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  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 1
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 2
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 3
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 4
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 5
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 6
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 7
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 8
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 9
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 10
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 11
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 12
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 13
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 14
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 15
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 16
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 17
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 18
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 19
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 20
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 21
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 22
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 23
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 24
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 25
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 26
  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 27
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  • ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 30

ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 1

1. Analyze text fragment № 1. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?)

2. A T O N E M E N T
3. Ian McEwan 4.

5. There was a crime. But there were also the lovers. Lovers and their happy ends have been on my mind all night long. As into the sunset we sail. An unhappy inversion. It occurs to me that I have not travelled so very far after all, since I wrote my little play. Or rather, I've made a huge digression and doubled back to my starting place. It is only in this last version that my lovers end well, standing side by side on a South London pavement as I walk away. All the preceding drafts were pitiless. But now I can no longer think what purpose would be served if, say, I tried to persuade my reader, by direct or indirect means, that Robbie Turner died of septicaemia at Bray Dunes on 1 June 1940, or that Cecilia was killed in September of the same year by the bomb that destroyed Balham Underground station. That I never saw them in that year. That my walk across London ended at the church on Clapham Common, and that a cowardly Briony limped back to the hospital, unable to confront her recently bereaved sister. That the letters the lovers wrote are in the archives of the War Museum. How could that constitute an ending? What sense or hope or satisfaction could a reader draw from such an account? Who would want to believe that they never met again, never fulfilled their love? Who would want to believe that, except in the service of the bleakest realism? I couldn't do it to them. I'm too old, too frightened, too much in love with the shred of life I have remaining. I face an incoming tide of forgetting, and then oblivion. I no longer possess the courage of my pessimism. When I am dead, and the Marshalls are dead, and the novel is finally published, we will only exist as my inventions. Briony will be as much of a fantasy as the lovers who shared a bed in Balham and enraged their landlady. No one will care what events and which individuals were misrepresented to make a novel. I know there's always a certain kind of reader who will be compelled to ask, But what really happened? The answer is simple: the lovers survive and nourish. As long as there is a single copy, a solitary typescript of my final draft, then my spontaneous, fortuitous sister and her medical prince survive to love. 6. The problem these fifty-nine years has been this: how can a novelist achieve atonement when, with her absolute power of deciding outcomes, she is also God? There is no one, no entity or higher form that she can appeal to, or be reconciled with, or that can forgive her. There is nothing outside her. In her imagination she has set the limits and the terms. No atonement for God, or novelists, even if they are atheists. It was always an impossible task, and that was precisely the point. The attempt was all.

7. I've been standing at the window, feeling waves of tiredness beat the remaining strength from my body. The floor seems to be undulating beneath my feet. I've been watching the first grey light bring into view the park and the bridges over the vanished lake. And the long narrow driveway down which they drove Robbie away, into the whiteness. …
8. 9. (Ian McEwan. Atonemet. – L.: Jonathan Cape, 2001. – p. 370-371.) 10. 11. [(розкаяння)author’s narration in the form of author’s interior monologue. The author recollect the process of writing play and reflect over the problem of truthfulness, the necessary for author to adhere real facts. it’s argumentation.] 1)attachment; lovers.lovers – catch repetition.2)sunset – metaphor; unhappy – emotive one-member epithet. 4)little play – emotive epithet; huge – epithet. 6)pitiless – epithet. 7)say – paranthessis. 8.9.10)that ..-parallel construction. 12) cowardly – epithet; limped back – image verb. 15)or or – polysyndeton. 16)who would want to believe – anaphora; never never – repetition. 17) too too - parallel construction; shred of life – metaphor.18)tide of forgetting – metaphor. 19)courage of my pessimism – metaphor; and and – polysyndeton. 25)single copy, solitary typescript – logical periphrasis.29) no no – polysyndeton; or or or – repetition. 34)waves of tiredness – metaphor.35) undulating – epithet.36)grey light bring into viewmetaphor.)long narrow, vanished – ep. 12. 13.

14. Speak on the following theoretical question: Periodization of the history of the development of the English Language
A short history of the origins and development of English The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from Englaland and their language was called Englisc - from which the words England and English are derived. Old English (450-1100 AD) The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until around 1100. Middle English (1100-1500)

In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling and business classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (c1340-1400), but it would still be difficult for native English speakers to understand today. Modern English Early Modern English (1500-1800) Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. Late Modern English (1800-Present) The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries.

15.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. He followed her that afternoon into the living room, where an older woman was sitting on a sofa (John Cheever. Selected Short Stories. – M.: Progress Publishers, 1980. – p. 88). b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your interpretation of the following statement: Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one – Malcolm Forbes (US publisher)?
Malcolm Forbes suggests that "Education's purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one." It is, then, my belief that nothing is more valuable in this period of human existence than education, for it is only through education that citizens will come to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to survive and thrive in this new knowledge-driven society. Furthermore, it is through exposure to new knowledge and concepts that minds become open to new ideas and possibilities. General Views on Education

Learning is a continual, lifelong process. Thus, it is important that educators avoid attempts to force knowledge upon learners but rather help them realize the importance of education in our society and teach using techniques that give learners a thirst for knowledge. Therefore, the educational experience should be more than simply the gathering of facts and information, but it should also foster the development of a worldview. It is my belief that education is an active rather than a passive process and that we not only learn from the material that is introduced in the classroom but also from the knowledge and the experiences brought into the classroom by the teacher as well as the student. I further believe that education should encourage the acquisition of knowledge not only for the purpose of acquiring the technical and social skills needed to function in the workplace, the classroom, and in society in general, but also for the purpose of appreciating different cultures, different disciplines and different philosophies. Education should affect the person in terms of who he/she is and enable them to better understand their world and those who live in it. Truth and opposing points of view should be welcomed and encouraged so that students may have a broader foundation upon which to develop and build their own worldview. Philosophy of Higher Education As we accept and embrace our changing society and the forces behind those changes such as the globalization of commerce and culture, the advanced educational needs of the high-tech/highperformance workplace, and the impact of new information technologies, a new paradigm in higher education must be considered. I believe that inter- and trans-disciplinary learning is vital in the educational process for today's student. It is imperative that we see sister academic disciplines as complementing and not competing with one another in the educational process. All study should be taught and pursued both objectively and critically, and each subject and discipline must be taught with a multicultural and global perspective. In an effort to enhance student development, satisfaction and success, I believe that increased opportunities for faculty-student interaction and student engagement, both on and off campus, must be encouraged and implemented. There must be an increased focus on the impact that higher education is having on both its students and the communities that are served by our colleges and universities. In addition, I believe that the structure and the various curricular offerings of our institutions of higher learning should take into account the increasing impact of a number of critical social issues that will continue to affect the future of higher education, such as: population growth and density; population aging; political, economic and cultural change due to internationalization; lifelong access to educational opportunities; and the management of an increased volume of new data and knowledge. Philosophy of Education Leadership and Planning The leadership of an institution is critical to its success. A successful education leader must be: a visionary; a team builder and team leader; a good listener; someone who asks the right questions and is able to identify and implement the best course of action for the institution; someone who is not afraid of conflict and respects and openly considers the opposing viewpoints of others; and someone who fully embraces the concept of shared governance and does not rely solely on his/her own limited perspectives, experiences and expertise to guide the institution. The management style of education leaders should be inclusive and leaders must not only lead by example, but also strive to demonstrate high levels of integrity in all of their moral, fiscal and daily dealings.

faculty. campus globalization. Those in leadership and positions throughout the institution should be sensitive and open enough to their role in the education process that they are able to determine when they are no longer effectively able to propel the mission of the institution forward and a change is needed to. Analyze text fragment № 2. staff and students. Furthermore. our institutions of higher learning must be flexible and never stagnant or complacent in regards to its academic programs. research and learning opportunities for faculty. staff and students. services and actions are in line with the overall mission of the institution. and the entire campus community should be engaged in the planning process. in order to ensure that higher education serves its expected purpose and that equal opportunities to learn are available to anyone who has an interest in receiving an education. look for new ways to partner with external entities that will not only bring in development dollars for the institution but also enhance work. institutions of higher learning must constantly assess where they are and where they are going. Rebecca . concerns and best practices of the day warrant such changes. goals and guiding principles of the university and work with others throughout the campus to ensure that all programs. and look for innovative ways to impact student recruitment and retention. and everyone associated with the institution should understand and accept the mission. become more vocal in response to local. once again. state and national policies that impact education.and long-range goals. Finally. The effectiveness of a college or university should be the shared responsibility of its leaders. and multiculturalism and diversity. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. the use of technology throughout the curriculum. activities. the higher education community must do the following: take serious the concerns of providing greater access to higher education. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 2 1.Institutional and strategic planning is critical to the achievement of short. Considering the many changing needs and expectations of education. invigorate the process of educating and/or serving the needs of the students. Institutional leadership must be open to the notion of modifying or changing these components of the institution if the needs. organizational structure or its policies of governance.

9. not an empty bottle of Aspirin tablets. There is no past and no future. is a methodical matter of routine. that day I knelt on the floor and fumbled with an awkward catch of her trunk. in time. but something indefinable. a mood. but this is a matter of individual perception and feeling and therefore subjective. when shutting drawers and flinging wide an hotel wardrobe. She stayed behind. it belongs to me. This has been ours. This is the present. Here I am washing my hands. The rooms have been redecorated and the whole interior changed.4. Perhaps there is no trace of the small bedroom that was mine. 11. unwritten labels. and going to a dark. The nagging worry of departure. this moment will not pass. and I think how in that moment I have aged. I say. a moment of our lives. changed in some infinitesimal way. in my boxes.I hate it all. the handle of the door unknown to me. for this moment.) 10. It is in combination with other words that a word may acquire a desired phonetic effect. Rebecca . tissue paper lying on the floor. 49. We know one another. 5. as the saying goes. and we are different. Daphne du Maurier Packing up. we have been happy. more mature… I saw in a paper the other day that the hotel Hotel Cote d‘Azur at Monte Carlo had gone to new management and had a different name. when I live. this is me. or more exactly the way words sound in combination. That was yesterday. We can never be quite the same again. when I have done so much of it. And then I open the door and go to the dining-room. 2003. older. a funny little cracked mirror above the basin. particularly when the sound effect has been deliberately worked out. the sound of a word. we see it no more. This can easily be recognized when analyzing . of a sense of loss. (Daphne du Maurier. 6. passed on. we have lived. The theory of sense . Though two nights only have been spent beneath a roof. or the impersonal shelves of a furnished villa. cannot fail to contribute something to the general effect of the message. Lost keys. Even now. We smile we choose our lunch. I am another woman. Today we pass on. but – I say to myself – I am not she who left him five minutes ago. it is mine. how I have advanced one step towards an unknown destiny. Speak on the following theoretical question: Phonetic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices The sound of most words taken separately will have little or no aesthetic value. However. L. not a handkerchief beneath a pillow. suspended as it were. The way a separate word sounds may produce a certain euphonic effect. we speak of this and that. Here. we spoke.independence of separate sounds is based on a subjective interpretation of sound associations and has nothing to do with objective scientific data. Even today. Even stopping for luncheon at a wayside inn. the wallpaper peeling in strips. we loved within those walls. a thought. – p. not a hair-pin on a dressingtable. I am aware of sadness. Perhaps Mrs Van Hopper‘s suite on the first floor exists no more. 8.: Virago. yet we leave something of ourselves behind. Nothing material. where he is sitting waiting for me at a table. and the cracked mirror shows me to myself. 7. I knew I should never go back. This house sheltered us. however brief the time. unfamiliar room to wash my hands. 3.

doubting. sad. particularly at the beginning of successive words: " The possessive instinct never stands still (J.) by people (singing. These words have different degrees of imitative quality.dong. Indirect onomatopoeia is a combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense. as for instance. dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before" (E. The full rhyme presupposes identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable. Rhyme Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words. but the consonants may be different as in flesh . Alliteration Alliteration is a phonetic stylistic device which lies in the repetition of similar sounds. long I stood there wondering. laughter) and animals. Rhyming words are generally placed at a regular distance from each other. Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech sounds which alms at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind. or two or even three words rhyme with a corresponding two or three words. But even so we may not be able to specify clearly the character of this meaning. Alliteration. Modifications in rhyming sometimes go so far as to make one word rhyme with a combination of words. Incomplete rhymes present a greater variety They can be divided into two main groups: vowel rhymes and consonant rhymes. etc. Galsworthy) or. Poe). And the silken. thunder. flung . as ding-dong. ding . we distinguish between full rhymes and incomplete rhymes. A. An example is: And the silken. Poe). show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels.alliterative word combinations or the rhymes in certain stanzas or from more elaborate analysis of sound arrangement. It is sometimes called "echo writing".forth.trouble. Identity and similarity of sound combinations may be relative. Others require the exercise of a certain amount of imagination to decipher it. including the initial consonant of the second syllable (in polysyllabic words). In vowel-rhymes the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are identical. as in "upon her honour .tool -treble . "Deep into the darkness peering. as rustling of curtains in the following line. Direct onomatopoeia is contained in words that imitate natural sounds. and the term will merely suggest that a certain amount of information is contained in the repetition of sounds. bang. as is the case with the repetition of lexical units. burr. in particular consonant sounds. cuckoo. Indirect onomatopoeia demands some mention of what makes the sound. "bottom – . we have exact or identical rhymes. sad. which represents the sound of bells rung continuously. does not bear any lexical or other meaning unless we agree that a sound meaning exists as such. fearing. in close succession. 2) strenuously contested.won her".) by things (machines or tools. sea. like most phonetic expressive means.long. uncertain rustling of each purple curtain" (E. Therefore the relation between onomatopoeia and the phenomenon it is supposed to represent is one of metonymy There are two varieties of onomatopoeia: direct and indirect.fresh -press. uncertain rustling of each purple curtain. as in worth . For instance. on the contrary. Some of them immediately bring to mind whatever it is that produces the sound. A. may mean 1) noisy. Onomatopoetic words can be used in a transferred meaning. where the repetition of the sound [s] actually produces the sound of the rustling of the curtain. Consonant rhymes. etc. In verse they are usually placed at the end of the corresponding lines. tale .

by the alternation of similar syntactical patterns. In prose . movement. what is of paramount importance.grave. mechanical or symmetrical as in architecture.forgot them. as beat. Inverse rhythm is regular succession of weak and strong stress. In this case we do not perceive two meanings. is defined as a combination of the ideal metrical scheme and the variations of it. But the parametres of the rhythm in verse and in prose are entirely different. Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices Words in a context may acquire additional lexical meanings not fixed in the dictionaries.brood.a device which inevitably gives a colloquial and sometimes a humorous touch to the utterance. Rhythm is a periodicity. It follows that compound rhyme is perceived in reading aloud. we are confronted with a stylistic device in which the two meanings interact. which also has its rhythm. eye . etc. what we have called contextual meanings. Such rhymes are called compound or broken. in alternation with opposite or different elements of features" (Webster's New World Dictionary). Rhythm Rhythm exists in all spheres of human activity and assumes multifarious forms. Zhirmunsky suggests that the concept of rhythm should be distinguished from that of a metre. What is known in linguistics as transferred meaning is practically the interrelation between two types of lexical meaning: dictionary and contextual. It contributes to the general sense. or accent. Some investigators. The most general definition of rhythm may be expressed as follows: "rhythm is a flow. in attempting to find rhythmical patterns of prose. flood . variations which are governed by the standard.M. The metre is a strict regularity. There are the following rhythmic patterns of verse: iambus dactul umphibrach anapaest. D. whether it is musical. Academician V. When we perceive two meanings of the word simultaneously. . experience in catching regularity of alternating patterns. The transferred meaning of a word may be fixeв in dictionaries as a result of long and frequent use of the word other than in its primary meaning. have .rhyme can only be perceived in the written verse. Hence the term transferred should be used signifying th£ development of the semantic structure of the word. and. In accented verse by the number of stresses in a line. In classical verse it is perceived at the background of the metre. short. In this case we register a derivative meaning of the word. Metre is any form of periodicity in verse. stressed. Rhythm is flexible and sometimes an effort is required to perceive it. Compound rhyme may be set against what is called eye .rhyme. superimpose metrical measures on prose. consistency and unchangeability. unstressed. The peculiarity of rhymes of this type is that the combination of words is made to sound like one word . where the letters and not the sounds are identical. characterized by basically regular recurrence of elements or features.prove. It is a mighty weapon in stirring up emotions whatever its nature or origin. Rhythm is not a mere addition to verse or emotive prose. which requires specification as to the type of periodicity. as in love . A rhythm in language necessarily demands oppositions that alternate: long. Rhythm intensifies the emotions. low and other contrasting segments of speech. its kind being determined by the character and number of syllables of which it consists. Rhythm in verse as a S. high. procedure. The latter may sometimes deviate from the dictionary meaning to such a degree that the new meaning even becomes the opposite of the primary meaning. Much has been said and writhen about rhythm in prose.shot him". Rhythm can be perceived only provided that there is some kind of experience in catching the opposite elements or features in their correlation.

