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English Hhh

English Hhh

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1. Analyze text fragment № 1. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?)

2. A T O N E M E N T
3. Ian McEwan 4.

5. There was a crime. But there were also the lovers. Lovers and their happy ends have been on my mind all night long. As into the sunset we sail. An unhappy inversion. It occurs to me that I have not travelled so very far after all, since I wrote my little play. Or rather, I've made a huge digression and doubled back to my starting place. It is only in this last version that my lovers end well, standing side by side on a South London pavement as I walk away. All the preceding drafts were pitiless. But now I can no longer think what purpose would be served if, say, I tried to persuade my reader, by direct or indirect means, that Robbie Turner died of septicaemia at Bray Dunes on 1 June 1940, or that Cecilia was killed in September of the same year by the bomb that destroyed Balham Underground station. That I never saw them in that year. That my walk across London ended at the church on Clapham Common, and that a cowardly Briony limped back to the hospital, unable to confront her recently bereaved sister. That the letters the lovers wrote are in the archives of the War Museum. How could that constitute an ending? What sense or hope or satisfaction could a reader draw from such an account? Who would want to believe that they never met again, never fulfilled their love? Who would want to believe that, except in the service of the bleakest realism? I couldn't do it to them. I'm too old, too frightened, too much in love with the shred of life I have remaining. I face an incoming tide of forgetting, and then oblivion. I no longer possess the courage of my pessimism. When I am dead, and the Marshalls are dead, and the novel is finally published, we will only exist as my inventions. Briony will be as much of a fantasy as the lovers who shared a bed in Balham and enraged their landlady. No one will care what events and which individuals were misrepresented to make a novel. I know there's always a certain kind of reader who will be compelled to ask, But what really happened? The answer is simple: the lovers survive and nourish. As long as there is a single copy, a solitary typescript of my final draft, then my spontaneous, fortuitous sister and her medical prince survive to love. 6. The problem these fifty-nine years has been this: how can a novelist achieve atonement when, with her absolute power of deciding outcomes, she is also God? There is no one, no entity or higher form that she can appeal to, or be reconciled with, or that can forgive her. There is nothing outside her. In her imagination she has set the limits and the terms. No atonement for God, or novelists, even if they are atheists. It was always an impossible task, and that was precisely the point. The attempt was all.

7. I've been standing at the window, feeling waves of tiredness beat the remaining strength from my body. The floor seems to be undulating beneath my feet. I've been watching the first grey light bring into view the park and the bridges over the vanished lake. And the long narrow driveway down which they drove Robbie away, into the whiteness. …
8. 9. (Ian McEwan. Atonemet. – L.: Jonathan Cape, 2001. – p. 370-371.) 10. 11. [(розкаяння)author’s narration in the form of author’s interior monologue. The author recollect the process of writing play and reflect over the problem of truthfulness, the necessary for author to adhere real facts. it’s argumentation.] 1)attachment; lovers.lovers – catch repetition.2)sunset – metaphor; unhappy – emotive one-member epithet. 4)little play – emotive epithet; huge – epithet. 6)pitiless – epithet. 7)say – paranthessis. 8.9.10)that ..-parallel construction. 12) cowardly – epithet; limped back – image verb. 15)or or – polysyndeton. 16)who would want to believe – anaphora; never never – repetition. 17) too too - parallel construction; shred of life – metaphor.18)tide of forgetting – metaphor. 19)courage of my pessimism – metaphor; and and – polysyndeton. 25)single copy, solitary typescript – logical periphrasis.29) no no – polysyndeton; or or or – repetition. 34)waves of tiredness – metaphor.35) undulating – epithet.36)grey light bring into viewmetaphor.)long narrow, vanished – ep. 12. 13.

14. Speak on the following theoretical question: Periodization of the history of the development of the English Language
A short history of the origins and development of English The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from Englaland and their language was called Englisc - from which the words England and English are derived. Old English (450-1100 AD) The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until around 1100. Middle English (1100-1500)

In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling and business classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (c1340-1400), but it would still be difficult for native English speakers to understand today. Modern English Early Modern English (1500-1800) Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. Late Modern English (1800-Present) The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries.

15.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. He followed her that afternoon into the living room, where an older woman was sitting on a sofa (John Cheever. Selected Short Stories. – M.: Progress Publishers, 1980. – p. 88). b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your interpretation of the following statement: Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one – Malcolm Forbes (US publisher)?
Malcolm Forbes suggests that "Education's purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one." It is, then, my belief that nothing is more valuable in this period of human existence than education, for it is only through education that citizens will come to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to survive and thrive in this new knowledge-driven society. Furthermore, it is through exposure to new knowledge and concepts that minds become open to new ideas and possibilities. General Views on Education

Learning is a continual, lifelong process. Thus, it is important that educators avoid attempts to force knowledge upon learners but rather help them realize the importance of education in our society and teach using techniques that give learners a thirst for knowledge. Therefore, the educational experience should be more than simply the gathering of facts and information, but it should also foster the development of a worldview. It is my belief that education is an active rather than a passive process and that we not only learn from the material that is introduced in the classroom but also from the knowledge and the experiences brought into the classroom by the teacher as well as the student. I further believe that education should encourage the acquisition of knowledge not only for the purpose of acquiring the technical and social skills needed to function in the workplace, the classroom, and in society in general, but also for the purpose of appreciating different cultures, different disciplines and different philosophies. Education should affect the person in terms of who he/she is and enable them to better understand their world and those who live in it. Truth and opposing points of view should be welcomed and encouraged so that students may have a broader foundation upon which to develop and build their own worldview. Philosophy of Higher Education As we accept and embrace our changing society and the forces behind those changes such as the globalization of commerce and culture, the advanced educational needs of the high-tech/highperformance workplace, and the impact of new information technologies, a new paradigm in higher education must be considered. I believe that inter- and trans-disciplinary learning is vital in the educational process for today's student. It is imperative that we see sister academic disciplines as complementing and not competing with one another in the educational process. All study should be taught and pursued both objectively and critically, and each subject and discipline must be taught with a multicultural and global perspective. In an effort to enhance student development, satisfaction and success, I believe that increased opportunities for faculty-student interaction and student engagement, both on and off campus, must be encouraged and implemented. There must be an increased focus on the impact that higher education is having on both its students and the communities that are served by our colleges and universities. In addition, I believe that the structure and the various curricular offerings of our institutions of higher learning should take into account the increasing impact of a number of critical social issues that will continue to affect the future of higher education, such as: population growth and density; population aging; political, economic and cultural change due to internationalization; lifelong access to educational opportunities; and the management of an increased volume of new data and knowledge. Philosophy of Education Leadership and Planning The leadership of an institution is critical to its success. A successful education leader must be: a visionary; a team builder and team leader; a good listener; someone who asks the right questions and is able to identify and implement the best course of action for the institution; someone who is not afraid of conflict and respects and openly considers the opposing viewpoints of others; and someone who fully embraces the concept of shared governance and does not rely solely on his/her own limited perspectives, experiences and expertise to guide the institution. The management style of education leaders should be inclusive and leaders must not only lead by example, but also strive to demonstrate high levels of integrity in all of their moral, fiscal and daily dealings.

in order to ensure that higher education serves its expected purpose and that equal opportunities to learn are available to anyone who has an interest in receiving an education. state and national policies that impact education. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 2 1. Analyze text fragment № 2. research and learning opportunities for faculty. staff and students. the higher education community must do the following: take serious the concerns of providing greater access to higher education. look for new ways to partner with external entities that will not only bring in development dollars for the institution but also enhance work. Those in leadership and positions throughout the institution should be sensitive and open enough to their role in the education process that they are able to determine when they are no longer effectively able to propel the mission of the institution forward and a change is needed to. and everyone associated with the institution should understand and accept the mission. services and actions are in line with the overall mission of the institution. invigorate the process of educating and/or serving the needs of the students. The effectiveness of a college or university should be the shared responsibility of its leaders. Rebecca .and long-range goals. activities. the use of technology throughout the curriculum. Furthermore. once again. Considering the many changing needs and expectations of education. and the entire campus community should be engaged in the planning process. organizational structure or its policies of governance. and multiculturalism and diversity. faculty. concerns and best practices of the day warrant such changes. our institutions of higher learning must be flexible and never stagnant or complacent in regards to its academic programs. and look for innovative ways to impact student recruitment and retention. staff and students. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. campus globalization. institutions of higher learning must constantly assess where they are and where they are going.Institutional and strategic planning is critical to the achievement of short. goals and guiding principles of the university and work with others throughout the campus to ensure that all programs. become more vocal in response to local. Institutional leadership must be open to the notion of modifying or changing these components of the institution if the needs. Finally.

The theory of sense . a thought.4. I say. Though two nights only have been spent beneath a roof. how I have advanced one step towards an unknown destiny. when I have done so much of it. We smile we choose our lunch. this moment will not pass. cannot fail to contribute something to the general effect of the message. we see it no more.) 10. not a handkerchief beneath a pillow. as the saying goes. However. in my boxes. We know one another. 9. a moment of our lives. The nagging worry of departure. (Daphne du Maurier. but something indefinable. is a methodical matter of routine. Here I am washing my hands. 49. we have been happy. Nothing material. She stayed behind. not a hair-pin on a dressingtable. Even today.I hate it all. but this is a matter of individual perception and feeling and therefore subjective. It is in combination with other words that a word may acquire a desired phonetic effect. the sound of a word.independence of separate sounds is based on a subjective interpretation of sound associations and has nothing to do with objective scientific data. and we are different. we spoke. unfamiliar room to wash my hands. 8. Perhaps Mrs Van Hopper‘s suite on the first floor exists no more. particularly when the sound effect has been deliberately worked out. it belongs to me. yet we leave something of ourselves behind. unwritten labels. tissue paper lying on the floor. We can never be quite the same again. This has been ours. 2003. suspended as it were. passed on. in time. when shutting drawers and flinging wide an hotel wardrobe. where he is sitting waiting for me at a table. this is me. a funny little cracked mirror above the basin. This is the present. Here. however brief the time. 7. L. 3. 11. the wallpaper peeling in strips. – p. I am aware of sadness. Daphne du Maurier Packing up. changed in some infinitesimal way. older. 6. Lost keys. Even now.: Virago. This house sheltered us. that day I knelt on the floor and fumbled with an awkward catch of her trunk. 5. we speak of this and that. Speak on the following theoretical question: Phonetic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices The sound of most words taken separately will have little or no aesthetic value. for this moment. This can easily be recognized when analyzing . The rooms have been redecorated and the whole interior changed. The way a separate word sounds may produce a certain euphonic effect. not an empty bottle of Aspirin tablets. or more exactly the way words sound in combination. more mature… I saw in a paper the other day that the hotel Hotel Cote d‘Azur at Monte Carlo had gone to new management and had a different name. and going to a dark. Perhaps there is no trace of the small bedroom that was mine. the handle of the door unknown to me. There is no past and no future. I am another woman. of a sense of loss. I knew I should never go back. or the impersonal shelves of a furnished villa. Even stopping for luncheon at a wayside inn. and the cracked mirror shows me to myself. That was yesterday. Today we pass on. we have lived. a mood. And then I open the door and go to the dining-room. we loved within those walls. Rebecca . but – I say to myself – I am not she who left him five minutes ago. when I live. it is mine. and I think how in that moment I have aged.

which represents the sound of bells rung continuously. Incomplete rhymes present a greater variety They can be divided into two main groups: vowel rhymes and consonant rhymes. Consonant rhymes. show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels. It is sometimes called "echo writing". The full rhyme presupposes identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable. thunder. These words have different degrees of imitative quality. Rhyming words are generally placed at a regular distance from each other. sea. Others require the exercise of a certain amount of imagination to decipher it. uncertain rustling of each purple curtain. doubting. 2) strenuously contested.won her". where the repetition of the sound [s] actually produces the sound of the rustling of the curtain. as for instance. sad. Poe). burr. For instance. An example is: And the silken. but the consonants may be different as in flesh .alliterative word combinations or the rhymes in certain stanzas or from more elaborate analysis of sound arrangement. ding . And the silken. particularly at the beginning of successive words: " The possessive instinct never stands still (J. Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech sounds which alms at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind. like most phonetic expressive means. Onomatopoetic words can be used in a transferred meaning. including the initial consonant of the second syllable (in polysyllabic words). Some of them immediately bring to mind whatever it is that produces the sound.fresh -press.forth. on the contrary. as ding-dong. as is the case with the repetition of lexical units. Alliteration. A. Rhyme Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words. Poe).tool -treble .long. Identity and similarity of sound combinations may be relative. Galsworthy) or.) by things (machines or tools. as in "upon her honour . Direct onomatopoeia is contained in words that imitate natural sounds. long I stood there wondering. In verse they are usually placed at the end of the corresponding lines. etc. as rustling of curtains in the following line. in particular consonant sounds. fearing. Modifications in rhyming sometimes go so far as to make one word rhyme with a combination of words.trouble. In vowel-rhymes the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are identical. "bottom – . we distinguish between full rhymes and incomplete rhymes.) by people (singing. Alliteration Alliteration is a phonetic stylistic device which lies in the repetition of similar sounds. does not bear any lexical or other meaning unless we agree that a sound meaning exists as such. uncertain rustling of each purple curtain" (E. tale . Indirect onomatopoeia is a combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense. we have exact or identical rhymes. sad. A. as in worth . in close succession. dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before" (E. flung . etc. may mean 1) noisy. and the term will merely suggest that a certain amount of information is contained in the repetition of sounds. laughter) and animals. bang. Indirect onomatopoeia demands some mention of what makes the sound. "Deep into the darkness peering. cuckoo. But even so we may not be able to specify clearly the character of this meaning.dong. Therefore the relation between onomatopoeia and the phenomenon it is supposed to represent is one of metonymy There are two varieties of onomatopoeia: direct and indirect. or two or even three words rhyme with a corresponding two or three words.

eye . Rhythm is not a mere addition to verse or emotive prose. Rhythm can be perceived only provided that there is some kind of experience in catching the opposite elements or features in their correlation. low and other contrasting segments of speech. In this case we do not perceive two meanings. . Some investigators. superimpose metrical measures on prose. Rhythm intensifies the emotions. In classical verse it is perceived at the background of the metre. The peculiarity of rhymes of this type is that the combination of words is made to sound like one word . Such rhymes are called compound or broken. experience in catching regularity of alternating patterns. what we have called contextual meanings. procedure. variations which are governed by the standard.grave. and. The metre is a strict regularity. Rhythm in verse as a S.forgot them.shot him".rhyme. It contributes to the general sense. But the parametres of the rhythm in verse and in prose are entirely different. D. where the letters and not the sounds are identical. In prose . movement. What is known in linguistics as transferred meaning is practically the interrelation between two types of lexical meaning: dictionary and contextual. Metre is any form of periodicity in verse.prove. is defined as a combination of the ideal metrical scheme and the variations of it. as in love .brood.M. Zhirmunsky suggests that the concept of rhythm should be distinguished from that of a metre. what is of paramount importance. characterized by basically regular recurrence of elements or features. unstressed. high. It is a mighty weapon in stirring up emotions whatever its nature or origin. whether it is musical. etc. When we perceive two meanings of the word simultaneously. Compound rhyme may be set against what is called eye . Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices Words in a context may acquire additional lexical meanings not fixed in the dictionaries. have . Much has been said and writhen about rhythm in prose. Inverse rhythm is regular succession of weak and strong stress. as beat. consistency and unchangeability. in attempting to find rhythmical patterns of prose. its kind being determined by the character and number of syllables of which it consists. which also has its rhythm. The most general definition of rhythm may be expressed as follows: "rhythm is a flow. flood . we are confronted with a stylistic device in which the two meanings interact. The transferred meaning of a word may be fixeв in dictionaries as a result of long and frequent use of the word other than in its primary meaning. A rhythm in language necessarily demands oppositions that alternate: long.by the alternation of similar syntactical patterns. Hence the term transferred should be used signifying th£ development of the semantic structure of the word. or accent. Academician V.rhyme can only be perceived in the written verse. It follows that compound rhyme is perceived in reading aloud. Rhythm is flexible and sometimes an effort is required to perceive it. stressed. which requires specification as to the type of periodicity. Rhythm is a periodicity. There are the following rhythmic patterns of verse: iambus dactul umphibrach anapaest. In accented verse by the number of stresses in a line. In this case we register a derivative meaning of the word. short.a device which inevitably gives a colloquial and sometimes a humorous touch to the utterance. mechanical or symmetrical as in architecture. The latter may sometimes deviate from the dictionary meaning to such a degree that the new meaning even becomes the opposite of the primary meaning. in alternation with opposite or different elements of features" (Webster's New World Dictionary). Rhythm Rhythm exists in all spheres of human activity and assumes multifarious forms.

