3) changes state to +VCC and the discharge transistor (pin 7) is turned off. and that the control voltage input (pin 5) is unconnected. Assume the reset input (pin 4) is also at +VCC and therefore inactive. so the comparator reference voltages are 1/3 and 2/3 of the supply voltage. The IC is quiescent so long as the trigger input (pin 2) remains at +VCC and the threshold input (pin 6) is at ground. The two primary versions today are the original bipolar design and the more recent CMOS equivalent. if the threshold input (pin 6) is now raised above (2/3)+VCC. 32 . When the threshold input returns to ground. it will not affect the state of the IC. Under these conditions. These differences primarily affect the amount of power they require and their maximum frequency of operation. The trigger input can now return to +VCC. which was the original state when we started this analysis. It has been around now for many years and has been reworked into a number of different technologies. the output will return to ground and the discharge transistor will be turned on again. although most of the time this pin is unused. The operation of the 555 timer revolves around the three resistors that form a voltage divider across the power supply. they are pin-compatible and functionally interchangeable. When this occurs. This page contains only a description of the 555 timer IC itself. thus grounding whatever is connected to this pin. The control voltage input at pin 5 can directly affect this relationship. and the two comparators connected to this voltage divider. The three resistors in the voltage divider all have the same value (5K in the bipolar version of this IC). Functional circuits and a few of the very wide range of its possible applications will be covered in additional pages in this category.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM The 555 timer IC is an amazingly simple yet versatile device. The internal flip-flop changes state when the trigger input at pin 2 is pulled down below +VCC/3.

its falling edge will trigger the 555. additional pulses received at pin 2 will have no effect on circuit operation. it can either produce a single pulse when triggered. Here. t. or it can produce a continuous pulse train as long as it remains powered. while the trigger input is held at +VCC through a resistor.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM The easiest way to allow the threshold voltage (pin 6) to gradually rise to (2/3)+VCC is to connect it to a capacitor being allowed to charge through a resistor. "E" is the supply voltage. and " " is the 33 . During this interval. as shown to the right. Both the threshold input and the discharge transistor (pins 6 & 7) are connected directly to the capacitor. the output at pin 3 remains low and the discharge transistor prevents capacitor C from charging. In this way we can adjust the R and C values for almost any time interval we might want. When an input pulse arrives. it is capacitively coupled to pin 2. is set by a single resistor and capacitor. depending on the connections to and the arrangement of the external components. At this point. Thus. the trigger input. The 555 can operate in either monostable or astable mode. In the absence of any input. The pulse can be either polarity. Capacitor C charges through R towards +VCC. The standard equation for a charging capacitor applies here: e = E(1 (-t/RC) ). VCC. "e" is the capacitor voltage at some instant in time. the timing interval. the output rises to +VCC and the discharge transistor turns off. In monostable mode.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM base for natural logarithms. The timing interval is completed when the capacitor voltage reaches the (2/3)+VCC upper threshold as monitored at pin 6. since the capacitor started charging. whatever that voltage may be. You can scale the values as needed and appropriate for your application.(-t/RC) 1/3 = (-t/RC) ln(1/3) = -t/RC -1. This doesn't give us absolute values for "e" or "E. provided you keep proper track of your powers of 10. if you specify R in megohms and C in microfarads.1RC isn't exactly precise. of course. t will still be in seconds. We already know that the capacitor will charge until its voltage reaches (2/3)+V CC. in seconds. 34 . but the round off error amounts to about 0. The value "t" denotes the time that has passed. required to charge capacitor C to the voltage that will activate the threshhold comparator: 2/3 = 1 (-t/RC) -1/3 = . The circuit is now ready to be triggered once again. t will be in milliseconds. the output at pin 3 goes low again. but you must be sure to do it accurately in order to correctly calculate the component values you need for any given time interval." but it does give us the ratio e/E = 2/3. respectively. and the capacitor rapidly discharges back to ground once more. For example.0986123RC t = 1. The values of R and C must be given in Ohms and Farads.126%. But if you specify R in kilo ohms and C in microfarads. When this threshold voltage is reached. approximately 2.718. It's not difficult to keep track of this. We can use this to compute the time. t.1RC The value of 1. and the time will be in seconds. and is very easy to use. the discharge transistor (pin 7) is turned on. which is much closer than component tolerances in practical circuits.0986123 = -t/RC t = 1.

However. then.693(Rb)C. from then on. because Ra must have a resistance value greater than zero to prevent the discharge transistor from directly shorting VCC to ground. or 1. Starting at (2/3)VCC. t2. the charging time. When the capacitor voltage reaches (2/3)VCC. the initial pulse when power is first applied is a bit longer than the others. but again is interrupted halfway there. Capacitor C now discharges through Rb alone. it is interrupted exactly halfway there.1(Ra + Rb)C. or 0.Therefore. is -ln(1/2)(Rb)C = 0. However. This gives us the circuit shown to the left.The total period of the pulse train is t1 + t2. t1. we need two resistors in the capacitor charging path so that one of them can also be in the capacitor discharge path. the capacitor alternately charges and discharges between the two comparator threshold voltages. at (2/3)VCC. and this point in the circuit becomes grounded. The output frequency of this circuit is the inverse of the period. it discharges towards ground. Such an action would immediately destroy the 555 IC. Note that the duty cycle of the 555 timer circuit in astable mode cannot reach 50%. When charging. On time must always be longer than off time. is ln(1/2)(Ra + Rb)C = 0. In this case.44/(Ra + 2Rb)C. 35 . having a duration of 1. C starts at (1/3)Vcc and charges towards VCC.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM If we rearrange the circuit slightly so that both the trigger and threshold inputs are controlled by the capacitor voltage. we can cause the 555 to trigger itself repeatedly. the discharge transistor is enabled (pin 7).693(Ra + 2Rb)C. at (1/3)VCC.693(Ra + Rb)C. In this mode. The discharge time.


One interesting and very useful feature of the 555 timer in either mode is that the timing interval for either charge or discharge is independent of the supply voltage, VCC. This is because the same VCC is used both as the charging voltage and as the basis of the reference voltages for the two comparators inside the 555. Thus, the timing equations above depend only on the values for R and C in either operating mode. In addition, since all three of the internal resistors used to make up the reference voltage divider are manufactured next to each other on the same chip at the same time, they are as nearly identical as can be. Therefore, changes in temperature will also have very little effect on the timing intervals, provided the external components are temperature stable. A typical commercial 555 timer will show a drift of 50 parts per million per Centigrade degree of temperature change (50 ppm/°C) and 0.01%/Volt change in VCC. This is negligible in most practical applications

3.3 ADC 0808
The ADC0808/ADC0809 data acquisition component is a monolithic CMOS device with an 8-bit analog-to-digital converter, 8-channel multiplexer and microprocessor compatible control logic. The 8-bit A/D converter uses successive approximation as the conversion technique. The converter features a high impedance chopper stabilized comparator, a 256R voltage divider with analog switch tree and a successive approximation register. The 8-channel multiplexer can directly access any of 8-single-ended analog signals. The device eliminates the need for external zero and full-scale adjustments. Easy interfacing to microprocessors is provided by the latched and decoded multiplexer address inputs and latched TTL TRI-STATE outputs. The design of the ADC0808, ADC0809 has been optimized by incorporating the most desirable aspects of several A/D conversion techniques. The ADC0808, ADC0809 offers high speed, high accuracy, minimal temperature dependence, excellent long-term accuracy and repeatability, and consumes minimal power. These features make this device ideally suited to applications from process and machine control to consumer and automotive applications. For 16 channels multiplexer with common output (sample/hold port) see ADC0816 data sheet.


FEATURES:        Easy interface to all microprocessors Operates ratio metrically or with 5 VDC or analog span adjusted voltage reference No zero or full-scale adjust required 8-channel multiplexer with address logic 0V to VCC input range Outputs meet TTL voltage level specifications ADC0808 equivalent to MM74C949

KEY SPECIFICATIONS:      Resolution 8 Bits Total Unadjusted Error ±½ LSB and ±1 LSB Single Supply 5 VDC Low Power 15 mW Conversion Time 100 μs




3.3 .1 Block diagram of ADC 0808 PIN DIAGRAM OF ADC 0808

3.3.2 Pin diagram of ADC 0808

3. The address is latched into the decoder on the low-to-high transition of the address latch enable signal. the successive approximation register. The 256R ladder network approach shown in figure 4. Mono tonicity is particularly important in closed loop feedback control systems.3 Ladder network 39 . A particular input channel is selected by using the address decoder. accurate. the 256R network does not cause load variations on the reference voltage. and repeatable conversions over a wide range of temperatures.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION: MULTIPLEXER: The device contains an 8-channel single-ended analog signal multiplexer. and the comparator. which guarantees no missing digital codes.2 was chosen over the conventional R/2R ladder because of its inherent mono tonicity.bit analog-to-digital converter. The converter's digital outputs are positive true. A non-monotonic relationship can cause oscillations that will be catastrophic for the system. CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS: The Converter: The heart of this single chip data acquisition system is its 8. The converter is designed to give fast. The converter is partitioned into 3 major sections: the 256R ladder network. 3. Additionally. Table 1 shows the input states for the address lines to select any channel.

pluggable connectors and pin identification. It is commonly used in computer serial ports. The difference in these resistors causes the output characteristic to be symmetrical with the zero and full-scale points of the transfer curve. timing and slewrate of signals. Functions of each circuit in the interface connector. The most important section of the A/D converter is the comparator. A chopper-stabilized comparator provides the most effective method of satisfying all the converter requirements. The first output transition occurs when the analog signal has reached +½ LSB and succeeding output transitions occur every 1 LSB later up to full-scale. 40 .3 are not the same value as the remainder of the network. and maximum load capacitance. Scope of the standard: The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) standard RS-232-C as of 1969 defines:  Electrical signal characteristics such as voltage levels. This technique limits the drift component of the amplifier since the drift is a DC component which is not passed by the AC amplifier. 3. The successive approximation register (SAR) performs 8 iterations to approximate the input voltage.4 RS 232: In telecommunications. RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is a standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). For any SAR type converter. n-iterations are required for an n-bit converter. This signal is then fed through a high gain AC amplifier and has the DC level restored. voltage withstand level short-circuit behavior. signaling rate. It is also the comparator drift which has the greatest influence on the repeatability of the device. This makes the entire A/D converter extremely insensitive to temperature. It is this section which is responsible for the ultimate accuracy of the entire converter.   Interface mechanic characteristics. The chopper-stabilized comparator converts the DC input signal into an AC signal.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM The bottom resistor and the top resistor of the ladder network in figure4. long term drift and input offset errors.