d) logical and nominative (autonomasia). judgements.picture of a thing. Tenor (direct thought) subjective. g. The verbal meaning has the following structure: 1.is a pen . On the sensible level our senses.reflects the objective reality in human life. 2. The technique of identification (The type of trope). metonymy. 3. Literature . ideas might be regarded as images. Art . Lexical expressive meanings in which a word or word combination is used figuratively are called tropes. person or idea expressed in a figurative way in their contextual meaning in music . irony). verbal .sounds. The overwhelming majority of Iinguists agree that a word is the smallest unit being able to create images because it conveys the artistic reality and image.Imagery In philosophy "image" denotes the result of reflection of the object of reality in man's consciousness. g. b) embrace the whole book e.g. Intensification of a feature (simile. b) primary and derivative (zeugma and pun).created by sound imitations Classification of Lexical Stylistic Devices There are 3 groups. Vehicle (figurative thought) objective. 5. Images may be individual. 2. 2. 1. general. Depending on the level of reflecting the objective reality ( sensual and conceptual) there are 2 types of images: 1. War and Peace. g. Thirsty wind. hyperbole. . T G R V e. She is sly like a fox (simile). c) logical and emotive (epithet. The relation between T and V. Ground is the common feature of T and V. a) dictionary and contextual (metaphor. c) visual e. conclusions.deals with a specific type of artistic images. On this level the creation of images is the result of the interaction of two meanings: direct (denotation) and indirect (figurative). a) deal with concrete thing or idea e. The interaction of different types of lexical meaning. the cloudy lifeage of the sky d) oral . While informing us of a phenomenon of life it simultaneously expresses our attitude towards it. oxymoron). periphrasis). On a higher level of thinking images take the form of concepts. 4.

proverbs. purr. Euphony may be explained as a combination of pleasant sounds that do not jar the ear. That is why some authors such as professor Galperin for instance denounce it as something idealistic based on the conception that separate sounds have a meaning of their own. Then there are sounds produced by animals. birds and insects: buzz. honk. “grumble”. [l] – warm. There are some rules of euphony which must not be violated and the most important one is that there must be no rhyme in prose. It is a naming of an action or thing by a more or less exact reproduction of the sound associated with it. Direct onomatopoeia is a source of word-building. Other authors – Кузнец. e. “chatter”. But in its wide meaning euphony is understood as a combination of sounds the expressive effect of which corresponds to the general mood or emotional tone of the extract. red-gay. It colours the whole statement and is an important means of creating emphasis of words and phrases. tender feelings. epigram. euphony. Probably there is something to be said in favour of this latter conception. “whisper” and many others. Some authors speak of sound symbolism.3. Peculiar use of set expressions (cliches. “whine”. [s] usually produces an unpleasant effect. The influence of intonation is so far-reaching that it may bring about a change of the main logical meaning of the word. [d] – a gloomy.g. We shall speak of such expressive phonetic means as means of intonation. “titter”. Intonation is one of the most effective means of emotionally influencing the reader. Скребнев speak of the emotional effect of sounds. dismal effect. Why not sound symbolism. “grunt”. quotations). or Onomatopoeia refers to the use of words or combinations of words that imitate some natural sounds. rhythm and onomatopoeia (sound imitation). Many verbs denote sounds produced by human beings in the process of communication or in expressing their feelings: “babble”. It produces a ludicrous effect. moo. They are echoes of natural sounds. The different effect produced by different sounds of the person is not sufficiently proved by scientific method as yet. Phonetic expressive means do not exist separately in speech. cackle. . croak.o. This last clause requires some explanation. crow. howl. Onomatopeia may be direct and indirect. and sound combinations. As to sounds. etc. Sound Imitation. The speaker discussed the source of the force of international law. etc. we speak of colour symbolism – black-gloomy. giggle”. hiss. roar a. There are also verbs imitating the sound .

The Assistant. 1981. esp. – N. splash and others imitating the noise of metallic things click. 148). Rhythm – a metrical movement determined by various relations of long and short or accented and unaccented syllables. Ю.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Завгороднєв . It adds emotional colouring to the utterance suggesting the attitude of the writer to what he is describing. tinkle. in your opinion? Why/Why not? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. There is a certain rhythmical arrangement in sentences with homogeneous members (i. She spoke to Morris and cautiously asked if he had noticed anything developing between Helen and the clerk (Bernard Malamud. and many others. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц.А. with enumeration). it is a measured flow of words and phrases in verse or prose. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Do you think it might be a good idea to introduce the British system of A-Levels in Ukraine? Would it work. 12.Y.of water such as bubble. but that it exists is undeniable.: Avon Books. Alliteration is a deliberate use of similar sounds in close succession achieving a definite stylistic effect.e. when coupled with polysyndeton. It is a peculiar musical accompaniment of the main idea of the utterance. – p. Rhythm in prose has a different quality than that in verse. We shall deal with rhythm in prose.

7. . From the text and laughed aloud. but she had also turned over on her side and gasped. Another time she had come home with a set of tarot cards. . Once. It was almost eleven o'clock. He could have saved himself the trouble …. For many years after that. Clearly. Hilde sat on the bed. she and her father had had a secret language together that was connected with the book. he had waved to her from a TV screen hi a radio store. as they gripped the heavy ring binder. Now he had dragged the old goose out again. a white crow. It was a good thing she was alone in the house. She felt her arms and her hands tremble. His counterattack was deadly accurate. 5. Hilde had been especially taken with what Alberto said about Sartre and existentialism. . THE GARDEN PARTY 3. transfixed. about a year ago. Analyze text fragment № 3. Hilde had bought a book on astrology. From time to time she had raised her eyes. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. She had been reading for over two hours. 6. 9. * * * 4. Next time it was a book on spiritualism. his daughter would not be allowed to grow up without a thorough warning against that kind of thing. She had finally climbed a tree and been rescued by Morten Goose. To be absolutely sure. Then Sophie had her first experience as a lone customer in a cafe. And what she had been through these last two hours! It started with Sophie trying to attract the Major's attention on the way home from the cabin in the woods. Hilde had never forgotten how her father had read The Wonderful Adventures of Niles to her.' hut he had waited until now for the final blow. her father had lectured her about 'superstition' and her 'critical faculty.Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 3 1. He had almost managed to convert her – although he had done that many times before in the ring binder too. Although it was a long. long time ago. who had arrived like a guardian angel from Lebanon. 8. . Each time.

1999.. no! What would her mother say when she saw the book in Sc hand? 14. 15. how curious.What she wondered about most of all was Sophie.Finally Sophie had been given a book about herself.' 20. – p. – N.) . Oh. Sophie – who are you? Where do you come from? Why have you come into my life? 11. 391. . .'Sophie's World .Sophie met her mother on the bus on her way home from town.Y.'Hi.10. not exactly. Sophie‘s World.' 19.'No. (Jostein Gaarder.'Hi. Was same book that Hilde now had in her hands? This was only a binder. 13.'You bought a book?' 18.: Giroux Inc. But even so – how could one find a book about oneself j book about oneself? What would happen if Sophie began to that book? 12. Sophie! We caught the same bus! How nice!' 16. Mom!' 17.Sophie tried to put it in the bag with all the streamers and balloons she had bought for the party but she didn't quite make it.What was going to happen now? What could happen now?' There were only a few pages left in her ring binder.

: cat. No Native Etymologically the vocabulary of the English language is far from being homogenous. ―Big in size‖ as first it retained a trace of it‘s former meaning ―wide‖ because it was applied to object with vast horizontal dimension. It represents the same concept but in some aspect: a new shade of meaning. in fact the native stock comprise only 30 % of the total number of the words in the eng vocabulary but the native words are the frequently used words. Ex. Skin. cup Other words bear trace of their background. dinner. garage. no phonetic traces of their French origin: table. The reason of borrowings 1. to fill a gap in vocabulary ―Potato‖. development (French suffixes). Some Norman borrowings have become fully adopted.in many cases a borrowed word especially the one borrowed long ago is practicallu indistinguishable from the native word without the etymological analysis The most effective way of borrowing is the direct borrowing from another lang as a result of the contacts with other nations.. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Etymological Structure of the English Vocabulary 3. Ex. It consists of two layers .. And modified according to the pattern of t he receiving language.the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words In fact native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words in the English vocabulary. It consists of 2 layers-the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words.: distance. Admire(Latin)-adore( French) When borrowed words become assimilated in the language and the process of assimilation develops to the point when it‘s practically impossible to recognize the origin of a word. they are highly polysemantic and productive in forming word clusters and set expressions.Etymological structure of English vocabulary Et of the English language is far from being homogenous.’though the word may be borrowed indirectely not from the source language but through another language. sky (Scandinavian). the borrowed stock of words is considerably larger than the native stock. cafe (French) Stress on the last syllable. Desire(French)-wish.21. Borrowed words are words taken from another r lang. Ex.numerically.: friendlycordial (Latin). The native words have a wider range of lexical and grammatical valency. . Police.‖tomato‖ from Spanish when appeared in English (these vegetables) 2.

international and cultural relations. trade. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. – p. – L. 1993.Why are words borrowed? Wars. After the Funeral. Two elderly men sat together in a room whose furnishings were of the most modern kind (Agatha Christie. 129). conquests. enrich 22. Ю.А. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion If parents disapprove of the way their children are being educated at school. should they have the right to take them away and educate them at home? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. which express some particular notion. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 4 1. The Family Way . Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. TEXT 4 3.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. words. to fill the gap in vocabulary. Analyze text fragment № 4.: Harper Collins.

In an underground car park. – L. Cat Jewell loved her life. It was true that her flat was the smallest one in the riverside block.When she had come back to London after university. a place that felt like the home she had been looking for all these years. wrinkling his nose. At thirty-six. was built for two. Rory explained to Cat how he came to the martial arts. she had made a life for herself. Then one day they went too far. But these things filled her with a quiet pride. He was standing in the corner at a party celebrating Megan's end of term at medical school. 11. and Cat had taken pity on him. who knew about these things. They were always pushing me around. And I was good at it. full of legless nurses and young doctors off their faces on half an E. Which Cat Jewell was most certainly not. 'It doesn't really work like that.: Harper Collins. broken ribs. At the very most. Thirty years on. – p. socially awkward. Then as the party rapidly degenerated into what Megan said was a typical med school do. To Cat he had seemed an unlikely martial artist — soft-spoken. there was her silver Mercedes-Benz SLK.) . They belonged to her. And she believed she also had the man. 9.'I was bullied at school. She had worked for them. You could tell he didn't have it in him to start a conversation with anyone. you could still glimpse the quiet. and she realized she liked this man. The kind of man you might want to have children with.' 13. 'So you decided to learn – what is it? – kung fu?' 14. Every time she entered her Thames-side flat. (Tony Parsons. bullied kid he had once been. there was a real gentleness about him. she finally had the apartment. 7. After escaping from the prison of her childhood. 12. rather like her life. 2005. Despite his job.4.' 'And you mashed up the bullies?' He grimaced. I had concussion. but sometimes you had to wait a while for a good apartment and true bye.' 15. it felt like she was taking a little holiday from the world. Cat. Almost twenty years after leaving home she had finally found a place of stillness and silence and fabulous riverside views. And soon nobody pushed me around any more. no swagger about him. The Family Life. Tower Bridge glittering just for her beyond her windows. 16. 10. all those days spent teaching people to kick and punch and block. it's a hairdryer' – she loved zipping about town in a car that. Tony Parsons 5. A strong but gentle man. made gentle fun of her – ‗That‘s not a sports car. the woman who gave Cat her first proper job told her that you could get anything in this town. and although her brother-m-law Paulo. 8.Cat had met Rory when he was teaching Megan karate. And I enjoyed it. 6. and the car was five years old and etched with a beading of rust. a real mess.'Karate. if you were the kind of woman who wanted children. The tough guys didn't like me for some reason. 39.

Thegoal of generative grammar is to make a complete model of this inner language (known as i-language ). [5] • The Minimalist Program(MP) (revised version of GB published by Chomsky in 1995) [6] Other theories that find their origin in the generative paradigm are . Speak on the following theoretical question: Development of Modern Grammatical Theory: Types of Grammars The hypothesis of generative grammar is that language is a structure of the human mind.17. Generative grammars are among the theories that focus primarily on the form of a sentence.Among the many generative theories of linguistics. rather than its communicative function. Most generative theories (although not all of them) assume that syntax is based uponthe constituent structure of sentences. to predict whether the utterance would soundcorrect to native speakers of the language). This approach to language was pioneered by NoamChomsky. the Chomskyan theories are: • Transformational Grammar (TG) (Original theory of generative syntax laid out byChomsky in Syntactic Structures in 1957 [4] ) • Government and binding theory(GB) (revised theory in the tradition of TG developedmainly by Chomsky in the 1970s and 1980s). This model could be used to describe all human language and to predict thegrammaticalityof any given utterance (that is.

Consider these ten varieties of grammar--and take your pick. Contemporary work in comparative grammar is concerned with "a faculty of language that provides an explanatory basis for how a human being can acquire a first language . analyze. and sentences. One basic distinction worth making is that between descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar (also called usage). within the contexts of oral and written discourse. The intent of the course is to assist students‘ ability to describe. Specialists in descriptive grammar examine the rules or patterns that underlie our use of words. . the theory of grammar is a theory of human language and hence establishes the relationship among all languages. The course encourage collaborative learning through mini-conferences and research team Linguists are quick to remind us that there are different varieties of grammar--that is. and restructure words. phrases. clauses. clauses. structural. and discourse. clauses. The study focuses on American English texts—spoken and written--and applies traditional. In this way. In contrast. Both are concerned with rules--but in different ways. MIT Press. But that's just the beginning. and sentences.Principles and Parameters in Comparative Grammar. Freidin. prescriptive grammarians (such as most editors and teachers) try to enforce rules about what they believe to be the correct uses of language. different ways of describing and analyzing the structures and functions of language. Comparative Grammar The analysis and comparison of the grammatical structures of related languages. phrases. and modern linguistic theories to the analysis of English language constructions: words." (R. .. 1991) .Modern Grammar is the study of the theories and application of English language structural systems as developed since the onset of the Early Modern English period. phrases.

such principles are embeddedin the category of theheadword itself. This complex category is notated as(NP\S) instead of V. the phrase structure ruleS → NP VP). which in turn represents a function that searches to the left for an NP and produces a sentence). but to the properties of thesyntactic categories themselves. now largely out of date) • Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) • Lexical-functional grammar (LFG) Categorial grammar Categorial grammar is an approach that attributes the syntactic structure not to rules of grammar. For example. So the syntactic category for anintransitiveverb is acomplex formula representing the fact that the verb acts as afunctor which requires an NP as aninput and produces a sentence level structure as an output.g. Dependency grammar . The category of transitive verbis defined as an element that requires two NPs (its subject and its direct object) toform a sentence. in categorial grammar. This is notated as (NP/(NP\S)) which means "a category that searches to theright (indicated by /) for an NP (the object).Tree-adjoining grammar is a categorial grammar that adds in partialtree structuresto thecategories. rather than assertingthat sentences are constructed by a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP)(e.• Generative semantics(now largely out of date) • Relational grammar (RG) (now largely out of date) • Arc Pair grammar • Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG. NP\S is read as " a category that searches to the left (indicated by \) for a NP(the element on the left) and outputs a sentence (the element on the right)". and generates a function (equivalent to the VP)which is (NP\S).