periphrasis). g. . 2. the cloudy lifeage of the sky d) oral . b) embrace the whole book e. hyperbole. 5. 1.Imagery In philosophy "image" denotes the result of reflection of the object of reality in man's consciousness. conclusions. On this level the creation of images is the result of the interaction of two meanings: direct (denotation) and indirect (figurative). 2.is a pen . ideas might be regarded as images. oxymoron).g. Lexical expressive meanings in which a word or word combination is used figuratively are called tropes. Tenor (direct thought) subjective. Intensification of a feature (simile. g. general. War and Peace. She is sly like a fox (simile). g. Literature . b) primary and derivative (zeugma and pun). Art . The interaction of different types of lexical meaning. T G R V e. 4. The technique of identification (The type of trope).sounds.picture of a thing. verbal . On the sensible level our senses. c) visual e. While informing us of a phenomenon of life it simultaneously expresses our attitude towards it. metonymy. Vehicle (figurative thought) objective. irony). Ground is the common feature of T and V.created by sound imitations Classification of Lexical Stylistic Devices There are 3 groups. a) deal with concrete thing or idea e. Images may be individual. person or idea expressed in a figurative way in their contextual meaning in music . 3.deals with a specific type of artistic images. a) dictionary and contextual (metaphor. The overwhelming majority of Iinguists agree that a word is the smallest unit being able to create images because it conveys the artistic reality and image.reflects the objective reality in human life. On a higher level of thinking images take the form of concepts. c) logical and emotive (epithet. judgements. Thirsty wind. The verbal meaning has the following structure: 1. The relation between T and V. d) logical and nominative (autonomasia). 2. Depending on the level of reflecting the objective reality ( sensual and conceptual) there are 2 types of images: 1.

g. “chatter”. croak. etc. There are some rules of euphony which must not be violated and the most important one is that there must be no rhyme in prose. . honk. It produces a ludicrous effect. They are echoes of natural sounds. Onomatopeia may be direct and indirect.3. Probably there is something to be said in favour of this latter conception. Many verbs denote sounds produced by human beings in the process of communication or in expressing their feelings: “babble”. This last clause requires some explanation. we speak of colour symbolism – black-gloomy. purr. Why not sound symbolism. “titter”. proverbs. As to sounds. epigram. Other authors – Кузнец. moo. rhythm and onomatopoeia (sound imitation). The speaker discussed the source of the force of international law. roar a. “whine”. It is a naming of an action or thing by a more or less exact reproduction of the sound associated with it. e. cackle. euphony. tender feelings. The influence of intonation is so far-reaching that it may bring about a change of the main logical meaning of the word. [s] usually produces an unpleasant effect. hiss. etc. crow. Intonation is one of the most effective means of emotionally influencing the reader. Some authors speak of sound symbolism.o. howl. Скребнев speak of the emotional effect of sounds. There are also verbs imitating the sound . Sound Imitation. “whisper” and many others. red-gay. That is why some authors such as professor Galperin for instance denounce it as something idealistic based on the conception that separate sounds have a meaning of their own. Phonetic expressive means do not exist separately in speech. The different effect produced by different sounds of the person is not sufficiently proved by scientific method as yet. “grumble”. and sound combinations. It colours the whole statement and is an important means of creating emphasis of words and phrases. Peculiar use of set expressions (cliches. “grunt”. But in its wide meaning euphony is understood as a combination of sounds the expressive effect of which corresponds to the general mood or emotional tone of the extract. We shall speak of such expressive phonetic means as means of intonation. [l] – warm. or Onomatopoeia refers to the use of words or combinations of words that imitate some natural sounds. dismal effect. giggle”. [d] – a gloomy. Euphony may be explained as a combination of pleasant sounds that do not jar the ear. birds and insects: buzz. Direct onomatopoeia is a source of word-building. quotations). Then there are sounds produced by animals.

splash and others imitating the noise of metallic things click. when coupled with polysyndeton. The Assistant. Rhythm – a metrical movement determined by various relations of long and short or accented and unaccented syllables.Y.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.of water such as bubble. – p. – N.: Avon Books. Rhythm in prose has a different quality than that in verse. in your opinion? Why/Why not? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. tinkle. Alliteration is a deliberate use of similar sounds in close succession achieving a definite stylistic effect. with enumeration). it is a measured flow of words and phrases in verse or prose. It is a peculiar musical accompaniment of the main idea of the utterance. She spoke to Morris and cautiously asked if he had noticed anything developing between Helen and the clerk (Bernard Malamud. Ю. 1981. There is a certain rhythmical arrangement in sentences with homogeneous members (i. 12. We shall deal with rhythm in prose. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Do you think it might be a good idea to introduce the British system of A-Levels in Ukraine? Would it work.e. It adds emotional colouring to the utterance suggesting the attitude of the writer to what he is describing. but that it exists is undeniable. 148). Завгороднєв .А. esp. and many others.

but she had also turned over on her side and gasped. Hilde had never forgotten how her father had read The Wonderful Adventures of Niles to her. 8. she and her father had had a secret language together that was connected with the book. She had been reading for over two hours.' hut he had waited until now for the final blow. His counterattack was deadly accurate. 7. his daughter would not be allowed to grow up without a thorough warning against that kind of thing. who had arrived like a guardian angel from Lebanon. It was a good thing she was alone in the house. THE GARDEN PARTY 3. Another time she had come home with a set of tarot cards. Clearly. Analyze text fragment № 3. Although it was a long. transfixed. From time to time she had raised her eyes. To be absolutely sure.Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 3 1. a white crow. Once. 5. . . . Next time it was a book on spiritualism. . Then Sophie had her first experience as a lone customer in a cafe. 6. And what she had been through these last two hours! It started with Sophie trying to attract the Major's attention on the way home from the cabin in the woods. Now he had dragged the old goose out again. For many years after that. She felt her arms and her hands tremble. Hilde sat on the bed. long time ago. her father had lectured her about 'superstition' and her 'critical faculty. about a year ago. 9. It was almost eleven o'clock. Hilde had bought a book on astrology. Each time. She had finally climbed a tree and been rescued by Morten Goose. He could have saved himself the trouble …. * * * 4. Hilde had been especially taken with what Alberto said about Sartre and existentialism. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. as they gripped the heavy ring binder. he had waved to her from a TV screen hi a radio store. From the text and laughed aloud. He had almost managed to convert her – although he had done that many times before in the ring binder too.

'Hi.) .' 20.What was going to happen now? What could happen now?' There were only a few pages left in her ring binder. 13.'Sophie's World . – N.'Hi.' 19. Oh. Sophie! We caught the same bus! How nice!' 16. But even so – how could one find a book about oneself j book about oneself? What would happen if Sophie began to that book? 12. not exactly. how curious.Finally Sophie had been given a book about herself. Sophie‘s World. – p.Sophie tried to put it in the bag with all the streamers and balloons she had bought for the party but she didn't quite make it. 15. Sophie – who are you? Where do you come from? Why have you come into my life? 11. 391. . 1999.'No. Was same book that Hilde now had in her hands? This was only a binder.. .10.'You bought a book?' 18.Y. Mom!' 17. no! What would her mother say when she saw the book in Sc hand? 14.What she wondered about most of all was Sophie.: Giroux Inc. (Jostein Gaarder.Sophie met her mother on the bus on her way home from town.

Desire(French)-wish. It consists of 2 layers-the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words. Ex. no phonetic traces of their French origin: table. they are highly polysemantic and productive in forming word clusters and set expressions.Etymological structure of English vocabulary Et of the English language is far from being homogenous. Ex. The reason of borrowings 1. in fact the native stock comprise only 30 % of the total number of the words in the eng vocabulary but the native words are the frequently used words.. the borrowed stock of words is considerably larger than the native stock.: distance. It represents the same concept but in some aspect: a new shade of meaning. cup Other words bear trace of their background..numerically. development (French suffixes). Admire(Latin)-adore( French) When borrowed words become assimilated in the language and the process of assimilation develops to the point when it‘s practically impossible to recognize the origin of a word.the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words In fact native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words in the English vocabulary. The native words have a wider range of lexical and grammatical valency. ―Big in size‖ as first it retained a trace of it‘s former meaning ―wide‖ because it was applied to object with vast horizontal dimension. to fill a gap in vocabulary ―Potato‖. dinner. It consists of two layers . Borrowed words are words taken from another r lang. And modified according to the pattern of t he receiving language. Some Norman borrowings have become fully adopted.‖tomato‖ from Spanish when appeared in English (these vegetables) 2.: cat. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Etymological Structure of the English Vocabulary 3. sky (Scandinavian). No Native Etymologically the vocabulary of the English language is far from being homogenous. Skin. garage. Police.21. .in many cases a borrowed word especially the one borrowed long ago is practicallu indistinguishable from the native word without the etymological analysis The most effective way of borrowing is the direct borrowing from another lang as a result of the contacts with other nations. cafe (French) Stress on the last syllable. Ex.: friendlycordial (Latin).’though the word may be borrowed indirectely not from the source language but through another language.

The Family Way . international and cultural relations. trade. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. TEXT 4 3. – L. words. enrich 22. – p.: Harper Collins. Analyze text fragment № 4.А. 1993. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion If parents disapprove of the way their children are being educated at school.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. to fill the gap in vocabulary. conquests. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. should they have the right to take them away and educate them at home? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. which express some particular notion.Why are words borrowed? Wars. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 4 1. Two elderly men sat together in a room whose furnishings were of the most modern kind (Agatha Christie. 129). Ю. After the Funeral.

At the very most. 'So you decided to learn – what is it? – kung fu?' 14.When she had come back to London after university. Rory explained to Cat how he came to the martial arts. The Family Life. but sometimes you had to wait a while for a good apartment and true bye. The kind of man you might want to have children with. a real mess. all those days spent teaching people to kick and punch and block. And soon nobody pushed me around any more. bullied kid he had once been. rather like her life. 2005. I had concussion.' 'And you mashed up the bullies?' He grimaced. The tough guys didn't like me for some reason. and she realized she liked this man. a place that felt like the home she had been looking for all these years. and the car was five years old and etched with a beading of rust. 12.'I was bullied at school. You could tell he didn't have it in him to start a conversation with anyone. Cat Jewell loved her life. 'It doesn't really work like that. – L. it's a hairdryer' – she loved zipping about town in a car that. At thirty-six. It was true that her flat was the smallest one in the riverside block. A strong but gentle man. In an underground car park. socially awkward. They belonged to her. she had made a life for herself. – p. Thirty years on. 11. To Cat he had seemed an unlikely martial artist — soft-spoken. Tower Bridge glittering just for her beyond her windows. no swagger about him.) .4. 39. Then as the party rapidly degenerated into what Megan said was a typical med school do. Every time she entered her Thames-side flat. who knew about these things.' 13. And I enjoyed it. full of legless nurses and young doctors off their faces on half an E. there was her silver Mercedes-Benz SLK. Then one day they went too far. 16. Tony Parsons 5. Despite his job. made gentle fun of her – ‗That‘s not a sports car.'Karate. she finally had the apartment. Which Cat Jewell was most certainly not. He was standing in the corner at a party celebrating Megan's end of term at medical school. She had worked for them. 7. (Tony Parsons. you could still glimpse the quiet. And I was good at it. They were always pushing me around. Cat. 10. But these things filled her with a quiet pride. was built for two. it felt like she was taking a little holiday from the world. the woman who gave Cat her first proper job told her that you could get anything in this town. And she believed she also had the man. wrinkling his nose. 9.' 15. Almost twenty years after leaving home she had finally found a place of stillness and silence and fabulous riverside views.Cat had met Rory when he was teaching Megan karate. 6. there was a real gentleness about him. After escaping from the prison of her childhood.: Harper Collins. if you were the kind of woman who wanted children. and Cat had taken pity on him. and although her brother-m-law Paulo. broken ribs. 8.

Among the many generative theories of linguistics.17. rather than its communicative function. Generative grammars are among the theories that focus primarily on the form of a sentence. This model could be used to describe all human language and to predict thegrammaticalityof any given utterance (that is. Speak on the following theoretical question: Development of Modern Grammatical Theory: Types of Grammars The hypothesis of generative grammar is that language is a structure of the human mind. Thegoal of generative grammar is to make a complete model of this inner language (known as i-language ). to predict whether the utterance would soundcorrect to native speakers of the language). the Chomskyan theories are: • Transformational Grammar (TG) (Original theory of generative syntax laid out byChomsky in Syntactic Structures in 1957 [4] ) • Government and binding theory(GB) (revised theory in the tradition of TG developedmainly by Chomsky in the 1970s and 1980s). Most generative theories (although not all of them) assume that syntax is based uponthe constituent structure of sentences. This approach to language was pioneered by NoamChomsky. [5] • The Minimalist Program(MP) (revised version of GB published by Chomsky in 1995) [6] Other theories that find their origin in the generative paradigm are .

within the contexts of oral and written discourse. In this way. 1991) . analyze. clauses. and restructure words. clauses." (R. and discourse.. Consider these ten varieties of grammar--and take your pick. phrases. Comparative Grammar The analysis and comparison of the grammatical structures of related languages.Principles and Parameters in Comparative Grammar. One basic distinction worth making is that between descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar (also called usage). different ways of describing and analyzing the structures and functions of language. Freidin. . The intent of the course is to assist students‘ ability to describe. But that's just the beginning. The study focuses on American English texts—spoken and written--and applies traditional. prescriptive grammarians (such as most editors and teachers) try to enforce rules about what they believe to be the correct uses of language. the theory of grammar is a theory of human language and hence establishes the relationship among all languages. and modern linguistic theories to the analysis of English language constructions: words. clauses. structural. The course encourage collaborative learning through mini-conferences and research team Linguists are quick to remind us that there are different varieties of grammar--that is. Both are concerned with rules--but in different ways. and sentences. In contrast.Modern Grammar is the study of the theories and application of English language structural systems as developed since the onset of the Early Modern English period. Specialists in descriptive grammar examine the rules or patterns that underlie our use of words. phrases. . MIT Press. and sentences. phrases. Contemporary work in comparative grammar is concerned with "a faculty of language that provides an explanatory basis for how a human being can acquire a first language .

the phrase structure ruleS → NP VP). but to the properties of thesyntactic categories themselves. The category of transitive verbis defined as an element that requires two NPs (its subject and its direct object) toform a sentence. This complex category is notated as(NP\S) instead of V. which in turn represents a function that searches to the left for an NP and produces a sentence). So the syntactic category for anintransitiveverb is acomplex formula representing the fact that the verb acts as afunctor which requires an NP as aninput and produces a sentence level structure as an output. For example.• Generative semantics(now largely out of date) • Relational grammar (RG) (now largely out of date) • Arc Pair grammar • Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG. NP\S is read as " a category that searches to the left (indicated by \) for a NP(the element on the left) and outputs a sentence (the element on the right)". now largely out of date) • Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) • Lexical-functional grammar (LFG) Categorial grammar Categorial grammar is an approach that attributes the syntactic structure not to rules of grammar. in categorial grammar. such principles are embeddedin the category of theheadword itself.g. This is notated as (NP/(NP\S)) which means "a category that searches to theright (indicated by /) for an NP (the object). and generates a function (equivalent to the VP)which is (NP\S). Dependency grammar .Tree-adjoining grammar is a categorial grammar that adds in partialtree structuresto thecategories. rather than assertingthat sentences are constructed by a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP)(e.

