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Chapter 4|Views: 17|Likes: 0

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chapter 4 digital communication

Line Coding

Introduction Line coding involves converting a sequence of 1s and 0s to a time-domain signal (a sequence of pulses) suitable for transmission over a channel. The following primary factors should be considered when choosing or designing a line code. 1. Self-synchronization. Timing information should be built into the time-domain signal so that the timing information can be extracted for clock synchronization. A long string of consecutive 1s and 0s should not cause a problem in clock recovery. 2. Transmission power and bandwidth efficiency. The transmitted power should be as small as possible, and the transmission bandwidth needs to be sufficiently small compared to the channel bandwidth so that inter-symbol interference will not be a problem. 3. Favorable Power Spectral Density. The spectrum of the time-domain signal should be suitable for the transmission channel. For example, if a channel is ac coupled, it is desirable to have zero power spectral density near dc to avoid dc wandering in the pulse stream. 4. Low probability of error. When the received signal is corrupted by noise, the receiver can easily recover the un-coded signal with low error probability. 5. Error detection and correction capability. The line code should have error detection capability, and preferably have error correction capability. 6. Transparency. It should be possible to transmit every signal sequence correctly regardless of the patterns of 1s and 0s. If the data are coded so that the coded signal is received faithfully, the code is transparent. Given a sequence of pulses, there are two possible waveform formats that we can use to send a pulse of duration Tb seconds over a channel. The duty cycle of the pulse can be used to define these two waveform formats. If the transmitted pulse waveform is maintained for the entire duration of the pulse, this is called non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format. If the transmitted pulse waveform only occupies a fraction of the pulse duration, this is called return-to-zero (RZ) format. Classification of Line Waveforms [1] There are many types of line codes and we shall only discuss a few of them here. The waveforms for the line code may be further classified according to the rule that is used to assign voltage levels to represent the binary data.

1. Polar Signal

In positive logic, a 1 is represented by +A volts and a 0 is represented by -A volts. Figure 20.1 (a) and Figure 20.1 (b) show polar NRZ and RZ signals, respectively. A polar NRZ signal is also called a NRZ-L (L for level) signal because a high voltage level corresponds to a positive logic level [3]. Alternatively, we could have used negative logic, where a 1 is represented by -A volts and a 0 is represented by +A volts.

Page 1 ©® A.Sarkar ECE, JGEC

where AMI denotes alternate mark inversion. 1s are sent as alternative positive or negative voltage values.Sarkar ECE. Figure 20. Unipolar Signal In positive logic. 0s are Represented by 0 volt.Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication 2. The term pseudo-ternary refers to the use of 3 encoded logic levels to represent a 2-level signal.1 (e) and Figure 20. Bipolar (Pseudo-Ternary or Alternate Mark Inverted) Signal In positive logic.1 (f) show bipolar NRZ and RZ signals.1 (c) and Figure 20. 3. A bipolar RZ signal is also called a pseudo-ternary signal or a RZ-AMI signal. JGEC . respectively. Page 2 ©® A.1 (d) show unipolar NRZ and RZ signals. a 1 is represented by +A volts and a 0 is represented by 0 volts. respectively. Figure 20.

In positive logic. no transition occurs at the symbol interval. Polar NRZ Signal (NRZ-L) The power spectral density for a polar NRZ signal with a pulse duration of Tb is Figure 20. Bit error probability performance is superior to other line encoding schemes. No transition occurs at the mid-point of each symbol interval for a 0. Page 3 ©® A. 5.1 (g).Sarkar ECE. Power spectral densities of various line codes 1. Other names in use for Manchester coding are split-phase and twinned-binary coding. Advantages of Polar NRZ Signal (NRZ-L): Relatively easy to generate the signal but requires dual supply voltages.2 (a) shows the power spectral density of the polar NRZ signal where A is set to 1 so that the normalized average power of the signal is unity. Manchester (Split-phase. a 1 is represented by +A volts over a halfpulse period followed by -A volts over a half-pulse period. This is shown in Figure 20. Poor clock recovery . It can also be generated by exclusive-ORing a polar NRZ signal with a synchronized but inverted squarewave clock having a period Tb. JGEC .a string of 1s or 0s will cause a loss of clock signal.1 (h). This is shown in Figure 20. Twinned-Binary) Coding Manchester coding was developed by Manchester University. A 0 is represented by -A volts over a half-pulse period followed by +A volts over a half-pulse period. For a 0 followed by a 0.φ-L) A Manchester signal can be generated by multiplying a polar NRZ signal by a synchronized square-wave clock having a period Tb [4]. For a 0 followed by a 1 or a 1 followed by a 0. Miller (delay modulation) Coding A transition occurs at the mid-point of each symbol interval for a 1. Disadvantages of Polar NRZ Signal (NRZ-L): It has a large power spectral density near dc. Miller coding is also called delay modulation. no transition occurs at the symbol interval. For a 1 followed by a 1. Sometimes it is called bi-phase-level (Bi.Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication 4. a transition occurs at the symbol interval.

Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication 2. Unipolar NRZ Signal The unipolar NRZ signal consists of a polar NRZ signal plus a dc term.Sarkar ECE. The power spectral density for a unipolar NRZ signal with pulse duration of Tb is Page 4 ©® A. The power spectral density is therefore similar to that of the polar NRZ signal but with a delta function at dc. JGEC .

Advantage of Unipolar RZ Signal: Good clock recovery . Page 5 ©® A.Sarkar ECE. 5. A string of 0s will cause a loss of clock signal. The receiver has to distinguish between 3 logic levels. Good clock recovery . Advantage of Unipolar NRZ Signal: Relatively easy to generate the signal (TTL/CMOS) from a single power supply. Unipolar RZ Signal The power spectral density for a unipolar RZ signal with a pulse duration of Tb/2 is Figure 20.the clock signal can be easily extracted by converting the bipolar RZ signal to a unipolar RZ signal using full-wave rectification. For the same bit error performance. It has a large power spectral density near dc. 3.2 (b) shows the power spectral density of the unipolar NRZ signal where A is set to 2 so that the normalized average power of the signal is unity. For the same bit error performance. Bipolar RZ Signal (RZ-AMI) The power spectral density for a polar RZ signal with a pulse duration of Tb/2 is Figure 20. Disadvantages of Bipolar RZ Signal (RZ-AMI): The bipolar RZ signal is not transparent. DC-coupled circuits are needed for this type of signaling.waste of power. JGEC . A discrete impulse term is present at dc . Twined-Binary) Coding: There is always a zero dc level regardless of the data sequence.2 (d) shows the power spectral density of the bipolar RZ signal where A is set to 2 so that the normalized average power of the signal is unity. 4. It has single-error-detection capability since a single error will cause a violation (the reception of 2 or more consecutive 1s with the same polarity).periodic impulses at f = n/Tb can be used for clock recovery. Twined-Binary) Coding The power spectral density for a Manchester signal with pulse duration of Tb/2 is Figure 20. Advantages of Manchester (Split-phase. this signal requires 3 dB more signal power than the polar RZ signal. Disadvantages of Unipolar NRZ Signal: A dc component is always present corresponding to a waste of transmission power.a string of 0s will not cause a loss of clock signal. Poor clock recovery .2 (c) shows the power spectral density of the unipolar RZ signal where A is set to 2 so that the normalised average power of the signal is unity.Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication Figure 20. Manchester (Split-phase.a string of 1s and 0s will cause a loss of clock signal. Advantages of Bipolar RZ Signal (RZ-AMI): There is a null at dc so that an ac-coupled circuit may be used in the transmission path. Disadvantages of Unipolar RZ Signal: The first null bandwidth is twice that for the polar NRZ signal or the unipolar NRZ signal. The spectrum is not negligible near dc. this signal requires 3 dB more signal power than the polar RZ signal.2 (e) shows the power spectral density of the Manchester signal where A is set to 1 so that the normalized average power of the signal is unity. Good clock recovery .

A 0 is represented by no change. However. Twined-Binary) Coding: Null bandwidth is twice that of the polar NRZ (NRZ-L). Because RZ waveforms always have two level transitions per symbol interval. long strings of ones or zeros should be avoided to allow accurate recovery of symbol timing. the waveform is often unintentionally inverted. where M denotes inversion on mark . We can insert a differential encoder before the line encoder at the transmitter and a differential decoder after the line decoder at the receiver to remove these errors. The encoding rules are: A 1 is represented by a change in level between two consecutive symbol times. symbol timing recovery can easily be achieved. this differential waveform has been called NRZ-S (S for Page 6 ©® A. 5. Small spectrum at dc. This kind of differential form of encoding has been called NRZ-M (M for mark) signal. or bipolar RZ (RZ-AMI) signals. Disadvantage of Miller Coding: Small spectrum at dc may not be acceptable for some transmission channels In general. Majority of signal energy lies in frequencies less than 0. and important in tape recording with poor dc response. JGEC . Bipolar and Manchester signals will always have a zero dc level regardless of the data sequence. When serial data are passed through many circuits along a transmission channel. Bandwidth requirements are approximately half those needed by Manchester coding. For bandwidth-efficient systems. there is no optimum waveform choice for all digital transmission systems. 3. non-return-to.5 of the symbol rate R = 1/Tb. Polar or unipolar signals are found in most digital circuits. If a 1 is represented by no change in level between two consecutive symbol times and a 0 is represented by a change. For example. The differential decoder is performing the reverse operation. Return-to-zero (RZ) waveforms may be attractive when the bandwidth is available.Sarkar ECE. lower magnetic-tape recording speed can be used (higher packing density is possible).Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication Disadvantage of Manchester (Split-phase. The differential encoding operation can be viewed as a rotation of the previous differential encoder output signals in accordance with the current differential encoder input signals. unipolar NRZ. Miller Coding Advantages of Miller Coding : Attractive for magnetic recording and PSK signalling includes [5]: 1. Insensitive to 180o phase ambiguity common to NRZ-L and Manchester coding. Figure 20.3 (b) shows a NRZ-M signal. but they may have a nonzero dc level. the entire data sequence will be inverted and every symbol will be in error. 4. 6. Differential coding can solve this problem. Differential Coding The differential form of encoding is actually more the result of a coding technique than it is a line waveform. 2.zero (NRZ) waveforms are more attractive. The clock frequency is embedded in the code for all symbol sequences [6]. if we employ a polar signal and reverse the two leads at a connection point of a twisted-pair transmission channel. Small spectrum at dc facilitates carrier tracking.