" 41 . A common deviation from the standard was to drive the signals at a reduced voltage: the standard requires the transmitter to use +12V and -12V. History: The original DTEs were electromechanical teletypewriters and the original DCEs were (usually) modems. The C revision of the standard was issued in 1969 in part to accommodate the electrical characteristics of these devices. and so on were not considered by the standard. start/stop bits. and incorrect or missing control signals. designers implementing an RS-232 compatible interface on their equipment often interpreted the requirements idiosyncratically.000 bits per second. The standard does not define such elements as Character encoding (for example. Common problems were non-standard pin assignment of circuits on connectors. Some manufacturers therefore built transmitters that supplied +5V and -5V and labeled them as "RS-232 compatible. Baudot or EBCDIC) The framing of characters in the data stream (bits per character. The lack of adherence to the standards produced a thriving industry of breakout boxes. When electronic terminals (smart and dumb) began to be used. Since application to devices such as computers. A typical serial port includes specialized driver and receiver integrated circuits to convert between internal logic levels and RS-232 compatible signal levels. books. parity) Protocols for error detection or algorithms for data compression Bit rates for transmission. and so supported RS-232. they were often designed to be interchangeable with teletypes. and other aids for the connection of disparate equipment. printers. ASCII. test equipment. often a single integrated circuit called a UART that converts data from parallel to serial form.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM       Standard subsets of interface circuits for selected telecom applications. Many modern devices support speeds of 115. test instruments. although the standard says it is intended for bit rates lower than 20. Details of character format and transmission bit rate are controlled by the serial port hardware.200 bps and above   Power supply to external devices. patch boxes. but requires the receiver to distinguish voltages as low as +3V and -3V.

sissued in 1997.  Multi-drop (meaning a connection between more than two devices) operation of an RS-232 compatible interface is not defined. on many computers. 42 . Issues with the RS-232 standard include:  The large voltage swings and requirement for positive and negative supplies increases power consumption of the interface and complicates power supply design. such as modem connections.  Single-ended signaling referred to a common signal ground limits the noise immunity and transmission distance. The current revision i TIA-232-F Interface between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange. The standard continues to be revised and updated by the EIA and since 1988 the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). The voltage swing requirement also limits the upper speed of a compatible interface. and most recently as TIA 232. and has been variously known as EIA RS 232. It remained in widespread use into the late 1990s. Changes since Revision C have been in timing and details intended to improve harmonization with the CCITT standard V. successor standards have been developed to address the limitations.24. and special purpose equipment such as a cash drawer for a cash register. Revision C was issued in a document dated August 1969. For many years. While it has largely been supplanted by other interface standards in computer products.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Later personal computers (and other devices) started to make use of the standard so that they could connect to existing equipment. but equipment built to the current standard will interoperate with older versions. and console ports. EIA 232. industrial equipment (such as based on PLCs). The standard has been renamed several times during its history as the sponsoring organization changed its name. an RS-232-compatible port was a standard feature for serial communications. Revision D was issued in 1986. Limitations of the standard: Because the application of RS-232 has extended far beyond the original purpose of interconnecting a terminal with a modem. it is still used to connect older designs of peripherals. while multi-drop "work-arounds" have been devised. they have limitations in speed and compatibility.

while a small amount of current can be extracted from the DTR and RTS lines this can only be used for low power devices such as mice. USB is more complex than the RS 232 standard because it includes a protocol for transferring data to devices. This requires more software to support the protocol used.  While the standard recommends a 25-way connector and its pinout. since the control lines of the interface could be easily manipulated by software. Both standards have software support in popular operating systems. USB docking ports are available which can provide connectors for a keyboard.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM  Asymmetrical definitions of the two ends of the link make the assignment of the role of a newly developed device problematic. has lower voltage levels. Serial ports of personal computers are also often used to directly control various hardware devices. in particular. the designer must decide on either a DTE-like or DCE-like interface and which connector pin assignments to use. USB is designed to make it easy for device drivers to communicate with hardware.  No method for sending power to a device. the use of handshake lines for flow control is not reliably implemented in many devices. USB is faster. Compared with RS-232. such as relays or lamps. Corresponding device drivers are required for each USB-connected device to allow programs to access these USB-connected devices as if they were the original directly-connected peripherals. and has connectors that are simpler to connect and use. there is no direct analog to the terminal programs used to let users communicate directly with serial ports. Role in modern personal computers: Today. RS 232 only standardizes the voltage of signals and the functions of the physical interface pins. 43 . However. one or more serial ports. the connector is large by current standards. and one or more parallel ports.  The handshaking and control lines of the interface are intended for the setup and takedown of a dial-up communication circuit. As an alternative. Devices that convert USB to RS 232 may not work with all software on all personal computers. RS-232 is gradually being superseded in personal computers by USB for local communications. mouse. This isn't feasible with USB which requires some form of receiver to decode the serial data.

Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. The range near zero volts is not a valid RS-232 level. data is sent as a time-series of bits. and ±15 V are all commonly seen depending on the power supplies available within a device.±12 V. RS-232 drivers and receivers must be able to withstand indefinite short circuit to ground or to any voltage level up to +/-25 volts. the signal condition is spacing. Logic zero is positive. In addition to the data circuits. the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. or character encoding. Voltage levels: The RS-232 standard defines the voltage levels that correspond to logical one and logical zero levels. special intervening driver circuits are required to translate logic levels. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits. 44 . problems will occur when connecting machinery and computers where the voltage between the ground pin on one end and the ground pin on the other is not zero. Valid signals are plus or minus 3 to 15 volts.±10 V. and provide sufficient current to comply with the slew rate requirements for data transmission. The slew rate. is also controlled. supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. the interface can operate in a full duplex manner. logic one is defined as a negative voltage. signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Standard details: In RS-232. and has the function ON. This may also cause a hazardous ground loop. Because both ends of the RS-232 circuit depend on the ground pin being zero volts. the signal condition is called marking. The standard specifies a maximum open-circuit voltage of 25 volts. or how fast the signal changes between levels. and has the functional significance of OFF. These also protect the device's internal circuitry from short circuits or transients that may appear on the RS232 interface. signal levels of ±5 V. Because the voltage levels are higher than logic levels typically used by integrated circuits. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is.

Many devices don't use either of these standards. In general. Most common are 8 pin RJ-45 connectors. More recently. this defines at each device which wires will be sending and receiving each signal. Some personal computers put nonstandard voltages or signals on their serial ports. but the female D-sub connector was used for a parallel Centronics printer port. a male D-sub was an RS-232C DTE port (with a non-standard current loop interface on reserved pins). character encoding.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Connectors: RS-232 devices may be classified as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) or Data Communications Equipment (DCE). For example. This is a 6 pin modular jack where the key is offset from the center position. conventions of bit rate. character framing. Other devices may have any combination of connector gender and pin definitions. Presence of a 25 pin D-sub connector does not necessarily indicate an RS-232C compliant interface. Standard EIA/TIA 561 specifies a pin assignment. The standard recommended but did not make mandatory the Dsubminiature 25 pin connector. and has been standardized as TIA-574. on the original IBM PC. Another common connector is the DH10 header connector common on motherboards and add-in cards which are usually converted via a cable to the more standard 9 pin DE-9 connector (and frequently mounted on a free slot plate or other part of the housing). communications protocol. Conventions: For functional communication through a serial port interface. Digital Equipment Corporation defined their own DECconnect connection system which was based on the Modified Modular Jack connector. but the "Yost Serial Device Wiring Standard" invented by Dave Yost is common on UNIX computers and newer devices from Cisco Systems. terminals have male connectors with DTE pin functions. Since most devices use only a few signals. and modems have female connectors with DCE pin functions. data compression. DECconnect uses a symmetrical pin layout which enables the direct connection between two DTEs. modular connectors have been used. 10 pin RJ-50 connectors can be found on some devices as well. The standard specifies 20 different signal connections. As with the Yost standard. and error 45 . smaller connectors can be used. the 9 pin DE-9 connector was used by most IBM-compatible PCs since the IBM PC AT. For example.

It has four level translators.e.000 bits per second. consider the serial ports of the original IBM PC. Since most devices do not have automatic baud rate detection. for example.250 bits per second) or other devices not using the rates typically used with modems. The other two level translators are RS232 receivers that convert RS232 input to 5V. 46 . Data rates above 20.5 MAX 232 A standard serial interface for PC. two of which are RS232 transmitters that convert TTL/CMOS input levels into +9V RS232 outputs.. not defined in RS 232. must be agreed to by both sending and receiving equipment. Typical MAX232 circuit is shown below. It is a dual RS232 receiver / transmitter that meets all RS232 specifications while using only +5V power supply. users must manually set the baud rate (and all other parameters) at both ends of the RS-232 connection. It has two onboard charge pump voltage converters which generate +10V to -10V power supplies from a single 5V supply. and data rates programmable between 75 bits per second and 115. 3. RS232C. using asynchronous start-stop character formatting with 7 or 8 data bits per frame. so that a PC could be connected to. i. 3-wire and 5-wire RS-232 A minimal ―3-wire‖ RS-232 connection consisting only of transmits data. logic 1 is 3V to -12V and logic 0 is +3V to +12V. and is commonly used when the full facilities of RS-232 are not required. requires negative logic. the RTS and CTS lines are added in a 5-wire version. receives data and ground. This implementation has an integrated circuit UART. although higher data rates are sometimes used by commercially manufactured equipment. To convert TTL logic. say. TxD and RxD pins of the microcontroller thus need a converter chip. usually ASCII character coding. often 16550 UART. In the particular case of the IBM PC. When only flow control is required. MIDI music controllers (31. baud rates were programmable with arbitrary values. For example.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM detection.000 bits per second are out of the scope of the standard. A MAX232 chip has long been using in many microcontrollers boards.