Some dependency-based theories of syntax: • Algebraic syntax • Word grammar • Operator Grammar Stochastic/probabilistic grammars/network theories Theoretical approaches to syntax that are based upon probability theoryare known asstochasticgrammars. rather than being based in constituent structure. Generative Grammar The rules determining the structure and interpretation of sentences that speakers accept as belonging to the language. One common implementation of such an approach makes use of aneural network or connectionism. syntactic structure is described in terms of whether a particular nounis thesubjector agentof theverb. Press. a generative grammar is a theory of competence: a model of the psychological system of unconscious knowledge that underlies a speaker's ability to produce and interpret utterances in a language.Dependency grammar is a different type of approach in which structure is determined by therelations(such asgrammatical relations) between a word (a head ) and its dependents. rather than describing the relationsin terms of phrases. given linguistic experience. "All humans are born with the capacity for constructing a Mental Grammar. Culicover and A. For example. Some theories based within this approach are: • Optimality theory • Stochastic context-free grammar 1. Nowak. Mental Grammar The generative grammar stored in the brain that allows a speaker to produce language that other speakers can understand. Dynamical Grammar: Foundations of Syntax II. this capacity for language is called the Language Faculty (Chomsky." (F. Parker and K. 1965). Oxford Univ." (P. A grammar formulated by a linguist is an idealized description of this Mental Grammar. W. Allyn and Bacon. 1994) 2. Linguistics for Non-Linguists. 2003) . "Simply put. Riley.

Kehoe. it is my belief that the problem of production must be dealt with before problems of reception and comprehension can properly be investigated. And relational grammar. state (e. Not to mention cognitive grammar. . to lack) and the like. clauses. Examples of contemporary reference grammars in English include A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. a theory of the human faculty for language. Univ. head-driven phrase structure grammar . Erlbaum. for instance. 2005) 8. to resemble. (1985). which has been internalized by the native speaker. verbs can be described as words that have certain grammatical features that they have the categories of tense." (A. to consist. Press of America. The chief goal of traditional grammar. . to be. the linguistic principles of Universal Grammar constitute a theory of the organization of the initial state of the mind/brain of the language learner--that is. . "[P]erformance grammar . to know)." (John Carroll. Performance Grammar A description of the syntax of English as it is actually used by speakers in dialogues." Perspectives on School Learning: Selected Writings of John B. The Teacher's Grammar Book. "Promoting Language Skills. .General characteristics of the verb and its categories??????internet According to content. in terms of a general theory of human language. "Taken together. to wait.The Changing Face of Corpus Linguistics." Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar. operations. with explanations of the principles governing the construction of words.g. Universal Grammar The system of categories. The term is commonly used to denote (1) pedagogical process--the explicit treatment of elements of the target language systems as (part of) language teaching methodology. by L. ed. the term 'rule' is used not for a precept set down by an external authority but for a principle that is unconsciously yet regularly followed in the production and interpretation of sentences. relation (e. 1994) 4. phrases. 2003) 7. 1985) 5. 4. Investigations in Universal Grammar. Carroll. Routledge. by Randolph Quirk et al. And that brings to mind arc pair grammar. voice and etc. An Introduction to Transformational Grammar. . and many more. is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language." (S. aspect. (2) pedagogical content-reference sources of one kind or another that present information about the target language system. to sleep. ed. to walk. Traditional Grammar The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of the language. "We say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it. Thornton." (D. rest assured that new grammars are emerging all the time. Rodopi. process (e. to live). verbs can be described as words denoting actions (e. and (3) combinations of process and content. Verbs can be classified under different heads.g. 1984) 9. . and The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002). .g. MIT Press." (D. the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English(1999). by T." (J.g. centers attention on language production. "In transformational grammar. Little. Pedagogical Grammar Grammatical analysis and instruction designed for second-language students.According to form. lexical functional grammar. to speak. to play). Transformational Grammar A theory of grammar that accounts for the constructions of a language by linguistic transformations and phrase structures. Anderson. and sentences.3. . Williams. Renouf and A. "Pedaogical grammar is a slippery concept. Press. 2000) If ten varieties of grammar aren't enough for you. Odlin. W. "Words and Their Properties: Arguments for a Lexical Approach to Pedagaogical Grammar. 6. Theoretical Grammar The study of the essential components of any human language. D. and principles shared by all human languages and considered to be innate. therefore. and in providing scientific arguments or explanations in favour of one account of grammar rather than another. Bornstein. Crain and R. Reference Grammar A description of the grammar of a language. "Theoretical grammar or syntax is concerned with making completely explicit the formalisms of grammar. to like. Cambridge Univ. according to a pre-established standard. A rule is a direction for forming a sentence or a part of a sentence. There's word grammar. According to function. verbs can be defined as words making up the predicate of the sentence.

to know. The non.g. The finite forms have the function of the predicate in the sentence and may also be called the predicative forms. 3. We find three persons (the first. – Toronto/N. Mood. According to their meaning verbs can be divided into two groups . Person and Number.together they form a modal predicate. to carry. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your take on the following: Petty crimes are punished.. to play. to live. e. During the war he lived in London.g. to close Durative verbs do not imply any such limit. The Bonfire of the Vanities. (e. Voice. e.terminative and durative verbs. (e.finitive or non-predicative forms can have various other functions. 1988.) When a verb is used as a structural word. Tense. 2. to open.g.Y. 24). to sit. great . The finitive forms of the verb have the following grammatical categories: 1. (e. The party is at eight. 4. Maria stood up and went to the table and picked up a sheet of paper and handed it to Sherman and returned to the edge of the bed (Tom Wolfe. the second and the third) and the two numbers (the singular ant the plural) in finitive verbs. Here belong modal verbs and link-verbs.g.: Bantam Books. – p. A modal verb is always accompanied by an infinitive .) English verbs are characterized by a great variety of forms which can be divided into two main groups according to the function they perform in the sentence: the finite forms and the non-finite forms. Aspect and Phase. According to their meaning and function in the sentence English verbs are classified into notional and structural ones. they are used as the predicate of the sentence only by way of exception. It became very hot by noon.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.1. Terminative verbs imply a limit beyond which the action cannot continue. together they form a nominal predicate. Notional verbs always have a lexical meaning of their own and can have an independent syntactic function in the sentence.g. and the action can go on indefinitely. to speak. it may either preserve or lose its lexical meaning. 18. You must dress suitably for it) A link-verb is followed by a predicative. To put it differently. they have a final aim in view.

its melodies a series of clichés and its rhythms monotonously simple.Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 5 1. It should be judged by separate and distinct standards. they arise from a failure to realize that jazz is a separate and distinct art. 5. . existing only at the moment of creation. An attempt has been made by social scientists to explain the appeal of jazz. The three main groups to whom it appeals are those who isolate themselves from normal standards – negroes. Its harmonies appear childish. Завідувач кафедри доц. The criticisms are not valid.ones are rewarded? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. intellectuals and adolescents. jazz seems to be made-to-order for the adolescent. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.А. For the very reason that it is looked down upon by the general public. Протокол № ………. The general public has rejected jazz because they think of it in connection with the lax moral standards that surround it. The Appeal of Jazz 3. Two psychiatrists formulated this hypothesis: jazz is essentially a protest music. JAZZ STANDS ACCUSED of being unnatural. abnormal and just plain unhealthy. Analyze text fragment № 5. its followers choose it as a way of expressing resentment towards the world in general. Ю. Nothing could be further from the truth. And of these. Marshall Stearn 4.

a cult with ready-made and dependable opinions. leave home and be an independent creative adult. exhibitionism is tolerated. At first comes confusion. On the other hand. 7. he can have his cake and cat it. Genuine jazz does not suffer fools gladly. Ltd. Who can.6. Jazz is essentially a social growth with deep roots.M. 8. JaZZ. At the same time. Becoming a jazz addict is a good (and adequately noisy) way to protest against society. He is trapped. realistically founded in sorrow and pain. caught between childhood and adulthood. the most) set the group apart. unusual appearance (goatees. Pleasure in English. a rebel. understandably. he now belongs to a tight little group of sympathizers. hold it securely together. deny that there is great art in jazz? And if there is. which often creates taste and then feeds it with 'pop-food' of little value. Mewnham. and pretentiousness has little place. – L.C. then resentment and hostility. and eventually triumphing over them. nowadays.R. 9. The faddish clothes. – p. The jazz community reflects their views. It is an art in which insincerity is detected. it does nothing to explain the large following of those who take a mature interest in this form of music. To these it gives an emotional and artistic satisfaction. and it fits a certain type. I.: Longmans Green and Co. 169). – Marshall Stearn. 1965. there are opposing pressures. There are sudden pressures upon him to grow up. childishly exaggerated jargon (the greatest.. (J. Yglesis. But with jazz. then conflict. The adolescent is. Much of the cheapness of jazz has been imparted by its commercialization. it is creative and often inspired and can be a rich and rewarding experience. beards). together with all the exhibitionism of modern popular jazz which prevents it from becoming 'respectable'. one must consider whether any great art is created by people who are merely against this or that. While there is undeniable truth in this theory. . He has good reason. and at the same time. There is a distinction. and seems to explain the 'jitterbugs' of the thirties and the 'rock' of the mid-fifties.

lingual(forelingual. English consonants and vowels as units of phonological system). Speech sounds are divided into consonants and vowels. Speak on the following theoretical question: Functional Aspects of Speech Sounds (vowels and consonants) 5. constrictivef v th. The ―abstract‖ view regards the phoneme independent of the phonetic properties. backadvanced. The theory was advocated by their pupils in the Copenhagen Linguistic Circle. d3))  According to the active organs of speech and point of articulation (labial. Jones he defined the phoneme as a ―family‖ of sounds. A phoneme is the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language. who stated that in actual speech we utter a much greater variety of sounds than we are aware of. 1). and that in every language these sounds are united in a comparatively small number of sound types.2). a phoneme is defined according to its allophones and environments.In the generative tradition. open) . N. R. nasal(m. alveolar. Bloomfield. cacuminal. Functional aspects of speech sounds. affricates(ts. Following are the two major views : 1. Shcherba – the head of the Leningrad linguistic school. velar))  According to the work of vocal cords (voiced and voiceless. His theory of phoneme was developed and perfected by L. which are capable of distinguishing the meaning and the purpose of social intercommunication. 3 r j. mid-open.In the American structuralist tradition. They stated that the features of the phoneme involved in the differentiation of words are called distinctive.10. the system of English phonemes. The members of family show phonetic similarity. Shcherba was the first to define the phoneme as a real. The physical view on the phoneme was originated by D. 3). L. A vowel is a voiced sound produced in the mouth with no obstruction to the air stream. A consonant is a sound produced with an obstruction to the air stream. a phoneme is defined as a set of distinctive features. ( The phoneme.n n)) Vowels are classified:  According to the horizontal position of the tongue (front.Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay defined the phoneme as a psychical image of sound. V.S. Trubetskoy.4). He originated the so called ―mentalist‖ view of phoneme.Phonologists have differing views of the phoneme. interdental. independent distinctive unit which manifests itself in the form of allophones. the famous Swiss linguist and the Danish linguist Hjelmslev. Consonants(21 consonants letters) can be classified according to the following principles :  According to the type of obstruction (occlusivepb t dk mn. There are different opinions to the nature of phoneme and its definition. The system of English phonemes is classified into consonants and vowels.The abstractional conception of the phoneme was originated by Ferdinand de Saussure.2. lenies and forties)  According to the position of the soft palate (oral. main trends in phoneme theory. They can be found in contrastive sets. apical. central. front-retracted. Jakobson viewed the phoneme as the minimal sound units by which meanings may be differentiated.V. palatal. The founder of the phoneme theory was Polish linguist Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay. back)  According to the vertical position of the tongue (close.

Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 6 1. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your take on the following observation by Th. and the strips in daily papers have an even stronger . Analyze text fragment № 6. Ann Chesney 4. as it once did.: Pocket Books. He still hoped that he could pay off all his creditors even if the shares he and his fellow directors held remained worthless (Jeffrey Archer. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. but from advertisers. the women's magazines whose popularity and circulation continue to grow. as we may suppose. 232). nor from schools. more and more of the practical education of children today is coming not from mothers. The New Educators 3. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р.А. – p. Ю. WHETHER WE LIKE it or not. First among Equals.Eddison: Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration. – N.11.Y.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. disguised advertisements in comics. Television. 1985.

5.R. Keeping up with the Joneses is something to do. Domestic science courses in schools should not ignore these advertising pressures: they should teach resistance to the hard sell and point to specific untruths. and generally have less resistance. (J. . a widespread critical approach to advertising methods would also produce a more intelligent electorate. 8. Another practical point is that there is every incentive to buy the mostadvertised and the glossiest-packaged foods. unless consumers are given a standard to judge by. Children are bombarded by all these at least as much as adults.. Advertising shapes attitudes unconsciously. – Ann Chesney. Incidentally. the manufacturers of beauty products can claim what they will. either dangerous or more often ineffective.1965. People. For real human misery can result from such things as failure to keep up with hire-purchase payments on equipment that was never really needed at all. to whom the fallacious arguments common to all politicians would be less persuasive. Yglesis. popularity. The Guardian – p. There is no reason why people should not be free to be extravagant if they choose.: Longmans Green and Co. it is now a reality of British life and a nasty one. Mewnham. Pleasure in English. one claim seems no truer than another. in either romantic or pseudo-scientific terms. – L. Ltd. should be shown ways of resistance. and more self-confidence. But they ought to be given the opportunity to see what they are doing.M. In any case. but usually with a colder touch than the ‗gives a meal man-appeal‘ and ‗Sunday-best taste‘ slogans. there are further objections to the unrestricted influence of advertising. 7. One obvious one is that girls are surely particularly vulnerable while adolescent to advertisements which promise a magic way to prettiness. influence. Yet it is a very undesirable thing that a group of commercial interests should be having so strong an influence with so little counter-attack from parents and teachers. Playing on this. Advertising is inculcating a set of very alarming moral attitudes. it could hardly be otherwise. and especially children. and be believed. 80). sex-appeal. Surely it is time that universal education caught up with universal suffrage? On a practical level.C. for their luscious illustrations and mnemonic slogans are far more effectively and attractively presented than school lessons and they teach very easily assimilable ideas. It is a particularly odious form of snobbery: that you are not as good as the next person unless you have the same group of material possessions. cheese and some kinds of fruit. are sold on the same kind of appeal. I. representing the same outlay of money. Expensive slimming preparations. rather than the fresh meat and potatoes. although too heavy use of cosmetics on young skins can be really harmful. 6. It is true that some important fresh foods are currently advertised: eggs.