2003) . Mental Grammar The generative grammar stored in the brain that allows a speaker to produce language that other speakers can understand. Some theories based within this approach are: • Optimality theory • Stochastic context-free grammar 1.Some dependency-based theories of syntax: • Algebraic syntax • Word grammar • Operator Grammar Stochastic/probabilistic grammars/network theories Theoretical approaches to syntax that are based upon probability theoryare known asstochasticgrammars. 1965). this capacity for language is called the Language Faculty (Chomsky. "All humans are born with the capacity for constructing a Mental Grammar. Oxford Univ. rather than being based in constituent structure. Dynamical Grammar: Foundations of Syntax II. Press. A grammar formulated by a linguist is an idealized description of this Mental Grammar. rather than describing the relationsin terms of phrases." (P. 1994) 2. a generative grammar is a theory of competence: a model of the psychological system of unconscious knowledge that underlies a speaker's ability to produce and interpret utterances in a language. Linguistics for Non-Linguists. W. Parker and K. For example. One common implementation of such an approach makes use of aneural network or connectionism. syntactic structure is described in terms of whether a particular nounis thesubjector agentof theverb. Nowak.Dependency grammar is a different type of approach in which structure is determined by therelations(such asgrammatical relations) between a word (a head ) and its dependents. Riley. Generative Grammar The rules determining the structure and interpretation of sentences that speakers accept as belonging to the language. given linguistic experience. Allyn and Bacon. Culicover and A. "Simply put." (F.

and in providing scientific arguments or explanations in favour of one account of grammar rather than another. Reference Grammar A description of the grammar of a language. . to walk. by T. verbs can be defined as words making up the predicate of the sentence. "Pedaogical grammar is a slippery concept. to resemble. to like. it is my belief that the problem of production must be dealt with before problems of reception and comprehension can properly be investigated. relation (e. And relational grammar. state (e. Rodopi. Pedagogical Grammar Grammatical analysis and instruction designed for second-language students. . verbs can be described as words denoting actions (e. "Theoretical grammar or syntax is concerned with making completely explicit the formalisms of grammar. Theoretical Grammar The study of the essential components of any human language. Press. And that brings to mind arc pair grammar.The Changing Face of Corpus Linguistics. "Words and Their Properties: Arguments for a Lexical Approach to Pedagaogical Grammar. is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language. Investigations in Universal Grammar.General characteristics of the verb and its categories??????internet According to content. Little. process (e. Press of America. Verbs can be classified under different heads.g. 2003) 7. Performance Grammar A description of the syntax of English as it is actually used by speakers in dialogues. 1985) 5. to sleep. . D. W." (S." (D. Crain and R. "Promoting Language Skills. .g. the Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English(1999). clauses. There's word grammar. "Taken together. 4. "[P]erformance grammar . head-driven phrase structure grammar . the term 'rule' is used not for a precept set down by an external authority but for a principle that is unconsciously yet regularly followed in the production and interpretation of sentences. to be. Not to mention cognitive grammar. Odlin. to speak. The chief goal of traditional grammar. 6. A rule is a direction for forming a sentence or a part of a sentence. Routledge. .According to form. to live). Transformational Grammar A theory of grammar that accounts for the constructions of a language by linguistic transformations and phrase structures. lexical functional grammar. therefore. Cambridge Univ. (1985)." (J. 2000) If ten varieties of grammar aren't enough for you.g. by Randolph Quirk et al. Williams. to wait. verbs can be described as words that have certain grammatical features that they have the categories of tense. Kehoe. and The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002).3. to lack) and the like. operations. ." (D. rest assured that new grammars are emerging all the time. a theory of the human faculty for language. Carroll. in terms of a general theory of human language. 2005) 8. Anderson. by L. 1984) 9. Examples of contemporary reference grammars in English include A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. to consist." Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar. phrases. centers attention on language production. and many more. to play).g. ed. The Teacher's Grammar Book. and sentences. ed. . aspect. and principles shared by all human languages and considered to be innate. which has been internalized by the native speaker. (2) pedagogical content-reference sources of one kind or another that present information about the target language system. Univ. Erlbaum. Traditional Grammar The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of the language. "In transformational grammar. 1994) 4. the linguistic principles of Universal Grammar constitute a theory of the organization of the initial state of the mind/brain of the language learner--that is. voice and etc. for instance. Universal Grammar The system of categories. An Introduction to Transformational Grammar. . according to a pre-established standard." (A. MIT Press. and (3) combinations of process and content. According to function. "We say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it." Perspectives on School Learning: Selected Writings of John B. to know). with explanations of the principles governing the construction of words." (John Carroll. The term is commonly used to denote (1) pedagogical process--the explicit treatment of elements of the target language systems as (part of) language teaching methodology. Thornton. Bornstein. Renouf and A.

together they form a modal predicate.. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your take on the following: Petty crimes are punished. 24).: Bantam Books. to open. 18. and the action can go on indefinitely. To put it differently. great . e. We find three persons (the first. The party is at eight. It became very hot by noon. Notional verbs always have a lexical meaning of their own and can have an independent syntactic function in the sentence.g. Mood. Maria stood up and went to the table and picked up a sheet of paper and handed it to Sherman and returned to the edge of the bed (Tom Wolfe. According to their meaning and function in the sentence English verbs are classified into notional and structural ones. Voice. (e. to speak. The finitive forms of the verb have the following grammatical categories: 1. 2.g.1. You must dress suitably for it) A link-verb is followed by a predicative. e.finitive or non-predicative forms can have various other functions. to live. the second and the third) and the two numbers (the singular ant the plural) in finitive verbs.Y.g. 1988. Person and Number. (e. Terminative verbs imply a limit beyond which the action cannot continue. According to their meaning verbs can be divided into two groups .) When a verb is used as a structural word. it may either preserve or lose its lexical meaning. – p.g. 4. to play. 3.terminative and durative verbs. they have a final aim in view.) English verbs are characterized by a great variety of forms which can be divided into two main groups according to the function they perform in the sentence: the finite forms and the non-finite forms. they are used as the predicate of the sentence only by way of exception. The finite forms have the function of the predicate in the sentence and may also be called the predicative forms. Tense. – Toronto/N. The non. Here belong modal verbs and link-verbs. During the war he lived in London. to sit. (e. Aspect and Phase. A modal verb is always accompanied by an infinitive . The Bonfire of the Vanities. to know. to close Durative verbs do not imply any such limit.g. together they form a nominal predicate. to carry.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.

Two psychiatrists formulated this hypothesis: jazz is essentially a protest music. An attempt has been made by social scientists to explain the appeal of jazz.ones are rewarded? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. The criticisms are not valid. its melodies a series of clichés and its rhythms monotonously simple. And of these. intellectuals and adolescents. its followers choose it as a way of expressing resentment towards the world in general. It should be judged by separate and distinct standards. The general public has rejected jazz because they think of it in connection with the lax moral standards that surround it. 5. Ю. Marshall Stearn 4. JAZZ STANDS ACCUSED of being unnatural. For the very reason that it is looked down upon by the general public.Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 5 1. The three main groups to whom it appeals are those who isolate themselves from normal standards – negroes. Its harmonies appear childish. existing only at the moment of creation. abnormal and just plain unhealthy. Nothing could be further from the truth. jazz seems to be made-to-order for the adolescent. Протокол № ………. Завідувач кафедри доц. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Analyze text fragment № 5. The Appeal of Jazz 3. . they arise from a failure to realize that jazz is a separate and distinct art.А.

Mewnham. then resentment and hostility. nowadays. then conflict. Yglesis. Jazz is essentially a social growth with deep roots. Much of the cheapness of jazz has been imparted by its commercialization. and pretentiousness has little place. It is an art in which insincerity is detected. understandably. He is trapped. While there is undeniable truth in this theory. But with jazz.C. the most) set the group apart. The adolescent is. To these it gives an emotional and artistic satisfaction.. he now belongs to a tight little group of sympathizers. 9. Who can. At the same time. and seems to explain the 'jitterbugs' of the thirties and the 'rock' of the mid-fifties. it does nothing to explain the large following of those who take a mature interest in this form of music.R. 7. I. Becoming a jazz addict is a good (and adequately noisy) way to protest against society. There are sudden pressures upon him to grow up. he can have his cake and cat it.: Longmans Green and Co.6. – Marshall Stearn. and it fits a certain type. childishly exaggerated jargon (the greatest. a cult with ready-made and dependable opinions. it is creative and often inspired and can be a rich and rewarding experience. caught between childhood and adulthood. There is a distinction. . one must consider whether any great art is created by people who are merely against this or that. realistically founded in sorrow and pain. The jazz community reflects their views. unusual appearance (goatees. 169). and at the same time. He has good reason. a rebel. which often creates taste and then feeds it with 'pop-food' of little value. 8. JaZZ. (J. hold it securely together. – L. there are opposing pressures. – p. Ltd. deny that there is great art in jazz? And if there is. The faddish clothes. On the other hand. Pleasure in English. beards). together with all the exhibitionism of modern popular jazz which prevents it from becoming 'respectable'. leave home and be an independent creative adult. 1965. and eventually triumphing over them. Genuine jazz does not suffer fools gladly.M. At first comes confusion. exhibitionism is tolerated.

who stated that in actual speech we utter a much greater variety of sounds than we are aware of.V. interdental. nasal(m. velar))  According to the work of vocal cords (voiced and voiceless. affricates(ts. N. English consonants and vowels as units of phonological system). d3))  According to the active organs of speech and point of articulation (labial. The system of English phonemes is classified into consonants and vowels. Following are the two major views : 1.S. Jones he defined the phoneme as a ―family‖ of sounds. He originated the so called ―mentalist‖ view of phoneme. They can be found in contrastive sets. front-retracted. independent distinctive unit which manifests itself in the form of allophones. cacuminal. central. backadvanced. palatal. The ―abstract‖ view regards the phoneme independent of the phonetic properties. A consonant is a sound produced with an obstruction to the air stream.n n)) Vowels are classified:  According to the horizontal position of the tongue (front. V. R. back)  According to the vertical position of the tongue (close. The physical view on the phoneme was originated by D. open) . 3). Bloomfield.In the American structuralist tradition. lingual(forelingual. which are capable of distinguishing the meaning and the purpose of social intercommunication. Consonants(21 consonants letters) can be classified according to the following principles :  According to the type of obstruction (occlusivepb t dk mn. A vowel is a voiced sound produced in the mouth with no obstruction to the air stream. apical.4). His theory of phoneme was developed and perfected by L. The members of family show phonetic similarity.Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay defined the phoneme as a psychical image of sound. Shcherba was the first to define the phoneme as a real.2). a phoneme is defined according to its allophones and environments. There are different opinions to the nature of phoneme and its definition. The theory was advocated by their pupils in the Copenhagen Linguistic Circle. the system of English phonemes. Speech sounds are divided into consonants and vowels.The abstractional conception of the phoneme was originated by Ferdinand de Saussure. Trubetskoy. A phoneme is the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language. lenies and forties)  According to the position of the soft palate (oral. the famous Swiss linguist and the Danish linguist Hjelmslev. mid-open. Shcherba – the head of the Leningrad linguistic school. constrictivef v th. and that in every language these sounds are united in a comparatively small number of sound types. alveolar. ( The phoneme. Functional aspects of speech sounds. The founder of the phoneme theory was Polish linguist Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay. Speak on the following theoretical question: Functional Aspects of Speech Sounds (vowels and consonants) 5. main trends in phoneme theory.Phonologists have differing views of the phoneme. They stated that the features of the phoneme involved in the differentiation of words are called distinctive. 3 r j.2.In the generative tradition. L. Jakobson viewed the phoneme as the minimal sound units by which meanings may be differentiated.10. 1). a phoneme is defined as a set of distinctive features.

Ann Chesney 4. and the strips in daily papers have an even stronger . The New Educators 3. First among Equals.А. disguised advertisements in comics. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your take on the following observation by Th. – p. as it once did. nor from schools. WHETHER WE LIKE it or not. – N. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. 232). but from advertisers. Television. as we may suppose. 1985. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 6 1. He still hoped that he could pay off all his creditors even if the shares he and his fellow directors held remained worthless (Jeffrey Archer.Eddison: Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration. the women's magazines whose popularity and circulation continue to grow. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. Ю.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Analyze text fragment № 6. more and more of the practical education of children today is coming not from mothers.11. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р.Y.: Pocket Books.

to whom the fallacious arguments common to all politicians would be less persuasive. popularity. But they ought to be given the opportunity to see what they are doing. The Guardian – p. Advertising is inculcating a set of very alarming moral attitudes. either dangerous or more often ineffective.M. . Surely it is time that universal education caught up with universal suffrage? On a practical level. there are further objections to the unrestricted influence of advertising. Ltd. Playing on this.: Longmans Green and Co. Pleasure in English. Mewnham. rather than the fresh meat and potatoes. representing the same outlay of money. 6. Yet it is a very undesirable thing that a group of commercial interests should be having so strong an influence with so little counter-attack from parents and teachers. for their luscious illustrations and mnemonic slogans are far more effectively and attractively presented than school lessons and they teach very easily assimilable ideas. a widespread critical approach to advertising methods would also produce a more intelligent electorate. Expensive slimming preparations. unless consumers are given a standard to judge by. – Ann Chesney. People. (J.C. Domestic science courses in schools should not ignore these advertising pressures: they should teach resistance to the hard sell and point to specific untruths. it is now a reality of British life and a nasty one. and be believed. but usually with a colder touch than the ‗gives a meal man-appeal‘ and ‗Sunday-best taste‘ slogans. Another practical point is that there is every incentive to buy the mostadvertised and the glossiest-packaged foods. It is a particularly odious form of snobbery: that you are not as good as the next person unless you have the same group of material possessions. – L. it could hardly be otherwise. For real human misery can result from such things as failure to keep up with hire-purchase payments on equipment that was never really needed at all. and generally have less resistance. In any case. I. Advertising shapes attitudes unconsciously.5. Incidentally..R. influence. one claim seems no truer than another. in either romantic or pseudo-scientific terms. It is true that some important fresh foods are currently advertised: eggs. 8. Keeping up with the Joneses is something to do. 80). are sold on the same kind of appeal. There is no reason why people should not be free to be extravagant if they choose. sex-appeal.1965. should be shown ways of resistance. One obvious one is that girls are surely particularly vulnerable while adolescent to advertisements which promise a magic way to prettiness. Children are bombarded by all these at least as much as adults. Yglesis. 7. although too heavy use of cosmetics on young skins can be really harmful. cheese and some kinds of fruit. and especially children. the manufacturers of beauty products can claim what they will. and more self-confidence.