Either circuit can be used without any problems. It provides 2-channel RS232C port and requires external 10uF capacitors. logic '1' is -3V to -12V and logic '0' is +3V to +12V. A MAX232 chip has long been using in many uC boards. TxD and RxD pins of the uC chips thus need a converter chip.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Fig 3. no need external capacitor and smaller. 47 . Carefully check the polarity of capacitor when soldering the board.1 Pin diagram of max232 A standard serial interfacing for PC.. requires negative logic. A DS275 however. say. RS232C.5. i.e. To convert TTL logic.

1 INTRODUCTION: In recent years the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LED s (seven-segment LED or other multi segment LED s). This is due to the following reasons: 1. 3. 4. This is in contract to LED s. there by relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. The declining prices of LCD s.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3. 2.6 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY 3. characters and graphics.2 circuit connection of max 232 3. which are limited to numbers and a few characters. In the contrast. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD.5. the LED must be refreshed by the 48 . The ability to display numbers. CPU to keep displaying the data.6. Ease of programming for characters and graphics.

having a limited amount of numeric data. The recent advances in technology have resulted in better legibility. and also in small TV applications. more information displaying capability and a wider temperature range.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM USES: The LCD s used exclusively in watches. These have resulted in the LCD s being extensively used in telecommunications and entertainment electronics. The LCD s has even started replacing the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used for the display of text and graphics. 49 . calculators and measuring instruments is the simple seven-segment displays.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3.1 LCD pin diagram LCD PIN DESCRIPTION : The LCD discussed in this section has 14 pins. The function of each pin is given in table.2 LCD PIN DIAGRAM: 3.6. Pin 1 2 3 symbol Vss Vcc VEE I/O ---- Description Ground +5V power supply Power supply to control contrast 4 RS 1 RS=0 to select cmd register Rs=1 to select data register 5 R/W I R/W=0 for write 50 .6.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM R/W=1 for read 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 E DB0 DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 DB7 I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O Enable The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus The 8-bit data bus TABLE 2: LCD COMMAND CODES Code(HEX) 1 2 4 6 5 7 8 COMMAND TO LCD INSTRUCTION REGISTER Clear display screen Return home Decrement cursor Increment cursor Shift display right Shift display left Display off. cursor off 51 .

To achieve a better / suitable contrast for the display. with maximum allowable transients of 10mv. A module should not be inserted or removed from a live circuit.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM A C E F 10 14 18 1C 80 C0 38 Display off. active high. cursor off Display on. 52 . The ground terminal of the power supply must be isolated properly so that no voltage is induced in it. Hardware: Develop a uniquely decoded ‗E‘ strobe pulse. the voltage (VL) at pin 3 should be adjusted properly. cursor on Display on. Address or control lines can be assigned to drive the RS and R/W inputs. cursor on Display on. The module should be isolated from the other circuits. which could cause a flickering display. cursor blinking Shift cursor position to left Shift cursor position to right Shift the entire display to the left Shift the entire display to the right Force cursor to beginning of 1st line Force cursor to beginning of 2nd line 2 lines and 5x7 matrix Power supply: The power supply should be of +5V. to accompany each module transaction. so that stray voltages are not induced.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Utilize the Host‘s extended timing mode. Environmental precautions: Operate the LCD module under the relative condition of 40C and 50% relative humidity. Do not damage or modify the pattern wiring. ground it properly. so as to realize the interface timing requirements. Static electricity of the electrically powered driver or the vacuum cleaner may destroy the module. to protect the polarizer. When assembling the module into another equipment. Lower temperature can cause retardation of the blinking speed of the display. R/W and ‗E‘ control lines. 53 . The processing or even a slight deformation of the claws of the metal frame will have effect on the connection of the output signal and cause an abnormal display. Make sure that there is enough space behind the module. the space between the module and the fitting plate should have enough height. Use instructions. to dissipate the heat generated by the ICs while functioning for longer durations. While cleaning by a vacuum cleaner. or drill attachment holes in the PCB. when transacting with the module. Do not use organic solvents to clean the display panel as these may adversely affect tape or with absorbent cotton and petroleum benzene. This will stain the display area and degrade the insulation between terminals. If a parallel port is used to drive the RS. which prolong the Read and Write or other appropriate data strobes. do not bring the sucking mouth near the module. if available. while higher temperature makes the overall display discolor. to avoid causing stress to the module surface. When an electrically powered screwdriver is used to install the module. setting the ‗E‘ bit simultaneously with RS and R/W would violate the module‘s set up time. A separate instruction should be used to achieve proper interfacing timing requirements. Don‘t touch the display surface with bare hands or any hard materials. Mounting: Cover the display surface with a transparent protective plate.

Polarization degradation. with the pin 3 (VL) connected to ground.6. as in CDM 16116. all the pixels of a character gets activated in the following manner: All the characters of a single line display. check the initialization and the software routine. Improper character display: When the characters to be displayed are missing between.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM When the temperature gets to be within the normal limits. as in CDM 16108. Condensation on the terminals can cause electro-chemical reaction disrupting the terminal circuit. 3. A slower interfacing frequency would rectify the problem. The first and third line of characters of a four-line display operated in the two-line display mode. When uncertainty is there in the start of the first characters other than the specified ones are rewritten. the data read/write is too fast.3 TROUBLE SHOOTING Introduction: When the power supply is given to the module. operated in the two-line display mode. The first line of characters of a two-line display as in CDM 16216 and 40216. as in CDM 20416. If the above mentioned does not occur. bubble generation or polarizer peel-off may occur with high temperature and humidity. The first eight characters of a single line display. the module should be initialized by software. the display will be normal. Make sure that the control signals ‗E‘ . Contact with water or oil over a long period of time may cause deformation or color fading of the display. R/W and RS are according to the interface timing requirements. 54 .

either the display on/off flag is in the off state or the display shift function is not set properly.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM In a multi-line display. there could be an assembling problem in the module. or not getting activated properly. with or without backlight. 208 character fonts (5 x 8 dots) 32 character fonts (5 x 10 dots) 64 x 8 bit character generator RAM 8 character generator RAM 8 character fonts (5 x 8 dots) 4 characters fonts (5 x 10 dots) Programmable duty cycles 55 . When the display shift is done simultaneous with the data write operation.920 bit character generator ROM for a total of 240 character fonts. If a character not found in the font table is displayed. STN types. The use of C-MOS LCD controller and driver ICs result in low power consumption. check the DD RAM addresses set for the corresponding display lines. CRYSTALONICS DISPLAY Introduction: Crystalonics dot –matrix (alphanumeric) liquid crystal displays are available in TN. the CG ROM is faulty and the controllers IC have to be changed If particular pixels of the characters are missing. The built-in controller IC has the following features:      Correspond to high speed MPU interface (2MHz) 80 x 8 bit display RAM (80 Characters max) 9. even though it is present in the DD RAM. These modules can be interfaced with a 4-bit or 8-bit micro processor /Micro controller. the data may not be visible on the display. if the displays of characters in the subsequent lines does‘nt take place properly. or a character is missing. When it is unable to display data. In case any other problems are encountered you could send the module to our factory for testing and evaluation.

cursor shift. Automatic reset circuit. When an address code is written to IR. data transfer between the MPU is then completed when the MPU reads the DR. cursor home. The IR stores the instruction codes and address information for display data RAM (DD RAM) and character generator RAM (CG RAM). data in DD RAM or CG RAM at the address is sent to the DR automatically. Functional description of the controller IC register: The controller IC has two 8 bit registers. the controller is in the internal operation mode. The data written to DR by the MPU is automatically written to the DD RAM or CG RAM as an internal operation. Similarly. Busy flag: When the busy flag is1. that initializes the controller / driver ICs after power on. display character blink. The next instruction must be written after ensuring that the busy flag is 0. likewise. for the next MPU read of the DR. the next DD RAM or CG RAM address is selected for the write operation. and the next instruction will not be accepted. an instruction register (IR) and a data register (DR). When RS = 0 and R/W = 1. display shift. display on/off. 56 . cursor on/off. The DR temporally stores data to be written to /read from the DD RAM or CG RAM.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM      1/8 – for one line of 5 x 8 dots with cursor 1/11 – for one line of 5 x 10 dots with cursor 1/16 – for one line of 5 x 8 dots with cursor Wide range of instruction functions display clear. the busy flag is output to DB7. the data is automatically transferred from the DD RAM or CG RAM to the DR. but not read by the MPU. The IR can be written. for the MPU write of the DR.

e. which is active while data and control information are stable and true. Display data RAM(DD RAM): The characters to be displayed are written into the display data RAM (DD RAM).GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Address counter: The address counter allocates the address for the DD RAM and CG RAM read/write operation when the instruction code for DD RAM address or CG RAM address setting. is input to IR. The ‗E‘ signal must be a positive going digital strobe. The resultant signal. applied to the LCDs enable (E) input. the address counter increments/decrements by one the address. clocks in the data. The extended capacity of the DD RAM is 80 x 8 bits i. expanded or parallel I/O. in the form of 8 bit character codes present in the character font table. Interfacing the microprocessor/controller: The module. After writing/reading the display data to/from the DD RAM or CG RAM. It generates 208. The falling edge of the enable signal enables the data / 57 . interfaced to the system. as an internal operation. The module is selected by gating a decoded module – address with the host – processor‘s read/write strobe. Since there is no conventional chip select signal. developing a strobe signal for the enable signal (E) and applying appropriate signals to the register select (RS) and read/write (R/W) signals are important. The data of the address counter is output to DB0 to DB6 while R/W = 1 and RS = 0. 80 characters. 5 x 8 dot character patterns and 32. 5 x 10 dot character patterns. Character generator ROM (CG ROM): The character generator ROM generates 5 x 8 dot 5 x 10 dot character patterns from 8 bit character codes. can be treated as RAM input/output. the address code is transferred from IR to the address counter.