– p. including language teachers. read. . They teach grammar by explaining the forms and rules and then drilling students on them. The model recognizes that overt grammar instruction helps students acquire the language more efficiently. 10. and use the language in communication activities. hear the word "grammar" and think of a fixed set of word forms and rules of usage. Other language teachers.org) Grammar is central to the teaching and learning of languages. they expect students to learn their second language the same way. He was obscurely terrified lest she should cease to be something he could feel himself unworthy of (Aldous Huxley. This approach does not allow students to use one of the major tools they have as learners: their active understanding of what grammar is and how it works in the language they already know. Instructors using this model teach students the grammar they need to know to accomplish defined communication tasks. – L. They associate "good" grammar with the prestige forms of the language. Brave New World. They assume that students will absorb grammar rules as they hear. 1984. but consistently make errors when they try to use the language in context. Believing that children acquire their first language without overt grammar instruction. but it incorporates grammar teaching and learning into the larger context of teaching students to use the language.: Granada. influenced by recent theoretical work on the difference between language learning and language acquisition. 138). Many people. The communicative competence model balances these extremes. and "bad" or "no" grammar with the language used in everyday conversation or used by speakers of nonprestige forms.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. tend not to teach grammar at all. disaffected students who can produce correct forms on exercises and tests.9. Speak on the following theoretical question: Exercises for Teaching Grammar(www. Language teachers who adopt this definition focus on grammar as a set of forms and rules. It is also one of the more difficult aspects of language to teach well. This results in bored. such as those used in writing and in formal oral presentations.nclr.

It serves a purpose. temporary. serves as a seat. the upper foot twitching furiously. THE PROBLEM WITH GERMAN 3. for a while. and cold. And when what it holds is strong. and the failure to understand. There is a strange bench at the corner. constructed from what is at hand.А. contained only by the hardness of the anger. It is like a refuge.b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Please elaborate on the following proverb: Good laws spring from bad morals. Robert sits there. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. lined with wooden slats. filled with huddled fears. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 7 1. His legs are stretched out before him and crossed at the ankle. puts his hands in his pockets and takes . anger is brittle and thin. ANGER is a place to put things. It is a circular heap of concrete with a flat hollow top where flowers should be. Keith Ridgway 4. Ю. and confusion. He folds and unfolds his arms. A ledge in the concrete. its width and its depth. but which is filled instead with dead mud and litter. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. angry. The contents rattle and knock against the edges. It is a weak structure. The bench is ugly and the wood is scratched and written on. Analyze text fragment № 7. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц.

Across Europe. and he will feel in his heart what Robert feels. (New Writing 6. of sitting at the window and watching the distant corner from there.: Vintage. come all this way. – L. resuming his twitching. fixing on one thing and then another. Maybe he will have spent this time on his own considering everything that has happened and not happened. its window filling with a watery grey light. It should be like that. And anyway. and then slowly turns back again in an arc. If he even spent half a minute thinking about what had gone on in the last ten days. He will do nothing. will say something angry. Robert had. But he does not want a drink. Karl will stop when he sees him. moving his head through the same arc. . a couple of shadows moving about in its gloom. about how he had treated Robert. Robert smokes a cigarette and decides what to do. a barely perceptible stretching. Something memorable. Porter. and he will apologize. Then Karl will realize what has been going on. after a long pause. for even a moment. And then he looks away again. rearranging his arms once more. An Anthology. It is dusk now. – p. but in the end staying exactly where he finds himself – sitting in anger on the ugly bench. and then approach him and sit down. his insides raging. except for a kind of craning. A. Maybe Karl will speak first. looking up at the sky and down at the hard ground where the grass is losing its colour. and he will realize what he needs to realize. He will sit here and wait. that it will cover everything. if he thought for a moment.S. What the problem is. He should apologize. and quite cold. about why it is he is on his own in the launderette. Robert considers what he might say. and that will be that. He decides to leave it until the moment. something so precise and to the point and perfect. When he looks to his right it is a distant corner that interests him. It is not up to him to do anything. about how he had behaved. 1997. and then he could not possibly fail to realize what the situation is. Ed. 6. Every few moments his head jerks tightly to his right and stays still. Byatt & P. And every time a figure appears from around that corner Robert squints at it for a moment without moving.5. After all. 8. 186). about how he had left everything unsaid after all this time. He will stay where he is and do nothing. and speak about the future and will not need to be told. He jumps from one notion to the next. then surely he would realize. and he will apologize. and they will sort it out. It would not take a lot of figuring out. He thinks of going in for a drink. after all. Karl would not see him in there. 7. them out again. Across the street is a bar. And Robert. deciding to go here and there and elsewhere. He wants Karl to see him. For silence? No. There will be no need for anything else to be said.

which words. 1988 the principles are: . to . as well as style and register (the appropriate level of formality). relate the word to an appropriate object or context 2) Usage. i. However many theories about vocabulary learning process were written .need – target vocabulary should respond students’ real needs and interests . without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. there are several general principles for successful teaching .meaningful presentation – clear and unambiguous denotation or reference should be assured Learning vocabulary is a complex process. In deeper aspects it means the abilities to know its (Harmer 1993): 1) Meaning. metaphors and idioms. i.9.frequent exposure and repetition . According to Wallace.e. it still remains the matter of memory. The students’ aim to be reached in learning vocabulary process is primarily their ability to recall the word at will and to recognize it in its spoken and written form. Generally. how many . to be aware of any connotations and associations the word might have 3) Word formation. which are valid for any method. ability to spell and pronounce the word correctly.e. Thus.aim – what is to be taught. Speak on the following theoretical question: Testing Vocabulary (methodological aspect) David Wilkins summed up the importance of vocabulary for language learning: “Without grammar very little can be conveyed.e. knowing a word involves knowing its form and its meaning at the basic level. i. knowledge of its collocations.

know any derivations (acceptable prefixes and suffixes). Jeanette Winterson . Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р.: Bantam Books. 4) Grammar. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 8 1. i. to use it in the appropriate grammatical form 10. O'Brien's First Christmas 3. 125). Maughan.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.e. Analyze text fragment № 8. He feared that his father might die while he alone was with him (A. – p. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. Harry of Monmouth. 1956. Ю.А. – N.M. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Please elaborate on the following proverb: Punishment is always a two-edged sword.Y.

'I have a heart condition.' he said. She lived alone and worked in the pet shop for company. TWENTY-SEVEN SHOPPING DAYS TILL CHRISTMAS. She had once answered a Lonely Hearts advertisement and had dinner with a small young man who mended organ pipes.' she said. trumpets rampant. 7. 'that's how it should be. in red letters. 139). 1996. clean log fires courtesy of the Gas Board. as far as O'Brien could calculate. In the department store. 'Snow for Christmas. a Christian Scientist. O'Brien had declined on the grounds that a whirlwind romance would tire her out after so little practice. 8. People made way for one another in the queues and chatted about the weather and the impending snowfall. Customers. If you were to lay its-merchandise from end to end. 11. enough money. it made sense for her to have a pet of her own.' It was right and nice. 'carries germs. Ed. 6.So it was like aerobics after all. O'Brien worked in the pet shop.4. – L. who looked normal. It seemed rather like going to advanced aerobics when you couldn't manage five minutes on an exercise bicycle. It made no difference. She didn't have a young man. 'Hair. starting with a silk stocking and ending with a plastic baby Jesus. (Woman’s Hour. 5. Even in the hectic twentyseven days before Christmas. then a whirlwind of angels. She poured out a measure of hand and body lotion and broke open a fondant cream. no mass exodus of goods could have made the slightest impression on the well-stocked shelves. At thirty-five per cent staff discount. 9. The department store was very large. Speirs. you would encompass the world. 10. 50th Anniversary Short Story Collection. and snow for the children. She had asked him why he was in such a hurry. Anyone who looked up could see it. and what is hairier than an animal?' So O'Brien faced another Christmas alone. She had watched women stacking their baskets with hand and body lotion in attractive reindeer wrap. the filling seemed to be the same in both. meant that two-thirds of the known world would be eating sticky stuff or spreading it over themselves from December 25th onwards. shoppers enjoyed the kind of solidarity we read about in the war years.: Penguin Books. This phenomenon. There was none of the vulgar pushing and shoving so usually associated with peak-time buying. He had suggested they get married by special license. didn't like what she called 'stray molecules'. Every year she prayed for an ordinary miracle to take her away from the swelling round of ageing aunts who gave her knitted socks and asked about her young man. enough presents. . probably in a village that no one visited stood a factory dedicated to the manufacture of pale yellow sticky stuff waiting to be dispatched in labelless vats to profiteers who traded exclusively in Christmas. followed by a stream of dancing Santas. but her landlady. –p. whatever they demolished returned. O'Brien didn't like Christmas. had fallen in delight upon pyramids of fondant creams packed in 'Bethlehem by night' boxes. The opulence of the store defeated all shoppers.' said one. Somewhere. by D.

when the first of the two sounds affected by assimilation makes the second sound similar to itself. bottle. 3) double. pull —. loose type of articulatory transition For example in the word law the two sounds / l / and /o:/are joined by way of merging their stages. interpenetration of stages — when the final stage of the first sound penetrates not only the beginning but also the middle of the second sound — close type of articulatory transition Interpenetration of stages takes place when sounds of a similar. call —. in the combination at the the alveolar HI becomes dental. k/. assimilated to the interdental Idl which follows it. vehicle the clusters /kt/. Assimilation is the chief factor under the influence of which the principal variants of phonemes are modified into subsidiary ones. t. when the two adjacent sounds influence each other. c) Labialization in English (no lip protrusion) Paul — tool. /kheit/ before the vowel. t. Kate /phi:t/.12. tick. twice HI is rounded under the influence of /w/ and /w/ is partly devoiced under the influence of the voiceless/ t / When a consonant is modified under the influence of an adjacent vowel or vice versa this phenomenon is called adaptation or accommodation. Ikll. which follows /p. e. A brief period of voicelessness is heard after the hold of /p. types of assimilation: I) progressive. Cases of loose and close articulatory transition can be observed on: a) the mechanism of the aspiration of the initial stressed /p. pegs. Aspiration is a delay in the onset of voicing. cool . the sounds Ikl and /g/ make the plural inflection /s/ similar to the voiceless Jkl in /desks/ and to the voiced /g/ in /pegz/. or identical nature are joined together. which sounds like a puff of air after the release of the stop: Pete. or reciprocal. merging of stages — when the final stage of the first sound merges with the initial stage of the second sound.g. Speak on the following theoretical question: Articulatory transition of vowel and consonant phonemes 8. For example: in the words act. e. Articulatory transition of vowel and consonant phonemes. g. /tl/. in desks. Ikll are pronounced with the "loss of plosion" — /kt/ and lateral plosion — /tl/. when the second of the two sounds affected by assimilation makes the "first sound similar to itself. 2) regressive. tune.tall —. /thik/. keen. g. g. boor —. Assimilation is a modification of a consonant under the influence of a neighbouring consonant. t. . k/. e. k/ in English. e.

When one of the neighbouring sounds is not realized in rapid or careless speech this process is called elision. Завгороднєв . etc.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. d/ in a) /ft. e. Jt. The most common cases of contemporary elision are the following: elision of /t.А.Hanslick)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your understanding of the following: The other arts persuade us. Waste paper /weis peipe/ in rapid or careless speech//. e. may be pronounced without/v/in /9V/e box 9 metsiz. iron /'aian/. write /rait/. CVcovered open/ 13. Elision can be historical and contemporary. 1977. knight /nait/. VC. 0t. by a consonant and a sonorant (CS). English spelling is full of "silent" letters which bear witness to historical elision. st.g. a box of I matches e box 9v metsiz. g. Ю. vd. – p. by a vowel and a consonant: (VC) in English. castle /ikarsl/.zd/ sequences: cleft palate /'kief Syllables have different structural types: a syllable can be formed by a vowel: (V) in English. 81).covered closed. but music takes us by surprise (E. knee /ni:/.types uncovered closed. Fifth Business. walk /wa:k/. CVC. V-types of syllable called uncovered close. – L.: Penguin Books. Diana was ashamed because she thought she might have hurt my feelings (Robert Davis.

mountain-rimmed. he lit a spark which fired the timber which caused World War One which crumbled the Austro-Hungarian Empire. the spot. swift. can run so shallow in the summer it's known derisively as 'the wet road'. just two undistinguished puddles. It has to be.' Ah. A broad. 7. Sarajevo is in Bosnia. He was supervising my thesis on varying concepts of morality and duty in the early Greek States as evidenced in their poetry and drama. the crumbling of which made modern Yugoslavia possible. The one nearest the two footprints has been named the Princip Bridge. arched by many bridges. Balkan style. 'Come all this way. as everyone knows. 8. It rained in Sarajevo. Ind Aff or Out of Love in Sarajevo 3. Sarajevo is a pretty town. 5. in the centre of Yugoslavia. look. The young man is a hero in these parts. I had a feeling first-class minds weren't all that good in bed. I was dependent upon him for my academic future.' said Peter. that distillation of languages into the phonetic reasonableness of . two footprints set into a pavement which mark the spot where the young assassin Princip stood to shoot the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. I shivered for his disappointment. This is a sad story. that grouping of unlikely states. 'and you can't even see the footprints properly. from what 1 could see through the sheets of falling rain. He said I had a good mind but not a first-class mind and somehow I didn't take it as an insult. The river. carrying the mountain snow away.Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 9 1. Not only does he bring in the tourists – look. it seemed full enough. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.) That was in the summer of 1914. Analyze text fragment № 9. Forty million dead (or was it thirty?) but who cares? So long as he loved his country. the very spot! –but by his action. Yugoslavian streets are always busy – no one stays home if they can help it (thus can an indecent shortage of housing space create a sociable nation) and it seemed as if by common consent a shield of bobbing umbrellas had been erected two metres high to keep the rain off the streets. The rain filled up Sarajevo's pride. the archduchess. and we had expected fine weather. they say. who was a professor of classical history. but I loved him. It just hadn't worked around Princip's corner. 6. shallow river runs through its centre. Fay Weldon 4. (Don't forget his wife: everyone forgets his wife. Today.