They associate "good" grammar with the prestige forms of the language. disaffected students who can produce correct forms on exercises and tests. hear the word "grammar" and think of a fixed set of word forms and rules of usage. and use the language in communication activities. Speak on the following theoretical question: Exercises for Teaching Grammar(www. . This results in bored.: Granada. they expect students to learn their second language the same way.nclr. – p. The communicative competence model balances these extremes. They teach grammar by explaining the forms and rules and then drilling students on them. – L.org) Grammar is central to the teaching and learning of languages. including language teachers. Believing that children acquire their first language without overt grammar instruction. and "bad" or "no" grammar with the language used in everyday conversation or used by speakers of nonprestige forms. but consistently make errors when they try to use the language in context. read. This approach does not allow students to use one of the major tools they have as learners: their active understanding of what grammar is and how it works in the language they already know. The model recognizes that overt grammar instruction helps students acquire the language more efficiently. but it incorporates grammar teaching and learning into the larger context of teaching students to use the language.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Other language teachers. tend not to teach grammar at all.9. 10. Brave New World. 138). It is also one of the more difficult aspects of language to teach well. They assume that students will absorb grammar rules as they hear. Many people. such as those used in writing and in formal oral presentations. 1984. Instructors using this model teach students the grammar they need to know to accomplish defined communication tasks. He was obscurely terrified lest she should cease to be something he could feel himself unworthy of (Aldous Huxley. influenced by recent theoretical work on the difference between language learning and language acquisition. Language teachers who adopt this definition focus on grammar as a set of forms and rules.

serves as a seat. but which is filled instead with dead mud and litter. for a while. There is a strange bench at the corner. A ledge in the concrete. constructed from what is at hand. ANGER is a place to put things. It serves a purpose. puts his hands in his pockets and takes . angry. temporary. contained only by the hardness of the anger. And when what it holds is strong. It is a weak structure. Robert sits there. Ю. and the failure to understand. The contents rattle and knock against the edges. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. His legs are stretched out before him and crossed at the ankle. It is like a refuge. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. anger is brittle and thin. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 7 1. He folds and unfolds his arms. It is a circular heap of concrete with a flat hollow top where flowers should be. filled with huddled fears. the upper foot twitching furiously. its width and its depth.b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Please elaborate on the following proverb: Good laws spring from bad morals. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Keith Ridgway 4. THE PROBLEM WITH GERMAN 3. and confusion.А. The bench is ugly and the wood is scratched and written on. Analyze text fragment № 7. lined with wooden slats. and cold.

After all.S. rearranging his arms once more. then surely he would realize. resuming his twitching. (New Writing 6. For silence? No. He will sit here and wait. but in the end staying exactly where he finds himself – sitting in anger on the ugly bench. for even a moment. something so precise and to the point and perfect. a couple of shadows moving about in its gloom. and he will apologize. It is dusk now. come all this way. But he does not want a drink. When he looks to his right it is a distant corner that interests him. A. – p. his insides raging. and that will be that. He should apologize. deciding to go here and there and elsewhere. Something memorable. except for a kind of craning.5. about how he had behaved. He will do nothing. It is not up to him to do anything. that it will cover everything. . and he will feel in his heart what Robert feels. about how he had left everything unsaid after all this time. Ed. Maybe Karl will speak first. An Anthology. and speak about the future and will not need to be told. will say something angry. Then Karl will realize what has been going on. Karl will stop when he sees him. He decides to leave it until the moment. 6. What the problem is. 186). and then approach him and sit down. looking up at the sky and down at the hard ground where the grass is losing its colour. and quite cold. them out again. and he will realize what he needs to realize. 8. and they will sort it out.: Vintage. And anyway. Robert had. 7. and then slowly turns back again in an arc. 1997. Across the street is a bar. And Robert. He wants Karl to see him. fixing on one thing and then another. Maybe he will have spent this time on his own considering everything that has happened and not happened. of sitting at the window and watching the distant corner from there. its window filling with a watery grey light. about why it is he is on his own in the launderette. Robert considers what he might say. It would not take a lot of figuring out. and then he could not possibly fail to realize what the situation is. Robert smokes a cigarette and decides what to do. Across Europe. moving his head through the same arc. if he thought for a moment. It should be like that. There will be no need for anything else to be said. after a long pause. If he even spent half a minute thinking about what had gone on in the last ten days. And then he looks away again. and he will apologize. He will stay where he is and do nothing. Karl would not see him in there. about how he had treated Robert. after all. Every few moments his head jerks tightly to his right and stays still. He thinks of going in for a drink. – L. And every time a figure appears from around that corner Robert squints at it for a moment without moving. He jumps from one notion to the next. a barely perceptible stretching. Porter. Byatt & P.

to be aware of any connotations and associations the word might have 3) Word formation. i. i.e. it still remains the matter of memory. 1988 the principles are: . i. to . Thus. However many theories about vocabulary learning process were written . which words. knowledge of its collocations. as well as style and register (the appropriate level of formality).e. how many . knowing a word involves knowing its form and its meaning at the basic level. without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. relate the word to an appropriate object or context 2) Usage. Generally.frequent exposure and repetition . there are several general principles for successful teaching .e. Speak on the following theoretical question: Testing Vocabulary (methodological aspect) David Wilkins summed up the importance of vocabulary for language learning: “Without grammar very little can be conveyed.aim – what is to be taught. ability to spell and pronounce the word correctly. According to Wallace. The students’ aim to be reached in learning vocabulary process is primarily their ability to recall the word at will and to recognize it in its spoken and written form. which are valid for any method. metaphors and idioms.9. In deeper aspects it means the abilities to know its (Harmer 1993): 1) Meaning.need – target vocabulary should respond students’ real needs and interests .meaningful presentation – clear and unambiguous denotation or reference should be assured Learning vocabulary is a complex process.

125). Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. Harry of Monmouth. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. 4) Grammar. – p. Jeanette Winterson . O'Brien's First Christmas 3. Maughan. to use it in the appropriate grammatical form 10. He feared that his father might die while he alone was with him (A. Analyze text fragment № 8.e. 1956. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.Y.: Bantam Books. Ю.А.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Please elaborate on the following proverb: Punishment is always a two-edged sword.M. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 8 1. – N.know any derivations (acceptable prefixes and suffixes). i.

4. If you were to lay its-merchandise from end to end. 1996. 10. TWENTY-SEVEN SHOPPING DAYS TILL CHRISTMAS. 6. 'Snow for Christmas. At thirty-five per cent staff discount. Even in the hectic twentyseven days before Christmas. O'Brien worked in the pet shop. . who looked normal.So it was like aerobics after all. meant that two-thirds of the known world would be eating sticky stuff or spreading it over themselves from December 25th onwards. This phenomenon. 5. She poured out a measure of hand and body lotion and broke open a fondant cream. He had suggested they get married by special license. 'carries germs. it made sense for her to have a pet of her own. –p. 'Hair. She had once answered a Lonely Hearts advertisement and had dinner with a small young man who mended organ pipes. probably in a village that no one visited stood a factory dedicated to the manufacture of pale yellow sticky stuff waiting to be dispatched in labelless vats to profiteers who traded exclusively in Christmas. She had asked him why he was in such a hurry. no mass exodus of goods could have made the slightest impression on the well-stocked shelves. enough money. starting with a silk stocking and ending with a plastic baby Jesus.' he said. Customers. 139). shoppers enjoyed the kind of solidarity we read about in the war years. 'I have a heart condition. 9. as far as O'Brien could calculate. didn't like what she called 'stray molecules'. clean log fires courtesy of the Gas Board. 8. She had watched women stacking their baskets with hand and body lotion in attractive reindeer wrap.' said one. by D. – L. 7. She didn't have a young man. Anyone who looked up could see it. a Christian Scientist. enough presents. and what is hairier than an animal?' So O'Brien faced another Christmas alone. then a whirlwind of angels. trumpets rampant. The department store was very large. It seemed rather like going to advanced aerobics when you couldn't manage five minutes on an exercise bicycle. 50th Anniversary Short Story Collection. 11. followed by a stream of dancing Santas. Ed. whatever they demolished returned. but her landlady. Every year she prayed for an ordinary miracle to take her away from the swelling round of ageing aunts who gave her knitted socks and asked about her young man. (Woman’s Hour. In the department store.' she said. The opulence of the store defeated all shoppers. She lived alone and worked in the pet shop for company. It made no difference.: Penguin Books. you would encompass the world. O'Brien didn't like Christmas. People made way for one another in the queues and chatted about the weather and the impending snowfall. O'Brien had declined on the grounds that a whirlwind romance would tire her out after so little practice. in red letters. Speirs. 'that's how it should be. and snow for the children. had fallen in delight upon pyramids of fondant creams packed in 'Bethlehem by night' boxes. Somewhere.' It was right and nice. There was none of the vulgar pushing and shoving so usually associated with peak-time buying. the filling seemed to be the same in both.

/kheit/ before the vowel. 3) double. Assimilation is a modification of a consonant under the influence of a neighbouring consonant. g. when the second of the two sounds affected by assimilation makes the "first sound similar to itself. A brief period of voicelessness is heard after the hold of /p. Speak on the following theoretical question: Articulatory transition of vowel and consonant phonemes 8. t. when the first of the two sounds affected by assimilation makes the second sound similar to itself. k/. /tl/. call —. Kate /phi:t/. For example: in the words act. keen. in desks. when the two adjacent sounds influence each other. c) Labialization in English (no lip protrusion) Paul — tool. pull —. Ikll are pronounced with the "loss of plosion" — /kt/ and lateral plosion — /tl/. Ikll. t. bottle. pegs. Assimilation is the chief factor under the influence of which the principal variants of phonemes are modified into subsidiary ones. or reciprocal. Cases of loose and close articulatory transition can be observed on: a) the mechanism of the aspiration of the initial stressed /p. types of assimilation: I) progressive. t. interpenetration of stages — when the final stage of the first sound penetrates not only the beginning but also the middle of the second sound — close type of articulatory transition Interpenetration of stages takes place when sounds of a similar. e. loose type of articulatory transition For example in the word law the two sounds / l / and /o:/are joined by way of merging their stages. k/ in English. k/.g. g. e. 2) regressive. which sounds like a puff of air after the release of the stop: Pete. or identical nature are joined together. vehicle the clusters /kt/. e. g. which follows /p.12. merging of stages — when the final stage of the first sound merges with the initial stage of the second sound. twice HI is rounded under the influence of /w/ and /w/ is partly devoiced under the influence of the voiceless/ t / When a consonant is modified under the influence of an adjacent vowel or vice versa this phenomenon is called adaptation or accommodation. tune. /thik/. . assimilated to the interdental Idl which follows it. in the combination at the the alveolar HI becomes dental. e. tick.tall —. boor —. Articulatory transition of vowel and consonant phonemes. Aspiration is a delay in the onset of voicing. cool . the sounds Ikl and /g/ make the plural inflection /s/ similar to the voiceless Jkl in /desks/ and to the voiced /g/ in /pegz/.

g.zd/ sequences: cleft palate /'kief Syllables have different structural types: a syllable can be formed by a vowel: (V) in English. Elision can be historical and contemporary. CVcovered open/ 13. d/ in a) /ft. Завгороднєв . Fifth Business. – p. 81). Jt. CVC. a box of I matches e box 9v metsiz.А. write /rait/. Diana was ashamed because she thought she might have hurt my feelings (Robert Davis. but music takes us by surprise (E. – L. walk /wa:k/. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your understanding of the following: The other arts persuade us. g. may be pronounced without/v/in /9V/e box 9 metsiz.covered closed.Hanslick)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. castle /ikarsl/. V-types of syllable called uncovered close. knee /ni:/. VC. iron /'aian/. Ю. vd. Waste paper /weis peipe/ in rapid or careless speech//. The most common cases of contemporary elision are the following: elision of /t. English spelling is full of "silent" letters which bear witness to historical elision. 0t.When one of the neighbouring sounds is not realized in rapid or careless speech this process is called elision. etc. st.: Penguin Books. e.types uncovered closed.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. knight /nait/. by a vowel and a consonant: (VC) in English. by a consonant and a sonorant (CS). 1977. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. e.

The river. A broad. Not only does he bring in the tourists – look. Yugoslavian streets are always busy – no one stays home if they can help it (thus can an indecent shortage of housing space create a sociable nation) and it seemed as if by common consent a shield of bobbing umbrellas had been erected two metres high to keep the rain off the streets. swift. This is a sad story. Fay Weldon 4. 'Come all this way. 5. two footprints set into a pavement which mark the spot where the young assassin Princip stood to shoot the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. as everyone knows. 6. the archduchess. in the centre of Yugoslavia. He was supervising my thesis on varying concepts of morality and duty in the early Greek States as evidenced in their poetry and drama. It just hadn't worked around Princip's corner. that grouping of unlikely states. Balkan style. (Don't forget his wife: everyone forgets his wife. Forty million dead (or was it thirty?) but who cares? So long as he loved his country. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. the very spot! –but by his action. mountain-rimmed. the crumbling of which made modern Yugoslavia possible. arched by many bridges. I shivered for his disappointment. they say. Ind Aff or Out of Love in Sarajevo 3.' Ah. Today. 8. and we had expected fine weather. Sarajevo is a pretty town. I was dependent upon him for my academic future. he lit a spark which fired the timber which caused World War One which crumbled the Austro-Hungarian Empire. I had a feeling first-class minds weren't all that good in bed. He said I had a good mind but not a first-class mind and somehow I didn't take it as an insult. can run so shallow in the summer it's known derisively as 'the wet road'. just two undistinguished puddles. but I loved him. It has to be. look. Analyze text fragment № 9. carrying the mountain snow away. It rained in Sarajevo. 'and you can't even see the footprints properly. shallow river runs through its centre. The rain filled up Sarajevo's pride. the spot.' said Peter. The one nearest the two footprints has been named the Princip Bridge. from what 1 could see through the sheets of falling rain.Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 9 1.) That was in the summer of 1914. Sarajevo is in Bosnia. 7. who was a professor of classical history. it seemed full enough. The young man is a hero in these parts. that distillation of languages into the phonetic reasonableness of .

We'd sheltered from the rain in an ancient mosque in Serbian Belgrade. It was raining on his wife. and recover from the exhaustion caused by the sexual and moral torments of the last year. Ed. 1996.: Penguin Books. too.Serbo-Croatian. in fact. To this end we had gone away. by D. into Asia – practically all the way from Moscow to London. now we spent a wet couple of days in Sarajevo beneath other people's umbrellas. over the Balkans. No. It wasn't that Peter and myself were being singled out. done the same in a monastery in Croatia. back in Cambridge. to swim and lie in the sun. –p. if not with his wife's blessing. (Woman’s Hour. 9. on the coast. as he had been for the past year. . – L. off the beaten track. where the fish and the artists come from. between his wife and myself as his permanent life partner. 50th Anniversary Short Story Collection. It couldn't possibly go on raining for ever. Speirs. at least with her knowledge. for a holiday. Could it? Satellite pictures showed black clouds swishing gently all over Europe. Peter was trying to decide. 35). We planned to go on to Montenegro. 10.

