Some Handy Integrals

Gaussian Functions 1 π1/2 2 ⌠ ⌡ e-ax dx = 2 a   0 ⌠ ⌡
0

1 2 ⌠ ⌡ x e-ax dx = 2a
0

x2 e-ax2

1 π1/2 dx = 4a a  

1 ⌠ x3 e-ax2 dx = 2 ⌡ 2a 0 1 ⌠ x5 e-ax2 dx = 3 ⌡ a 0 n! 1 ⌠ x2n+1 e-ax2 dx =  n+1 ⌡ 2 a    0
∞ ∞

3 π 1/2 ⌠ x4 e-ax2 dx = 2     ⌡ 8a a 0 1·3·5···(2n-1) π1/2 ⌠ x2n e-ax2 dx = a ⌡ 2n+1an  
0

Exponential Functions n! ⌠ xn e-ax dx = n+1 ⌡ a 0

Integrals from -∞ to ∞: Even and Odd Functions
The integral of any even function taken between the limits -∞ to ∞ is twice the integral from 0 to ∞. The integral of any odd function between -∞ and ∞ is equal to zero, see Figure 1.
even function

odd function

0 integrals add

x ->

x -> integrals cancel out (b)

(a) Figure 1. Even and odd integrals.

To determine if a function is even, check to see if f(x) = f(-x). For an odd function, f(x) = –f(-x). Some functions are neither odd nor even. For example, f(x)=x is odd, f(x)=x2 is even, and f(x)=x+x2 is neither odd nor even. Also the following multiplication rules hold: even*even=even odd*odd=even odd*even=odd 2 For example, for f(x)=x, which is odd, and g(x)= e-ax , which is even (see Figure 1a), then f(x)*g(x)= x e-ax2 is odd (see Figure 1b).

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