Peter was trying to decide. where the fish and the artists come from. It wasn't that Peter and myself were being singled out. We'd sheltered from the rain in an ancient mosque in Serbian Belgrade. if not with his wife's blessing. 50th Anniversary Short Story Collection. to swim and lie in the sun. – L. off the beaten track. 1996. Could it? Satellite pictures showed black clouds swishing gently all over Europe. It was raining on his wife. back in Cambridge. and recover from the exhaustion caused by the sexual and moral torments of the last year. on the coast.Serbo-Croatian. No. 9. Speirs. now we spent a wet couple of days in Sarajevo beneath other people's umbrellas. 35). in fact.: Penguin Books. 10. between his wife and myself as his permanent life partner. too. To this end we had gone away. It couldn't possibly go on raining for ever. over the Balkans. at least with her knowledge. (Woman’s Hour. Ed. into Asia – practically all the way from Moscow to London. by D. as he had been for the past year. . done the same in a monastery in Croatia. –p. We planned to go on to Montenegro. for a holiday.

etc. The morphs are said to be in noncontrastive distribution if their meaning is the same. glasses). In other words by this term we understand the position which lexical units occupy or may occupy in the text or in the flow of speech. the environmental features of the morphs are established and the corresponding identifications are effected. girls. noncontrastive and complementary. or ―free variants‖ of the same morpheme (eg.distributional. burnt). played. 12 Complementary distribution concerns different environments of formally different morphs which are united by the same meaning. phonemic distribution of morphemes and morphemic distribution of morphemes are discriminated. desks. The morphemic analysis (sometimes also called morphological) is one of possible methods of analyzing word structure along with the word-building analysis.). burned. Oppositional. The morphemic analysis based on the distributional analysis gave rise to such notions as morph. Such morphs constitute ―free alternants‖. the analyzed text is divided into recurrent segments consisting of phonemes. These segments are called ―morphs‖. adjoining elements in the text. these morphs are said to be in complementary distribution and considered the allomorphs of the same morpheme (eg. The distribution of a unit is the sum total of all its environments. The theory of Immediate Constituents (IC) was originally elaborated as an . Three main types of distribution are discriminated: contrastive. i. Speak on the following theoretical question: Morphological Level and its Units 9. morpheme. The procedure of the morphemic analysis states the morphemic structure of the word. The morphs are said to be in contrastive distribution if their meanings are different. It is readily observed that a certain component of the word-meaning is described when the word is identified distributionally.11. The distributional analysis is used to fix and study the units of language in relation to their contextual environments. playing). At the first stage. Contrastive and non-contrastive distribution concern identical environments of different morphs. e. etc. IC-analysis By the term distribution we understand the occurrence of a lexical unit relative to other lexical units of the same level (words relative to words / morphemes relative to morphemes. 2) relations between morphemes in the stem are stated by means of comparing cognate words. transformational grammar. Morphemic analysis. it is necessary to study the word in a row of words which are structurally similar (words with the same root and suffixes). The study is conducted in two stages.IC analyses. If two or more morphs have the same meaning and the difference in their form is explained by different environments. The procedure consists of two operations: 1) the stem is separated from the inflection by means of comparing wordforms of the word. To state the borders between morphemes correctly. The morphemic analysis is a process of singling out morphs in a word and stating their meaning. allomorph. Such morphs constitute different morphemes (eg. In the distributional analysis at the morphemic level. Distributional analysis. Structural types of grammar. The environment of a unit may be either ―right‖ or ―left‖. At the second stage.

attempt to determine the ways in which lexical units are relevantly related to one another. etc. dress to in. Ю. i. Thus the fundamental aim of IC analysis is to segment a set of lexical units into two maximally independent sequences or ICs thus revealing the hierarchical structure of this set. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. The Ultimate Constituents of the word- 13 group analysed above are: a | black | dress | in | severe | style.109). 1998. The former semantic interpretation presupposes the IC analysis into fat major‘s | wife. but set up a structure which may be represented as a black dress / i n severe style. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології .Sulzberger: We. 12.: Penguin Books. For example. The Surgeon of Crowthorne.А. The meaning of the sentence. – L. journalists. and the IC binary segmentation are interdependent. The public will take care of the cat? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. fat major‘s wife may mean that either ‗the major is fat‘ or ‗his wife is fat‘. two-facet units that cannot be segmented into smaller units having both sound-form and meaning. now started to become really agreeable (Simon Winchester. Life. tell the public which way the cat is jumping. whereas the latter reflects a different segmentation into IC‘s and namely fat | major’s wife.e. black to dress.H. etc. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Please interpret the following quote from A. word-group. For example in the wordgroup a black dress in severe style we do not relate a to black. Successive segmentation results in Ultimate Constituents (UC). It was discovered that combinations of such units are usually structured into hierarchically arranged sets of binary constructions. which in those first months had been at least tolerable. – p.

touched off in Baxter a yearning he could barely begin to define. the right hospital. the modern variant of a soul. Analyze text fragment № 10. when the remaining years first take on their finite aspect. Then the system. on a mental existence. . That hunger is his claim on life. twenty hours ago he drove across a road officially closed to traffic. Henry can make these arrangements. because the door of his consciousness is beginning to close. Saturday 3. he shouldn't pursue his claim from a cell. Baxter will not be fit to stand trial. Henry can get a colleague or two. and probably never will. do what he can to make the patient comfortable. somehow. to convince the Crown Prosecution Service that by the time it comes round. waiting for the absurdity of his trial to begin. and he was reminded how much he wanted to live. he was transfixed by it. And here is one area where Henry can exercise authority and shape events. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Revenge enough. before his descent into nightmare hallucination begins. Henry also committed Baxter to his torture. fixed fate. and he must unravel – another certainty Henry sees before him. and because it won't last much longer. despite all Daisy's attempts to educate him. This may or may not be true. This is his dim. an error of repetition in the codes of his being. No one can forgive him the use of the knife. you watch a dying man with a closer. and he's not the one to be granting it anyway. he doesn't know. Baxter fell for the magic. Is this forgiveness? Probably not. Ian McEwan 4. specialists in the field. and thrown the switch on a sudden mood change. Perhaps any poem would have done the trick. The matter must be dropped. 5. Or it could be weakness – after a certain age. But he prefers to believe that it's realism: they'll all be diminished by whipping a man on his way to hell. and set in train a sequence of events. and you begin to feel for yourself the first chill. Daisy recited a poem that cast a spell on one man. more brotherly interest. after all. Baxter has a diminishing slice of life worth living. in his genotype.Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 10 1. must draw him in securely before he does more harm. to have one tiny slip. Let them go after the other man. But Baxter heard what Henry never has. Still. He knows how the system works – the difference between good and bad care is near-infinite. Or is he the one seeking forgiveness? He's responsible. Some nineteenth-century poet – Henry has yet to find out whether this Arnold is famous or obscure . By saving his life in the operating theatre.

6. Three nurses are walking across the square. Sleep's no longer a concept. is one of his remaining thoughts. – p. faintly.: Vintage. then goes towards the bed and lets the dressing gown fall to his feet as he gets in. This time there'll be no trouble falling towards oblivion. He closes his eyes. – L. and it's the coldest time now. her beloved form. an ancient means of transport. The morning is still dark. He closes the shutters on them. And at last. . there's nothing can stop him now. He fits himself around her. falling: this day's over. and draws closer to her. it's a material thing. 2006. heading in the direction of his hospital to start their morning shift. (Ian McEwan. Quietly. And then: there's only this. 7.Saturday. The dawn won't come until after seven. 278). her warmth. talking cheerfully. he kisses her nape. Blindly. There's always this. her scent. he lowers the window. conveying him into Sunday. Rosalind lies facing away from him with her knees crooked. her silk pyjamas. a softly moving belt.

rhyme & some others. 2) with a vowel or consonant as a linking element (speedometer. a fellow by the name of Lumpkin who brought him back to his senses with another blow (Dorothy Cannell. Ex.BLENDING is blending part of two words to form one word ( Smoke + fog = smog) 9. Different types of word formation: COMPOUNDING is joining together 2 or more stems. Word formation is a process of forming words by combining root & affixal morphemes. which are not grammatical syntagmas. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding (словосложение). Speak on the following theoretical question: Word-Building 10. new words). formed as grammatical syntagmas.SUFFIXATION A suffix is a derivative final element which is or was productive in forming new words. clipping. prefixation. conversion.PHONETIC SYMBOLISM is using characteristic speech sounds for name giving. 2 major groups of word formation: 1) words.: Penguin Books. ( A babysitter .to televise) .CONVERSION (zero derivation) A certain stem is used for the formation of a categorically different word without a derivative element being added. .to bag) . But are themselves not with independent existence. Types: 1) without a connecting element (headache. ( Mathematics . – p. back derivation). – L. blending. 2003. splash. He wandered about the country for a year thinking he was a peasant. which is morphologically simpler from a more complex word. craftsman). The Importance of Being Ernestine. .building Word formation is a branch of science of the language which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities. 2) words.: expressive symbolism. until rescued by his ever-faithful friend.BACK DERIVATION is deraving a new word.CLIPPING Consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts. 3) with a preposition or conjunction as a linking element down-and-out (опустошенный) son-in-law.PREFIXATION Prefixes are such particles that can be prefixed to full words. which are not made up of full linguistic signs. . but doesn‘t occur as an independent speech use.maths) . suffixation. t). 81). heartbreak). It has semantic value.to babysit Television . Very often we imitate by the speech sounds what we hear: (tinkle.8. . .(Bag . Word.

and the swells all keep to the country. We got lots of stuff on nights like those. You are waiting for me to start my story. This is when I thought it really began. Analyze text fragment № 11. without having a pretty good idea of what was what – of what could go into what. then. Dark nights are good to thieves and fencing-men. A dark night – a hard night. Perhaps I was. and a rain that was more or less snow. and what could come out. I think the people who came to Lant Street thought me slow. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц.А. Sara Waters 4. 3. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 11 1. But my story had already started – I was only like you. A night in winter. and didn't know it. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. But it seemed to me that I was sharp enough. as opposed to fast. dark nights in winter are the best nights of all. Perhaps I was waiting. You could not have grown up in such a house that had such businesses in it. Do you follow? 5. and . full of a fog that was more or less a rain. by Borough standards. Ю. – Slow I mean. a few weeks after the Christmas that marked my seventeenth birthday. for then regular people keep close to their homes. 6.b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How would you answer the following question: Is there a meaning to music? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. and the grand houses of London are shut up and empty and pleading to be cracked.

ain't my heart bleeding. however. That works best with sporting dogs. Besides them was Mrs Sucksby in her great chair. dark.: Virago. 9. On this night there were three or four boys at it. John had her at this time stitching dog-skins onto stolen dogs. and Dainty Warren. – p. I believe he had the worm. I think he was jealous. he was a devil to get rid of. Now he kept handy at Lant Street by doing jobs for Mr Ibbs. But he was such a queer-looking child.14 ). then charging a ten pounds' ransom before he'd give them back. however. like me. a couple of babies in a cradle at her side. She had got the master of a ship to take him at last.' 10. to brag. John was a thin. to make them seem handsomer breeds than what they really were. always running back from the workhouse: we were forever opening the shop-door and finding him sleeping on the step. She had kept him till he was four or five. his mother had died and made an orphan of him. and dogs with sentimental mistresses. . He had come to our house as a baby. for besides our ordinary kitchen fire there was Mr Ibbs's locksmith's brazier: he always kept a flame beneath the coals of it. though. knifish boy of about fourteen.' John said. 'You make a mess. He never cared for me. 2003. She was a great red-haired girl of three-and-twenty. then put him on the parish – even then. This man had a couple of bitches: when the bitches came on heat he would walk the streets with them. and could sew like anything. when he came back to the Borough after that. then sell to him at a knocked-down price. and throwing their shells on the floor. ran mean little dodges of his own. and a boy and a girl who were rooming with us then – John Vroom. We did not feel the cold too much at Lant Street. 'Poor Sue. he did it with money. and he sailed as far as China. tempting dogs away from their owners. 8. some owners. will never pay up – you could cut off their little dog's tail and post it to them and never see a bean. He was doing a deal with a dog-thief. 'Will you watch your manners?' she said. Fingersmith. The money had lasted a month. 7. and Sue shall have to tidy it. no-one would take him off Mrs Sucksby's hands. This night he was cracking peanuts. you could never say what might not turn up that would need making up or melting down. with Dainty to help him. (Sara Waters. 11. sweating the gold off sovereigns. She had neat white hands. and besides them.Mr Ibbs's profits were higher than ever. and more or less a simpleton. 12. The cold makes thieves come to a bargain very quick. Mrs Sucksby saw him do it. He was always eating. they are that heartless – and the dogs that John's pal was landed with he would throttle. and like mine. – L.

Peculiar use of set expressions (cliches. irony). c) logical and emotive (epithet. Snake. The old English period in history of English 14. on the other. oxymoron). Major Tropes. b) primary and derivative (zeugma and pun). 2. 3. The latter may sometimes deviate from the dictionary meaning to such a degree that the new meaning even becomes the opposite of the primary meaning. transferred: ―Dora. The interaction of different types of lexical meaning. proverbs. . Zeugma is the use of a word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to two adjacent words in the context. the semantic relation being. We define metaphor as the power of realizing two lexical meaning simultaneously: ―Dear Nature is the kindest Mother still‖ (Byron).a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. The term ‗metaphor‘ means transference of some quality from one object to another. what we have called contextual meanings. quotations). Mrs. plunging at once into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room‖ (B. Simile is a comparison between objects belonging to one class of things with the purpose of establishing the degree of their sameness or difference: ―The boy seems to be as cleaver as his mother‖. d) logical and nominative (autonomasia). 1. What is known in linguistics as transferred meaning is practically the interrelation between two types of lexical meaning: dictionary and contextual. on the one hand. epigram. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Notion of Rhetorical Image. literal. periphrasis). a) dictionary and contextual (metaphor. Show). 12. Lexical and LexicalSyntactic Stylistic Devices Words in a context may acquire additional lexical meanings not fixed in the dictionaries. metonymy.13. Classification of Lexical Stylistic Devices There are 3 groups. Intensification of a feature (simile. Antonomasia is a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice verse: You are Romeo (not from ―Romeo and Juliet‖). hyperbole.

– p. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How big of a crime is computer hacking. unim- . How strange it seemed to the sad woman. TEXT 12 3. Ю. which had nothing of the calm. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. – N. as she watched the growth.A small sore that might have been made by a grass cut peeped through a hole in the canvas of his grimy ankle (Yukio Mishima. in your view? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. and the beauty that became every day more brilliant. that little creature. 1971. W 5. whose innocent life had sprung. white. out of the rank luxuriance of a guilty passion. by the inscrutable decree of Providence. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 12 1.А. : Berkley Medallion Books. a lovely and immortal flower. PEARL 4. not as a name expressive of her aspect. Thirst for Love. and the intelligence that threw its quivering sunshine over the tiny features of this child! Her Pearl! – For so had Hester called her. E HAVE as yet hardly spoken of the infant. 84). from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Analyze text fragment № 12.Y.

And yet a russet gown. its attire. Her mother. in this one child there were many children. The child had a native grace which does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. Pearl's aspect was imbued with a spell of infinite variety.passioned lustre that would be indicated by the comparison. which had such potent and disastrous efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. therefore. God. as a direct consequence of the sin which man thus punished. on the darksome cottage-floor. with a morbid purpose that may be better understood hereafter. to connect her parent for ever with the race and descent of mortals. made a picture of her just as perfect. Throughout all. and the pomp. 6. The Scarlet Letter. its vigor. before the public eye. worthy to have been left there.' as being of great price. and if.: Everyman‘s Library. and to be finally a blessed soul in heaven! Yet these thoughts affected Hester Prynne less with hope than apprehension. when thus arrayed.it would have been no longer Pearl! 7. of an infant princess. whose place was on that same dishonored bosom. and allowed her imaginative faculty its full play in the arrangement and decoration of the dresses which the child wore. – L. always impressed the beholder as if it were the very garb that precisely became it best. 1992. By its perfect shape. shining through the gorgeous robes which might have extinguished a paler loveliness. a certain depth of hue. Day after day. which she never lost. and such was the splendor of Pearl's own proper beauty. ever dreading to detect some dark and wild peculiarity. there was no physical defect. indeed! Man had marked this woman's sin by a scarlet letter. torn and soiled with the child's rude play. in little. save it were sinful like herself. there was a trait of passion. – purchased with all she had. had given her a lovely child. that its result would be for good. the infant was worthy to have been brought forth in Eden. she looked fearfully into the child's expanding nature. – her mother's only treasure! How strange. comprehending the full scope between the wild-flower prettiness of a peasant-baby. – p. however simple. she would have ceased to be herself. she could have no faith. . .92). and its natural dexterity in the use of all its untried limbs. But she named the infant 'Pearl. So magnificent was the small figure. after the world's first parents were driven out. Certainly. But little Pearl was not clad in rustic weeds. She knew that her deed had been evil. however. had bought the richest tissues that could be procured. in any of her changes. to be the plaything of the angels. she had grown fainter or paler. (Nathaniel Hawthorne. that there was an absolute circle of radiance around her. that should correspond with the guiltiness to which she owed her being.