For 4-bit data interface. When the host processor is so fast that the strobes are too narrow to serve as the ‗E‘ pulse  Prolong these pulses by using the hosts ‗Ready‘ input  Prolong the host by adding wait states  Decrease the Hosts Crystal frequency.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM instruction register of the controller. which provides the ‗E‘ signals. should not be linked to the module‘s R/W line. Two more 4-bit operations then transfer the busy flag and address counter data. The read and write strobes of the host. 58 . if the problem continues. either to 4-bit or 8-bit MPUs. all eight-bus lines (DB0 to DB7) are used.The liquid crystal display module can be interfaced. while DB0 to DB3 lines are disabled. latch both the data and control information and then activate the ‗E‘ signal. The busy flag must be checked after the 4-bit data has been transferred twice. For 8-bit data interface. Inspite of doing the above mentioned. An address bit which sets up earlier in the host‘s machine cycle can be used as R/W. The ‗E‘ signal is applied only when a specific module transaction is desired. When the controller is performing an internal operation he busy flag (BF) will set and will not accept any instruction. The data transfer is complete when the 4-bit data has been transferred twice. The module presents no difficulties while interfacing slower MPUs. The user should check the busy flag or should provide a delay of approximately 2ms after each instruction. All module timings are referenced to specific edges of the ‗E‘ signal. the bus lines DB4 to DB7 are used for data transfer.

4 LCD INTERFACING SENDING COMMANDS AND DATA TO LCD‘S WITH A TIME DELAY: Fig 3.2 LCD interfacing To send any command from table 2 to the LCD. make pin RS=0.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3.6. For data.6. make RS=1.Then place a high to low pulse on the E pin to enable the internal latch of the LCD. 59 .

the electrons and holes recombine by a non . high-resolution video boards and segmented LED displays. or doped. When an electron meets a hole. Charge-carriers .electrons and holes flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. In silicon or germanium diodes. Target applications for these new devices include cellular phones. and therefore its color. and releases energy in the form of a photon as it does so. but not in the reverse direction. because these are indirect band gap materials. As in other diodes. Advances in materials science have made possible the production of devices with ever-shorter wavelengths. These new devices consume 50% the power and represent cost savings over the current standard and high brightness blue and green LED‘s.1 Introduction: The term LED stands for Light Emitting Diode. Modern electronics relies heavily upon LED light bulbs. and to form images on jumbo television screens. current flows easily from the p-side or anode to the nside. it falls into a lower energy level. For instance. These devices are available in production quantities and are currently shipping into high volume consumer applications. Physical function: A LED is a special type of semiconductor diode.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3. smaller-sized light emitting diode (LED) devices are based on the company's existing standard and high brightness silicon carbide (sic) product technology. The materials used for an LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared. with impurities to create a structure called a p-n junction. digital LED clocks. 60 . or cathode. Like a normal diode. LED‘s transmit information from remote controls. depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction.7. The wavelength of the light emitted. These low-power. it consists of a chip of semi conducting material impregnated. producing light in a variety of colors.radiative transition which produces no optical emission. are used in traffic lights. LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide. visible or near-ultraviolet light. flashlights.7 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE 3.

 Further LED‘s fail by dimming over time.01 seconds. LED‘s light up very quickly. rather than the abrupt burnout of incandescent bulbs.7.  LED‘s have an extremely long life span: typically ten years. and many times faster than a compact fluorescent lamp. Adequate heat sinking 61 . A good measure to compare lighting technologies is lumen/dollar. Disadvantages:  LED‘s are currently more expensive than more conventional lighting technologies. or possibly less if it's used for communication devices. 10 times faster than an incandescent light bulb (0.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of LED’s: Advantages:  LED‘s are capable of emitting light of an intended color without the use of color filters that traditional lighting methods require. unlike incandescent and discharge sources. "Driving" an LED 'hard' in high ambient temperatures may result in overheating of the LED package.  The shape of the LED package allows light to be focused.   LED‘s give off less heat than incandescent light bulbs with similar light output. A typical red indicator LED will achieve full brightness in microseconds. twice as long as the best fluorescent bulbs and twenty times longer than the best incandescent bulbs.1 second). Incandescent and fluorescent sources often require an external reflector to collect light and direct it in a useable manner. eventually to device failure.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3. but does not achieve full brightness for 30 seconds or more. which starts to come on after 0.  LED performance largely depends on the ambient temperature of the operating environment. The additional expense partially stems from the relatively low lumen output (requiring more light sources) and drive circuitry/power supplies needed.5 seconds or 1 second. making them hard to break and extremely durable. LED‘s are built inside solid cases that protect them.   LED‘s are insensitive to vibration and shocks. An illumination LED will achieve full brightness in approximately 0.

where the quick-on characteristic of LED‘s enhances safety. buses. In level crossing lights. 62 . especially as light up "eyes" of robot toys. on/off lights on professional instruments and consumers audio/video equipment. and in the field.  Thin. Seven segment displays.g.   In toys.   In bicycle lighting.3 LED applications: .LED‘s are used as informative indicators in various types of embedded systems:  Status indicators. using Infrared LED‘s. etc.7. also for pedestrians to be seen by car traffic.g. VCRs. LED‘s find further application in safety devices. where high brightness and reliability are critical:    In traffic signals.g. This is especially important when considering automotive/military applications where the device must operate over a large range of temperatures. 3. red LED‘s have been used to replace incandescent bulbs.      LED‘s may also be used to transmit digital information: Remote controls for TVs. in calculators and measurement instruments. e. In fiber optic communications. astronomy observatories. e. e. in public information signs (at airports and railway stations and as destination displays for trains. submarine and ship bridges.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM is required to maintain long life. night time animal watching and military field use. In car brake and indicator lights. Signaling and emergency beacons or strobes. trams and ferries). In dot matrix arrangements for displaying messages. with government-regulated output. although now mostly replaced by liquid crystal displays.  Red or yellow LED‘s are used in indicator and [alpha] numeric displays in environments where night vision must be retained: aircraft cockpits. LED clusters are replacing colored incandescent bulbs. lightweight message displays.

LED’s are also used for illumination:  In photographic darkrooms. To use these parts we need to build a regulated 5 volt source. Most digital logic circuits and processors need a 5 volt power supply. is one where you can continuously adjust the output voltage to your requirements. but the efficiency of colored LED‘s is a big advantage.8.1 DESCRIPTION: A variable regulated power supply. Boats use direct current batteries to power their lights. lighter.g. This type of regulation is ideal for having a simple variable bench power supply. we use a LM7805 voltage regulator IC .  In projectors. red or yellow LED‘s are also used for providing lighting. especially for testing. 3. and backlights for LCD screens.   In flashlights (US) / torches (UK). As a replacement for incandescent and fluorescent bulbs in home and office lighting. also called a variable bench power supply. Usually you start with an unregulated power supply ranging from 9 volts to 24 volts DC (A 12 volt power supply is included with the Beginner Kit and the Microcontroller Beginner Kit. Actually this is quite important because one of the first projects a hobbyist should undertake is the construction of a variable regulated power supply. Varying the output of the power supply is the recommended way to test a project after having double checked parts placement against circuit drawings and the parts placement guide. While a dedicated supply is quite handy e. green. which does not lead to unwanted exposure of the film. so not only does that match the requirements of LED‘s.8 REGULATED POWER SUPPLY 3.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM  Navigation lights on boats. To make a 5 volt power supply. it's much handier to have a variable supply on hand.). 63 . and white and shine in specific directions. LED projectors are smaller. an application known as Solid State Lighting (SSL). which are red. 5V or 12V. and produce much less heat than incandescent technology.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM FIG 3. 78XX: The Bay Linear LM78XX is integrated linear positive regulator with three terminals.8. TO-220 & TO-263packages.1 over view of regulator The LM7805 is simple to use. When used as a zener diode/resistor combination replacement. The LM78XX is available in the TO-252. lower quiescent current. You simply connect the positive lead of your unregulated DC power supply (anything from 9VDC to 24VDC) to the Input pin. connect the negative lead to the Common pin and then when you turn on the power. 64 . The LM78XX offer several fixed output voltages making them useful in wide range of applications. you get a 5 volt supply from the Output pin. the LM78XX usually results in an effective output impedance improvement of two orders of magnitude.

uses only very common basic components Applications: Part of electronics devices. output current capability of 100 mA Circuit protection: Built-in overheating protection shuts down output when regulator IC gets too hot  Circuit complexity: Very simple and easy to build       Circuit performance: Very stable +5V output voltage. reliable operation Availability of components: Easy to get. small laboratory power supply Power supply voltage: Unregulated DC 8-18V power supply Power supply current: Needed output current + 5 mA Component costs: Few dollars for the electronics components + the input transformer cost  Design testing: Based on datasheet example circuit.I have used this circuit successfully as part of many electronics projects 65 .8.2 block diagram of power supply unit CIRCUIT FEATURES Brief description of operation: Gives out well regulated +5V output.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM: FIG 3.

2 BASIC POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT Fig 3.3 cicuit diagram of a basic power supply unit BASIC POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT Above is the circuit of a basic unregulated dc power supply. Depending on the VA rating of your transformer.8. A further but significant advantage is that the ripple frequency at the output is twice the line frequency (i. 66 . Here we will go for a voltage of about 12 .e.5A).5% and load regulation is 5%. 50 Hz or 60 Hz) and makes filtering somewhat easier. A bridge rectifier D1 to D4 rectifies the ac from the transformer secondary.414.7V) divided by 1.414 which equals about 10. As a design example consider we wanted a small unregulated bench supply for our projects. (See later re rectifier ratings). the secondary voltage will vary considerably in accordance with the applied load.8.2V. This means that Vsec = [13V + 1. which may also be a block rectifier such as WO4 or even four individual diodes such as 1N4004 types. The principal advantage of a bridge rectifier is you do not need a centre tap on the secondary of the transformer. Now the RMS secondary voltage (primary is whatever is consistent with your area) for our power transformer T1 must be our desired output Vo PLUS the voltage drops across D2 and D4 ( 2 * 0.4V] / 1.13V at a maximum output current (IL) of 500ma (0. Maximum ripple will be 2. The secondary voltage on a transformer advertised as say 20VA will be much greater if the secondary is only lightly loaded.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3.

both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally.e.325 Vrms.3 BRIDGE RECTIFIER : A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve fullwave rectification.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM If we accept the 2. Don't search for this rating because it doesn't exist.828 = 0.5% ripple as adequate for our purposes then at 13V this becomes 13 * 0. Use the next highest standard or even higher. both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally.828 times this value. This is a widely used configuration. The important thing to be aware of is the voltage rating should be at least 13V X 1.414 or 18. If you are on a 60Hz system it it 1/ (2 * 60 ) = 0.8. 1N4006 or 1N4008 types. Also required for this calculation is the time interval for charging pulses. The peak to peak value is 2.008333 which is 8.828 times the Vsec or at least 29V.33 milliseconds.8. Remember the tolerance of the type of capacitor used here is very loose.With our rectifier diodes or bridge they should have a PIV rating of 2.01 sec or 10 milliseconds.92 V and this value is required to calculate the value of C1. For a 50Hz system it is 0.4 Bridge Rectifier 67 . 2 X 0. A good type to use would be 1N4004.5A or 1A. Here you would use at least the standard 25V or higher (absolutely not 16V). 3. The current rating should be at least twice the load current maximum i. Vrip = 0.025 = 0.325V X 2. Fig 3. This is a widely used configuration.33. A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement as shown in fig(a) to achieve fullwave rectification.