The procedure consists of two operations: 1) the stem is separated from the inflection by means of comparing wordforms of the word. the analyzed text is divided into recurrent segments consisting of phonemes. Three main types of distribution are discriminated: contrastive. 12 Complementary distribution concerns different environments of formally different morphs which are united by the same meaning. transformational grammar. playing). The morphemic analysis based on the distributional analysis gave rise to such notions as morph.distributional. Morphemic analysis.11. noncontrastive and complementary. phonemic distribution of morphemes and morphemic distribution of morphemes are discriminated. Oppositional. If two or more morphs have the same meaning and the difference in their form is explained by different environments. Distributional analysis. glasses). played. At the first stage.). adjoining elements in the text. or ―free variants‖ of the same morpheme (eg. Such morphs constitute ―free alternants‖. burned. e.IC analyses. The study is conducted in two stages. The morphs are said to be in noncontrastive distribution if their meaning is the same. etc. etc. The theory of Immediate Constituents (IC) was originally elaborated as an . At the second stage. Contrastive and non-contrastive distribution concern identical environments of different morphs. morpheme. To state the borders between morphemes correctly. Speak on the following theoretical question: Morphological Level and its Units 9. The morphs are said to be in contrastive distribution if their meanings are different. i. The procedure of the morphemic analysis states the morphemic structure of the word. allomorph. 2) relations between morphemes in the stem are stated by means of comparing cognate words. Such morphs constitute different morphemes (eg. The environment of a unit may be either ―right‖ or ―left‖. it is necessary to study the word in a row of words which are structurally similar (words with the same root and suffixes). the environmental features of the morphs are established and the corresponding identifications are effected. The distributional analysis is used to fix and study the units of language in relation to their contextual environments. these morphs are said to be in complementary distribution and considered the allomorphs of the same morpheme (eg. The morphemic analysis (sometimes also called morphological) is one of possible methods of analyzing word structure along with the word-building analysis. In other words by this term we understand the position which lexical units occupy or may occupy in the text or in the flow of speech. These segments are called ―morphs‖. The morphemic analysis is a process of singling out morphs in a word and stating their meaning. IC-analysis By the term distribution we understand the occurrence of a lexical unit relative to other lexical units of the same level (words relative to words / morphemes relative to morphemes. girls. burnt). desks. Structural types of grammar. In the distributional analysis at the morphemic level. The distribution of a unit is the sum total of all its environments. It is readily observed that a certain component of the word-meaning is described when the word is identified distributionally.

black to dress. The meaning of the sentence. For example in the wordgroup a black dress in severe style we do not relate a to black. now started to become really agreeable (Simon Winchester.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.H. Thus the fundamental aim of IC analysis is to segment a set of lexical units into two maximally independent sequences or ICs thus revealing the hierarchical structure of this set. whereas the latter reflects a different segmentation into IC‘s and namely fat | major’s wife. journalists. The public will take care of the cat? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. 12. – p. which in those first months had been at least tolerable. For example.: Penguin Books.А. – L. two-facet units that cannot be segmented into smaller units having both sound-form and meaning. etc.109). but set up a structure which may be represented as a black dress / i n severe style. and the IC binary segmentation are interdependent. word-group.e. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Please interpret the following quote from A. 1998. The Ultimate Constituents of the word- 13 group analysed above are: a | black | dress | in | severe | style. fat major‘s wife may mean that either ‗the major is fat‘ or ‗his wife is fat‘. etc. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології . Successive segmentation results in Ultimate Constituents (UC). The former semantic interpretation presupposes the IC analysis into fat major‘s | wife. The Surgeon of Crowthorne. Ю.Sulzberger: We. dress to in. tell the public which way the cat is jumping.attempt to determine the ways in which lexical units are relevantly related to one another. It was discovered that combinations of such units are usually structured into hierarchically arranged sets of binary constructions. i. Life.

in his genotype. twenty hours ago he drove across a road officially closed to traffic. fixed fate. before his descent into nightmare hallucination begins. Henry can make these arrangements. must draw him in securely before he does more harm. you watch a dying man with a closer.touched off in Baxter a yearning he could barely begin to define. That hunger is his claim on life. Daisy recited a poem that cast a spell on one man. Baxter will not be fit to stand trial. do what he can to make the patient comfortable. He knows how the system works – the difference between good and bad care is near-infinite. to convince the Crown Prosecution Service that by the time it comes round. 5. he doesn't know. Ian McEwan 4. Revenge enough. Analyze text fragment № 10. Henry also committed Baxter to his torture. Is this forgiveness? Probably not. And here is one area where Henry can exercise authority and shape events. and because it won't last much longer. Some nineteenth-century poet – Henry has yet to find out whether this Arnold is famous or obscure . specialists in the field. Saturday 3. the right hospital. This may or may not be true. because the door of his consciousness is beginning to close. But Baxter heard what Henry never has. on a mental existence. No one can forgive him the use of the knife. and thrown the switch on a sudden mood change. But he prefers to believe that it's realism: they'll all be diminished by whipping a man on his way to hell. Still. and he's not the one to be granting it anyway. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 10 1. and he must unravel – another certainty Henry sees before him. and he was reminded how much he wanted to live. despite all Daisy's attempts to educate him. he shouldn't pursue his claim from a cell. more brotherly interest. Perhaps any poem would have done the trick. waiting for the absurdity of his trial to begin. and you begin to feel for yourself the first chill. the modern variant of a soul. after all. an error of repetition in the codes of his being. Then the system. and probably never will. Baxter fell for the magic. Baxter has a diminishing slice of life worth living. Let them go after the other man. to have one tiny slip. somehow. . Or is he the one seeking forgiveness? He's responsible. Henry can get a colleague or two. Or it could be weakness – after a certain age. This is his dim. he was transfixed by it. The matter must be dropped. and set in train a sequence of events. when the remaining years first take on their finite aspect. By saving his life in the operating theatre.

This time there'll be no trouble falling towards oblivion. Blindly. her scent. Three nurses are walking across the square. He closes the shutters on them. – p. an ancient means of transport. heading in the direction of his hospital to start their morning shift. He fits himself around her. . her beloved form. Quietly.: Vintage. He closes his eyes. The dawn won't come until after seven. he lowers the window. a softly moving belt. And then: there's only this. he kisses her nape. – L. Rosalind lies facing away from him with her knees crooked. falling: this day's over. There's always this. and it's the coldest time now. 278). (Ian McEwan. The morning is still dark. and draws closer to her. her warmth. there's nothing can stop him now.6.Saturday. her silk pyjamas. And at last. 7. conveying him into Sunday. talking cheerfully. is one of his remaining thoughts. Sleep's no longer a concept. it's a material thing. faintly. 2006. then goes towards the bed and lets the dressing gown fall to his feet as he gets in.

3) with a preposition or conjunction as a linking element down-and-out (опустошенный) son-in-law. which are not grammatical syntagmas. rhyme & some others.SUFFIXATION A suffix is a derivative final element which is or was productive in forming new words.BACK DERIVATION is deraving a new word. until rescued by his ever-faithful friend. 2003. heartbreak). . back derivation).(Bag . combinations of full linguistic signs (types: compounding (словосложение). conversion.BLENDING is blending part of two words to form one word ( Smoke + fog = smog) 9.: Penguin Books. 81).CONVERSION (zero derivation) A certain stem is used for the formation of a categorically different word without a derivative element being added. – p. splash. new words). . a fellow by the name of Lumpkin who brought him back to his senses with another blow (Dorothy Cannell.CLIPPING Consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts. But are themselves not with independent existence.8. t).to bag) . Very often we imitate by the speech sounds what we hear: (tinkle. prefixation. ( Mathematics . Speak on the following theoretical question: Word-Building 10. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. which are not made up of full linguistic signs. Word formation is a process of forming words by combining root & affixal morphemes. Types: 1) without a connecting element (headache. blending. It has semantic value.maths) . Different types of word formation: COMPOUNDING is joining together 2 or more stems.to babysit Television . 2) with a vowel or consonant as a linking element (speedometer.building Word formation is a branch of science of the language which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities. . 2 major groups of word formation: 1) words.: expressive symbolism.PHONETIC SYMBOLISM is using characteristic speech sounds for name giving. suffixation. formed as grammatical syntagmas. – L. 2) words. The Importance of Being Ernestine. but doesn‘t occur as an independent speech use. ( A babysitter . which is morphologically simpler from a more complex word. craftsman). Ex. . He wandered about the country for a year thinking he was a peasant. .to televise) . clipping. Word.PREFIXATION Prefixes are such particles that can be prefixed to full words.

You could not have grown up in such a house that had such businesses in it. We got lots of stuff on nights like those. then. by Borough standards. as opposed to fast. This is when I thought it really began. But my story had already started – I was only like you. Perhaps I was waiting. 3. and the grand houses of London are shut up and empty and pleading to be cracked. – Slow I mean. Ю.b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How would you answer the following question: Is there a meaning to music? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. and what could come out. I think the people who came to Lant Street thought me slow. 6. Perhaps I was. Sara Waters 4. Analyze text fragment № 11. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. But it seemed to me that I was sharp enough. and a rain that was more or less snow. dark nights in winter are the best nights of all. full of a fog that was more or less a rain. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. A night in winter. and the swells all keep to the country. A dark night – a hard night. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 11 1. Dark nights are good to thieves and fencing-men. Do you follow? 5.А. a few weeks after the Christmas that marked my seventeenth birthday. and didn't know it. without having a pretty good idea of what was what – of what could go into what. for then regular people keep close to their homes. You are waiting for me to start my story. and .

Now he kept handy at Lant Street by doing jobs for Mr Ibbs. however. a couple of babies in a cradle at her side.Mr Ibbs's profits were higher than ever. ran mean little dodges of his own. and a boy and a girl who were rooming with us then – John Vroom. But he was such a queer-looking child. 'Will you watch your manners?' she said. he did it with money. and Dainty Warren. Mrs Sucksby saw him do it. That works best with sporting dogs.14 ). (Sara Waters. This night he was cracking peanuts. his mother had died and made an orphan of him. then put him on the parish – even then. 12. to brag. and dogs with sentimental mistresses. Fingersmith. She was a great red-haired girl of three-and-twenty. He was always eating. tempting dogs away from their owners. for besides our ordinary kitchen fire there was Mr Ibbs's locksmith's brazier: he always kept a flame beneath the coals of it. and more or less a simpleton. 9. dark. they are that heartless – and the dogs that John's pal was landed with he would throttle.' John said. and throwing their shells on the floor. – p. ain't my heart bleeding. will never pay up – you could cut off their little dog's tail and post it to them and never see a bean. She had neat white hands. Besides them was Mrs Sucksby in her great chair. when he came back to the Borough after that. The money had lasted a month. The cold makes thieves come to a bargain very quick. and he sailed as far as China. He was doing a deal with a dog-thief. knifish boy of about fourteen.: Virago. he was a devil to get rid of. always running back from the workhouse: we were forever opening the shop-door and finding him sleeping on the step. and could sew like anything. with Dainty to help him. and besides them. He never cared for me. John had her at this time stitching dog-skins onto stolen dogs. She had kept him till he was four or five. 7. and like mine. no-one would take him off Mrs Sucksby's hands. and Sue shall have to tidy it. This man had a couple of bitches: when the bitches came on heat he would walk the streets with them. then charging a ten pounds' ransom before he'd give them back. 8. – L. She had got the master of a ship to take him at last. sweating the gold off sovereigns. however. I believe he had the worm. We did not feel the cold too much at Lant Street. 2003. like me. 'Poor Sue. 11. I think he was jealous. John was a thin. to make them seem handsomer breeds than what they really were. 'You make a mess. He had come to our house as a baby. On this night there were three or four boys at it. some owners.' 10. you could never say what might not turn up that would need making up or melting down. then sell to him at a knocked-down price. though. .

a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Mrs. The latter may sometimes deviate from the dictionary meaning to such a degree that the new meaning even becomes the opposite of the primary meaning. transferred: ―Dora. The term ‗metaphor‘ means transference of some quality from one object to another. Zeugma is the use of a word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to two adjacent words in the context. Antonomasia is a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or vice verse: You are Romeo (not from ―Romeo and Juliet‖).13. metonymy. on the one hand. d) logical and nominative (autonomasia). on the other. What is known in linguistics as transferred meaning is practically the interrelation between two types of lexical meaning: dictionary and contextual. literal. Simile is a comparison between objects belonging to one class of things with the purpose of establishing the degree of their sameness or difference: ―The boy seems to be as cleaver as his mother‖. hyperbole. c) logical and emotive (epithet. Classification of Lexical Stylistic Devices There are 3 groups. oxymoron). The interaction of different types of lexical meaning. The old English period in history of English 14. 12. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Notion of Rhetorical Image. epigram. We define metaphor as the power of realizing two lexical meaning simultaneously: ―Dear Nature is the kindest Mother still‖ (Byron). Intensification of a feature (simile. quotations). Peculiar use of set expressions (cliches. Show). a) dictionary and contextual (metaphor. periphrasis). 3. 2. irony). plunging at once into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room‖ (B. b) primary and derivative (zeugma and pun). what we have called contextual meanings. the semantic relation being. Major Tropes. . Snake. 1. Lexical and LexicalSyntactic Stylistic Devices Words in a context may acquire additional lexical meanings not fixed in the dictionaries. proverbs.

Thirst for Love. PEARL 4. TEXT 12 3. not as a name expressive of her aspect. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 12 1. E HAVE as yet hardly spoken of the infant. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How big of a crime is computer hacking. 84). which had nothing of the calm. that little creature. a lovely and immortal flower. Analyze text fragment № 12. and the beauty that became every day more brilliant. white. 1971. whose innocent life had sprung. unim- .A small sore that might have been made by a grass cut peeped through a hole in the canvas of his grimy ankle (Yukio Mishima. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. by the inscrutable decree of Providence. – p. and the intelligence that threw its quivering sunshine over the tiny features of this child! Her Pearl! – For so had Hester called her.А. as she watched the growth. in your view? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. How strange it seemed to the sad woman.Y. out of the rank luxuriance of a guilty passion. – N. : Berkley Medallion Books. W 5. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Ю.

had bought the richest tissues that could be procured. whose place was on that same dishonored bosom. however. And yet a russet gown. The Scarlet Letter. before the public eye. worthy to have been left there. made a picture of her just as perfect. as a direct consequence of the sin which man thus punished. in this one child there were many children. a certain depth of hue. Certainly. in any of her changes. and allowed her imaginative faculty its full play in the arrangement and decoration of the dresses which the child wore. had given her a lovely child. that there was an absolute circle of radiance around her. (Nathaniel Hawthorne.: Everyman‘s Library.' as being of great price.92). that its result would be for good.it would have been no longer Pearl! 7. its attire. 1992. – purchased with all she had. therefore. which she never lost. 6. she looked fearfully into the child's expanding nature. ever dreading to detect some dark and wild peculiarity. Her mother. Pearl's aspect was imbued with a spell of infinite variety. and if. But she named the infant 'Pearl. however simple. after the world's first parents were driven out. when thus arrayed. she could have no faith. its vigor. – L. Day after day. and its natural dexterity in the use of all its untried limbs. in little. to connect her parent for ever with the race and descent of mortals. the infant was worthy to have been brought forth in Eden. of an infant princess. and the pomp. which had such potent and disastrous efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her. God. there was no physical defect. So magnificent was the small figure. torn and soiled with the child's rude play. By its perfect shape. that should correspond with the guiltiness to which she owed her being. there was a trait of passion. and to be finally a blessed soul in heaven! Yet these thoughts affected Hester Prynne less with hope than apprehension. she had grown fainter or paler.passioned lustre that would be indicated by the comparison. The child had a native grace which does not invariably coexist with faultless beauty. on the darksome cottage-floor. to be the plaything of the angels. – p. Throughout all. But little Pearl was not clad in rustic weeds. . and such was the splendor of Pearl's own proper beauty. with a morbid purpose that may be better understood hereafter. shining through the gorgeous robes which might have extinguished a paler loveliness. save it were sinful like herself. – her mother's only treasure! How strange. she would have ceased to be herself. . comprehending the full scope between the wild-flower prettiness of a peasant-baby. always impressed the beholder as if it were the very garb that precisely became it best. indeed! Man had marked this woman's sin by a scarlet letter. She knew that her deed had been evil.

He sat and thought and thought. Ю. until his head nearly burst. R. but no bright idea would come (J. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) .А.: Unwin Paperbacks. – p.8. Speak on the following theoretical question: Old English Period in the History of the English Language 9.R. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 13 1. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Give your views on the purpose of prison and share your thoughts concerning the following observation: The concept of prison as society’s punishment of the offender is both barbaric and ineffective. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Analyze text fragment № 13. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. The Hobbit. – L. 170). 1983. Tolkien. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.