3 (c) shows a NRZ-S signal. Unipolar versions are also possible. It is assumed that the previous differential encoder output and the previous differential decoder input signals are initialized to 0 and 1. In Figure 20. we have also illustrated how differential encoding and decoding can remove these errors. Figure 20.4 shows the differential encoder and decoder circuits. respectively. where S denotes inversion on space .Sarkar ECE. Figure 20. The truth table of the differential encoder and decoder is shown in Table 20.Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication space) signal. The input sequence Page 7 ©® A.2.4. JGEC .

Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication PSD of a digital signal:we now derive a general formulae for the PSD of digital signals.e the time that it takes to send 1 bit.Sarkar ECE. A general result can be obtained in terms of autocorrelation of the data an. The polar signal may be modeled as x(t ) = n = −∞ ∑a ∞ n f (t − nTb ) …. Tb is the duration of one bit. we can obtain XT(t) by truncating eqn (1) xT (t ) = n=− N ∑a N N n f (t − nTb ) N − jwnTb where T/2= (N+1/2)Tb then XT(f)=F[xt(t)]= n=− N ∑ a F [ f (t − nT )] = ∑ a F ( f )e n b n=− N n = F ( f ) ∑ ane − jwnTb …(2) n=− N N Where F(f)= F[f(t)] Now we know that PSD for a random process x(t) is given by Px ( f ) = lim ( T − >∞ [ XT ( f ) ] T 2 T /2 ) where X T ( f ) = −T / 2 x(t )e − j 2πft dt ∫ when we substitute (2) into above eqn we find that PSD is Page 8 ©® A. It is given that the random variables are independent.i. JGEC . The PSD for x(t) will be evaluated first by obtaining XT(f) . {an} is a set of random variables that represent the binary data.(1) where f(t) is the sampling pulse or symbol pulse shape. Clearly each one is discretely distributed at an =±1 and P(an=1)=P(an=-1)=1/2.

(3) T −>∞ T T −>∞ T n=− N m=− N n=− N we define the autocorrelation of the data by ……(3a) next we make a change in the index in eq(1) letting m=n+k. we obtain the following expression.Sarkar ECE. Px ( f ) = F( f ) Tb 2 ⎡ (2 N + 1) lim ⎢ N − >∞ ( 2 N + 1)T b ⎣ k =∞ k =− N −n ∑ R ( k )e jkwTb ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ F( f ) Px ( f ) = Tb l 2 k = −∞ ∑ R ( k )e jkwTb ……. Page 9 ©® A. This autocorrelation is given by R(k ) = ∑ (an an + k )i Pi i =1 where an and an+k are the voltage levels of the data pulses at the nth and (n+k)th symbol positions. Then by using (3a) and T=(2N+1)Tb equation (3) becomes R ( K ) = an an + k ⎡ 1 Px ( f ) = F ( f ) lim ⎢ N − >∞ ( 2 N + 1)T b ⎣ 2 n=− N k =− N −n ∑ ∑ R ( k )e k = N −n N k = N −n jkwTb ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ replacing the outer sum over the index n by 2N+1. JGEC .(4) where F(f) is the Fourier transform of the pulse shape f(t) and R(k) is the autocorrelation of the data. Respectively and Pi is the probability of having the ith an an+k product.Line Coding 2 chapter 4 digital communication N 1 1 N N 2 2 − jwnTb Px ( f ) = lim ( F ( f ) ∑ an e ) = F ( f ) lim ( ∑ ∑ an ame j ( m − n ) wTb ) ….

Sarkar ECE. JGEC .Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication Page 10 ©® A.

Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication Page 11 ©® A.Sarkar ECE. JGEC .

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Line Coding chapter 4 digital communication Page 13 ©® A.Sarkar ECE. JGEC .

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