All exposed parts within the box MUST be fully insulated. preferably with heat shrink tubing. The current flow direction is shown in the fig (c) with dotted arrows.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM OPERATION: During positive half cycle of secondary. the diodes D1 and D4 are in forward biased while D2 and D3 are in reverse biased as shown in the fig(c). The main switch (preferably double pole) must be rated at 240V or 120V at the current rating. 68 . Fig(C) CONSTRUCTION The whole project MUST be enclosed in a suitable box. the diodes D2 and D3 are in forward biased while D1 and D4 are in reverse biased as shown in the fig(b). Fig(B) During negative half cycle of secondary voltage. The current flow direction is shown in the fig (b) with dotted arrows.

Size: 77 x 56 x 15mm height DEDETAILS: This keypad provides a visually appealing way to get numeric data to your concontrol system. Output pins are 1-7. 69 .9.9 KEY PAD 3.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3. The board is a series of pushbutton switches that provide structured input for memeasuring user input. where pin 1 corresponds to the pin closest to the * key key.1Fig Keypad Th The 12-Button telephone-like matrix keypad offers:      Rugged gray plastic with white key. 3 x 4 Matrix Type 8-position solder pad Contact rating: 24VDC @ 20mA Contact resistance: 200 Ohms max.

To implement this technique.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Table keypad output pins K Keypad OOutput Pins 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 # * 2-3 1-2 2-5 3-7 1-7 5-7 3-6 1-6 5-6 1-4 4-5 3-4 Wire Keypad Interface: This describes a possible technique for interfacing a AT89S52 to a standard 3x4 matrix keypad of the type commonly found in telephones. these may be general purpose silicon signal diodes the schematic is shown below: 70 . Six diodes are needed. some extra hardware is required over the standard solution which needs no other hardware. Interfacing these normally requires the use of 7 I/O lines.

a contact point at the top of the rubber dome pushes the top layer through a hole in the middle layer to contact the bottom layer. Due to the less moving parts this is a silent keyboard. In this project we have used membrane key switch keyboard.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3. When the user presses the keycap the full key travel distance. D R I V E R S SENSORS MM74C922 connects the rows to drivers (constant supply) and scans the columns on depression of any key to sense which key was depressed. On pressing a key an electric circuit is closed by two metallic contacts. They are designed so that all the keycaps are positioned above rubber domes. which in turn are above a 3layer plastic membrane that spreads over the entire keyboard. this circuit is broken. It then encodes the key and sends the code to 8052. Types of Keyboard: 1. Membrane keyboard Membrane keyboards are by far the most commonly used with computers. The middle layer of the membrane 71 . creating a short circuit which generates the keystroke that is then sent to the computer.1 KEYBOARD SECTION A 16 key matrix keyboard as shown below is used in this system. This keyboard has a number of membrane switches present below the keys and there are no springs.9. On releasing the key.

In most cases the key is actuated (that is the keystroke is generated and sent to the computer) halfway through the key travel distance. The travel distance is usually 'full-travel' i. Differences in the shape and thickness of the rubber domes determine the travel. manufacturing imperfections and even ultraviolet radiation. resistance. the electrical portion only uses a single layer. including buildup of debris. 3. Each key has its own independent key switch mechanism that will register when a key is pressed. Finally. Mechanical keyboard Mechanical key switches are more intricate and of higher quality than membrane keyboards. This can be caused by various factors.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM keeps the top and bottom layers from contacting each other except when a switch is depressed completely. The "pill" portion of the rubber dome is a specially-doped rubber which conducts electricity. and the elasticity of the rubber dome membrane returns the key to its default 'up' position. All these features means there is both audible (clicks) and tactile (feel) feedback when we have successfully actuated a keystroke 72 . the pill directly shorts out two different circuits to cause a switch action. so that when the switch bottoms out. allowing for faster typing speeds.0 mm. keys snap back to ready position quicker. and tactile feedback of the switch. While this mechanical portion of the switch can be identical to a membrane keyboard (either simple rubber dome or scissors switch). Another special case of rubber dome switch is conductive rubber. They are the least durable of keyboards.e. creating a variance in how much force is required to type throughout the keyboard.4. however the keystrokes are only generated when the key is fully depressed. however most have a 'softer' feel due to the 'sponginess' of the dome. 2. Membrane keyboards are typically inexpensive and can range from firm to soft feel depending on the design of the rubber dome. with ratings typically in the 0.5 to 5 million keystroke range.5 . Over time some keys become inelastic and other overly elastic. For example on the mechanical key switch at right the keycap rests on top of the blue plunger mechanism which depresses into the unit. rubber fatigue.

From the point of view of the consumer. do not allow the standard ISDN B-channel bit rate of 64 kbps to be practically achieved. GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital. 4. There is also an emergency 73 . the key advantage of GSM systems has been higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls such as text messaging.2 GSM SERVICES & GSM SECURITY: From the beginning. Using the ITU-T definitions. GSM MODEM AND AT-COMMANDS 4. Also. The most basic teleservice supported by GSM is telephony. However. GSM retained backward-compatibility with the original GSM phones as the GSM standard continued to develop. which is currently developed by the 3GPP. the standards have allowed network operators to offer roaming services. Higher speed data transmission has also been introduced with EDGE in the Release '99 version of the standard. teleservices. The advantage for network operators has been 8 the ability to deploy equipment from different vendors because the open standard allows easy inter-operability. This fact has also meant that data communication was built into the system from very early on. radio transmission limitations. GSM phones are used by over a billion people across more than 200 countries. speech is digitally encoded and transmitted through the GSM network as a digital stream. The ubiquity of the GSM standard makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators. which mean the subscribers. for example packet data capabilities were added in the Release '97 version of the standard.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 4. the planners of GSM wanted ISDN compatibility in terms of the services offered and the control signaling used. by means of GPRS. As with all other communications. which enable phone users to access their services in many other parts of the world as well as their own country. GSM is an open standard. telecommunication services can be divided into bearer services.1 GSM Fundamentals: The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. can use their phone all over the world. in terms of bandwidth and cost. which means that it is seen as a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. and supplementary services.

call waiting. that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security. and no non-repudiation.32. Since GSM is a digital network. Messages are transported in a store-and-forward fashion. GSM SECURITY: GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. ISDN. they include several forms of call forward (such as call forwarding when the mobile subscriber is unreachable by the network). The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM. for example when roaming in another country. which is supported by use of an appropriate fax adaptor. at rates up to 9600 bps. Many additional supplementary services will be provided in the specifications. although an audio modem is required inside the GSM network to interwork with POTS. Packet Switched Public Data Networks. not found in older analog systems. SMS can also be used in a cell-broadcast mode.30. as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user . For point-to-point SMS. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using shared-secret cryptography. GSM uses several 74 . a message can be sent to another subscriber to the service. In the current (Phase I) specifications.whereas GSM only authenticated the user to the network (and not vice versa). SMS is a bi-directional service for short alphanumeric (upto160 bytes) Messages. is the Short Message Service (SMS). Other data services include Group 3 facsimile. to users on POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM service. A variety of data services is offered. such as X. where the nearest emergency-service provider is notified by dialing three digits (similar to 911). Messages can also be stored in the SIM card for later retrieval. for sending messages such as traffic updates or news updates. and an of receipt acknowledgement is provided to the sender. as described in ITU-T recommendation T. but limited authorization capabilities. a modem is not required between the user and GSM network. A unique feature of GSM. Supplementary services are provided on top of tele services or bearer services. and Circuit Switched Public Data Networks using a variety of access methods and protocols. and call barring of outgoing or incoming calls. GSM users can send and receive data. multi-party conversations. such as caller identification.25 or X. The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication.

The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over the.3.air voice privacy. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms. 4. A5/2 is weaker and used in countries that may not be able to support the infrastructure necessary for A5/1. A large security advantage of GSM is that the Ki.1 GSM interfacing with pc The GSM modem consists of a SIMCOM300 GSM module which is interfaced with the MAX232 level converter with DB9 connector. Communication settings should be found in the modem datasheet. open a terminal application. and it is possible to break A5/2 in realtime in a cipher text-only attack. With the modem.3 GSM INTERFACING Interfacing with PC: Fig 4. the crypto variable stored on the SIM card that is the key to any GSM ciphering algorithm. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States. The modem and the PC can be connected using DB9 data cable via serial port of the PC. The modem can be tested by connecting with PC and sending AT commands and notifying how it responds to AT-Commands.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM cryptographic algorithms for security. is never sent over the air interface. In our application we required the 75 .

(In the USA. Now the connected system should enable sending ATCommands from the terminal window. knowledge and culture accessible. whereby the mobile phone has become the first choice of personal phone. 8 Data-bits. The architecture of GSM allows for rapid flow of information by voice or data messaging (SMS). 2. Higher digital voice quality. None-Parity. more quickly than was possible before the global presence of GSM. GSM has been the catalyst in the tremendous shift in traffic volume from fixed networks to mobile networks. 6. 5. in theory. Even remote communities are able to integrate into networks (sometimes global) thereby making information. offering users the freedom and convenience to conduct business from almost anywhere at any time. particularly between 1998 to 2002. starting a non-prepaid contract with a cellular phone operator is almost always subject to credit verification through personal information provided by credit rating agencies). Roaming with GSM phones is a major advantage over the competing technology as roaming across CDMA networks. Prepaid also enabled the rapid expansion of GSM in many developing countries where large sections of the population do not have access to banks or bank accounts and countries where there are no effective credit rating agencies.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM settings of 9600 Baud-rate. Another major reason for the growth in GSM usage. 76 .4 ADVANTAGES & USES OF GSM: 1. One of the most appealing aspects of wireless communications is its mobility. 4. 1 Stop-bit and Hardware Flow control as shown in below figure. This has resulted in the emergence of a mobile paradigm. This allows people who are either unable or unwilling to enter into a contract with an operator to have mobile phones. 4. Users now have access to more information. Much of the success of GSM is due to its mobility management. whether personal. to anyone. economic or political. was the availability of prepaid calling from mobile phone operators. technical. Test with ―AT‖ to verify this. 3.