9. spotted flies all over the flat. He wants to keep it from himself as much as from her. and. At night he begins to dream of ragged bullet-shaped holes chewed in fetid fabric. He shakes out the moths or flies that have gorged on his clothes. retching. it seems. 11. he disinfects the rugs. Other flies. though. he sprays the curtains. 12. like egg yolk. They will go out to dinner. though. Unfolding them one by one. On his knees he scours the dusty corners of the flat for the nest or bed where the contamination must be incubating. thinking. He stands in the shower a long time. When this wakes him he rushes into the box-room to shake his clothes or stab at them with an umbrella. If it continues he will review their contract. devouring. chewing. and picks up a pile of sweaters. thrusts them into the bottom of a dustbin on the street. are acceptable for a youngish couple starting out. only stupefied. Indeed. 10. The Flies 3. vexed by the accusation. and stamps on the tiny crisp corpses. One morning after a disturbed night. In his mind he hears the amplified rustle of gnawing. that he won't bother her with such an unimportant matter. and with their son only a few months old. he does need to discuss it with her. Italo Calvino. since the attack has troubled him. flies are striking at the bedsheets and pillows.2. He doesn't tell his wife about the incident. and goes about imagining that people are sniffing as he passes them. and he explains to her what has happened. a year after they moved into the flat. Not only that. opens the door to his. and has to mask this odour with scents. But at different times of the day he needs to check the wardrobe. Baxter hurriedly rolls up the clothes in plastic bags. just out of reach. He asks an acquaintance to babysit. With water streaming down him nothing can adhere to his skin. Yet when Baxter rings the landlord to enquire whether there have been any 'outbreaks' before. which his wife. has not noticed. For what they can afford. Baxter goes into the box-room where he and his wife have put their wardrobes. he discovers that they all appear to have been crocheted. 6. There was a time when they would have long discussions . which has stiffened the remains of the ruined garments. only a sense of dragging on into a future full of new troubles. He and his wife acquired the small flat in a hurry and consider themselves fortunate to have it.' 4. with kitchen and bathroom. at first. the three rooms. He goes to the shops and packs his wardrobe with fly killer. When one night his wife catches him with his nose against the skirting board. that morning he noticed one of his child's cardigans smeared and half-devoured. where they appear threateningly settled. Baxter. "The Argentine Ant' 5. that while he is doing this. and suddenly rips open the door as if to surprise an intruder. the remaining threads are smeared with a viscous yellow deposit. and only just managed to conceal it from his wife. He is convinced. Telling her about it makes him realize what a slight matter it is. He has. counters that he will suspend his rent payments if the contagion doesn't clear up. If he puts mothballs in his pockets. 8. he doesn't care. 7. 'We hadn't the pleasure now of feeling we were starting a new life. dart out past him and position themselves on the curtains. and of creamy white eggs hatching in darkness. Still. she isn't much concerned. he is not sympathetic but maintains they carried the flies with them. particularly as he has thrown away the evidence.

189).: Faber & Faber. .about anything – they particularly enjoyed talking over their first impressions of one another – so happy were they just to be together. 13. – L. (Hamif Kureishi. 1997. Love in a Blue Time. – p.

‖Little by little. Antithesis is a SD based on the author‘s desire to stress certain qualities of the thing by appointing it to another thing possessing antagonistic features. e. Litotes. or emotional tension in the utterance: ―It was a lovely city. phenomena. Протокол № … . Parallel construction is a device which may be encountered not so much in the sentence as in the macro-structures dealt with earlier. being syntactically in the same position (homogeneous parts of speech). Repetition. Ellipsis. 4. real silver spoons to stir the tea with. The room in which he found himself was bright and comfortably furnished and certainly lived in (Mary Nichols. syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence in close succession: ―There were. Parallel Construction. Enumeration. Climax. Polysyndeton. Question-in-the-Narrative. Detached Construction. They speak like saints and act like devils. 2007. 133). 3. the SPU and the paragraph. chalk. bit by but. Break-in-the-Narrative (Aposiopesis). 2. importance. A Desirable Husband. remote though it may seem: ―The principle production of these towns…appear to be soldiers. are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity. and day by day. Climax (Gradation) is an arrangement of sentences which secures a gradual increase in significance. Chiasmus. Speak on the following theoretical question: Expressive Syntax 13. sailors. or similar. The necessary condition in parallel construction is identical. The Gap-Sentence Link. properties.14. action are named one by one so that they produce a chain. – Surrey: Mills and Boon Ltd. a veritable gem of a city‖ (Byron). b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How severely. g.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.…. and year by year the baron got the worst of some disputed question‖ (Dickens). Suspense. – p. Rhetorical question. officers and dock-yard men‖ (Dickens). in your view. Expressive syntax 1. shrimps. a fair city. should crimes against the environment be punished? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. 15. Jews. the links of which. viz. Stylistic Inversion. Asyndeton. Antithesis. Enumeration is a SD by which separate things. and real china cups to drink it out of and plates of the same to hold the cakes and toast in‖ (Dickens). objects. a beautiful city.

Father. The little boy's mother shouted coarsely at him and coming into Eugene's line' of vision. gave an impression of weariness and sophistication. There were fine. 8. A boy of seven came to the counter. "I just called to say how sorry I am that this has happened. was as bright as the colours of the sari she wore. together with his greying hair." 6. She wore jeans which were very faded and her hair was short. Below the eye there was a deep raised cut in the dark brown skin with four stitches in it. "It is good of you to call. neither friendly nor hostile and he knew that they silently noticed the awkward way he was holding his head. Ю. she made an obscurely frightening impression on him. sickened by what was done to you. perfect English which the man spoke and then was immediately ashamed of his surprise. Eugene was surprised by the cultured. Their eyes watched him almost unblinking.А. though the lividness was muted by make up. The woman smiled. but painfully." she said in English. The woman passed the bar and took the money in a single soft movement. .Завідувач кафедри доц. Eugene guessed. 7. acute yet neutral. I feel ashamed to live in this community. Anthony James 4. the left side of her face was swollen to twice its normal size and its colour.. while looking at Eugene. There was a sudden. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. 5. swirling knot of movement behind him at the door of the shop. Many of us are . not quite as perfect as her husband's. levered himself half up on it with his elbows and pointed to some chocolate bars. THE PRIEST AND THE WIND 3. He knew that she was watching the rather twisted posture of his neck and head. Analyze text fragment № 14.." the man said. soft lines around the man's eyes which. Завгороднєв Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 14 1. We will remember. "It is kind of you to come. He was impressed by the strangely dignified stillness of their manner and by their shrewdness. I would like you to believe that not everyone here is alike.

with their secretive clearings. Eugene left the shop and walked a little way down the hill. reached almost into the centre of the city. on the front of which was a coloured photograph of a young woman taken from behind. almost colourless. please let me know. right to its centre. pink and apricot by the setting sun. 11. oddly tranquil in this age in which the heavy industry had gone. their burnt-out cars and their stray horses. 13. 10. – p. streaming out of the west. five years ago when he had first come here. The rolling slopes of pine. a restless March wind full of the mingled elements of Winter and Spring. but in the west the weather was clearer and the clouds were coloured crimson. naked except for a tiny pair of white pants which were around her knees. Eugene had thought. A man with a thick short neck and a dungaree jacket with no buttons walked purposefully to the counter with a tabloid newspaper. up from the sea and over the mountains. tearing on. 1999. The wind seemed not so much cruel as impatient. muted. pale face and eyes all seemed to be the same. 380). – Cardiff: Parthian Books. The wind was dragging the loose grey hems of clouds over the forested slopes. changing the world." they both said with the same absence of any warmth or any abruptness. "Thank you." he said. could be seen for mile after mile and so could the city itself. 12. shade as her jeans. This area was pitched on the highest ground for many miles and the whole industrial landscape. . 9. beneath the photograph was a headline: VIRGIN'S FIVE HOUR ORDEAL WITH SEX FIEND. half healed. (Mama‘s Baby – Papa‘s Maybe. "If there is anything I can do – anything at all.but her fair hair. transforming sky and land. A disconcerting city.

14. Words are replaced by other words.Comment on the structure of the given sentence. the words also change. – p. – L. Metaphor accounts for a very considerable proportions of semantic changes. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри доц. which no longer call up the image of an object from which they were borrowed.А.K. Tendency of a language to borrow a particular metaphorical development of a word from another language. Mr Audley seemed at first to hesitate whether it was gentlemanly to be in such a hurry about anything (G.: the leaf of a book. Ex. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How far do you agree with the following statement: The worst crimes are those against the whole of humanity? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. hands of a clock. everything develops changes. избитый. 2) Psychological causes. 1950.: ―car‖ which goes back to Latin ―carfus‖ which meant a four wheeled (vehicle) wagon.: Penguin Books. The Innocence of Father Brown. According to historical principle. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Problem of Meaning There are many causes of semantic change: 1) Historical causes. Language is full of so-called fossilized (trite-банальный. Ю. Taboos of various kinds. 68). sometimes people do not realize that they use euphemisms. a clock face. hands of a cabbage.: ―lady‘s room‖ instead of the ―lavatory‖ 3) Linguistic causes. 15. Chesterton. Завгороднєв . despite of the lack of resemblance. неоригинальный) metaphors. Ex. social institutions change in the course of time. Ex.

Stephanie had taken both as they came. she fought her way across tombstones and wet grass. Frederica managed by furious concentration and an assumption of pupil-to-master virtue to borrow this to play during the school holidays. in that year of extremes.S. on Good Friday. She then played it repeatedly. On Easter Day Stephanie decided to go to church. The play people temporarily vanished. 5.Byatt 4. She found herself a hat. He had upset her. in places. Felicity Wells turned her attention from carnation ribbons to the decoration of the dear little Easter garden in the nave of St Bartholomew's. dead stories and ceremonial: he had made her feel like a professional teaser. 6. but never went near Easter in Church. to observe the proprieties. until everyone in that unmusical household was driven to a frenzy of irritation by the repeated rhythms. A. wax and gentians. This year was different. He had declared passion and told her to go home and disregard it. a half-melon of navy velvet with a wisp of veiling. She might have come to church anyway without the problem of Daniel. preceded by a wavering circle of scarlet umbrella. there. S. onion-skin gold. She had come to take a look at him. She was angry with Daniel. was freakish. THE VIRGIN IN THE GARDEN 3. Under this. He also bought the new gramophone record of T. and on Easter Monday there were hailstorms. beetroot. 8. At other Easters she had dyed eggs. in a talismanic manner. In the north-west there was heavy snow. cochineal crimson. Alexander bought and rode away in a secondhand silver grey Triumph. boiled with lurid socks and old dub ties. Easter. 7. In Calverley and Blesford black sleet alternated with glassy sun. He had involved her in his jumble of tea-party politeness. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. She might have come to please Felicity. Analyze text fragment № 15. When he saw her in . Bill liked the eggs. She might have come because she liked to take part in the ceremonies of the year. He had pushed his consecrated huge face between her knees and trembled. boiled with ferns and lace doileys. Eliot reading the Four Quartets. in the Church. especially in the North.Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 15 1. and had travelled to mining villages to see eggs on trestle tables in the upper rooms of pubs. Where he belonged. tie-dyed.

What was this? How long had it been going on? Marcus had not seemed to see her.S. and then placed. and watched Miss Wells come in. but then he never did.Church he would see she was sorry and respectful. after. 1995.Byatt.152). depending from a dish-shaped hat and bursting like bedraggled butterflies out at the neck and between the buttons of her rat-coloured gabardine. at a school Christmas do. as the curious biology chap who had once. 9. One of her own Fourth form handed her a prayer-book: she sat down at the back. When she saw him in Church she would know for certain it was all ridiculous. The virgin in the garden. – p. she could wipe her feet of it. 11. (A. in the Church porch. like a hen with a chicken. Stephanie was profoundly shocked to see them both genuflect and cross themselves. – L. against a pillar. The next people to come in were her brother Marcus. a chamberlain with a prince. repeatedly asked her to dance. Simmonds bowed and smiled to everyone and then ushered Marcus into a pew. . 10.: Vintage. and a young man she vaguely recognized. and had left large sweaty hand-prints on the back of a pale evening dress. fluttering chiffon scarves in various pinks.

the adjective. 3) the functions of numerical aitributeand numerical substantive. the specific forms of composition for compound numerals. The features of the numeral: 1) the categorial meaning of ‗number (cardinal and ordinal). the pronoun. the property of process or another property. 3) the substantival and adjectival functions for different sets. object. The features of the noun are the following: 1) the categorial meaning of substance (‖thingness‖).12. the specific suffixal forms of derivation (prefixes in English do not discriminate parts of speech as such). 2) the forms of the verbal categories of person. aspect. the specific lorms of derivation. 2) the forms of the deof comparison (for qualitative adjectives). mood. 2) the narrow set of simple numerals. respectively. prepositional connections. number. 2) the changeable forms of number and case. To the notional parts of speech of the English language belong the noun. fhe mixed verbal . The traditional grammatical classes or words are called ―parts of speech‖. 2) the forms of the degrees of comparison for . as finite process and non-finite process). the numeral. 3) the function of the finite predicate for the finite verb. tense. the specific suffixal forms of derivation for ordinal numerals. voice.e. the verb. the adverb. the opposition of the finite and nonfinite forms. modification by an adjective. 3)the substantive functions in the sentence (subject.other than verbal functions for the non-(inite verb. The features of the pronoun: I) the categorial meaning of indication (deixis). The features of the verb: 1) the categorial meaning of process (presented in the two upper series of forms. substantival predicative). The features of the adjective: 1) the categorial meaning of property (qualitative and relative). 2) the narrow sets of various status with the corresponding formal properties of categorial changeability and word-building. adjectival predicative). Speak on the following theoretical question: Lexico-Grammatical Word-Classes Part of speech in modern English The words of language are divided into grammatically relevant sets or classes. i. Words on the upper level of classification are divided into notional and functional. The features of the adverb: 1) the categorial meaning of the secondary property. 3) adjectival functions in the ―Sentence (attribute to a noun.

shall. the specific suffixal forms of derivation. leopard. city. slavery. perhaps. roll. kind/kinds . coin/coins.: walk. rain. etc. blow . rest. Robinson. the particle. etc.qualitative adverbs. shine. transitive and intransitive.). actional and statal. Lake Erie . factive and evaluative. build. darkness. expresses the attitude of the speaker to the reflected situation and its parts. To this series.: Mary. animate and inanimate. Cf. of constant feature and temporary feature (the latter are referred to as ―statives‖ and identified by some scholars as a separate part of speech under the heading of ―category of state‖). see. sail. float. furniture. 3) the functions of various adverbial modifiers. The particle unites the functional words of specifying and limiting meaning. scholar. The article expresses the specific limitation of the substantive functions. begin. of qualitative evaluation (fortunately. receive. Verbs are subcategorized into fully predicative and partially predicative.consider. and also of affirmation and negation. the Mississippi. countable and uncountable. the interjection. man. boil. river. field. give . etc. growth. luckily. love. prepare. should be referred verbal postpositions as functional modifiers of verbs. machine. the conjunction. etc. stone. grain. the modal word. leaf . The preposition expresses the dependencies and interdependences of substantive referents. write.: . stay. unfortunately. Cf. occupying in the sentence a more pronounced or less pronounced detached position. ache. alongside of other specifying words. butterfly .earth. Adjectives are subcategorized into qualitative and relative. take. be. play. revel. London.news. put. ripen. ensnare. lake. thrive. tire. sleep. Nouns are subcategorized into proper and common. incline. The modal word. etc. approve.can. mind.girl. occupying a detached position in the sentence. concrete and abstract. factive and evaluative. rose. desire. strike. To the basic functional series of words in English belong the article. tremble . etc. The conjunction expresses connections of phenomena. hate. The interjection. suffer. is a signal of emotions. the preposition. person. Here belong the functional words of probability (probably. listen. speak. mist. floor/floors. ride -exist. Cf. water. become.live.honesty.). may.