Tolkien.8. 170). Analyze text fragment № 13. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. R. – L. Ю.А. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 13 1. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) . Speak on the following theoretical question: Old English Period in the History of the English Language 9. He sat and thought and thought. until his head nearly burst. – p. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. 1983.: Unwin Paperbacks. The Hobbit.R. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. but no bright idea would come (J. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Give your views on the purpose of prison and share your thoughts concerning the following observation: The concept of prison as society’s punishment of the offender is both barbaric and ineffective.

"The Argentine Ant' 5. only a sense of dragging on into a future full of new troubles. Still. 12. and. and has to mask this odour with scents. opens the door to his. Yet when Baxter rings the landlord to enquire whether there have been any 'outbreaks' before. Unfolding them one by one.' 4. With water streaming down him nothing can adhere to his skin. and with their son only a few months old. If it continues he will review their contract. at first. particularly as he has thrown away the evidence. and of creamy white eggs hatching in darkness. she isn't much concerned. In his mind he hears the amplified rustle of gnawing. he is not sympathetic but maintains they carried the flies with them. 7. Telling her about it makes him realize what a slight matter it is. He stands in the shower a long time. For what they can afford. Baxter. 11. like egg yolk. where they appear threateningly settled. 8. spotted flies all over the flat. 6. he doesn't care. He goes to the shops and packs his wardrobe with fly killer. vexed by the accusation. One morning after a disturbed night. and only just managed to conceal it from his wife. and he explains to her what has happened. On his knees he scours the dusty corners of the flat for the nest or bed where the contamination must be incubating. retching. though. has not noticed. He wants to keep it from himself as much as from her. Baxter hurriedly rolls up the clothes in plastic bags. that he won't bother her with such an unimportant matter. They will go out to dinner. just out of reach. it seems. he discovers that they all appear to have been crocheted. since the attack has troubled him. flies are striking at the bedsheets and pillows. and stamps on the tiny crisp corpses. 10. which his wife. At night he begins to dream of ragged bullet-shaped holes chewed in fetid fabric. devouring. Indeed. When one night his wife catches him with his nose against the skirting board. and suddenly rips open the door as if to surprise an intruder. chewing. that while he is doing this. The Flies 3. Baxter goes into the box-room where he and his wife have put their wardrobes. he sprays the curtains. that morning he noticed one of his child's cardigans smeared and half-devoured. He doesn't tell his wife about the incident. he does need to discuss it with her. But at different times of the day he needs to check the wardrobe. If he puts mothballs in his pockets. thinking. and goes about imagining that people are sniffing as he passes them. the three rooms. which has stiffened the remains of the ruined garments. a year after they moved into the flat. When this wakes him he rushes into the box-room to shake his clothes or stab at them with an umbrella. he disinfects the rugs. He has. with kitchen and bathroom. and picks up a pile of sweaters. There was a time when they would have long discussions . 9. He asks an acquaintance to babysit. the remaining threads are smeared with a viscous yellow deposit. counters that he will suspend his rent payments if the contagion doesn't clear up. He shakes out the moths or flies that have gorged on his clothes. are acceptable for a youngish couple starting out. though. He is convinced. thrusts them into the bottom of a dustbin on the street. He and his wife acquired the small flat in a hurry and consider themselves fortunate to have it. dart out past him and position themselves on the curtains. Other flies. 'We hadn't the pleasure now of feeling we were starting a new life.2. Italo Calvino. Not only that. only stupefied.

13. – L. – p. (Hamif Kureishi. Love in a Blue Time.: Faber & Faber. 1997.about anything – they particularly enjoyed talking over their first impressions of one another – so happy were they just to be together.189). .

Stylistic Inversion. Ellipsis. Enumeration is a SD by which separate things. e. objects. a fair city. They speak like saints and act like devils. Litotes. 3. and day by day. remote though it may seem: ―The principle production of these towns…appear to be soldiers. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How severely. 133). Antithesis. should crimes against the environment be punished? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Climax (Gradation) is an arrangement of sentences which secures a gradual increase in significance. Climax. The room in which he found himself was bright and comfortably furnished and certainly lived in (Mary Nichols. a veritable gem of a city‖ (Byron).‖Little by little. importance. Speak on the following theoretical question: Expressive Syntax 13. 2. chalk. officers and dock-yard men‖ (Dickens).a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. shrimps. A Desirable Husband. Break-in-the-Narrative (Aposiopesis). Antithesis is a SD based on the author‘s desire to stress certain qualities of the thing by appointing it to another thing possessing antagonistic features. Expressive syntax 1.14. – p. phenomena. and real china cups to drink it out of and plates of the same to hold the cakes and toast in‖ (Dickens). Parallel Construction. Протокол № … . Polysyndeton. a beautiful city.…. 4. properties. Rhetorical question. real silver spoons to stir the tea with. Chiasmus. and year by year the baron got the worst of some disputed question‖ (Dickens). being syntactically in the same position (homogeneous parts of speech). action are named one by one so that they produce a chain. or emotional tension in the utterance: ―It was a lovely city. Enumeration. g. sailors. are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity. Detached Construction. 15. the SPU and the paragraph. the links of which. – Surrey: Mills and Boon Ltd. bit by but. or similar. viz. Parallel construction is a device which may be encountered not so much in the sentence as in the macro-structures dealt with earlier. syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence in close succession: ―There were. Question-in-the-Narrative. in your view. Jews. Suspense. Asyndeton. The necessary condition in parallel construction is identical. 2007. The Gap-Sentence Link. Repetition.

А. not quite as perfect as her husband's. swirling knot of movement behind him at the door of the shop. She wore jeans which were very faded and her hair was short. Father. We will remember. gave an impression of weariness and sophistication. THE PRIEST AND THE WIND 3. There was a sudden.. "I just called to say how sorry I am that this has happened. 5. Many of us are . was as bright as the colours of the sari she wore. He was impressed by the strangely dignified stillness of their manner and by their shrewdness. Eugene guessed. while looking at Eugene.Завідувач кафедри доц. acute yet neutral. Eugene was surprised by the cultured. neither friendly nor hostile and he knew that they silently noticed the awkward way he was holding his head. 7. "It is good of you to call. Anthony James 4. sickened by what was done to you. . I would like you to believe that not everyone here is alike. Analyze text fragment № 14. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 14 1. Their eyes watched him almost unblinking." 6. levered himself half up on it with his elbows and pointed to some chocolate bars. The woman passed the bar and took the money in a single soft movement. A boy of seven came to the counter. but painfully. perfect English which the man spoke and then was immediately ashamed of his surprise. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. soft lines around the man's eyes which. "It is kind of you to come. she made an obscurely frightening impression on him. Ю. Below the eye there was a deep raised cut in the dark brown skin with four stitches in it. There were fine. though the lividness was muted by make up. together with his greying hair. He knew that she was watching the rather twisted posture of his neck and head." she said in English. I feel ashamed to live in this community.. The woman smiled. the left side of her face was swollen to twice its normal size and its colour. 8." the man said. The little boy's mother shouted coarsely at him and coming into Eugene's line' of vision.

five years ago when he had first come here. right to its centre. The wind was dragging the loose grey hems of clouds over the forested slopes. – p. a restless March wind full of the mingled elements of Winter and Spring. "If there is anything I can do – anything at all. A man with a thick short neck and a dungaree jacket with no buttons walked purposefully to the counter with a tabloid newspaper. . their burnt-out cars and their stray horses. 10. 380). but in the west the weather was clearer and the clouds were coloured crimson. pale face and eyes all seemed to be the same. tearing on. 11. (Mama‘s Baby – Papa‘s Maybe. shade as her jeans. muted. half healed. 9. changing the world. 12." he said. streaming out of the west. beneath the photograph was a headline: VIRGIN'S FIVE HOUR ORDEAL WITH SEX FIEND.but her fair hair. transforming sky and land. 1999." they both said with the same absence of any warmth or any abruptness. Eugene had thought. up from the sea and over the mountains. 13. The wind seemed not so much cruel as impatient. naked except for a tiny pair of white pants which were around her knees. "Thank you. almost colourless. A disconcerting city. could be seen for mile after mile and so could the city itself. Eugene left the shop and walked a little way down the hill. reached almost into the centre of the city. – Cardiff: Parthian Books. pink and apricot by the setting sun. with their secretive clearings. on the front of which was a coloured photograph of a young woman taken from behind. This area was pitched on the highest ground for many miles and the whole industrial landscape. please let me know. oddly tranquil in this age in which the heavy industry had gone. The rolling slopes of pine.

Metaphor accounts for a very considerable proportions of semantic changes.14. Language is full of so-called fossilized (trite-банальный. 68).Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Problem of Meaning There are many causes of semantic change: 1) Historical causes. 1950. despite of the lack of resemblance. Завгороднєв .: ―car‖ which goes back to Latin ―carfus‖ which meant a four wheeled (vehicle) wagon. – p. According to historical principle. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. everything develops changes. a clock face. Ю. which no longer call up the image of an object from which they were borrowed. Words are replaced by other words. 15.: Penguin Books. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How far do you agree with the following statement: The worst crimes are those against the whole of humanity? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Tendency of a language to borrow a particular metaphorical development of a word from another language.: ―lady‘s room‖ instead of the ―lavatory‖ 3) Linguistic causes. The Innocence of Father Brown.: the leaf of a book. Taboos of various kinds. Ex.K. избитый. неоригинальный) metaphors. – L. Chesterton. hands of a cabbage. the words also change. Ex. Ex.А. sometimes people do not realize that they use euphemisms. social institutions change in the course of time. Mr Audley seemed at first to hesitate whether it was gentlemanly to be in such a hurry about anything (G. hands of a clock. 2) Psychological causes.

Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 15 1. The play people temporarily vanished. but never went near Easter in Church. there. and had travelled to mining villages to see eggs on trestle tables in the upper rooms of pubs. onion-skin gold. on Good Friday. in the Church. Easter. 7. Where he belonged. especially in the North. she fought her way across tombstones and wet grass. He had upset her. Analyze text fragment № 15. Bill liked the eggs. A. When he saw her in . cochineal crimson. THE VIRGIN IN THE GARDEN 3. She might have come to please Felicity. until everyone in that unmusical household was driven to a frenzy of irritation by the repeated rhythms. and on Easter Monday there were hailstorms. She then played it repeatedly. Stephanie had taken both as they came. 6. Under this. in that year of extremes. In the north-west there was heavy snow. to observe the proprieties. At other Easters she had dyed eggs. She was angry with Daniel. Eliot reading the Four Quartets. He had involved her in his jumble of tea-party politeness. in places. was freakish.Byatt 4. In Calverley and Blesford black sleet alternated with glassy sun. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. This year was different. Felicity Wells turned her attention from carnation ribbons to the decoration of the dear little Easter garden in the nave of St Bartholomew's. He had declared passion and told her to go home and disregard it. a half-melon of navy velvet with a wisp of veiling. in a talismanic manner. boiled with lurid socks and old dub ties. Frederica managed by furious concentration and an assumption of pupil-to-master virtue to borrow this to play during the school holidays. preceded by a wavering circle of scarlet umbrella. On Easter Day Stephanie decided to go to church.S. beetroot. She might have come to church anyway without the problem of Daniel. She might have come because she liked to take part in the ceremonies of the year. He had pushed his consecrated huge face between her knees and trembled. tie-dyed. She found herself a hat. He also bought the new gramophone record of T. Alexander bought and rode away in a secondhand silver grey Triumph. 8. wax and gentians. She had come to take a look at him. dead stories and ceremonial: he had made her feel like a professional teaser. 5. boiled with ferns and lace doileys. S.

11. depending from a dish-shaped hat and bursting like bedraggled butterflies out at the neck and between the buttons of her rat-coloured gabardine. as the curious biology chap who had once. Stephanie was profoundly shocked to see them both genuflect and cross themselves. in the Church porch. Simmonds bowed and smiled to everyone and then ushered Marcus into a pew. repeatedly asked her to dance.Byatt. (A. . 1995. and a young man she vaguely recognized. but then he never did. at a school Christmas do. and then placed. One of her own Fourth form handed her a prayer-book: she sat down at the back. The virgin in the garden. a chamberlain with a prince. against a pillar.S. 9. – p. like a hen with a chicken. – L. and watched Miss Wells come in. The next people to come in were her brother Marcus. after.152). and had left large sweaty hand-prints on the back of a pale evening dress. fluttering chiffon scarves in various pinks. When she saw him in Church she would know for certain it was all ridiculous. 10. she could wipe her feet of it.Church he would see she was sorry and respectful. What was this? How long had it been going on? Marcus had not seemed to see her.: Vintage.

the pronoun. 2) the forms of the verbal categories of person. as finite process and non-finite process). adjectival predicative). 2) the forms of the degrees of comparison for . the specific suffixal forms of derivation for ordinal numerals. The features of the verb: 1) the categorial meaning of process (presented in the two upper series of forms. The features of the pronoun: I) the categorial meaning of indication (deixis). the opposition of the finite and nonfinite forms.e. voice. the adverb. The features of the adjective: 1) the categorial meaning of property (qualitative and relative). substantival predicative). 2) the changeable forms of number and case. fhe mixed verbal . prepositional connections. the adjective. 2) the narrow sets of various status with the corresponding formal properties of categorial changeability and word-building. 3)the substantive functions in the sentence (subject. respectively. Speak on the following theoretical question: Lexico-Grammatical Word-Classes Part of speech in modern English The words of language are divided into grammatically relevant sets or classes. the numeral. i. 3) the function of the finite predicate for the finite verb. the specific lorms of derivation. the specific suffixal forms of derivation (prefixes in English do not discriminate parts of speech as such). The features of the numeral: 1) the categorial meaning of ‗number (cardinal and ordinal). 3) adjectival functions in the ―Sentence (attribute to a noun. The features of the adverb: 1) the categorial meaning of the secondary property. The traditional grammatical classes or words are called ―parts of speech‖. 2) the narrow set of simple numerals. 2) the forms of the deof comparison (for qualitative adjectives). the property of process or another property. number. modification by an adjective. To the notional parts of speech of the English language belong the noun. object. 3) the substantival and adjectival functions for different sets. mood. the verb. the specific forms of composition for compound numerals.12. The features of the noun are the following: 1) the categorial meaning of substance (‖thingness‖).other than verbal functions for the non-(inite verb. aspect. Words on the upper level of classification are divided into notional and functional. 3) the functions of numerical aitributeand numerical substantive. tense.