77 .GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 7. Low cost alternatives to making calls such a text messaging. Multi-party conferencing After a few turbulent years for the industry. USES OF GSM:         Uses encryption to make phone calls more secure Data networking Group III facsimile services Short Message Service (SMS) for text messages and paging Call forwarding Caller ID U Call waiting. These include:       Enabling convergence with other wireless technologies Developing Mobile Centric Applications Evolving the mobile business model Mobile terminal enhancements and variety Fostering industry partnerships and co-operations Interoperability and Inter-generational roaming between various platforms. we highlight some of the key factors we view as critical for the continued success of GSM.

fax.a command consists of one letter Argument .used when setting a register you may string commands together in one command line as long as the total length of command does not exceed 63 bytes .5 GSM AT. The basic regularly used AT commands along with the SMS AT commands are discussed below. The attention code. +++ are the only two commands which are not preceded by AT. Apart from the basic AT commands.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 4. THE AT COMMAND FORMAT Instructions sent to the modem are referred as AT commands because they are always preceded by a prefix AT that are used to get the attention of the modem <AT> <COMMAND>{Argument}{=n}<enter> AT .Optional information that further defines the command =n . This mode is also called as local mode or direct mode. etc. it is required to have some special AT commands.COMMANDS When a modem is connected to any device (computer. is only required at the beginning of the command line.) we need AT commands to direct the modem for its operations. Basically we send commands directly to the modem after activating Terminal mode ..attention code Command . to send the SMS message. A/. 78 . AT.

AT commands direct the fax modem to dial. 79 .GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Using AT Commands When issued to the fax modem. except A/ and +++. and to perform many other communication tasks. A Answer an incoming call D Dial the following phone number E Turn echo OFF H Hang up O Return to on-line state Z Reset the modem to the values stored in the N. This is the command line prefix. Some of the most commonly used commands are: AT (Attention). hang up. answer. Ram +++ Return to the Command State A/ Repeat last command (Do not precede this command with AT or follow it with <Enter>) Request revision identification +CGMR Description : This command is used to get the revised software version. must be preceded by the command AT).V. Preferred Message Storage +CPMS Description: This command allows the message storage area to be selected (for reading. (All the commands listed . etc). writing.

otherwise in the If the command is correct. while the same SIM card is used. even after a reset. It can be: .“SM” : SMS message storage in SIM (default).GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Syntax: Defined values : <mem1>: Memory used to list. read and delete messages. It is kept.“SR” ME non volatile memory) Note : ―SR‖ ME non volatile memory is cleared when another SIM card is inserted. : SMS message storage in SIM (default) : CBM message storage (in volatile memory). : Status Report message storage (in SIM if the EF-SMR file exists.“BM” . the following message indication is sent: 80 .“SM” . <mem2> : Memory used to write and send messages .

sending an SMS Message in PDU mode Defined values : 81 .<total1>. Therefore.<total2> When <mem1> is selected. ‗A‘.‘7‘. The format selected is stored in EEPROM by the +CSAS command. Syntax : Example. Preferred Message Format +CMGF Description : The message formats supported are text mode and PDU mode. ‗B‘. a complete SMS Message including all header information is given as a binary string (in hexadecimal format). Each pair or characters is converted to a byte (e.‘2‘.‘4‘.‘9‘.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM +CPMS: <used1>.‘D‘. all following +CMGL.: ‗41‘ is converted to the ASCII character ‗A‘.‘6‘.g.‘8‘. whose ASCII code is 0x41 or 65).<used2>.‘F‘}.‘C‘. +CMGR and +CMGD commands are related to the type of SMS stored in this memory.‘E‘.‘5‘. only the following set of characters is allowed: {‗0‘. In Text mode.‘1‘. all commands and responses are in ASCII characters. In PDU mode.‘3‘.

e. use default SC address read with +CSCA command) and the TPDU message.g. The messages are read from the memory selected by +CPMS command.40 In this case the TPDU is : 0x01 0x03 0x06 0x91 0x21 0x43 0x65 0x00 0x00 0x04 0xC9 0xE9 0x34 0x0B. which means regarding GSM 03. the length of octets of the TPDU buffer is 14. In this example.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM The <pdu> message is composed of the SC address (« 00 means no SC address given. Syntax : Command syntax : AT+CMGR=<index> Response syntax for text mode: 82 . no validity period) 0x03 (Message Reference) 0x06 0x91 0x21 0x43 0x65 (destination address +123456) 0x00 (Protocol Identifier) 0x00 (Data Coding Scheme : 7 bits alphabet) <length> (TP TP-UDL) 0x04 (User Data Length. octet with hexadecimal value 0x2A is presented to the ME as two characters ‗2‘ (ASCII 50) and ‗A‘ (ASCII 65). Read message +CMGR Description : This command allows the application to read stored messages.40 : <fo> <mr> (TP TP-MR) <da> (TP TP-DA) <pid> (TP TP-PID) <dcs> (TP TP-DCS) 0x01 (SMS-SUBMIT. 4 characters of text) TP-UD 0xC9 0xE9 0x34 0x0B (User Data : ISSY) TPDU in hexadecimal format must be converted into two ASCII characters. coded as GSM 03.

[<alpha>.] [.<dt>. <tosca>. <pid>.<oa>.<da>.STATUSREPORT only) Response syntax for PDU mode : +CMGR: <stat>.<pid>.] <scts> [. <sca>. Example : New message indication +CNMI 83 .<fo>.[<tora>].<mr>.<sca>.Note : the <stat> parameter for SMS Status Reports is always ―READ‖.[<ra>]. [<alpha>] .GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM +CMGR :<stat>.<fo>.<dcs>.<fo>.<dcs>.<tooa>.<length> <CR><LF> <pdu> A message read with status ―REC UNREAD‖ will be updated in memory with the status ―REC READ‖.<length>]<CR><LF> <data> (for SMS-SUBMIT only) +CMGR : <stat>. [<vp>].<length>] <CR><LF> <data> (for SMS MS MS-DELIVER only) +CMGR : <stat>.<scts>.[<alpha>.<toda>.<st> (for SMS SMS.<tosca>.

<mode> 0: Buffer unsolicited result codes in the TA. If TA result code buffer is full. Any other value for <mode> (0.1 or 3) is accepted (return code will be OK). indications can be buffered in some other place or the oldest indications may be discarded and replaced with the new received indications 1: Discard indication and reject new received message unsolicited result codes when TA-TE 84 . but the processing of unsolicited result codes will be the same as with<mode>=2. Syntax : Defined values : <mode> : controls the processing of unsolicited result codes Only <mode>=2 is supported.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Description : This command selects the procedure for message reception from the network.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM link is reserved. Otherwise forward them directly to the TE 2: Buffer unsolicited result codes in the TA when TA-TE link is reserved and flush them to the TE after reservation. the setting of Select CBM Types (+CSCB command) and <bm>. Otherwise forward them directly to the TE 3: Forward unsolicited result codes directly to the TE. <mt> 0: No SMS-DELIVER indications are routed.] <scts> [. Message of other classes result in indication <mt>=1 <bm>: set the rules for storing received CBMs (Cell Broadcast Message) types depend on its coding scheme. <length>] <CR><LF><data> (text mode) 3: Class 3 SMS-DELIVERS are routed directly using code in <mt>=2 . <bm> 0: No CBM indications are routed to the TE. 1: The CBM is stored and an indication of the memory location is routed to the customer application using unsolicited result code: +CBMI: ―BM‖. <index> 85 . TA-TE link specific inband used to embed result codes and data when TA is in on-line data mode <mt> : sets the result code indication routing for SMS-DELIVERs.<index> 2: SMS-DELIVERs (except class 2 messages) are routed using unsolicited code : +CMT : [<alpha>. <tosca>. Default is 0.] <length> <CR> <LF> <pdu> (PDU mode) or +CMT : <oa>.[<alpha>. <dcs>. The CBMs are stored. <fo>. <sca>. <pid>. 1: SMS-DELIVERs are routed using unsolicited code : +CMTI: ―SM‖. Default is 0.<tooa>.

<index> <bfr> <bfr> 0: TA buffer of unsolicited result codes defined within this command is flushed to the TE when <mode> 1…3 is entered (OK response shall be given before flushing the codes) 1: TA buffer of unsolicited result codes defined within this command is cleared when <mode> 1…3 is entered. <scts>. 4. [<tora>]. <ds> 0: No SMS-STATUS-REPORTs are routed. 86 Default is 0. Default is 0. 1: SMS-STATUS-REPORTs are routed using unsolicited code : +CDS : <length> <CR> <LF> <pdu> (PDU mode) or +CDS : <fo>.<page>.<dcs>.<dt>.<st> (Text mode) 2: SMS-STATUS-REPORTs are stored and routed using the unsolicited result code : +CDSI: ―SR‖. .<mid>. [<ra>]. Other classes CBMs : as <bm>=1.6 Fabrication Process: PCB FABRICATION The fabrication of a PCB includes four steps.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 2: New CBMs are routed directly to the TE using unsolicited result code. +CBM: +CBM: <length><CR><LF><pdu> (PDU mode) or <sn>.<mr>. <ds> for SMS-STATUS-REPORTs.<pages>(Text mode) <CR><LF> <data> 3: Class 3 CBMs : as <bm>=2.