smooth. sorry. tall. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. sickly. lovely. daily. orthographical. ill. glad.well. 238). native . the pronoun are also subject to the corresponding subcategorizations 13. Imagination encircles the world? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. blazing . subterranean. noble. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How would you interpret the following quote from A. wise. comfortable .long. I rose and went down to the dispensary. Ю. Knowledge is limited. Cronin. red. joyful.А. where I began to make up the stock bromide and chloral solutions for the galleries (A. rural. 1966. wonderful. Shannon’s Way. heavy. mental. healthy. grievous. ablaze. stupid. the numeral. – p. – L.J. wry. brave.: A Four Square Book.a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.wooden. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 16 . awry. The adverb.Einstein: Imagination is more important than knowledge.kind.

from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Speak on the following theoretical question: Sounds of speech and their phonetic aspects 16 . pharyngeal and nasal cavities. 3. 1. Monophthongs are vowels the articulation of which is almost unchanging. On the articulatory level each consonant may be identified by stating two general facts about it: 1) what sort of articulatory posture it is formed by. Analyze text fragment № 16.Sounds of speech and their phonetic aspects Classification of Vowels Vowels are normally made with the air stream that meets no obstruction in the mouth. that is by a complete. As a result consonants are sounds which have noise as their indispensable and most defining characteristic. They are – [i e ǽ a: o o: U Λ ə: ə ]. 4. 2. In case of consonants various obstructions are made. Consonants are known to have voice & noise combined. diphthongs. .1. diphthongoids. So consonants are characterized by close articulation. partial or intermittent blockage of the air-passage by an organ or organs. On the articulatory level the description of vowels notes changes: in the stability of articulation in the tongue position in the lip position in their length The stability of articulation All English vowels are divided into 3 groups: monophthongs.

constrictive) [si:d} . that is by what articulatory organ (or organs) an obstruction is made. what is the force of articulatory effect. Ю. There are few ways of seeing the situation of classification.А.Y. how vocal cjiords work at the moment of production. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. in the production of which a complete obstruction is formed.A. The Final Diagnosis. Classification of Consonants. in the production of which an incomplete obstruction is formed. The particular quality of consonant may depend on a lot of other factors. A week and a half had passed since Harry Tomaselli had told O’Donnel that construction of the hospital’s extension was planned to begin in the spring (Arthur Hailey. .[si] tea-sea (occlusive .: Bantam Books. According to V. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. etc. [ti:] . – N.Einstein: The difference between what the most and the least learned people know is inexpressibly trivial in relation to that which is unknown. 1980. On this ground he distinguishes two large classes of consonants: a) occlusive. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Speak on the following observation made by A.2) whereabout in the mouth (or pharynx) it is produced. Vassilyev primary importance should be given to the type of obstruction and the manner of production of noise. – p. In their turn noise consonants are divided into plosive consonants (or stops) and affricates 3.{si:z} seed-seas (pcclusive-constrictive) Each of the two classes is subdivided into noise consonants and sonorants. b) constrictive. what cavity is used as a resonator. The division is based on the factor of pravailing either noise or tone component in the auditory characteristic of a sound. 57).

Speak on the following theoretical question: Teaching listening at the intermediate level 3.А. Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. 91).: Arrow Books. There was no humour in that smile. – L. Ю. Analyze text fragment № 17. – p. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. it was the stretching of the lips of someone who has superior knowledge and knows it. which would you choose? Explain your choice.Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 17 1. The Babes in the Wood. . a facial expression of triumph (Ruth Rendell. 2003. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion If you had to rely on only one of the media.

from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.: The Reader’s Digest Association. Analyze text fragment № 18. Протокол № … . Speak on the following theoretical question: Variety of reading types of exercises 3.Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 18 1. and a whole lot of stuff (Great Stories of Mystery and Suspense.Y. We talked along during dinner about where she went to school. 71). and why she didn’t go to college. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. 1963. – N. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Share your thoughts on the following: In what ways can the media show subjectivity in their coverage of the news? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. – p.

107). as though there were insects crawling over me (Edmund Crispin. – p. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. . Speak on the following theoretical question: Explanation of the sounds and the stress at the English lesson 3. Ю.A. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 19 1. – L. The Moving Toyshop. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.А.Grunwald. US writer and diplomat)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. 1958. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your interpretation of the following statement: Journalism can never be silent: that is its greatest virtue and its greatest fault (H. Analyze text fragment № 19. and I felt all itchy.: Penguin Books. I was cramped and dirty from the shop below.Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц.

. (Fleur had established immediate contact with an architect). incomplete. From the point of view of their structure sentences can be divided into: two-membered. The phrase and sentence as units of synt level Structural classification of sentence.Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. composite (compound. The meaning of an English sentence depends on the word order. Tom open the door. Analyze text fragment № 20. onemembered. complex). The cook burnt the dinner. Ю. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 20 1. Two-membered sentence contains two principle parts .the subject and the predicate. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2.А. Speak on the following theoretical question: Syntactical Units 20. simple. A simple sentence contains a subject and a verb followed if necessary. We put the subject before the verb and the object after the predicate. complete.

that. but. One-membered sentence have only one principal part (Dusk . Tom phoned. . not only… The complex sentence. when. The alarm was raised when the fire was discovered. . for. – p. or. These are the conjunctions which we use to make compound sentences: and. Composite sentence is formed by two or more predicative groups.: Progress Publishers.of a summer night). nor.A two-membered sentence can be complete and incomplete. The fire was discovered. so that … etc. 1977. and then. The form of a compound sentence -when we join two or more simple sentences we get a compound sentence.complex (subordinating their clauses).compound sentences (coordinating their clauses). It was almost impossible to imagine that this creature of vast bulk had ever been a boy who ran about (W. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your understanding of the following: Newspapers should have no friends (J. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. We can join two or more simple sentences to get complex sentences: The alarm was raised. all composite sentences are to be classed into: . The alarm was raised as soon as fire was discovered. Rain and other short stories. as soon as. Somerset Maugham. Протокол № … . 3. The compound sentence.Pulitzer)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. According to the traditional view.Tom phoned and left the message. The name which we give to ―joining words‖ is conjunction. He left the message. 250). We use many different kinds of joining words (or conjunctions) to make complex sentences: after. – M. The alarm was raised after the fire was discovered. It is complete when it has a subject and a predicate (Young John could not help smiling). It is incomplete when one of the principal parts or both of them are missing. if. In a complex sentence there is one main ‗idea‘ and one or more subordinate ‗ideas‘ (clauses).

Ю. and safeguarding money ball. Homonyms. Homonyms are words which are identical in sound and spelling. .Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 21 1. Yet it is this very characteristic which makes them one of the most important sources of popular humour. or. Analyze text fragment № 21. at least.А. n. exchanging.-a shore bank.-an institution for receiving. n. any spherical body ball. in one of these aspects. The pun is a joke based upon the play upon words of similar form but different meaning Sources of Homonyms: . lending. n.a sphere. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. n. Speak on the following theoretical question: Homonyms 21. but different in their meaning. bank. leading sometimes to confusion and misunderstanding.-a large dancing party In the process of communication they are more of an encumbrance.

The Nice and the Good.to lead . been 2. in the final stage of its phonetic adaptation.: World Books.to comb. E. n. Homonyms of this type. the semantic structure of the word breaks into several parts. (‖a loud. Night and knight. 1. n. ritus). the forehead‖). fan.comb. 1969.make. Classification of Homonyms The subdivision of homonyms into: homonyms proper ..fit .go before. for some reason. different in spelling.). (Two or more homonyms can ―originate from different meanings of the same word when. Words made by sound-imitation) can also form pairs of homonyms with other words: e.an official group of persons who direct or supervise some activity.. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. duplicate in form either a native word or another borrowing.bang.daily meals especially provided for pay. bang. n. are called lexico-grammatical homonyms.. A borrowed word may..1. etc..perfectly fitting clothes. v. A board of directors All the meanings developed from the meaning ‖ a table‖. This type of formation of homonyms is called split polysemy. 2.words same in sound and in spelling. . rite.to write. homophones -the same in sound. v. v. which are the same in sound and spelling but refer to different categories of parts of speech. in the sense of ―an enthusiastic admirer of some kind of sport or of an actor. Board . n.right.‖ is a shortening produced from fanatic. adj.. explosive noise‖) . to make. Conversion .a long and thin piece of timber Board . sudden. 127. 3. pale. Board . . different in sound 1. (‖a fringe of hair combed over . – p. show the way 2. n. g. – L. singer. lead a heavy rather soft metal. Borrowing. Shortening. n.g. the second and third words are of native origin whereas rite is a Latin borrowing (< Lat.to pale.undergo in the course of their historical development. adj. fit nervous spasm. v.bean homographs -the sane in spelling.Phonetic changes which words. She found herself saying half aloud what she had said then crazily over and over to the people who crowded round her on the pavement (Iris Murdoch.

from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Syntactic parallelism. repetition-the recurrence of the same word. w. Analyze text fragment № 22. Syntactic Parallelism 22.. phrase for 2 or more times:1)anaphora(a. Ю. that it will be ultimately replaced by interactive television? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 22 1. in your view.А. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц.a…)-when the beginning of some successive sent-ce(clauses) is . Lexical and syntactic repetitions.-comb-n. Speak on the following theoretical question: Lexical and Syntactic Repetitions.b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Do you see a future for conventional television? How likely is it..

a…b. uniting functions 3. On her father‘s being groundlessly suspective she felt sure. ▲ I was growing up.it makes the whole ut-ce compact and complete.(e. he was growing old.it emphesisis log. – p.repeated. shapes of m-g intensify the ut-ce. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion .a…)-1 & the same element is repeated one after another.it adds stress to a final words in a sent-ce.2)epiphora(…a.).it‘s most effective in singling out paragraphs & instances in a text. The Secret Agent.…a)(ringing repet-n)-the 1st or the last element is repeatí.g.styl. There are some devices based on r-n of some idea:synonymical r-n-the rep-on of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases which by adding a slightly dif. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.a…)-rep-tionof the same word/phrase at the end of 1 clause& at the beginning of the following one. f-n:to create the bachground for the non repeated unit.3)framing(a….the effect is smoothly developing logical reasoning(Living is the art of loving. Conrad. ▲ He was not comfortable. mean-gs of the repeated word or phrase.Loving is the art of carrying. Types of lexical repetitions. as though she had been alive and young (J. He was not happy.Carying is the art of sharing. Now and then it happened that one of the faded. 1996. 14). Pure parallelism depends on the repetition of syntactical arrangement of the sentence. emotive. gram.a steam of closely fol-ing each other repeated units. – L.…a)-the last element is repeated.5)chain r-n(…a. 4)catch rep-n(…a.show the peak of emotions. 7)successive r-n(…a.2 terms to show attitude to all kinds of synonymous r-n:1)pleonasm-the use of more words in the s-ce then necessary to express the m-g). These 2 sentences have identical structure.Stylistic f-n of r-n is to emphasize the most imp part of the ut-ce rendering emotions of the speaker. yellow dancing girls would get sold to an amateur. A parallel construction is the stylistic device which represents identical or similar syntactical structures in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence. Parallel construction may be complete (maintains the principle of identical structures in the corresponding sentence) and partial (based on the repetition of some parts of successive sentences).b…c)-represents a series of anidiplosice.6)ordinary r-n-has no certain place in the sent-ce.a.: Penguin Books.forms).sure).sure. Parallelism may carry the role of semantic equality of the parts. & emot.2)tautology-the r-n of the same word/phrase or the same idea or statement in other words often in dif.which through its novelty becomes foregrounded.

F. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 23 1. with no remnants in any of the nominal parts of speech.А.Skinner)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. The category of gender was lost. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. .How do you understand the following observation: Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten (B. Ю. Speak on the following theoretical question: Middle English Period in the History of the English Language Noun. and the loss was total. The category of number was preserved. it had grounds. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. Analyze text fragment № 23.

Due to the reduction of the unstressed vowels all these came to -es -0 -e or -0 -en So finally we have -es .strong. 286).-en. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your interpretation of the following statement: Human history becomes more and more a race between education and catastrophe (H. The drift was not a comprehensive one. but the proportional value of the weak ones is greater and continues to grow. and a group of conservative nouns retain the vowel interchange. which becomes a competing ending. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови . – p. preterite-present and irregular were preserved in Middle English. some of the former weak ones became strong.Wells)? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Ending -es was invariably added to form the plural The Verb. some of the former strong verbs are drifting in the direction of the weak ones.: Progress Publishers. All types of verbs existing in Old English .G. Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. In each type we find changes due to phonetic developments of this period.А.that is. – M. Ю. and a tendency is already traced . The fact that your father loathed you. was not a matter of any interest to the English public (Oscar Wilde. De Profundis. weak. 3. there was even a reverse process. 1979. and that you loathed your father.

The introduction in England book-printing (1476) promoted fastening to distribution of the London forms. Another great event was the introduction of printing. The spread of printed books was bound to foster the normalization of spelling and also of grammatical forms.1491) published the First English printed book. Spoken English in various parts of Britain gradually approaches the literary norm. superseding local dialects. and also official documents from other towns. The formation of a national language was greatly forsed by two events of the late 15th century. and in 1477 appeared the first book to be printed in England. Social changes of the 16th century created the conditions for a great cultural progress and . and differences between the norm and popular speech tend to become obliterated. The most significant event of the period was the War of Roses (1455 . then to Italy and to the Netherlands. The Recuyeil of the Histories of Troy. Printed books was a first. Analyze text fragment № 24.) During formation a nation there was a formation of national English language developing on the basis of a London dialect. namely. queens. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Period of the formation of the national language (XV-XVI c.1485). In the course of the 15th century the London literary language gradually spread all over the country. The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers. ministers. The literary language is also found in letters written by kings.rate factor in fixing spellings and grammar.an absolute monarchy. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. to that popularity of product of a large writer D. Choler (1340-1400) writing on a London dialect has helped much. London documents of the former half of the 15th century are poems by Thomas Occleve (Hoccleve). From Mayence printing spread to Strasburg. Printing was invented in Mayence (Germany) by Johann Gutenberg in 1438. which combined in itself southern and western-central dialect features. The englishman William Caxton (1422 . which marked the decay of feudalism and the birth of a new social order . and other officials.ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 24 1. official London papers. Then he founded the first English printing office in London in 1476.

– p. Frances Beaumont (1584 . belongs to the period of Early Modern English. Ю. The 16th century was a time of great literary achievement. who reigned 1558 . 1969.1593).1616). John Fletcher (1579 . The early poetical works of Wyatt and Surrey were followed by the The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser (1552 . b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What is your interpretation of the following observation by J. 3. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 25 .: Bantam Books.1603.the growth of a national literature. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Benjamin (Ben) Jonson (1573 . When we came to the end of the driveway leading to the farmhouse. and many others.1625). Протокол № … Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц.А. 187).1599).Buchan: To live for a time close to great minds is the best kind of education? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р.1616). The greatest of these was William Shakespeare (1564 . which historians usually call Elizabethan after queen Elizabeth I. This epoch.1640).1637). I cut out the headlights and drove quietly into the yard (John Barth.Y. Philip Massinger (1583 . and the 80s and 90s witness the rise of a great number of dramatists. – N. His contemporaries were Christopher Marlowe (1564 . The Fun of the Road.