Cf.). darkness. factive and evaluative. Nouns are subcategorized into proper and common. expresses the attitude of the speaker to the reflected situation and its parts. Lake Erie . London.honesty. is a signal of emotions. ache. ripen. furniture. give .: . stone. the modal word. factive and evaluative. shall. actional and statal. the conjunction. animate and inanimate. transitive and intransitive. leopard. take.qualitative adverbs. The conjunction expresses connections of phenomena. tire. The interjection. and also of affirmation and negation. concrete and abstract. hate. occupying in the sentence a more pronounced or less pronounced detached position. countable and uncountable. alongside of other specifying words. tremble .live. kind/kinds .earth. lake. incline. etc. etc. float.consider. coin/coins. field. of qualitative evaluation (fortunately. write. Cf. leaf . put. listen. ride -exist. floor/floors. ensnare. rain. may. should be referred verbal postpositions as functional modifiers of verbs. scholar. the preposition. begin.: Mary. person. build.: walk. machine. the Mississippi. butterfly . luckily. Verbs are subcategorized into fully predicative and partially predicative. occupying a detached position in the sentence. grain. The modal word. stay. blow . Adjectives are subcategorized into qualitative and relative. man. see. river. To this series. strike. sleep. rest. of constant feature and temporary feature (the latter are referred to as ―statives‖ and identified by some scholars as a separate part of speech under the heading of ―category of state‖). unfortunately. prepare. mist. speak. desire. Cf. revel. love. etc. approve. receive. etc. etc.girl. be. city. become. sail. mind. The preposition expresses the dependencies and interdependences of substantive referents. Here belong the functional words of probability (probably. The article expresses the specific limitation of the substantive functions. etc. the interjection. The particle unites the functional words of specifying and limiting meaning. roll. play. growth. Robinson. To the basic functional series of words in English belong the article. slavery. the specific suffixal forms of derivation. thrive. the particle. shine. boil. water.news. perhaps.can.). suffer. rose. 3) the functions of various adverbial modifiers.

wooden. – L. red.well. joyful. tall. orthographical. Knowledge is limited.: A Four Square Book. Imagination encircles the world? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. glad. 238). comfortable .J. healthy. sickly. brave. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How would you interpret the following quote from A. the numeral. subterranean.long. lovely. mental. sorry. smooth. the pronoun are also subject to the corresponding subcategorizations 13. wonderful. ablaze.kind. grievous. stupid.Einstein: Imagination is more important than knowledge. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 16 . rural. where I began to make up the stock bromide and chloral solutions for the galleries (A. Shannon’s Way. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. I rose and went down to the dispensary. The adverb. awry. blazing . wise.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. native . – p. daily.А. noble. 1966. Ю. ill. heavy. wry. Cronin.

On the articulatory level each consonant may be identified by stating two general facts about it: 1) what sort of articulatory posture it is formed by. Speak on the following theoretical question: Sounds of speech and their phonetic aspects 16 . diphthongoids. On the articulatory level the description of vowels notes changes: in the stability of articulation in the tongue position in the lip position in their length The stability of articulation All English vowels are divided into 3 groups: monophthongs. Analyze text fragment № 16. that is by a complete.Sounds of speech and their phonetic aspects Classification of Vowels Vowels are normally made with the air stream that meets no obstruction in the mouth. In case of consonants various obstructions are made. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. As a result consonants are sounds which have noise as their indispensable and most defining characteristic. 3. Consonants are known to have voice & noise combined. They are – [i e ǽ a: o o: U Λ ə: ə ]. diphthongs. pharyngeal and nasal cavities. 1. . So consonants are characterized by close articulation.1. 2. Monophthongs are vowels the articulation of which is almost unchanging. partial or intermittent blockage of the air-passage by an organ or organs. 4.

Classification of Consonants.: Bantam Books. Vassilyev primary importance should be given to the type of obstruction and the manner of production of noise.A.Y. what cavity is used as a resonator. what is the force of articulatory effect. The particular quality of consonant may depend on a lot of other factors. etc. b) constrictive. in the production of which a complete obstruction is formed. The Final Diagnosis. . Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. that is by what articulatory organ (or organs) an obstruction is made. There are few ways of seeing the situation of classification. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц.А. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. On this ground he distinguishes two large classes of consonants: a) occlusive. how vocal cjiords work at the moment of production. in the production of which an incomplete obstruction is formed. – N.2) whereabout in the mouth (or pharynx) it is produced.[si] tea-sea (occlusive . – p. 57). According to V. Ю. A week and a half had passed since Harry Tomaselli had told O’Donnel that construction of the hospital’s extension was planned to begin in the spring (Arthur Hailey.Einstein: The difference between what the most and the least learned people know is inexpressibly trivial in relation to that which is unknown. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Speak on the following observation made by A. [ti:] . 1980. The division is based on the factor of pravailing either noise or tone component in the auditory characteristic of a sound. In their turn noise consonants are divided into plosive consonants (or stops) and affricates 3.{si:z} seed-seas (pcclusive-constrictive) Each of the two classes is subdivided into noise consonants and sonorants.constrictive) [si:d} .

91). There was no humour in that smile. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Speak on the following theoretical question: Teaching listening at the intermediate level 3. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. Ю. . b) Suggested Topic for Discussion If you had to rely on only one of the media. – L. a facial expression of triumph (Ruth Rendell.А.Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 17 1. which would you choose? Explain your choice.: Arrow Books. 2003. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. – p. it was the stretching of the lips of someone who has superior knowledge and knows it. Analyze text fragment № 17. The Babes in the Wood.

b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Share your thoughts on the following: In what ways can the media show subjectivity in their coverage of the news? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. and a whole lot of stuff (Great Stories of Mystery and Suspense. Speak on the following theoretical question: Variety of reading types of exercises 3. – p. and why she didn’t go to college. Analyze text fragment № 18.Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 18 1. 71).Y.: The Reader’s Digest Association. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. – N. We talked along during dinner about where she went to school. 1963. Протокол № … . a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.

b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your interpretation of the following statement: Journalism can never be silent: that is its greatest virtue and its greatest fault (H. – L. I was cramped and dirty from the shop below. Ю. 107).А. . Speak on the following theoretical question: Explanation of the sounds and the stress at the English lesson 3. US writer and diplomat)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р.: Penguin Books. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Analyze text fragment № 19. and I felt all itchy. 1958. The Moving Toyshop. – p. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.Grunwald. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 19 1. as though there were insects crawling over me (Edmund Crispin.Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц.A.

simple. Tom open the door. Speak on the following theoretical question: Syntactical Units 20. composite (compound.А. Analyze text fragment № 20.Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. The phrase and sentence as units of synt level Structural classification of sentence. The cook burnt the dinner. A simple sentence contains a subject and a verb followed if necessary.the subject and the predicate. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 20 1. Two-membered sentence contains two principle parts . complex). The meaning of an English sentence depends on the word order. incomplete. . Ю. onemembered. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. We put the subject before the verb and the object after the predicate. complete. (Fleur had established immediate contact with an architect). From the point of view of their structure sentences can be divided into: two-membered.

. He left the message. It was almost impossible to imagine that this creature of vast bulk had ever been a boy who ran about (W. so that … etc. that. . 250). The fire was discovered. One-membered sentence have only one principal part (Dusk . if. 1977. Composite sentence is formed by two or more predicative groups. Tom phoned.Tom phoned and left the message. The alarm was raised as soon as fire was discovered. We use many different kinds of joining words (or conjunctions) to make complex sentences: after. and then.A two-membered sentence can be complete and incomplete. 3. all composite sentences are to be classed into: . These are the conjunctions which we use to make compound sentences: and.of a summer night). not only… The complex sentence. Somerset Maugham. as soon as. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your understanding of the following: Newspapers should have no friends (J. It is incomplete when one of the principal parts or both of them are missing. but. – p.compound sentences (coordinating their clauses).: Progress Publishers. The form of a compound sentence -when we join two or more simple sentences we get a compound sentence. for. Протокол № … . when. We can join two or more simple sentences to get complex sentences: The alarm was raised. The name which we give to ―joining words‖ is conjunction. The alarm was raised when the fire was discovered. The compound sentence.complex (subordinating their clauses). a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. It is complete when it has a subject and a predicate (Young John could not help smiling). Rain and other short stories. nor. or. The alarm was raised after the fire was discovered. According to the traditional view. In a complex sentence there is one main ‗idea‘ and one or more subordinate ‗ideas‘ (clauses).Pulitzer)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. – M.

Analyze text fragment № 21. in one of these aspects.А. lending.-a large dancing party In the process of communication they are more of an encumbrance. Yet it is this very characteristic which makes them one of the most important sources of popular humour. The pun is a joke based upon the play upon words of similar form but different meaning Sources of Homonyms: . any spherical body ball. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 21 1. Homonyms. n. Homonyms are words which are identical in sound and spelling. leading sometimes to confusion and misunderstanding. exchanging.-a shore bank.Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. n. Ю. . and safeguarding money ball. but different in their meaning. n. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. bank. Speak on the following theoretical question: Homonyms 21.a sphere. n. or.-an institution for receiving. at least.

v. Shortening..fit .words same in sound and in spelling. n.an official group of persons who direct or supervise some activity.make. (Two or more homonyms can ―originate from different meanings of the same word when..‖ is a shortening produced from fanatic..a long and thin piece of timber Board . in the final stage of its phonetic adaptation. ritus). 3. explosive noise‖) .comb.daily meals especially provided for pay.. fit nervous spasm.go before. adj. 1969. sudden. duplicate in form either a native word or another borrowing.to pale. the second and third words are of native origin whereas rite is a Latin borrowing (< Lat. (‖a fringe of hair combed over . are called lexico-grammatical homonyms. Board . pale. adj. . which are the same in sound and spelling but refer to different categories of parts of speech. fan. 1. to make. – L.bang. been 2. A borrowed word may. n. Night and knight. This type of formation of homonyms is called split polysemy.. rite.1. n.. bang. – p. The Nice and the Good.g. different in sound 1.perfectly fitting clothes. lead a heavy rather soft metal. E. Words made by sound-imitation) can also form pairs of homonyms with other words: e.to write. A board of directors All the meanings developed from the meaning ‖ a table‖. g. singer. Conversion .Phonetic changes which words.: World Books. different in spelling.to comb.right. n. v. homophones -the same in sound.). Classification of Homonyms The subdivision of homonyms into: homonyms proper . the forehead‖). n. 2. 127. . Borrowing. She found herself saying half aloud what she had said then crazily over and over to the people who crowded round her on the pavement (Iris Murdoch.undergo in the course of their historical development. n. Homonyms of this type. v. show the way 2. for some reason. in the sense of ―an enthusiastic admirer of some kind of sport or of an actor. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Board . v. (‖a loud. the semantic structure of the word breaks into several parts.to lead . etc.bean homographs -the sane in spelling.

А. repetition-the recurrence of the same word. Speak on the following theoretical question: Lexical and Syntactic Repetitions.a…)-when the beginning of some successive sent-ce(clauses) is . w.b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Do you see a future for conventional television? How likely is it. phrase for 2 or more times:1)anaphora(a. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 22 1. in your view.. Syntactic parallelism. Lexical and syntactic repetitions. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. Ю. Analyze text fragment № 22. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.. Syntactic Parallelism 22.-comb-n. that it will be ultimately replaced by interactive television? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р.

b) Suggested Topic for Discussion . These 2 sentences have identical structure. he was growing old. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Types of lexical repetitions. Pure parallelism depends on the repetition of syntactical arrangement of the sentence. On her father‘s being groundlessly suspective she felt sure.2 terms to show attitude to all kinds of synonymous r-n:1)pleonasm-the use of more words in the s-ce then necessary to express the m-g).sure).Carying is the art of sharing.Loving is the art of carrying. A parallel construction is the stylistic device which represents identical or similar syntactical structures in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence.a steam of closely fol-ing each other repeated units. There are some devices based on r-n of some idea:synonymical r-n-the rep-on of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases which by adding a slightly dif.styl.Stylistic f-n of r-n is to emphasize the most imp part of the ut-ce rendering emotions of the speaker.5)chain r-n(…a.2)epiphora(…a.sure.it adds stress to a final words in a sent-ce.forms).3)framing(a…. f-n:to create the bachground for the non repeated unit. Parallel construction may be complete (maintains the principle of identical structures in the corresponding sentence) and partial (based on the repetition of some parts of successive sentences).6)ordinary r-n-has no certain place in the sent-ce.…a)-the last element is repeated.it emphesisis log. Conrad. – p. 4)catch rep-n(…a.: Penguin Books.it makes the whole ut-ce compact and complete.the effect is smoothly developing logical reasoning(Living is the art of loving. Parallelism may carry the role of semantic equality of the parts.…a)(ringing repet-n)-the 1st or the last element is repeatí. 7)successive r-n(…a. – L.b…c)-represents a series of anidiplosice.a…b. ▲ He was not comfortable.a.a…)-1 & the same element is repeated one after another.g. gram. & emot.(e. mean-gs of the repeated word or phrase. 1996. shapes of m-g intensify the ut-ce.show the peak of emotions. emotive. uniting functions 3.a…)-rep-tionof the same word/phrase at the end of 1 clause& at the beginning of the following one. Now and then it happened that one of the faded.repeated.it‘s most effective in singling out paragraphs & instances in a text. yellow dancing girls would get sold to an amateur. The Secret Agent. as though she had been alive and young (J. He was not happy. ▲ I was growing up.). 14).which through its novelty becomes foregrounded.2)tautology-the r-n of the same word/phrase or the same idea or statement in other words often in dif.

The category of number was preserved.А. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Analyze text fragment № 23. with no remnants in any of the nominal parts of speech. Speak on the following theoretical question: Middle English Period in the History of the English Language Noun.Skinner)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. and the loss was total.How do you understand the following observation: Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten (B. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 23 1. . it had grounds. Ю.F. The category of gender was lost.

strong. De Profundis. Ending -es was invariably added to form the plural The Verb. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. some of the former strong verbs are drifting in the direction of the weak ones. – p. but the proportional value of the weak ones is greater and continues to grow.А.that is. preterite-present and irregular were preserved in Middle English.G. which becomes a competing ending. 286). and a group of conservative nouns retain the vowel interchange. some of the former weak ones became strong. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your interpretation of the following statement: Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe (H. 3. there was even a reverse process. In each type we find changes due to phonetic developments of this period.Due to the reduction of the unstressed vowels all these came to -es -0 -e or -0 -en So finally we have -es . was not a matter of any interest to the English public (Oscar Wilde. weak.: Progress Publishers. 1979.-en. – M. All types of verbs existing in Old English . Ю. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. The drift was not a comprehensive one. and a tendency is already traced .Wells)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. and that you loathed your father. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови . The fact that your father loathed you.

Spoken English in various parts of Britain gradually approaches the literary norm. official London papers. ministers. The literary language is also found in letters written by kings. to that popularity of product of a large writer D. and other officials. Printed books was a first. queens. London documents of the former half of the 15th century are poems by Thomas Occleve (Hoccleve). and also official documents from other towns. From Mayence printing spread to Strasburg. which combined in itself southern and western-central dialect features. The introduction in England book-printing (1476) promoted fastening to distribution of the London forms.) During formation a nation there was a formation of national English language developing on the basis of a London dialect. and in 1477 appeared the first book to be printed in England. namely. then to Italy and to the Netherlands. and differences between the norm and popular speech tend to become obliterated. Then he founded the first English printing office in London in 1476. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 24 1. Printing was invented in Mayence (Germany) by Johann Gutenberg in 1438. The englishman William Caxton (1422 . The most significant event of the period was the War of Roses (1455 . which marked the decay of feudalism and the birth of a new social order .rate factor in fixing spellings and grammar. The formation of a national language was greatly forsed by two events of the late 15th century.1485).1491) published the First English printed book. The spread of printed books was bound to foster the normalization of spelling and also of grammatical forms. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Period of the formation of the national language (XV-XVI c. Social changes of the 16th century created the conditions for a great cultural progress and . Analyze text fragment № 24. In the course of the 15th century the London literary language gradually spread all over the country. Another great event was the introduction of printing. The Recuyeil of the Histories of Troy. The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers. Choler (1340-1400) writing on a London dialect has helped much. superseding local dialects.an absolute monarchy.