Several factors such as positioning the diameter of holes. hole of suitable diameter should be drilled.e. Finishing Touches: After the etching is completed. Pattern designing is the primary step in fabricating a PCB. It must be completely free from dust and other contaminants. the copper side may be given a coat of varnish to prevent oxidation. The paint should be removed with the help of thinner. Developing In this developing all excessive copper is removed from the board and only the printed pattern is left behind. Developing the PCB.the printed pattern should be cleanly visible. About 100ml of tap water should be heated to 75 ° C and 30. In this step.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM     Preparing the PCB pattern. the area that each component would occupy. the type of end terminal should be considered. cutting. After etching the board it should be washed under running water and then held against light . Transferring the pattern onto the PCB.) drilling. The mirror image of the pattern must be carbon copied and to the laminate the complete pattern may now be made each resistant with the help of paint and thin brush. Finishing (i. turning etc. 87 . Transferring the PCB Pattern The copper side of the PCB should be thoroughly cleaned with the help of alcoholic spirit or petrol. all interconnection between the components in the given circuit are converted into PCB tracks.5 grams of FeCl3 added to it. The board with its copper side facing upward should be placed in a flat bottomed plastic tray and the aqueous solution of FeCl2 poured in the etching process would take 40 to 60 min to complete. smoothing. the mixture should be thoroughly stirred and a few drops of HCl may be added to speed up the process. then the PCB may be tin plated using an ordinary 35 Watts soldering rod along with the solder core.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM Drilling: Drills for PCB use usually come with either a set of collects of various sizes or a 3-Jaw chuck. 8. It will automatically start its timing cycles.Finalizing the total circuit diagram. painting the tracks on the board as per inter connection diagram. Before fitting the PCB suitable holes must be drilled in the cabinet for the switch. Etching the board to remove the un-wanted copper other than track portion. LED and buzzer. Note that a rotary switch can be used instead of a slide type. Don‘t try soldering an IC directly unless you trust your skill in soldering. and solder coating the copper tracks to protect the tracks from rusting or oxidation due to moisture. The fabrication of one demonstration unit is carried out in the following sequence: 1. Switch on the circuit to be desired range. Now connect the switch and then solder/screw if on the PCB using multiple washers or spaces. 2. 3. 6. preparing the drilling details. To be sure that it is working properly watch the LED flash. Making layout. Drilling the holes on the board as per the component layout. The components are selected to trigger the alarm a few minutes before the set limit. 5. Keeping the unit ready for demonstration. testing the components and screening the components. Integrating the total unit inter wiring the unit and final testing the unit. All components should be soldered as shown in the figure. cutting the laminate to the required size. For accuracy however 3-jaw chunks aren‘t brilliant and small drill below 1 mm from grooves in the jaws preventing good grips. 4. Then cleaning the board with water. 7. Soldering: Begin the construction by soldering the resistors followed by the capacitors and the LEDs diodes and IC sockets. 88 . preparing the inter connection diagram as per the circuit diagram. listing out the components and their sources of procurement. Assembling: The circuit can be enclosed in any kind of cabinet. Procuring the components. Now connect the battery lead. Assembling the components as per the component layout and circuit diagram and soldering components. Soldering it directly will only reduce its height above other components and hamper in its easy fixation in the cabinet.

in industrial applications the artwork is drawn on an enlarged scale and photographically reduced to required size. Normally. The next stage after PCB fabrication is solder masking the board to prevent the tracks from corrosion and rust formation.6mm with copper cladding on one or two sides. The solders are the alloys of lead and tin. It defines the pattern to be generated on the board. The next stage in PCB fabrication is artwork preparation. This non-ferrous intermediate metal is called solder. This is done after drilling of the holes on the laminate as per the components layout. Then the components will be assembled on the board as per the component layout. The accuracy of the finished board depends on the accuracy of artwork. The artwork (Mater drawing) is essentially a manufacturing tool used in the fabrication of PCB‘s. The reinforced materials used are electrical grade paper or woven glass cloth. The etching is the process of chemically removing un-wanted copper from the board. It is not only easy to draw the enlarged dimensions but also the errors in the artwork correspondingly get reduced during photo reduction. After drying the paint. The next stage after assembling is the soldering the components.070 mm). The laminates are divided into various grades by National Electrical Manufacturers association (NEMA). The laminates are manufactured by impregnating thin sheets of reinforced materials (woven glass cloth or electrical grade paper) with the required resin (Phenolic or epoxy). For ordinary application of simple single sided boards artwork is made on ivory art paper using drafting aids.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM PCB FABRICATION DETAILS: The Basic raw material in the manufacture of PCB is copper cladded laminate. It must be very accurately drawn. The soldering may be defined as process where in joining between metal parts is produced by heating to suitable temperatures using non-ferrous filler metals has melting temperatures below the melting temperatures of the metals to be joined. Since the artwork is the first of many process steps in the Fabrication of PCBs. the etching process is carried out. 89 . The nominal overall thickness of laminate normally used in PCB industry is 1. The laminate consists of two or more layers insulating reinforced materials bonded together under heat and pressure by thermo setting resins used are phenolic or epoxy. The copper foil thickness is 35 Microns (0. After taping on a art paper and phototraphy (Making the –ve) the image of the photo given is transformed on silk screen for screen printing.035mm) OR 70 Microns (0.

positioning. to allow micro systems to sense and control the environment. augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception and control capabilities of micro sensors and micro actuators and expanding the space of possible designs and applications. MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology.. This setup is fixed on the road vehicles and during normal movement (X-axis). unprecedented levels of 90 . MEMS is an enabling technology allowing the development of smart products. biological.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 5 . and filtering. Bipolar. When any accident occurs the MEMS sensor gives unbalanced or high axis output value (depends on vehicle position). pumping. chemical. CMOS. making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e. thereby controlling the environment for some desired outcome or purpose. If the output is not returning back to normal value within the specific time then the microcontroller commands the GSM modem and send a SMS about the accident to any predefined numbers such as ambulance or police or any other numbers to intimate the accident.g. The electronics then process the information derived from the sensors and through some decision making capability direct the actuators to respond by moving. Microelectronic integrated circuits can be thought of as the "brains" of a system and MEMS augments this decision-making capability with "eyes" and "arms". sensors. thermal. Because MEMS devices are manufactured using batch fabrication techniques similar to those used for integrated circuits. and magnetic phenomena. Sensors gather information from the environment through measuring mechanical. optical. actuators. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements. the accelerometer output is nearly constant. and electronics on a common silicon substrate through micro fabrication technology. MEMS (MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS) The MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) which consists of a 3-axis accelerometer which gives output based on three axis movement. regulating. and then the microcontroller reads the value and expects for the normal movement output value again on same axis (X-axis). or BICMOS processes).

Few companies will build their own fabrication facilities because of the high cost. As for the components themselves. MEMS packaging is more challenging than IC packaging due to the diversity of MEMS devices and the requirement that many of these devices be in contact with their environment. reliability. Currently almost all MEMS and must develop a new and specialized package for each new device. 91 . more functional. Packaging The packaging of MEMS devices and systems needs to improve considerably from its current primitive state. lighter. Limited Options Most companies who wish to explore the potential of MEMS and Nanotechnology have very limited options for prototyping or manufacturing devices. Accelerometers MEMS accelerometers are quickly replacing conventional accelerometers for crash air-bag deployment systems in automobiles. The conventional approach uses several bulky accelerometers made of discrete components mounted in the front of the car with separate electronics near the air-bag. this approach costs over $50 per automobile. and sophistication can be placed on a small silicon chip at a relatively low cost. These MEMS accelerometers are much smaller. and are produced for a fraction of the cost of the conventional macro scale accelerometer elements.or medium-volume applications.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM functionality. MEMS and Nanotechnology has made it possible to integrate the accelerometer and electronics onto a single silicon chip at a cost between $5 to $10. numerical modeling and simulation tools for MEMS packaging are virtually non-existent. Approaches which allow designers to select from a catalog of existing standardized packages for a new MEMS device without compromising performance would be beneficial. and have no capability or expertise in micro fabrication technology. Current Challenges MEMS are currently used in low. Most companies find that packaging is the single most expensive and time consuming task in their overall product development program. A mechanism giving smaller organizations responsive and affordable access to MEMS and Nano fabrication is essential. more reliable.

µVision3 is fully compatible to µVision2 and can be used in parallel with µVision2.. MEASURE is a data acquisition system for analog and digital systems. \C251\Examples. and \ARM\. 92 .. \C166\Examples. Tool configuration. TRAFFIC is a traffic light controller with the RTX Tiny operating system. What is µVision3? µVision3 is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that helps you write. SIEVE is the SIEVE Benchmark. several example programs (located in the \C51\Examples.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 6.\Examples) are provided. A powerful debugger. and debug embedded programs. SOFTWARE ABOUT SOFTWARE Software‘s used are: *Keil software for c programming *Express PCB for lay out design *Express SCH for schematic design What's New in µVision3? µVision3 adds many new features to the Editor like Text Templates. DHRY is the Dhrystone Benchmark. and Syntax Coloring with brace high lighting Configuration Wizard for dialog based startup and debugger setup. A make facility. Editor. compile. It encapsulates the following components:      A project manager.      HELLO is a simple program that prints the string "Hello World" using the Serial Interface. To help you get started. Quick Function Navigation.

1 Overview of Keil cross C compiler: It is possible to create the source files in a text editor such as notepad. and links the files in your project. Alternatively KEIL can be used to Create source files. Select Project .New Project. assembles. run the Assembler on each Assembler Source file.Rebuild all target files or Build target. specifying another list of controls. Select a directory and enter the name of the project file. link and convert using options set with an easy to Use user interface and finally stimulate or perform debugging on the hardware with access to C variables and memory.166\EXAMPLES\HELLO\HELLO. run either the Library Manager or Linker (Again specifying a list of controls) and finally running the Object-HEX converter to convert The linker output file to an Intel HEX File. and link) an application in µVision2. KEIL Greatly simplifies the process of creating and testing an embedded application. Additional example programs not listed here are provided for each device architecture. 93 . the choice is Clear. you must:    Select Project -(forexample.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM  WHETS is the Single-Precision Whetstone Benchmark. Once that has been completed the HEX File can Be downloaded to the target hardware and debugged. specifying a list of controls. 6. Creating Your Own Application in µVision2 To create a new project in µVision2.UV2). Unless you have to use the tolls on the command line. run the compiler On each c source file. µVision2 compiles. assemble. Building an Application in µVision2 To build (compile. automatically compile. you must:   Select Project .