As there are many words from different languages and English spelling is variable. Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of Germanic languages.e. (In the 17th century. English was further transformed by the spread of a standardised Londonbased dialect in government and administration and by the standardising effect of printing. since the Renaissance. and the Great Vowel Shift is one of the historical events marking the separation of Middle and Modern English. However. spreading toward the non-metropolitan and non-port areas. Modern English is often dated from the Great Vowel Shift. the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the Earth's surface. The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. secondly. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words. both in Europe and England. Latin words were often used with the original inflections. The values of the long vowels form the main difference between the pronunciation of Middle English and Modern English. and the other five underwent an increase in tongue height and one of them came to the front. English has continuously adopted foreign words. . Samuel Johnson published the first significant English dictionary.1. By the time of William Shakespeare (mid-late 16th century). arising from two principal factors: firstly. and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries. Late Modern English has many more words. Analyze text fragment № 25. the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English. especially from Latin and Greek. In English. generally accomplished in the 15th century and early 16th century. which took place mainly during the 15th century. most notably in the West Country. It represented a change in the long vowels (i. a vowel shift). the risk of mispronunciation is high. the two highest long vowels became diphthongs.In 1755. Speak on the following theoretical question: New English Period in the History of the English Language 25. . his Dictionary of the English Language. but remnants of the older forms remain in a few regional dialects. these vowels had "continental" values much like those remaining in liturgical Latin. during the Great Vowel Shift. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. but these eventually disappeared). although it continued for some time after that. the shift began toward the end of the 15th century and was mostly completed in the 16th century. Originally.

: Bantam Books. Протокол № ………. She slammed the door and walked around to his side of the van before he could drive away (John Irving. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 26 1.3.А. – N. Ю. 1989. Analyze text fragment № 26. 376). b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How far do you agree with the following statement: Nobody’s privacy is more important than the truth reaching the public? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Cider House Rules. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. – p.Y. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) .

Stylistics is a sides that examines the complex of stylistically marked elements of any language level. can be recoquized by one or more leading features which are especially conspicuous. They are not homogeneous and fall into several variants of having some central point of resemblance or better to say.  2) Official style is the most conservative one. A style of language can be fined as a system of coordinated. 4) Newspaper style(mass media). phenomena and processes characteristics of some particular field of science and technique.i.  4) Newspaper style . Functional styles in English Functional Style is a system of interrelated language means serving a definite aim in communication. It uses syntactical constructions and archaic words. the abstract ideal system. Each style. Emotiveness is banned out of this style.2. 5) Belles-lettres style(genre of creative writing). public speech). however. It is the coordination of the language means and stylistic devices which shapes the distinctive features of each style and not the language means or stylistic devices themselves. 3) Publicistic (essay. Also precision clarity logical cohesion. They are:      1) Official(documents and papers).  1) scientific style is employed in professional communication to convey some information. For instance the use of special terminology is a lexical characteristics of the style of scientific prose. The English literary system has evolved a number of styles easily distinguishable one from another. and one by which it can easily be recognized. articles. interrelated and inter-coordinated language means intended to full-fill a specific function of communication and aiming at a defined effect. Speak on the following theoretical question: Functional Styles of English 26. 2) Scientific (brochures.  3) Publicistic style is famous for its explicit pragmatic function of persuasion directed at influencing the reader in accordance with the argumentation of the author. It‘s most conspicuous feature is the abundance of terms denoting objects.e. All integrated by the invariant . Each of mentioned here styles can be expressed in two forms: written and oral. .special graphical means are used to attract the readers attention. Style of language is a historical category. other scientific publications).

b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How far do you agree with the following statement: Journalists should tell the public the truth. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence.5) Belles-lettres style . no matter what the consequences? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. The Picture of Dorian Gray.А. 1979. Протокол № ………. and took most of his meals at his club (Oscar Wilde. but preferred to live in chambers. Ю. 114). belles-lettres style has a unique task to impress the reader are aesthetically 3.the richest register of communication besides its own language means. – p. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 27 . as it was less trouble.: Progress Publishers. – M. other styles can be used besides informative and persuasive functions. Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. He had two large town houses.

unhappy).  Dominant .good .which differ in the connotational component of meaning. intensy. to glance.  Contextual . The sources of synonyms: borrowings.the notion common to all synonyms of the group without contributing any additional information as to the manner.to stare.dark. light . Look .wrong).derivational antonyms(happy . Each group comprises a dominant element.words of the same category of parts of speech which have contrasting meanings such as hat . expressive and evaluative overtones. between which a semantic difference is statable.which can each other in any given context. compounds. ? The presence of negative affixes creates .1.e. to gaze.looking. happiness . handsome. Synonymic dominant . Types of synonyms: Ideographic . Antonyms Synonyms .cold. shortenings. without the slightest alteration in denotative or emotional meaning and connotations. Pretty . Euphemisms. interchangeable in some context. conversion.are two or more words belonging to the same part of speech and possessing one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings.  Absolute .sorrow. all kinds of emotional. Analyze text fragment № 27. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. Speak on the following theoretical question: Synonyms. dialectical words. i. Semantical classification: .synonyms which differ in the denotational component of meaning i.is the most general term of its kind potentially containing the specific features rendered by all the other members of the group. euphemisms.e. Antonyms . Morphological classification:    ? Root words form absolute antonyms.  Stylistic . beautiful. duration or any attending feature of the referent.(write . shift of meaning. to peep.are synonyms which are similar in meaning only under some specific distributional conditions.

 3.  ? Incompatibles semantic relations of incompatibility exist among the antonyms with the common component of meaning and may be described as the relations of exclusion but not of contradiction: to say ―morning‖ is to say ―not afternoon.young. – p.e.Y.middle . Do you subscribe to this view? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. not night‖. He heard the door. – N. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. not evening. i. 466). old and young are the most distant elements of a series like: old .? Contradictory notions are mutually opposed and denying one another.: The New American Library. behind him. e. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion The best way to learn is to teach. Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. alive means ―not dead‖ and impatient means ―not patient‖. sharply close again and the vehicle move off in another direction than his own (Henry James. Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 28 .А. The Wings of the Dove. Протокол № ……….  ? Contrary notions are also mutually opposed but they are gradable.aged .g. 1964. Ю.

Ex.are word . The Koonin‘s classification is the latest outstanding achievement in the Russian theory of phraseology.(to fall in love).which are neither nominative nor communicative include interjectional word . Communicative phraseological units . the meaning of the unit doesn‘t correspond to the meanings of its constituent parts. a) phraseological combinations . Phraseology.groups.are word . c) fussions .include word . classification of phraseological units.groups which are transformed into a sentence when the verb is used in the Passive Voice. II.1. III. that is the meaning of the units can be easily deduced from the meanings of its constituents. . Ex. I..groups with a partially changed meaning. Speak on the following theoretical question: Phraseology. IV. in contrast to the units. to come a cropper(to come to disaster).are represented by word . Nominative phraseological units . Ex. that is. Phraseology. including the ones with one meaningful word.communicative phraseological units . Analyze text fragment № 28. The classification is based on the combined structural . b) unities . to be good at smth.semantic principle and it also considers the quotient of stability of phraseological units. they are demotivated.groups. Phraseological units .groups with a completely changed meaning but. that is.groups with a completely changed meaning. Vinogradov‘s classification of phraseological units: a) phraseological combinations (сочетания).the ice is broken. c) fussions (сокращения). from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?) 2. to loose one‘s heart to smb. to loose one‘s head (to be out of one‘s mind). that is. Principles of Classification 28. Nominative . Principles of classification. to have a bite….groups. b) unities (единства). their meaning can‘t be deduced from the meanings of its constituent parts. well and good.are represented by proverbs and sayings. They may be said to be clearly motivated. and coordinative phrases of the type wear and tear.are word . of the type to break the ice . verbal word .

3. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. I took it from her hand and saw that it bore the name of an uptown hotel and then I knew it was the piece of hotel stationary that the derelict playwright began to write on last night when I left him alone
(Tennessee Williams. Moise and the World of Reason. – N.Y.: Bantam Books, 1976. – p. 198).

b) Suggested Topic for Discussion What do you think school of the future will look like?
Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Протокол № ……….

Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв

доц. Ю.А.

Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови ЕКЗАМЕНАЦІЙНИЙ БІЛЕТ № 29

1. Analyze text fragment № 29. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?)

2. Speak on the following theoretical question: The Verb and Its Categories
29 Paradigmatic and syntigmatic relations in English. Syntagmatic relations are immediate linear relations between units in a segmental sequence. The combination of two words or word-groups one of which is modified by the other forms a unit which is reffered to as a syntactic ‖ syntagma‖. There are four main types of notional syntagmas: predicative (the combination of a subject and a predicate), objective (-/- a verb and its object), attributive (a noun and attribute), adverbial (a modified notional word, such as a verb, adjective, or adverb, with its adverbial modifier). The other type of relations, opposed to syntagmatic and called ―paradigmatic‖, are such as exist between elements of the system outside the strings where they co-occur. Unlike syntagmatic relations, paradigmatic relations cannot be directly observed in utterances, that is why they are reffered to as relations ―in absentia‖. Paradigmatic relations coexist with syntagmatic relations in such a way that some sort of syntagmatic connection is necessery for the realization of any paradigmatic series. This is especially evident in a classical grammatical paradigm which presents a productive series of forms each consisting of a syntagmatic connection of two elements: one common for the whole of the series, the other specific for every individual form in the series. A linguistic unit can enter into relations of two different kinds. It enters into paradigmatic relations with all the units that can also occur in the same environment. PR are relations based on the principles of similarity. They exist between the units that can substitute one another. For instance, in the word-group A PINT OF MILK the word PINT is in paradigmatic relations with the words bottle, cup, etc. The article A can enter into PR with the units the, this, one, same, etc. According to different principles of similarity PR can be of three types: semantic, formal and functional. Semantic PR are based on the similarity of meaning: a book to read = a book for reading. He used to practice English every day - He would practice English every day. Formal PR are based on the similarity of forms. Such relations exist between the members of a paradigm: man - men; play - played - will play - is playing. Functional PR are based on the similarity of function. They are established between the elements that can occur in the same position. For instance, noun determiners: a, the, this, his, Ann‘s, some, each, etc. PR are associated with the sphere of ‗language‘. A linguistic unit enters into syntagmatic relations with other units of the same level it occurs with. SR exist at every language level. E.g. in the word-group A PINT OF MILK the word PINT contrasts SR with A, OF, MILK; within the word PINT - P, I, N and T are in syntagmatic relations. SR are linear relations, that is why they are manifested in speech. They can be of three different types: coordinate, subordinate and predicative.

Coordinate SR exist between the homogeneous linguistic units that are equal in rank, that is, they are the relations of independence: you and me; They were tired but happy. Subordinate SR are the relations of dependence when one linguistic unit depends on the other: teach + er - morphological level; a smart student - word-group level; predicative and subordinate clauses - sentence level. Predicative SR are the relations of interdependence: primary and secondary predication. As mentioned above, SR may be observed in utterances, which is impossible when we deal with PR. Therefore, PR are identified with ‗language‘ while SR are identified with ‘speech‘.

3. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. Outside, the rain had stopped, there was only a mist of it in the air, so I turned to corner and walked along the street where the brownstone stands (Truman Capote. Breakfast at Tiffany’s. – L.: Penguin Books,
1958. – p.15).

b) Suggested Topic for Discussion How far do you agree with the following statement: Education is a matter between the person and the world of knowledge; school or college has little to do with it.
Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Протокол № ……….

Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв

доц. Ю.А.

Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка Кафедра англійської філології Державний іспит з англійської мови


1. Analyze text fragment № 30. from the viewpoint of its linguo-stylistic characteristics (What linguo-stylistic means of presentation are employed to create the unique textual fabric of the fragment?)

2. Speak on the following theoretical question: Methods and Procedures of the Lexicological Analysis
30. Methods and procedures of lexicological analysis. Due to these processes the certain classification of the methods of lexicological analysis has appeared. Nowadays scientists distinguish: Contrastive analysis( ontrastive analysis also brings to light what can be labelled problem pairs, the words that denote two entities in one language and correspond to two different words in another language. Compare, for example годинник in Ukrainian and clock, watch in English, художник in Ukrainian and artist, painter in English. Contrastive analysis on the level of the grammatical meaning reveals that correlated words in different languages may differ in the grammatical component of their meaning For instance when we answer a telephone call and hear somebody asking for a person whose name we have never heard the usual answer for the Ukrainian speaker would be Ви помилились (номером). The Englishman in identical situation is likely to say Wrong number ..) Statistical methods of analysis (Statistical approach proved essential in the selection of vocabulary items of a foreign language for teaching purposes. Statistical analysis of meaning frequencies resulted in the compilation of A General Service List of English Words with Semantic Frequencies. The semantic count is a count of the frequency of the occurrence of the various senses of 2,000 most frequent words as found in a study of five million running words. Immediate Constituents analysis (Thus the fundamental aim of IC analysis is to segment a set of lexical units into two maximally independent sequences or ICs thus revealing the hierarchical structure of this set. Successive segmentation results in Ultimate Constituents (UC), two-facet units that cannot be segmented into smaller units having both sound-form and meaning. The Ultimate Constituents of the word-group analysed above are: a | black | dress | in | severe | style.) Distributional analysis and co-occurrence (By the term distribution we understand the occurrence of a lexical unit relative to other lexical units of the same level (words relative to

) Contextual analysis concentrates its attention on determining the minimal stretch of speech and the conditions necessary to reveal in which of its individual meanings the word in question is used. Transformational analysis (Transformational analysis in lexicological investigations may be defined as re-patterning of various distributional structures in order to discover difference or sameness of meaning of practically identical distributional patterns. attempted) or A performs В which is impossible in the case of his car (pen. attempt) may be represented as he failed (was mistaken. are coded. in the wordgroups consisting of a possessive pronoun followed by a noun. L. came. is called a distributional pattern. for instance to make somebody laugh to V1 Np V2 Another example: Get + N (receive) – get letter Get + Adj (become) – get angry). his car. all elements of which. . In studying this interaction of the polysemantic word with the syntactic configuration and lexical environment contextual analysis is more concerned with specific features of every particular language than with language universals. d3 are obtained by means of the following procedure: d1 = 'boy' = 'man' = 'bull' 'girl' 'woman' 'cow' холостяк . his failure. home A phrase.(фізичний об'єкт) (живий) (людина) (чоловік) (дорослий) (той. In other words by this term we understand the position which lexical units occupy or may occupy in the text or in the flow of speech.words / morphemes relative to morphemes). table).  his failure (mistake. For example. his arrest. It is readily observed that a certain component of the word-meaning is described when the word is identified distributionally. including the head-word. Hjelmslev's commutation deals with similar relationships and may be illustrated by proportions from which the distinctive features d1. table) may be re-patterned into he has a car (a pen.  his arrest (imprisonment. ran. що ніколи не одружувався) Method of semantic differential (All the methods of semantic analysis discussed above are aimed mainly or exclusively at the investigation of the denotational component of the lexical meaning. d2. in the sentence The boy — home the missing word is easily identified as a verb — The boy went.) Componential analysis (Componential analysis is thus an attempt to describe the meaning of words in terms of a universal inventory of semantic components and their possible combinations. embarrassment) may be re-patterned into he was arrested (imprisoned and embarrassed) or A is the goal of the action B. his car (pen. his goodness. For example. a table) or in a more generalised form may be represented as A possesses B.

Завідувач кафедри Завгороднєв доц. Not for the first time I reflected that daughters would have been nice (Catherine Alliott. A Crowded Marriage.А. Ю. Do you agree with this view? Why/Why not? Затверджено на засіданні кафедри англійської філології від 28 квітня 2009 р. Протокол № ……….3. – p. a) Comment on the structure of the given sentence. while finishing school or university is not. 23). 2007.: Headline Review. b) Suggested Topic for Discussion Some people believe that getting a well-paid job is essential. . – L.

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