John Fletcher (1579 .Buchan: To live for a time close to great minds is the best kind of education? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р.1616). Ю. – N.А. Philip Massinger (1583 .1603.1616). and the 80s and 90s witness the rise of a great number of dramatists. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 25 . When we came to the end of the driveway leading to the farmhouse. Benjamin (Ben) Jonson (1573 . Frances Beaumont (1584 .1593). This epoch. The Fun of the Road.Y. which historians usually call Elizabethan after queen Elizabeth I. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. 187).1637). The greatest of these was William Shakespeare (1564 .1640).1599). b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your interpretation of the following observation by J. I cut out the headlights and drove quietly into the yard (John Barth. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. The early poetical works of Wyatt and Surrey were followed by the The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser (1552 . belongs to the period of Early Modern English. who reigned 1558 . The 16th century was a time of great literary achievement. 3.the growth of a national literature.1625). His contemporaries were Christopher Marlowe (1564 . 1969. – p. and many others.: Bantam Books.

and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries. during the Great Vowel Shift. . Originally. the risk of mispronunciation is high. As there are many words from different languages and English spelling is variable. English has continuously adopted foreign words. Analyze text fragment № 25. Modern English is often dated from the Great Vowel Shift. the two highest long vowels became diphthongs. his Dictionary of the English Language. In English. . which took place mainly during the 15th century. Speak on the following theoretical question: New English Period in the History of the English Language 25.e. both in Europe and England. generally accomplished in the 15th century and early 16th century. Samuel Johnson published the first significant English dictionary. Late Modern English has many more words. although it continued for some time after that. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. and the other five underwent an increase in tongue height and one of them came to the front. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. The values of the long vowels form the main difference between the pronunciation of Middle English and Modern English. Latin words were often used with the original inflections. English was further transformed by the spread of a standardised Londonbased dialect in government and administration and by the standardising effect of printing.1. Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of Germanic languages. secondly. the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English. especially from Latin and Greek. and the Great Vowel Shift is one of the historical events marking the separation of Middle and Modern English. However. but these eventually disappeared). the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words. the shift began toward the end of the 15th century and was mostly completed in the 16th century. since the Renaissance. the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the Earth's surface. most notably in the West Country. arising from two principal factors: firstly. It represented a change in the long vowels (i. a vowel shift). (In the 17th century.In 1755. By the time of William Shakespeare (mid-late 16th century). spreading toward the non-metropolitan and non-port areas. but remnants of the older forms remain in a few regional dialects. these vowels had "continental" values much like those remaining in liturgical Latin.

Y. Ю. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.: Bantam Books.3. – p. She slammed the door and walked around to his side of the van before he could drive away (John Irving. 1989. Cider House Rules. Протокол № ………. Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. Analyze text fragment № 26. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How far do you agree with the following statement: Nobody’s privacy is more important than the truth reaching the public? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 26 1. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) . – N.А. 376).

.  4) Newspaper style .  2) Official style is the most conservative one. All integrated by the invariant . For instance the use of special terminology is a lexical characteristics of the style of scientific prose. They are:      1) Official(documents and papers). interrelated and inter-coordinated language means intended to full-fill a specific function of communication and aiming at a defined effect. can be recoquized by one or more leading features which are especially conspicuous. public speech).e. Style of language is a historical category. 2) Scientific (brochures. Each style. It uses syntactical constructions and archaic words. 5) Belles-lettres style(genre of creative writing). Emotiveness is banned out of this style. articles. It is the coordination of the language means and stylistic devices which shapes the distinctive features of each style and not the language means or stylistic devices themselves. however. phenomena and processes characteristics of some particular field of science and technique. Functional styles in English Functional Style is a system of interrelated language means serving a definite aim in communication. They are not homogeneous and fall into several variants of having some central point of resemblance or better to say.  1) scientific style is employed in professional communication to convey some information. Stylistics is a sides that examines the complex of stylistically marked elements of any language level. Also precision clarity logical cohesion.i. The English literary system has evolved a number of styles easily distinguishable one from another.special graphical means are used to attract the readers attention. 3) Publicistic (essay. It‘s most conspicuous feature is the abundance of terms denoting objects.2. Each of mentioned here styles can be expressed in two forms: written and oral. and one by which it can easily be recognized. Speak on the following theoretical question: Functional Styles of English 26. 4) Newspaper style(mass media).  3) Publicistic style is famous for its explicit pragmatic function of persuasion directed at influencing the reader in accordance with the argumentation of the author. A style of language can be fined as a system of coordinated. the abstract ideal system. other scientific publications).

b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How far do you agree with the following statement: Journalists should tell the public the truth. as it was less trouble. He had two large town houses. 114). – M. Ю. and took most of his meals at his club (Oscar Wilde.А. – p. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 27 .: Progress Publishers. Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. The Picture of Dorian Gray. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.5) Belles-lettres style .the richest register of communication besides its own language means. 1979. Протокол № ………. belles-lettres style has a unique task to impress the reader are aesthetically 3. no matter what the consequences? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. but preferred to live in chambers. other styles can be used besides informative and persuasive functions.

handsome. Morphological classification:    ? Root words form absolute antonyms.which can each other in any given context. Antonyms . without the slightest alteration in denotative or emotional meaning and connotations. Speak on the following theoretical question: Synonyms.wrong). intensy. i.the notion common to all synonyms of the group without contributing any additional information as to the manner. dialectical words. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Each group comprises a dominant element. Semantical classification: . duration or any attending feature of the referent.  Dominant . light .cold.derivational antonyms(happy . to peep.  Contextual .1.e. between which a semantic difference is statable. euphemisms.looking. ? The presence of negative affixes creates . Antonyms Synonyms .(write .words of the same category of parts of speech which have contrasting meanings such as hat . to glance. expressive and evaluative overtones. Analyze text fragment № 27.sorrow. shortenings. Look . beautiful.  Absolute .  Stylistic .which differ in the connotational component of meaning. to gaze. conversion.is the most general term of its kind potentially containing the specific features rendered by all the other members of the group. The sources of synonyms: borrowings. happiness . compounds. Types of synonyms: Ideographic . Euphemisms. Pretty .dark. interchangeable in some context. Synonymic dominant .good .are two or more words belonging to the same part of speech and possessing one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings.are synonyms which are similar in meaning only under some specific distributional conditions.e.unhappy).to stare. shift of meaning.synonyms which differ in the denotational component of meaning i. all kinds of emotional.

g.А. not evening. The Wings of the Dove. not night‖.middle . Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 28 .aged .young. behind him. Протокол № ………. sharply close again and the vehicle move off in another direction than his own (Henry James. i. He heard the door.: The New American Library. alive means ―not dead‖ and impatient means ―not patient‖. old and young are the most distant elements of a series like: old .Y. Ю. – p. Do you subscribe to this view? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion The best way to learn is to teach.e.  ? Incompatibles semantic relations of incompatibility exist among the antonyms with the common component of meaning and may be described as the relations of exclusion but not of contradiction: to say ―morning‖ is to say ―not afternoon. 1964. e.  3. – N.? Contradictory notions are mutually opposed and denying one another. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. 466).  ? Contrary notions are also mutually opposed but they are gradable.

well and good. Phraseological units . Communicative phraseological units . Principles of classification. The Koonin‘s classification is the latest outstanding achievement in the Russian theory of phraseology. to loose one‘s heart to smb.include word . that is. c) fussions .groups. to come a cropper(to come to disaster). that is. III.are word .(to fall in love). they are demotivated. to be good at smth. b) unities (единства). Nominative . that is. in contrast to the units. Phraseology.groups with a partially changed meaning. and coordinative phrases of the type wear and tear. Vinogradov‘s classification of phraseological units: a) phraseological combinations (сочетания). Phraseology. . Speak on the following theoretical question: Phraseology. IV. The classification is based on the combined structural . of the type to break the ice . the meaning of the unit doesn‘t correspond to the meanings of its constituent parts.are word . to loose one‘s head (to be out of one‘s mind). Nominative phraseological units .are represented by proverbs and sayings..are word . that is the meaning of the units can be easily deduced from the meanings of its constituents.semantic principle and it also considers the quotient of stability of phraseological units.groups with a completely changed meaning but. b) unities . They may be said to be clearly motivated.groups. a) phraseological combinations .groups. their meaning can‘t be deduced from the meanings of its constituent parts. II.the ice is broken. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. classification of phraseological units. verbal word . Ex. to have a bite…. including the ones with one meaningful word.which are neither nominative nor communicative include interjectional word .communicative phraseological units . Principles of Classification 28. Analyze text fragment № 28. Ex. I.1. c) fussions (сокращения).are represented by word .groups which are transformed into a sentence when the verb is used in the Passive Voice.groups with a completely changed meaning. Ex.

3. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. I took it from her hand and saw that it bore the name of an uptown hotel and then I knew it was the piece of hotel stationary that the derelict playwright began to write on last night when I left him alone
(Tennessee Williams. Moise and the World of Reason. – N.Y.: Bantam Books, 1976. – p. 198).

b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What do you think school of the future will look like?
Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Протокол № ……….

Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв

доц. Ю.А.

Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 29

1. Analyze text fragment № 29. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?)

2. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Verb and Its Categories
29 Paradigmatic and syntigmatic relations in English. Syntagmatic relations are immediate linear relations between units in a segmental sequence. The combination of two words or word-groups one of which is modified by the other forms a unit which is reffered to as a syntactic ‖ syntagma‖. There are four main types of notional syntagmas: predicative (the combination of a subject and a predicate), objective (-/- a verb and its object), attributive (a noun and attribute), adverbial (a modified notional word, such as a verb, adjective, or adverb, with its adverbial modifier). The other type of relations, opposed to syntagmatic and called ―paradigmatic‖, are such as exist between elements of the system outside the strings where they co-occur. Unlike syntagmatic relations, paradigmatic relations cannot be directly observed in utterances, that is why they are reffered to as relations ―in absentia‖. Paradigmatic relations coexist with syntagmatic relations in such a way that some sort of syntagmatic connection is necessery for the realization of any paradigmatic series. This is especially evident in a classical grammatical paradigm which presents a productive series of forms each consisting of a syntagmatic connection of two elements: one common for the whole of the series, the other specific for every individual form in the series. A linguistic unit can enter into relations of two different kinds. It enters into paradigmatic relations with all the units that can also occur in the same environment. PR are relations based on the principles of similarity. They exist between the units that can substitute one another. For instance, in the word-group A PINT OF MILK the word PINT is in paradigmatic relations with the words bottle, cup, etc. The article A can enter into PR with the units the, this, one, same, etc. According to different principles of similarity PR can be of three types: semantic, formal and functional. Semantic PR are based on the similarity of meaning: a book to read = a book for reading. He used to practice English every day - He would practice English every day. Formal PR are based on the similarity of forms. Such relations exist between the members of a paradigm: man - men; play - played - will play - is playing. Functional PR are based on the similarity of function. They are established between the elements that can occur in the same position. For instance, noun determiners: a, the, this, his, Ann‘s, some, each, etc. PR are associated with the sphere of ‗language‘. A linguistic unit enters into syntagmatic relations with other units of the same level it occurs with. SR exist at every language level. E.g. in the word-group A PINT OF MILK the word PINT contrasts SR with A, OF, MILK; within the word PINT - P, I, N and T are in syntagmatic relations. SR are linear relations, that is why they are manifested in speech. They can be of three different types: coordinate, subordinate and predicative.

Coordinate SR exist between the homogeneous linguistic units that are equal in rank, that is, they are the relations of independence: you and me; They were tired but happy. Subordinate SR are the relations of dependence when one linguistic unit depends on the other: teach + er - morphological level; a smart student - word-group level; predicative and subordinate clauses - sentence level. Predicative SR are the relations of interdependence: primary and secondary predication. As mentioned above, SR may be observed in utterances, which is impossible when we deal with PR. Therefore, PR are identified with ‗language‘ while SR are identified with ‘speech‘.

3. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Outside, the rain had stopped, there was only a mist of it in the air, so I turned to corner and walked along the street where the brownstone stands (Truman Capote. Breakfast at Tiffany’s. – L.: Penguin Books,
1958. – p.15).

b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How far do you agree with the following statement: Education is a matter between the person and the world of knowledge; school or college has little to do with it.
Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Протокол № ……….

Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв

доц. Ю.А.

Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови

ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 30

1. Analyze text fragment № 30. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?)

2. Speak on the following theoretical question: Methods and Procedures of the Lexicological Analysis
30. Methods and procedures of lexicological analysis. Due to these processes the certain classification of the methods of lexicological analysis has appeared. Nowadays scientists distinguish: Contrastive analysis( ontrastive analysis also brings to light what can be labelled problem pairs, the words that denote two entities in one language and correspond to two different words in another language. Compare, for example годинник in Ukrainian and clock, watch in English, художник in Ukrainian and artist, painter in English. Contrastive analysis on the level of the grammatical meaning reveals that correlated words in different languages may differ in the grammatical component of their meaning For instance when we answer a telephone call and hear somebody asking for a person whose name we have never heard the usual answer for the Ukrainian speaker would be Ви помилились (номером). The Englishman in identical situation is likely to say Wrong number ..) Statistical methods of analysis (Statistical approach proved essential in the selection of vocabulary items of a foreign language for teaching purposes. Statistical analysis of meaning frequencies resulted in the compilation of A General Service List of English Words with Semantic Frequencies. The semantic count is a count of the frequency of the occurrence of the various senses of 2,000 most frequent words as found in a study of five million running words. Immediate Constituents analysis (Thus the fundamental aim of IC analysis is to segment a set of lexical units into two maximally independent sequences or ICs thus revealing the hierarchical structure of this set. Successive segmentation results in Ultimate Constituents (UC), two-facet units that cannot be segmented into smaller units having both sound-form and meaning. The Ultimate Constituents of the word-group analysed above are: a | black | dress | in | severe | style.) Distributional analysis and co-occurrence (By the term distribution we understand the occurrence of a lexical unit relative to other lexical units of the same level (words relative to

home A phrase.) Componential analysis (Componential analysis is thus an attempt to describe the meaning of words in terms of a universal inventory of semantic components and their possible combinations. a table) or in a more generalised form may be represented as A possesses B. d3 are obtained by means of the following procedure: d1 = 'boy' = 'man' = 'bull' 'girl' 'woman' 'cow' холостяк . d2. in the sentence The boy — home the missing word is easily identified as a verb — The boy went. all elements of which.  his failure (mistake. embarrassment) may be re-patterned into he was arrested (imprisoned and embarrassed) or A is the goal of the action B. came. in the wordgroups consisting of a possessive pronoun followed by a noun.) Contextual analysis concentrates its attention on determining the minimal stretch of speech and the conditions necessary to reveal in which of its individual meanings the word in question is used. . are coded. table) may be re-patterned into he has a car (a pen. In other words by this term we understand the position which lexical units occupy or may occupy in the text or in the flow of speech. his car (pen. L. Transformational analysis (Transformational analysis in lexicological investigations may be defined as re-patterning of various distributional structures in order to discover difference or sameness of meaning of practically identical distributional patterns. including the head-word. For example. For example. his failure. table). for instance to make somebody laugh to V1 Np V2 Another example: Get + N (receive) – get letter Get + Adj (become) – get angry). що ніколи не одружувався) Method of semantic differential (All the methods of semantic analysis discussed above are aimed mainly or exclusively at the investigation of the denotational component of the lexical meaning.words / morphemes relative to morphemes). his goodness. his arrest. is called a distributional pattern. his car. Hjelmslev's commutation deals with similar relationships and may be illustrated by proportions from which the distinctive features d1. ran. attempt) may be represented as he failed (was mistaken.  his arrest (imprisonment. It is readily observed that a certain component of the word-meaning is described when the word is identified distributionally. attempted) or A performs В which is impossible in the case of his car (pen.(фізичний об'єкт) (живий) (людина) (чоловік) (дорослий) (той. In studying this interaction of the polysemantic word with the syntactic configuration and lexical environment contextual analysis is more concerned with specific features of every particular language than with language universals.

23).3. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. – L. Not for the first time I reflected that daughters would have been nice (Catherine Alliott.А. Протокол № ………. A Crowded Marriage. . – p. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Some people believe that getting a well-paid job is essential. while finishing school or university is not. Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц.: Headline Review. Do you agree with this view? Why/Why not? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Ю. 2007.

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