Break. and so on. This opens a standard Windows dialog that asks you for the new project file name. i. Project1. and add the source files to the project. You typically only need to configure the memory map of your target hardware.   Open the Serial Window using the Serial #1 button on the toolbar. Note when you select the target device from the Device Database™ all special options are set automatically. Then select this folder and enter the file name for the new project.e. We suggest that you use a separate folder for each project. You may enter G. Files.  Select Project . Debug your program using standard options like Step. Groups. Debugging an Application in µVision2 To debug an application created using µVision2. Starting µVision2 and creating a Project µVision2 is a standard Windows application and started by clicking on the program icon. select Source Group1.Rebuild all target files or Build target. main in the Output Window to execute to the main C function.Start/Stop Debug Session.Targets. You can simply use the icon Create New Folder in this dialog to get a new empty folder.UV2 which contains 94 . or C16x/ST10 device from the Device Database™. Use the Step toolbar buttons to single-step through your program.Select Device and select an 8052. To create a new project file select from the µVision2 menu Project – New Project…. Go. Add/Files. you must:   Select Debug . Default memory model settings are optimal for most applications. 251. Select Project .  Select Project .   Create source files to add to the project.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM  Select Project .Options and set the tool options. µVision2 creates a new project file with the name PROJECT1.

µVision2 creates HEX files with each build process when Create HEX files under Options for Target – Output is enabled. You may start your PROM programming utility after the make process when you specify the program under the option Run User Program #1. This selection sets necessary tool options for the 80C51RD+ device and simplifies in this way the tool Configuration Building Projects and Creating a HEX Files Typical. After you have tested your application. You can see these names in the Project Window – Files. the tool settings under Options – Target are all you need to start a new application. Once you have successfully generated your application you can start debugging. Now use from the menu Project – Select Device for Target and select a CPU for your project. A double click on a message line opens the source file on the correct location in a µVision2 editor window. Just select the microcontroller you use. it is required to create an Intel HEX file to download the software into an EPROM programmer or simulator. The Select Device dialog box shows the µVision2 device database. You may translate all source files and line the application with a click on the Build Target toolbar icon. 95 .GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM a default target and file group name. When you build an application with syntax errors. We are using for our examples the Philips 80C51RD+ CPU. µVision2 will display errors and warning messages in the Output Window – Build page.

For example. the simulator also provides support for the integrated peripherals of the various 8052 derivatives. most editor features are still available. You can also change the aspects of each peripheral using the controls in the dialog boxes. Start Debugging You start the debug mode of µVision2 with the Debug – Start/Stop Debug Session command. In addition to memory mapping. The µVision2 debug mode differs from the edit mode in the following aspects: 96 . µVision2 opens an editor window with the source text or shows CPU instructions in the disassembly window. or code execution access. You may select and display the on-chip peripheral components using the Debug menu. During debugging. The next executable statement is marked with a yellow arrow. Depending on the Options for Target – Debug Configuration. The µVision2 simulator traps and reports illegal memory accesses. you can use the find command or correct program errors. µVision2 will load the application program and run the startup code µVision2 saves the editor screen layout and restores the screen layout of the last debug session.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM CPU Simulation µVision2 simulates up to 16 Mbytes of memory from which areas can be mapped for read. write. Refer to page 58 for more Information about selecting a device. Program source text of your application is shown in the same windows. If the program execution stops. The on-chip peripherals of the CPU you have selected are configured from the Device Database selection you have made when you create your project target.

Click on the Keil uVision Icon on Desktop 2. The additional debug windows are discussed in the following. All build Commands are disabled. _ The project structure or tool parameters cannot be modified. Disassembly Window The Disassembly window shows your target program as mixed source and assembly program or just assembly code. If you select the Disassembly Window as the active window all program step commands work on CPU instruction level rather than program source lines.2 Steps for Executing Keil Programs: 1. That allows you to correct mistakes or to make temporary changes to the target program you are debugging. You may use the dialog Debug – Inline Assembly… to modify the CPU instructions.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM _ The ―Debug Menu and Debug Commands‖ described on page 28 are Available. A trace history of previously executed instructions may be displayed with Debug – View Trace Records. To enable the trace history. 6. The following fig will appear 97 . set Debug – Enable/Disable Trace Recording. You can select a text line and set or modify code breakpoints using toolbar buttons or the context menu commands.

Click on the Project menu from the title bar 4.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 3. Then Click on New Project 98 .

Then Click on save button above. Atmel…… 8. Select the component for u r project. 7.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 5. Click on the + Symbol beside of Atmel 99 .e. i. Save the Project by typing suitable project name with no extension in u r own folder sited in either C:\ or D:\ 6.

Then Click on ―OK‖ 11.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 9. The Following fig will appear 100 . Select AT89C51 as shown below 10.

Click on the file option from menu bar and select ―new‖ 101 . Now double click on the Target1. Then Click either YES or NO………mostly ―NO‖ 13. Now your project is ready to USE 14.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 12. 15. you would get another option ―Source group 1‖ as shown in next page.

For a program written in Assembly.The next screen will be as shown in next page. 17. asm‖ and for ―C‖ based program save it with extension ― . and just maximize it by double clicking on its blue boarder.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 16.C‖ 102 . Now start writing program in either in ―C‖ or ―ASM‖ 18. then save it with extension ―.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 19.Now right click on Source group 1 and click on ―Add files to Group Source‖ 103 .

Click only one time on option ―ADD‖ 23. Now you will get another window. Any error will appear if so happen. Now Press function key F7 to compile. 21.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 20. Now select as per your file extension given while saving the file 22. 104 . on which by default ―C‖ files will appear.

25. If the file contains no error. then press Control+F5 simultaneously.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 24.Then Click ―OK‖ 105 . The new window is as follows 26.

Now keep Pressing function key ―F11‖ slowly and observe. Now Click on the Peripherals from menu bar. You are running your program successfully 106 .GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 27.Drag the port a side and click in the program file. 29. 30. and check your required port as shown in fig below 28.

int xaxis. unsigned char tmp. sbit oval = P2^2. tmp.d2. } void delay_wait() { unsigned int i. sbit cval = P2^1.h> #include<lcd. flag=1. *lon=0x50.h> #include<gsm. xval. //sbit c = P3^2. //. //sbit b = P3^3. 107 . unsigned char d1. patt[]="GPRMC". unsigned char z.c> void get_axis(). sbit a = P3^4. sbit lock = P2^0.3 SOURCE CODE: #include <REGX51. *lon=0x80.H> #include<UART. // *lat=0x50. void ext(void) interrupt 0 using 1 { while(P3_2==0).GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 6.d3.i. yaxis.

delay_wait(). i<=25000. while(1) { get_axis(). command(0x80).GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM for(i=0. command(0x01). command(0xc0). 108 //device //lcd init . init_gsm(). i++). command(0xc0). command(0x80). prints("15-03-2011. oval=1. command(0x01). prints(" Smart Vehicle "). delay_wait(). init_lcd(). v1. serial_init().0"). del(). prints(" Developed on: "). prints(" Embedded "). } void main() { cval=0.

prints("lock mode. command(0x80). read(). if(!strcmp(rec."123")) { cval=1. msdelay(1000)."9603641895")."). command(0x80).. msdelay(1000). check_ifsms(). command(0x01). msdelay(700). command(0x01). msdelay(1500). command(0x80). command(0x01). prints(rec).GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM if(lock==1) { get_axis(). rec=0x40. if(xaxis<122 || xaxis>127 || yaxis<122 || yaxis>127) { send("Vehicle theft Detected". 109 .

} } 110 . } del(). command(0x80). } while(1). rec=0x40. msdelay(1000).GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM oval=0. oval=1. command(0x80)."123")) { cval=0. read(). msdelay(1000). check_ifsms(). msdelay(1500). command(0x01). prints("Vehicle Locked"). if(!strcmp(rec. msdelay(700). prints("Vehicle Unlocked"). prints(rec). command(0x01).

"). } } } } void get_axis() { command(0x80). if(xaxis<115 || xaxis>135 || yaxis<115 || yaxis>135) { send("Vehicle Accident Detected". a=0. get_axis(). printc('1'). while(1). del(). 111 ."9603641895"). printc('2'). prints("run mode.. printc('3'). xaxis = P1.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM if(lock==0) { command(0x01). command(0x80).

printc('-').GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM // xval = xval/10. d3=(xaxis%10)+0x30. d2=((xaxis%100)/10)+0x30. yaxis = P1. printc(d1). command(0xc4). } 112 . command(0xc0). printc(d3). a=1. printc(d1). d3=(yaxis%10)+0x30. d1=(yaxis/100)+0x30. printc(d2). d1=(xaxis/100)+0x30. printc(d3). // xval = xval/10. printc(d2). d2=((yaxis%100)/10)+0x30.

2 DEMERITS:  The only dis merit of this project is this can be used in the place where signal strength is high 113 .1 MERITS:    Low Cost Less Complexity Huge Scope For Research And Development 7. APPLICATIONS   As a security System As Accident Report System 7.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 7.

GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 8. Secondly. Finally we conclude that ―DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM‖ is an emerging field and there is a huge scope for research and development. Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed carefully thus contributing to the best working of the unit. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT We can enhance this project by using the GPRS technology using which we can able to locate the exact position of the automobile. It has been developed by integrating features of all the hardware components used. CONCLUSION The project ―DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM” has been successfully designed and tested. using highly advanced IC‘s and with the help of growing technology the project has been successfully implemented. 114 .

com 115 . Programming & Applications -Kenneth J.V. Prasad Wireless Communications . Programming & Applications -Ramesh S.geocities.Theodore S. Lee References on the Web: www.Y.William C. Bibliography The 8052 Micro controller and Embedded Systems -Muhammad Ali Mazidi & Janice Gillispie Mazidi The 8052 Micro controller Architecture. Rappaport Mobile Tele Communications . Gaonkar Electronic Components -D.microsoftsearch.Ayala Fundamentals Of Micro processors and Micro computers www.Ram Micro processor Architecture.GSM BASED VEHICLE THEFT CONTROL SYSTEM 9.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.